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Knights of the Desert manual

KNIGHTS OF THE DESERT

I.    INTRODUCTION
II.   SETTING UP THE GAME
III.  SEQUENCE OF PLAY
IV.   MAIN TEXT OF RULES
V.    SOLITAIRE PLAY
VI.   STRATEGY AND TACTICS
VII.  DISPLAY
VIII. SUMMARY OF KEYBOARD INPUTS
IX.   ORDER OF BATTLE
X.    CHARTS AND TABLES

I. INTRODUCTION

Knights of the Desert is an operational level simulation of Rommel's campaigns in North Africa
in 1942. Taking command of the afrika Korps, you will match yourself against the Allies
commanded by the computer or a human opponent.

Loading the Program

   The procedure to load the game varies with each computer and version.

Atari Disk Version
    This program requires the Atari BASIC cartridge. Turn on the disk drive, insert the disk
 with the label face up when the drive stops, and turn on the computer. The disk will
 automatically boot up.

Atari Cassette Version
    This program version also requires the Atari BASIC cartridge. Insert the Atari side of the
cassette, as per the label, into the recorder and rewind it. Turn on the computer, press the
recorder play button, type CLOAD, and press RETURN twice. When READY appears type RUN. Keep
the play button depressed until the game is in progress and the game map is on the screen.
This loading process will take several minutes.

Apple Disk Version
    Boot your game disk and the game will begin automatically. If you are using an Apple II
with Pascal, you must first use your BASICS disk. If you are using an Apple III, you must first
go into Apple II emulation. If you have an Apple IIe, be sure to lock your CAPS LOCK key.

TRS-80 Cassette Version
    Insert the TRS-80 side of the cassette, rewind it, and press the PLAY button. Type CLOAD and
when READY appears type RUN. Keep the PLAY button depressed until the game is actually in process
(you are in the Logistics Phase). After you answer the questions in the opening program another
program will be loaded in. When READY appears type RUN. Press RETURN.

Saving a Game in Progress

Atari and Apple Disk Versions
    At the end of a turn you will be asked if you wish to save the game (you are given the option
to continue the game after saving a turn). If you answer yes instructions will appear on the
screen to allow you to do so. Please note that both versions will require you to insert a
"saved game diskette" (normal Apple initialized diskettes will not work).

Atari and TRS-80 Cassette Versions
    The program will ask if you desire to save the game. Before you answer yes insert a blank
cassette and press the recorder RECORD and PLAY buttons. The Atari version also requires you
to press RETURN.

      In order to recall a saved game, begin loading as usual and select old game (or say NOto
the menu option "NEW GAME"). Once this is done, follow the prompts given by the computer.

     NOTE: If you wish to keep the ratings you set at the beginning of your game, do not
change any of the ratings when you recall the game.


II. SETTING UP THE GAME

   Before actually playing the game you will need to set several parameters such as opponent
type, scenario, difficulty level, etc. Although the parameters are basically the same for all
computer versions the manner in which you input them into the computer differs.

APPLE Version
   The selected options are inversed on the screen. If you are in agreement press the space bar
to continue. If not press the number which corresponds to the option you wish to change and the
inverse will switch to the alternative.

Atari Versions
   Insert your joystick into port #1. The selected options are inversed on the screen. If you
are in agreement toggle the joystick to the last option (CONTINUE) and press the FIRE button.
If not, toggle the joystick to the numbered option you wish to change and press the FIRE button.
The selected inversed option will change.

TRS-80 Version
   Press the number key or Y or N key to select the desired option on the screen.

Most of the parameters and options are self-explainatory, however there are some which deserve
further clarification as listed below:

Scenarios: Depending on which computer system you are using, there are a maximum of five scenarios
available as listed below:

Tobruk '41   3/1941             (1 turn)
Tobruk '42   1/1942 to 6/1942   (3 turns)
El Alamein   7/1942 to 1/1943   (4 turns)
Campaign '41 3/1942 to 12/1942  (5 turns)
Campaign '42 3/1941 to 1/1943   (7 turns)
Campaign     3/1941 to 1/1943   (12 turns)

Tobruk '41, Camp '41, and Campaign all start on 3/1941. Unit availability and strengths are located
on the Order of Battle. The chart below gives you a breakdown of what is generally available for
each scenario at the start.

                            # of              # of              # of            # of
                           mobile            mobile          non-mobile      non-mobile
Scenarios                   units         strength pts.        units        strength pts.
                            Ax/Al            Ax/Al             Ax/Al           Ax/Al

Tobruk '41, Camp '41         4/1           1680/280             6/4           1305/1660
and Campaign
Tobruk '42, Camp '42         8/5           1580/2134            5/8            845/1925
El Alamein                  10/9           2818/3824            6/7           1069/924

Ratings: There are several aspects of the game which you are allowed to change. For each
rating a number from 0 to 9 must be set. This will alter that aspect of the game by a certain
percent as listed below:  For the aspects of Combat Points, Replacement Points and German
Supply Points:

Rating                         % of Historical (Difficulty Level)
  0                                      70% (expert)
  1                                      80% (expert)
  2                                      90% (expert)
  3                                     100% (Historical)
  4                                     110% (Intermediate)
  5                                     120% (Intermediate)
  6                                     130% (novice)
  7                                     140% (novice)
  8                                     150% (novice)
  9                                     160% (novice)









For the aspect of Air Points:

Rating:                        % of Historical (Difficulty Level)
  0                                     40% (expert)
  1                                     60% (expert)
  2                                     80% (expert)
  3                                    100% (historical)
  4                                    110% (intermediate)
  5                                    120% (intermediate)
  6                                    130% (novice)
  7                                    140% (novice)
  8                                    150% (novice)
  9                                    160% (novice)

For the aspect of Reinforcements

Rating:                          Effect
  1                      arrive up to 4 turns early
  2                      arrive up to 3 turns early
  3                      arrive up to 2 turns early
  4                      arrive up to 1 turn early
  5                         arrive historically
  6                      arrive up to 1 turn late
  7                      arrive up to 2 turns late
  8                      arrive up to 3 turns late
  9                      arrive up to 4 turns late

Levels of Difficulty: There are four levels of difficulty: Expert, Historical, Intermediate,
and Novice. Expert is the highest level of difficulty. The lower the level of difficulty given
the greater the advantages received by that side (i.e. If an extremely good German player was to
play a very inexperienced British player the German would choose Expert and the British Novice).
Setting the level of difficulty will automatically set each rating to that level. Reinforcements
are given an exception in that the rating is always set to 5 (Historical) for all levels.

Random Initiative: If you answer no then the initiative is historical as shown on the Turn Chart.
If yes then there is a 50% chance that initiative will go one way or another.

Optional Axis Depot Units: If you answer yes then the Axis will be given two additional depot units.


III. SEQUENCE OF PLAY (Also, quick start rules for experienced computer wargamera)

    This section is designed so that an experienced wargamer can read it and get into the game
immediately. The less experienced player will find it a useful outline. The game consists of
twelve turns (less if a scenario is selected). Each game turn consists of the following segments
and phases.

1. Sequence of Play Overview

A. Mobilization Segment
   1. Reinforcement Phase
   2. Supply Phase
   3. Logistics Phase
   4. Initiative Phase

B. First Player Segment
   1. Operational Phase - First player: Both player's units receive a full allotment of operation
      points (axis mobile-36, nonmobile-18/ Allied mobile-28, nonmobile-18). Second Player may
      be eligible for limited reaction during this phase.
   2. Resupply Phase
   3. Depot Movement Phase - First Player
   4. Enemy Reaction Phase - Second Player: First Player may be eligible for limited reaction
      during this phase.
   5. Operations Phase - First Player: First Player's units (only) receive a full allotment of
      operation points. Second Player may be eligible for limited reaction during this phase.
   6. Resupply Phase
   7. Depot Movement Phase - First Player






C. Second Player Segment
   1. Operations Phase - Second player: First Player may be eligible for limited reaction
      during this phase.
   2. Resupply Phase
   3. Depot Movement Phase - Second Player
   4. Enemy Reaction Phase - First Player: Second Player may be eligible for limited reaction
      during this phase.
   5. Operations Phase - Second Player: Second Player(only) receives a full allotment of
      operations points for each unit. First Player may be eligible for limited reaction.
   6. Resupply Phase
   7. Depot Movement Phase - Second Player.

D. Finalization Segment
   1. Victory Determination Phase
   2. Save Game Phase

2. Phase Description

A. Reinforcement Phase
   1. All eligible reinforcements arrive at each player's home base.
   2. A maximum of six units can stack in the home base. A permanent garrison unit is present
      which counts as one towards the stacking limit.
   3. If the stacking limit would be exceeded because of arriving units then the excess units
      are delayed until a turn when room is available.
   4. Eliminated units may return as cadres which arrive in the same manner as reinforcements
      the turn following their elimination.
   5. cadres arrive only after all eligible reinforcements have arrived.

      $       d       h
  l         1. At this point in time all units of both sides have their supply status checked. A unit
      is either supplied or unsupplied. Unsupplied units may not receive additional supply
      or replacements and if they lack supply points for maintenance they are eliminated.
   2. axis combat units must be within two hexes and Allied combat units three hexes
      (computer-Allied, 4 hexes) of a supply source to be supplied. Depot units must be
      within six hexes.
   3. Home bases, Tobruk (if friendly), and other friendly depot units may serve as supply sources.
   4. If depot units are used as a supply source then there must be a line of depots no more
      than six hexes apart from each other back to the home base or Tobruk (if friendly).
   5. Supply status is determined only by the range of a unit to a supply source. this range
      may be traced through enemy units or any terrain, including Impassable and ocean hexes.

C. Logistics Phase
   1. Each player will cycle through their units (including arriving reinforcement and cadres).
   2. A player may cycle through his units indefinitely by pressing the F key after each
      unit is displayed and flashed on the map. This gives a player the opportunity to see
      where his forces are and their current status. Depot units are the exception to this
      in that you must press the R key and allocate replacements to them when they first appear.
   3. Pressing the R key for ready will require the player to input replacements, supply, and
      resupply priority into the unit.
   4. for each category the player will input a number from zero to nine. For replacements and
      supply this will result in the unit receiving from 0% to 100% of the maximum amount allowed
      as shown on the display. For resupply priority the number inputed will indicate the percent
      (0% to 100%) of supply points to be received by that unit of the total eligible during
      the resupply phases of the current turn. The amount of supply that the unit actually
      receives is decreased by 1% per hex away from its home base.
   5. Allied units are automaticlly given full supply and a resupply priority of nine. As a
      result the Allied player only inputs replacements into his units (Allied units may not
      be given replacements in March 1941). Axis supply is limited to what is remining in the
      overall supply pool. Points remaining in this overall supply pool are located on the
      display (which can be accessed during play of the game).
   6. during the logistics Phase, Tobruk if held by the allied is checked to see if it is
      surrounded by Axis units or ocean hexes. If it is not then the Axis overall supply is
      cut by 20%. Axis units must be east of Tobruk to trigger this. In addition any Axis depot
      units alone in a hex within four hexes of Tobruk will be eliminated. The message "DESERT
      RATS STRIKE", will appear when the above conditions are met.







D. Initiative Phase
   1. The player with the initiative is asked if he wishes to move first. If he does he then
      becomes the First Player.
   2. Refer to the enclosed charts which indicate which side has the iniative for each turn.
      If you are using the random iniative option the chances will be even each turn as to who
      will have it.

E. Operations Phase
   1. during this phase the player may move/attack/fortify, expending operations points and
      supply points of the individual units as he does so. At the beginning of the first
      operations phase of each game turn each side receives a full allotment of operations
      points. At the beginning of each player's second operations phase of his player segment
      that player's units receive a full allotment of operations points.
   2.  Refer to the charts enclosed which detail supply and operation point costs.
   3. Depot units may not be moved during this phase. Garrison units may never be moved.
   4. To move the cursor on the map press 1 to 6 to go in the direction as indicated by the
      compass on the display. Pressing T will place the cursor on Tobruk and Pressing B will
      place it over the player's homebase. APPLE owners have additional features they can access
      on the screen with their required input to activate them. To move a unit or examine the
      contents of a friendly hex place the cursor over the hex and press G.
   5. Atari owners also press the 0 key to center the unit during cursor mode and while the
      unit is moving. During these two phases or modes, Atari owners may scroll freely around
      the map by first pressing the START key. Pressing the START kay again returns you to the
      current phase or mode.
   6. When G is pressed the units in the hex will be displayed and be numbered one to six
      followed by their unit number (refer to Order of Battle), combat strength, remaining
      supply points, and operation points.
   7. To access a desired unit press the number (1-6) that corresponds to it. Press F to return
      to the cursor mode. The unit's statistics will now appear on the screen displaying its
      name, combat strength, mobile or nonmobile status, supplied or unsupplied status, morale,
      fortification level, remaining supply points, terrain of current hex, and remaining
      operation points. Units alone in a hex will automatically be accessed when G is pressed.
   8. To move the unit press 1-6 to indicate the desired direction. To fortify press B to build
      one level of fortification per input. Pressing the F key will finish the unit for now and
      return the cursor. APPLE owners may remove all units on the screenby pressing R and then
      may return the units by pressing any other key. APPLE and ATARI owners may press 0 to
      center the moving unit on the screen.
   9. Allied units in Tobruk or Alexandria may use sea movement by pressing S, providing a unit
      hasn't already used sea movement for that turn and no replacements were taken into units
      occupying Tobruk during the logistics phase.
  10. Units moving into a position which does not contain a friendly unit and which is next to
      an enemy unit may trigger limited reaction for the enemy player (There is a 70% chance that
      this will occur). Limited reaction may also be triggered after each battle during the
      operations phase. There is a 25% chance of this occurring.

   a. The enemy player during limited reaction may choose units to be moved using the cursor
      the same as in any operations phase. Units are allowed up to 1/2 of their operation
      points allowance or remaining operation points, whichever is less, at any one time they
      are accessed to be moved.
   b. After a unit is F keyed the enemy player must pass an initative check before he is allowed
      to move another unit. There is a 50% chance that he will pass the check.
   c. If a unit moves into a position adjacent to the enemy and that position is unoccupied
      by a friendly unit, then the limited reaction is ended and play passes back to the phasing
      player's operations phase.
   d. The enemy player may initiate combat during limited reaction only once, after which play
      passes back to the phasing plaer. Sea movement is not allowed.
   e. To exit the limited reaction phase voluntarily, press the shift and the # key.

  11. The operations phase will continue until the player presses the shift and the # key.
       Atari owners choose the option on a menu.

  12. Units attempting to move into a position containing enemy units trigger the combat
      sequence.

      a. The combat sequence begins by allowing the attacking player to look at each defending
         unit in the hex and deciding if he wishes to include that unit in the battle by
         inputing Y or N.
      b. A player may cycle through the defending units as many times as he desires until he
         presses F.
      c. The attacking player will then cycle through his units in the hex which initiated
         combat, selecting those to be included in the attack. He will continue to cycle
         through his units until he presses F.
      d. The attacking player will now select a battle intensity(1-9), a level of risk(1-9),
         and the number of air points allocated to the battle.
      e. The defender chooses a level of risk and the number of allocated air points.
      f. Losses are subtracted from units involved in the battle. Supply costs are subtracted
         and captured supply added to the gaining units (from an eliminated enemy unit).
         Operation point cost for the battle by the units is also deducted.
      g. The results of the battle are displayed showing the intensity, risks, battle odds,
         casualties ( those caused by risk are put into parentheses), and air combat results
         (See combat results explaination chart).
      h. Several factors govern the battle odds of a combat and also modify the amount of
         losses. Refer to the combat section in the main text for details.

  13. During all phases in which units are allowed to move there is a stacking limit which
      must be observed at all times. A position may contain up to six units. The position
      containing Tobruk may only have four units in it.

   
F. Resupply Phase
   1. Units of both sides are judged to be in supplied status or unsupplied status according
      to the criteria listed in the Supply Phase.
   2. Supplied units receive supply according to the resupply priority which was for units
      in the Logistics Phase.
   3. Allied units have an automatic resupply priority of nine which will give each supplied
      unit 100% of the supply points it is eligible to recieve. Axis units have this priority
      set by the player in the Logistics Phase from 0 to 9 (0% to 100%). Points actually
      received are decreased by 1% per hex away from the home base.
   4. The supply points eligible to a unit during a resupply phase are determined by
      subtracting the unit's current supply from the unit's supply ceiling. This value is
      further modified by .25 during the Resupply Phases within the enemy's player segment.
   5. Depot units are not resupplied during the Resupply phase.

G. Depot Movement Phase
   1. Only the phasing player's depot units are allowed to move. D               to move during any other phase including limited reaction.
   2. Depot units are moved using the cursor and movement keys the same as any other unit.
   3. Depot units do not trigger liited reaction nor do they initiate combat.
   4. Depot units may participate in combat as attacking units only during the operations
      phases. Depot units may only be chosen as defending units when only depot units
      remain in the position.
   5. You exit this phase by pressing the shift and # keys as in any other phase. Atari
      owners use the joystick to select the end phase option.

H. Enemy Reaction Phase
   1. The non-phasing player is allowed what is essentially an operations phase sandwiched
      in between the operations phases of the phasing player.
   2. In this phase the non-phasing player may move and have combat the same as any
      operations phase. Limited reaction on the part of the phasing player may also be
      triggered. Sea movement is allowed.
   3. You may exit this phase the same as any other phase.

I. Victory Determination Phase
   1. Players receive one victory point per three casualty points inflicted on the enemy.
      These points are received immediately after combat.
   2. At the end of the turn players receive points for whoever was the last side to occupy
      the towns of Benghazi, Bardia, and Matruh. Each position is valued at 50 points. Tobruk
      is valued at 100 points.
   3. Each unit on the map receives points at the end of the turn as to its range from
      its home base: 0-3 hexes = 0 VP, 4-12 hexes = 3 VP, 12-21 hexes = 6 VP,
      22-29 hexes = 9 VP, 30-34 hexes = 12 VP.
   4. Refer to the victory conditions chart for levels of victory based on points.
   5. Loss of the home base results in immediate total defeat. The British home base
      is Alexandria. The German home base is El Agheila.


IV. MAIN TEXT OF RULES

 A. Units
    1. Unit Description: There are twenty-eight Axis units and twenty-eight Allied units.
       These units have varied characteristics and capabilities as covered below. The units
       are represented on the map by various symbols which differs from computer to
       computer. Please refer to the Orders of Battle for both sides as you read this section.
       a. Unit Name: Contins the historical designation of the unit with its size, type,
          and nationality included.
       b. Combat Strength: Represents the unit's capability to inflict losses on the enemy
          in terms of manpower and weapons.
       c. Combat Strength Ceiling: Is the maximum strength to which the unit is allowed
          to build by way of replacements. It also sets the breaking point of a unit since
          a unit is eliminated when it's combat strength falls below 15% of the ceiling.
       d. Morale: Represents the cohesiveness of the unit in terms of training, espirit
          de corps, leadership, and experience. A unit's morale never changes. Morale
          modifies the number of casualties assigned to a unit by the combat results
          according to the chart below:

            Morale                Modifier to Losses
              1                           1.6
              2                           1.5
              3                           1.4
              4                           1.3
              5                           1.2
              6                           1.1
              7                           1.0
              8                            .9
              9                            .8

          A unit with a morale of 9 would lose only 80% of the casualties originally
          assigned to it. A morale of 5 would result in 20% more casualties than
          originally assigned by the combat results.
       e. Unit Type: Units are either mobile or non-mobile. This difference affects
          operation point allowances, operation point costs, and supply costs. Axis
          mobile units have an operation point allowance of 36 and Allied mobile units
          are given 28. Axis and Allied non-mobile units have an operation point
          allowance of 18. refer to the Terrain Effects Chart for details on operation
          and supply costs for each type.
       f. Supply Portage: Each unit carries with it a certain amount of supply which is
          expended during movement, fortification, and combat. A unit whose supply falls
          below 50 points has its combat strenth cut by one half for defense. In addition,
          a unit with less than 50 supply points before a combat will not come back as
          cadre if eliminated. Axis units must have a minimum of 100 supply points to be
          included in an attack. Allied units must have 200 supply points. Units receive
          additional supply points during the Logistics Phase, the resupply phases, and
          during combat after an enemy unit has been eliminated. See Charts for supply costs.
       g. Supply Portage Ceiling: Mobile units have a ceiling of 600 supply points and
          non-mobile units have a ceiling of 500 points. This ceiling is the maximum
          amount of supply that the unit may carry.
       h. Supply Status: Units are either supplied or unsupplied. Combat units are judged
          to be in supply if they are within range of a supply sources. Below are listed
          the ranges for combat units.

               Unit                      Range
               Axis                        2
               Human Allied                3
               Computer Allied             4






       Depot units are in supply if within six hexes of a supply source. A depot unit may
       be used as a supply source if it is within six hexes of Tobruk (if friendly) or its
       home base or a line of depot units no more than six hexes from each other back to
       Tobruk (if friendly) or home base. Unsupplied units may not receive supply during
       the Logistics phase or the resupply phases.
    i. Operation Points: Movement, fortification, and combat consume operation points of
       the unit. Refer to the charts for actual costs. Axis units must have a minimum of
       4 operation points and Allied units 6 operation points to conduct an attack. Both
       sides receive a full allotment of operation points the first operations phase
       ( regardless of which is the phasing player) of the game turn. Units will receive
       another allotment the second operations phase of their player segment.
    j. Fortification Level: This is the level to which the unit has fortified itself within
       a specific position. A unit fortifies one level at a time by pressing B during any
       operations phase or limited reaction. Atari owners choose the "fortification" option
       on the menu. Fortification consumes operations points and supply points. Refer to
       the charts for actual costs based on unit type and terrain type. Each level of
       fortification increases the effective strength of the unit on defense by 20%.
       Terrain and fortification defense modifiers may not exceed 3 times the units
       original strength. Therefore each terrain type has a limit to which fortification
       has an effective advantage to the defending unit.

          Terrain                 Maximum Fortification Level(effective)
          Clear                                   9
          Rough                                   5
          Fortress                                3
          Town                                    5
          Mountain                                3
          Coast                                   8

       Fortification past these levels by units would be to no avail. Immediately upon moving
       from a position the fortification level of the unit returns to 0. Units may still
       attack from a position and retain their fortification level as long as they do not move.
    k. Arrival Date: Units will appear on their home base during the Reinforcement Phase
       of the turn. If stacking would be exceeded then the units will wait until a turn
       when there is room. Reinforcements appear before returning cadres.
 2. Unit Elimination and Cadres: When units are eliminated they may be eliminated from the
    game or come back as cadres at the player's home base in the Reinforcement Phase.
    If a unit is eliminated from the game the message "**ELIMINATED**" will appear. If the
    unit will return as a cadre the message "ELIMINATED-CADRE FORMED" will appear.
    a. A unit is eliminated when its combat strength falls below 15% of its combat strength
       ceiling. A unit with a ceiling of 800 would be eliminated if its combat strength
       fell below 120 points.
    b. A unit is eliminated during the Logistics Phase if it fails to meet the maintenance
       cost of 100 supply points after supply allocation.
    c. Units eliminated as a result of combat have a chance of returning as cadres (See
       table below). Cadre units will appear at the home base the turn following elimination
       at the end of the Reinforcement Phase. Units eliminated during combat with less than
       50 remaining supply points at the beginning of the combat automatically fail to
       return as cadres and are removed from the game.
    d. A unit is eliminated without a cadre being formed if it is surrounded by enemy units
       and/or impassable hexes.

   Unit Morale                   % Chance to Return as Cadre
        1                                    75%
        2                                    80%
        3                                    84%
        4                                    86%
        5                                    88%
        6                                    89%
        7                                    90%
        8                                    91%
        9                                    92%

    e. Attacking units which eliminate a unit, whwether it returns as a cadre or not, divide
       the eliminated unit's remaining supply points evenly as captured supply which is made
       readily available to those units.






    f. During the Logistics Phase, Axis depot units located within four hexes of Tobruk
       which is Allied occupied and not surrounded by Axis units or ocean hexes are
       eliminated from the game if not stacked with another unit. This is triggered
       only if Axis units are east of Tobruk.

B. Logistics
   1. Logistics Phase Procedure: During this phase the Allied player will allocate
      replacements into his units. The Axis player will allocate supplies, replacements,
      and resupply priority to each of his units.
      a. The Axis player cycles through his units first. Pressing R will allow the player
         to allocate supplies and replacements into that unit. Depot units may only have
         replacements allocated to them. They automatically receive 400 supply points
         and are not resupplied during the game turn. Every unit must eventuall be R keyed
         to be able to exit this phase.
      b. Players are first asked to input replacements (this is all that the Allied player
         will input) by pressing 0-9. The number pressed will be the percent of the
         maximum replacements allowed into the unit as shown below:

           Input                    Percent
             0                         0%
             1                        11%
             2                        22%
             3                        33%
             4                        44%
             5                        55%
             6                        66%
             7                        77%
             8                        88%
             9                       100%

         A unit with a maximum of 100 replacements would receive 22 strength points if a
         2 were pressed. see the turn chart for replacement allocations per side for each
         game turn.
      c. Following replacements, supplies are allocated to the unit in the same manner as
         replacements. The number inputed is the percent of the maximum allowed into the
         unit will be modified in the resupply phases. This percent is further modified
         by .25 during resupply phases of the enemy player segment. For example, a unit
         with a maximum of 400 supply points allowed which has a resupply priority of 5
         would receive 220 supply points during his player segment's resupply phases and
         only 55 points during the enemy segment.

   2. Supply: Each unit carries its own supply. In order for a unit to move, fortify, and
      attack it must consume supply. To receive supply a unit must be within supply lines.
      a. Mobile units have a supply portage maximum of 600 points and non-mobile units
         have 500 points. Units receive supply during the Logistics Phase, Resupply Phases,
         and after combat when a unit has been eliminated. Axis units are limited by the
         general supply pool. See turn chart which lists supply point reinforcements per
         game turn. Allied units are always given the maximum supply points allowed since
         their supply pool is unlimited in game terms. The number of supply points actually
         received into the unit is modified by 1% per hex away from the home base. A unit
         16 hexes away from its home base would have the amount actually received cut by 16%.
      b. Movement, fortification, unit maintenance, and combat consume supply. See the
         appropriate charts for these costs. Each unit must spend 100 supply points after
         supply allocation during the Logistics Phase for unit maintenance. A unit unable
         to do so is eliminated from the game.
      c. A unit is either in supplied or unsupplied status. Unsupplied units may not receive
         supply points during the Logistics phase and resupply Phases. To be in supply a
         unit must be within range of a supply source. Home bases, Tobruk (if friendly), and
         depots may be used as supply sources. A depot unit may be used as a supply source
         only if it is within six hexes of the home base or Tobruk (if friendly) or within
         six hexes of a chain of depot units no further than six hexes apart which lead to
         the home base or Tobruk (if friendly). The ranges of the different combat units
         are listed below:










         Unit                          Range
         German                          2
         Human Allied                    3
         Computer Allied                 4

         Supply may be traced through any terrain and even enemy units so long as the range for
         the unit is not exceeded.
      d. A unit eliminated has its remaining supply points immediately divided among the
         enemy units which caused the elimination.
      e. If during the Logistics Phase, Tobruk is held by the Allies and not surrounded by Axis
         units or ocean hexes then Axis depot units alone in their hex will be eliminated
         if within four hexes of Tobruk and the overall Axis supply will be cut by 20%.
         Axis units must be east of Tobruk in order for the above to be triggered. When this
         occurs the message "Desert Rats Strike" will appear.


C. Movement
    1. Procedure: movement occurs in the folowing phases: Operations Phase, Enemy Reaction Phase,
       Depot Movement Phase, and limited reaction. In each phase the procedure for movement is
       very much the same as outlined below:
       a. When movement is allowed a white cursor appears on the map screen. This cursor
          may be moved to any hex on the map by pressing 1-6 to indicate direction and by
          pressing T for the cursor to appear on Tobruk and B for the cursor to appear on
          the home base.
       b. To examine the contents of a friendly hex and to access units in order to move them
          press G. Units in the hex will be displayed and numbered one to six much like the
          example below:

          1) 2- 100 400 18          2)  8- 600 450 36
          3) 9- 250 400 30          4) 11- 300 300 20
          5)13-  60 250 15          6) 16- 150 300 18

          In the example above there are six units. Each unit has four numbers which are
          the unit's number in the Order of Battle, combat strength, remaining supply points,
          and remaining operation points (units in limited reaction will have displayed
          remaining operation points still eligible to use). The first unit above is
          unit #2 which is the 1st Depot Battalion. It has 100 combat points, 400 supply
          points, and 18 operation points. Pressing F at this point will exit this display
          and return the cursor on the hex. To access a unit press the number 1-6 which
          corresponds to the desired unit.
       c. A unit accessed will have its unit information displayed on the screen as in the
          example below:
          21 GE PZ DIV COMBAT: 600 MOBILE SUPPLIED
          MORALE: 9    FORT: 2   SUPPLY: 450
          TERRAIN: COAST      OPERATION: 18 (36)
          The unit above is the 21st German Panzer Division with a combat strength of 600,
          a morale of 9 and a fortification level of 2. It has 450 remaining supply points
          and 18 remaining operations points for that movement and 36 remaining for the
          turn segments. It is a mobile unit in a supplied state currently located on a
          coastal hex.
       d. To move the accessed unit press 1-6 in the direction desired as indicated by the
          compass on the screen. Pressing F at this time will return the cursor onto the hex.
          Pressing B will fortify the unit by one additional level. Allied units eligible
          for sea movement may press S to do so (see movement restrictions).
       e. To exit the movement phase press the shift and the # key.
    2. Allowances and Costs: All units are given allotments of operation points and supply
       points which are expended during movement.
       a. Axis mobile units receive 36 operation points per allotment. Axis nonmobile and
          Allied nonmobile receive 18 operation points. Allied mobile units receive 28
          operation points. Both sides receive allotments the first operations phase of the
          game turn. Each side receives another allotment the second operations phase of
          their player segment.
       b. Units receive supply points based on several factors during the logistics Phase,
          Resupply phases, and combat squence. Mobile units have a supply portage maximum
          of 600 points and nonmobile 500 points.
       c. Supply and operation point costs for movement are summarized in the table below:




                          Non-mobile                  Mobile
        Terrain        operation/supply cost    operation/supply cost
        Clear                  3/9                      3/9
        Rough                  4/12                     8/24
        Fortress               1/3                      1/3
        Town                   1/3                      1/3
        Coast                  1/3                      1/3
        Mountain               6/18                    12/36
        Impassable              P                        P

         The "P" means that it is prohibited for units to enter that hex. A unit may only
         complete a movement action if it has sufficient supply and operation points.
      d. Fortification costs for mobile units are 40 supply points and 7 operation points
         per level. Nonmobile costs are 32 supply points and 3 operation points.

   3. Restrictions: There are several limitations, exceptions, and restrictions to
      movement are listed below:
      a. Garrison units may never move.
      b. Depot units may only move during the Depot Movement Phase.
      c. Units must have sufficient operation points and supply points to complete an action.
      d. Units may not enter impassable hexes or ocean hexes.
      e. No more than six units may ever be in the same hex. In Tobruk only four units
         may stack together.
      f. Allied units in Tobruk or Alexandria may be eligible to use sea movement. One unit
         per game turn may be transferred between Alexandria and Tobruk (or vice versa).
         If units in Tobruk receive replacements then no sea movement is allowed for that turn.
         Axis occupation of Tobruk cancels any sea movement orders.
      g. A unit's fortification level returns to 0 when it moves from its current location.
      h. During the operations and enemy reaction phases, movement into a hex unoccupied by
         friendly units next to an enemy unit will end the limited reaction.
      k. During limited reaction, units may only expend up to 1/2 of their operation point
         allowance or remaining operation points, whichever is less, each time those units
         are accessed to be moved.

D. Combat
   1. Combat Sequence Procedure:          A unit initiates combat whenever it attempts to enter a
      position containing an enemy unit.
      a. The combat sequence begins by allowing the attacking player to cycle ation.
      h. During the operations and enemy reaction phases, move              the defending units as many times as desired. For each unit he inputs Y, N, or F
         to the question "Attack Unit Y/N?". Inputing Y or N answers yes or no to the
         question. A F input will finish the selection of defending units. Unless a unit
         has been entered with a Y the F key will set all units to an N answer. For example,
         if you press F to the very first defending unit your attack would be cancelled.
         It would also be cancelled if you press N for every defending unit. Please note
         that depot units will not appear to be attacked unless they are alone in the
         hex without another combat unit.
      b. When F is pressed for the defending unit selection the attacking player will then
         cycle through his units in the attacking hex and input Y,N, or F in answer to
         "attack with unit Y/N?". Units with insufficient supply and/or operation points
         will be so displayed when a Y is inputed. As with the defending units an F input
         finishes the selection marking units only inputed with a Y as the attacking units.
      c. The attacking player selects a battle intensity (1-9), a level of risk (1-9), and
         the number of allocated air points. The higher the intensity chosen the greater the
         losses of the battle will be and the greater the cost of the battle in terms of
         operation points and supply points. The higher the level of risk the greater the
         random introduced in the combat results (see risk table). A player will be able to
         allocate a maximum of 9 air points, or less if there are fewer remaining air points
         per battle round. Players receive air points each game turn according to the turn
         chart. These points are cumulative from turn to turn. The available air points are
         reusable each phase of the game turn and are subject to air casualties (see air loss
         table). Each air point increases the attacker's strength by 20% and the defender's
         by 15%.
      d. The defender chooses a level of risk (1-9) and the number of allocated air points.
      e. Losses are displayed for each unit and the combat results for the battle is also
         (see combat results explanation).


    2. Combat Costs: Combat consumes supply and operation points. See the enclosed charts
       which list costs for combat in supply and operation points. Human Allied units
       consume 30% more supply in combat. The defender consumes 50% less supply in combat
       than the attacker. The attacker also consumes more operation points then the defender
       (see appropriate combat charts).
    3. Combat Restrictions and Special Cases: A unit must have sufficient operation and
       supply points to attack. Some other special cases also apply.
       a. Allied units must have at least 200 supply points and 6 operation points to be
          allowed to attack. Axis units must have a minimum of 100 supply points and
          4 operation points.
       b. Depot units may only be attacked if no other combat units exist in the hex.
       c. Units with less than 50 supply points have their strength cut by one half.
       d. Defending units consume less supply and operation points.
       e. Units eliminated in combat may return as cadres if they have more than 50
          supply points remaining. See cadre table.
       f. Victorious units share the remaining supply points of the eliminated unit.
       g. During a limited reaction phase only one attack is allowed before play is
          passed to the phasing player.
    4. Battle Odds Calculation: Several factors govern odds calculation.
       a. the defender's combat strength is then multiplied by supply. If it has less
          than 50 points its strength is cut by 1/2.
       b. The defender's combat strength is then multiplied by the sum of the terrain and
          fortification modifiers. This value may not exceed three times the original strength.
          The fortification level of the unit is multiplied by .2 to derive the fortification
          modifier which is added to one of the terrain modifiers below:

          Terrain                          Modifier
          Clear                               1.0
          Coast                               1.5
          Rough                               2.0
          Town                                2.0
          Fortress                            2.5
          Mountain                            2.5
       c. The defender's strength is then modified by the air points entered by the defending
          player. Each point increases the strength by 15%. The modified combat strength
          after air power may not exceed 4.5 times the original strength. Air points may be
          lost as a result of combat (see air loss table).
       d. Example (defender's modified strength): If a defending unit has 100 combat points,
          200 supply points, is located in a town, has a fortification level of 4, and allocates
          3 air points, its modified combat strength would be 406. The supply modifier would
          be 1.0 since the unit has more than 50 supply points. The terrain modifier of 2.0
          and the fortification modifier of 0.8 add up to 2.8. The original combat strength
          multiplied by 2.8 equals 280. The 280 is multiplied by the air power modifier of .45
          (15% per air point) to arrive at amodified strength of 406.
       e. The attacker's combat strength is first modified by air points allocated by the
          attacker. each air point increases the attacker's strength by 20%. Air points may
          be lost as a result of combat.
       f. The attacker's combat strength is then modified by combat bonuses determined by
          nearby units not directly involved in combat. The attacker adds 300 combat points
          per friendly hex next to the defending units. The attacker also adds 100 combat
          points per non-participating friendly unit in the attacker's hex. The attacker
          subtracts 200 combat points from its strength for each non-participating enemy
          unit in the defender's hex and per friendly hex next to the defender's hex. The
          attacker's modified strength may be no less than 1/3 of, or 2.5 times greater than
          its original strength.
       g. Example (attacker's modified strength): If attacking units have a original
          strength of 1500 points, inputed 5 air power points, had 2 non-participating
          friendly units in the attacking hex, 1 friendly unit next to the defender's hex,
          3 non-participating enemy units in the defender's hex, and 2 enemy units next to the
          defender's hex the modified attacker's strength would be 2500. The 1500 is multiplied
          by 2.0 for airpower(20% per air point) for an increase to 3000. 200 points are added
          for the non-participating units in the attacker's hex and 300 for the unit next to the
          defender's hex for a modified strength of 3500. 600 points are subtracted for the
          non-participating enemy units in the defender's hex and 400 points for the two enemy
          units next to the defender's hex for a final modified strength of 2500 points.
       h. Battle odds are determined by dividing the attacker's modified strength by the
          defender's modified strength.

 5. Loss Determination: Several factors determine the losses to the attacking and defending
    units.
    a. The overall attacker's losses are determined by first calculating the base loss.
       The base loss is equal to 5 plus the level of battle Intensity times .006 times
       the attacker's combat strength (unmodified).
    b. To arrive at the attacker's losses the base loss is multiplied by the risk factor
       and then added to the number of defender's air points allocated to the battle.
       The risk factor is a random depending on the level of risk chosen by the attacking
       and defending players. The risk factor is randomized separately for the attacker
       and defender. See risk table below:

       Sum of Att. and Def. Risk                Random
                   2                         .97 to 1.08
                   3                         .95 to 1.12
                   4                         .93 to 1.16
                   5                         .91 to 1.20
                   6                         .89 to 1.24
                   7                         .87 to 1.28
                   8                         .85 to 1.32
                   9                         .83 to 1.36
                  10                         .81 to 1.40
                  11                         .79 to 1.44
                  12                         .77 to 1.48
                  13                         .75 to 1.52
                  14                         .73 to 1.56
                  15                         .71 to 1.60
                  16                         .69 to 1.64
                  17                         .67 to 1.68
                  18                         .65 to 1.72

     c. If the attacker's strength was 1000, the battle intensity 9, and the sum of the
        defender's and attacker's risk 12 then the attacker's overall losses would range from
        70 to 129.
     d. The overall attacker's losses are now distributed proportionately (according to size
        of unit in strength) among the attacker's units. An attacking unit's assignment of
        losses is further modified by its morale according to the chart below:

        Morale                    Loss Modifier
           1                           1.6
           2                           1.5
           3                           1.4
           4                           1.3
           5                           1.2
           6                           1.1
           7                           1.0
           8                            .9
           9                            .8

        As a result, the total losses of the attacker will probably exceed the original
        overall losses after being modified by the unit's morale.
        The defender's losses are determined in the same manner as the attacker's except the
        number of attacker's air points are used instead of the number allocated by the
        defender. The second and most important difference is that the defender's losses
        are increased by the odds. The more favorable the odds for the attacker the more
        losses the defender will suffer. The formula for the defender's overall losses is
        therefore, the base loss times the odds times 1/2 added to the base loss times the
        risk factor added to the number of air points allocated by the attacker.

V. SOLITAIRE PLAY
     When playing against the computer you will command the Axis forces and the computer
     the Allied forces. The following rule changes will be in effect.
     1. The Allies will be luckier by about 20%.
     2. Allied units have to be within four hexes of a depot.
     3. Allied units expend less supply in combat than normally.
     4. Allied units have less of a chance to trigger limited reaction during movement.
     5. Allied units come on board with more strength as cadre units.
     6. Allied units have a decreased chance of being eliminated with no cadre being formed.
     7. Strength points displayed on screen are randomized.




VI. STRATEGY AND TACTICS
    Below are some helpful hints on how to play the game.

     1. Towns are very important to take since they provide so many victory points. Benghazi
        and Bardia are especially useful since they control avenues of approach. Tobruk is
        important as a supply source and also for the number of victory points received.
        Since points are given for towns each turn the quicker you take a town the longer
        you hold it the more victory points you will enjoy.
     2. Protect your home base at all costs since loss of it is an automatic defeat.
     3. The first turn of the game the Axis should be able to take Bardia and surround Tobruk.
     4. Always move your units as far forward as you dare since you receive more victory points
        per unit the farther you are from your home base.
     5. be careful of your supply lines, since unsupplied units cannot take in supply or
        replacements and become eliminated if unable to meet their maintenance cost.
     6. Be aware that if your front line is past Tobruk and Tobruk is not surrounded you will
        be hit by the Desert Rats which will cost you supply and perhaps depot units.
     7. When you attack take into account the combat bonuses given by units next to the
        defender and in the attacker's and defender's hex. also be careful not to overkill
        your enemy by too intensive an attack. air power is a percent modifier; therefore,
        it is more effective when used with large attacking groups.
     8. Be careful not to tatally spend the supply of your individual units since their
        strength will be 1/2 of normal when defending and if eliminated will not return as cadre.
     9. When defending keep in mind that units in the hex under attack and units next to
        the defender's hex serve as a significant combat bonuses. Cadres are good for this
        role behind lines. Also when defending be aware of the value of fortification, but
        be sure not to over-fortify. Note also that rough, fortresses, and towns are
        superior terrain to defend on. Generally speaking, a good defense is an agressive
        defense with careful and well planned counter-attacks. Keeping strong units in
        reserve can be a powerful counterbalance to an enemy offensive.
    10. While on the offensive it is generally better to outflank a strong point and expose
        its supply line rather than hitting it head on.
    11. When heavily outnumbered, retreating is the best strategy since the enemy will have
        burn supply and operation points to pursue you. Weak screening in front of your
        retreating forces will additionally slow the attacker.
    12. The El Alamein line can be a difficult nut to crack and almost impossible. The British
        will be invariably building for a crushing offensive. for that reason the Axis player
        should attack the El alamein line until he is no longer eliminating units and then
        fortify. When the british launch their final offensive even a fortified line will
        not hold and careful planning must be made for an organized retreat.
    13. Be aware that depots move in their own phase after regular combat unit movement.
        Until you have an established line they will always be playing "catch-up".
    14. In the Logistics Phase give high resupply priorities to those units which you expect
        to be heavily using their supply. To conserve supply use only the minimum number of
        depots from the home base.


VII. DISPLAY

     An example of the disply is shown below:

     DATE: 1-1942   KNIGHTS OF THE DESERT            SCORE: -519
     ALLIED: AIR 14/20 SP_____ALREPL 138 SEALIFT 1        VP 2285
     AXIS: AIR 15/18   SP 1186  ITREPL 20   GERREPL 100   VP 1766

         The current turn is January-February 1942. The score is -519 with The Allied Player
     having accumulated 2285 victory points and the Axis player 1766 victory points.
         The Allied player has 20 air points available for use with only 14 available to
     use currently in this Operation Phase. He has used 6 airpoints already on missions in
     the operations Phase. The Axis player has 18 air points available with 15 ready to use
     in the current Operation phase. He has used 3 airppoints on missions in this phase.
        The Axis player has 1186 supply points left. The British player has unlimited supply
     base so its supply points are not shown.
        The Allied player has 136 replacement combat points left, the Italian player 20
     replacements, and the German player 100 replacements left.
        The Allied player can sealift one unit.


VIII. SUMMARY OF KEYBOARD INPUTS

LOGISTICS PHASE

(D) Access Display
(R) Ready to allocate Repl/Supply/Resupply to unit
(F) Finished with unit. Skip unit temporarily until next round.
(0-9) Replacements         Allocate replacements to unit.
(0-9) Supply               Allocate Supply to unit.
(0-9) Resupply             Allocate resupply value to unit.

INITIATIVE PHASE

(Y) Yes      Player wishes to move/attack first.
(N) No       Let enemy player move/attack first.

*OPERATIONS PHASE CURSOR MODE

(T)  Tobruk      Move cursor to Tobruk.
(B)  Base        Move cursor to friendly home base.
(G)  Get unit    Display friendly units in hex. (See Selection of Unit.)
(1-6) Moves cursor across map in directions 1-6.
(#)  Exits the current Phase.

OPERATIONS PHASE SELECTION OF UNIT

(F)  Finished -  Program returns back to Operations Phase Cursor Mode.
(1-6) Selects unit to be moved.

**OPERATIONS PHASE MOVEMENT OF UNIT

(B)  Build fortification      Unit's fortification level increased by 1 level.
(S)  Sea movement            Allied unit moves from Tobruk to Alexandria;vice-versa.
(F)  Finished                 Unit finished movement. Return to Cursor Mode.
(1-6) Moves unit across map. An attempt to enter enemy hex results in Combat.

OPERATIONS PHASE - ATTACK ENEMY UNITS

(Y)  Yes  You wish to attack unit displayed.
(N)  No   You do not wish to attack with the friendly unit displayed.
(F)  Finished - Proceed to Attacker's Battle Intensity/Risk/Air

ATTACKER'S BATTLE INTENSITY/RISK/AIR

(1-9) Battle Intensity for attacker. 1 is light attack, 9 is heavy attack.
(1-9) Risk for attacker. 1 is low risk, 9 is high risk.
(0-9) Air points committed. 0 is no air points, 9 is 9 air points committed.

DEFENDER'S RISK/AIR

(1-9) Risk for defender.
(0-9) Air points for defender.

ADDITIONAL KEYS

(0) Center cursor on screen
(R) Removes units from map
(M) Prints strategic map
(D) Prints display


IX.ORDER OF BATTLE

Abbreviations:

REG = regiment       PZ = Panzer          GE = German        SA = south african
BATT = battalion     INF = Infantry       IT = Italian       NZ = New zealand
DIV = division       ARM = armor          BR = British       FR = French
BRIG = brigade      NMOBILE=non mobile    AUST = Australian  FA = Fascist
GARR = garrison     MOBILE = Mobile       IND = Indian       GRIN = greek/Indian
                                                        MISC SAPI= So.Afican/Polish/Indian
                                        AXIS UNITS
                                           COMBAT                          DATE
UNIT#  NAME OF UNIT          COMBAT   CEILING    MORALE    TYPE       ARRIVAL
 1     1 AXIS GARR REG         100      300         3     NMOBILE      START
 2     1 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 3     2 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 4     3 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 5     4 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 6     5 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 7     6 AXIS DEPOT BATT        30      200         1     NMOBILE      START
 8     21 GE PZ DIV            665      800         9     MOBILE       START
 9     200 GE INF REG          280      400         8     MOBILE       START
10     ARIETE IT ARM DIV       560      600         5     MOBILE       START
11     7/TRENTO IT MECH REG    175      200         6     MOBILE       START
12     TRENTO IT INF DIV       385      400         4     NMOBILE      START
13     BRESCIA IT INF DIV      245      300         4     NMOBILE      START
14     SABRATHA IT INF DIV      45      300         4     NMOBILE      START
15     PAVIA IT INF DIV        210      300         4     NMOBILE      START
16     BOLOGNA IT INF DIV      210      300         4     NMOBILE      START
17     SAVONA IT INF DIV       210      300         4     NMOBILE      START
18     15 GE PZ DIV            700      800         9     MOBILE       5-1941
19     90 GE INF DIV           350      400         6     MOBILE       7-1941
20     9/TRIESTE IT MECH REG   245      300         5     MOBILE       9-1941
21     TRIESTE IT INF DIV      210      300         4     MOBILE       9-1941
22     LITTORIO IT ARM DIV     315      400         4     MOBILE       1-1942
23     SNDVRBD GE INF REG      245      300         6     MOBILE       3-1942
24     RANCHE GE INF BRIG      385      400         8     NMOBILE      7-1942
25     164 GE INF DIV          560      600         6     MOBILE       7-1942
26     PISTORIA IT INF DIV     210      300         5     NMOBILE      7-1942
27     FOLGORE IT INF DIV      175      200         5     NMOBILE      7-1942
28     YOUG FA IT INF DIV      105      200         2     NMOBILE      7-1942
                                      ALLIED UNITS
                                            COMBAT                           DATE
UNIT#   NAME OF UNIT           COMBAT   CEILING   MORALE      TYPE       ARRIVAL
29      1 BR GARR REG          600      600        3        NMOBILE    AT START
30      1 BR DEPOT BATT        100      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
31      2 BR DEPOT BATT        100      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
32      3 BR DEPOT BATT        100      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
33      4 BR DEPOT BATT        200      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
34      5 BR DEPOT BATT        200      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
35      6 BR DEPOT BATT        200      200        1        NMOBILE    AT START
36      2 BR ARM DIV           280      600        5        MOBILE     AT START
37      9 AUST INF DIV         590      600        5        NMOBILE    AT START
38      MISC SAPI INF DIV      290      300        5        NMOBILE    AT START
39      70 BR INF DIV          350      400        5        NMOBILE    AT START
40      4 IND INF DIV          390      400        5        NMOBILE    AT START
41      7 BR ARM DIV           315      900        6        MOBILE     5-1941
42      22 BR ARM BRIG         245      500        5        MOBILE     5-1941
43      1 BR ARM BRIG          245      300        5        MOBILE     5-1941
44      1 SA INF DIV           370      400        3        NMOBILE    5-1941
45      2 NZ INF DIV           465      600        5        NMOBILE    5-1941
46      5 IND INF DIV          350      400        5        NMOBILE    7-1941
47      2 SA INF DIV           315      400        3        NMOBILE    7-1941
48      1 BR ARM DIV           595      800        6        MOBILE     11-1941
49      50 BR INF DIV          465      500        5        MOBILE     1-1942
50      FREE FR INF DIV        245      300        6        NMOBILE    1-1942
51      10 BR ARM DIV          665      700        5        MOBILE     3-1942
52      10 IND INF DIV         210      300        5        MOBILE     5-1942
53      51 BR INF DIV          560      600        5        MOBILE     7-1942
54      44 BR INF DIV          560      600        7        MOBILE     7-1942
55      8 BR ARM DIV           700      700        5        MOBILE     7-1942
56      MISC GRIN INF DIV      140      200        5        NMOBILE    7-1942


X. CHARTS AND TABLES

                               REINFORCEMENTS CHART

DATE       INITIATIVE    GE AIR   BR AIR  GE SUPPLY  GE REPL   IT REPL   BR REPL

1941 MAR     GERMAN        3        0        7000       80       250       600
1941 MAY     BRITISH       0        3        7000       80       250       600
1941 JULY    BRITISH       3        3        6000       80       175       350
1941 SEPT    BRITISH       3        3        6000       80       175       350
1941 NOV     BRITISH       3        3        6000       80       175       350
1942 JAN     GERMAN        0        3       10000      375       400       350
1942 MAR     GERMAN        3        3       10000      750       800       350
1942 MAY     GERMAN        9        3       10000      750       800       350
1942 JULY    GERMAN        3        9       10000      375       400       350
1942 SEPT    GERMAN        3        6        6000       80       175       350
1942 NOV     BRITISH       3        6        6000       80       175      1600
1943 JAN     BRITISH       3        3        6000       80       175       350

                               TERRAIN EFFECTS CHART

                NMOBILE     MOBILE                          NMOBILE/MOBILE
TERRAIN         MP COST     MP COST    DEFENSE   MAX FORT     SUPPLY COST

CLEAR              3           3         1.0     LEVEL 9          9/9
ROUGH              4           8         2.0     LEVEL 5         12/24
FORTRESS           1           1         2.5     LEVEL 3          3/3
TOWN               1           1         2.0     LEVEL 5          3/3
MOUNTAIN           6          12         2.5     LEVEL 3         18/36
COAST              1           1         1.5     LEVEL 8          3/3
LAND/IMPASSABLE   N/A         N/A        N/A       N/A            N/A
Note: for each level of fortification a defending unit adds 20% to its combat strength.
The terrain defense modifier and the fort level modifier cannot exceed 3.

                                 COMBAT SUPPLY CHART

                           ATTACKER                            DEFENDER
BATTLE           NONMOBILE          MOBILE          NONMOBILE             MOBILE
INTENSITY    AXIS     ALLIED   AXIS     ALLIED    AXIS     ALLIED      AXIS    ALLIED
   1          38        49      45        59       19        19         23       23
   2          50        65      60        78       25        25         30       30
   3          63        82      75        98       32        32         38       38
   4          75        98      90       117       38        38         45       45
   5          88       114     105       137       44        44         53       53
   6         100       130     120       157       50        50         60       60
   7         113       147     135       176       57        57         68       68
   8         125       163     150       195       63        63         75       75
   9         138       179     165       215       69        69         83       83

 Note: Supply costs for the computer-allied is the same as for the axis.

         COMBAT LOSS CHART                             COMBAT OPERATION CHART

          BATTLE INTENSITY                      BATTLE      ATTACKER      DEFENDER
ATT CP   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9      INTENSITY   AXIS ALLIED   AXIS ALLIED

 100     5   6   6   7   8   8   9   9  10          1        4     5        1     2
 200     6   7   8   9  11  12  13  14  15          2        5     6        2     3
 300     6   8  10  12  14  15  17  19  21          3        5     6        2     3
 500     8  11  14  17  20  23  26  29  32          4        6     7        2     3
 800     9  14  19  24  29  33  38  43  48          5        6     7        2     3
1000    11  17  23  29  35  41  47  53  59          6        7     8        2     3
1500    14  23  32  41  50  59  68  77  86          7        7     8        2     3
2000    17  29  41  53  65  77  89 101 113          8        8     9        2     3
2500    20  35  50  65  80  95 110 125 140          9        8     9        2     3
3000    23  41  59  77  95 113 131 149 167


        AIR LOSS TABLE                                      MORALE TABLE

# pts. allocated    Chance to destroy 1 enemy air pt.     MORALE      MODIFIER

       0                            9%                       1           1.6
       1                           36%                       2           1.5
       2                           36%                       3           1.4
       3                           40%                       4           1.3
       4                           42%                       5           1.2
       5                           44%                       6           1.1
       6                           46%                       7           1.0
       7                           48%                       8            .9
       8                           50%                       9            .8
       9                           52%



    COMBAT RISK TABLE                             UNIT CADRE TABLE

RISK TOTAL        LOSS MODIFIER          MORALE      %chance to Return as Cadre

   2              .97-1.08                 1                    75%
   3              .95-1.12                 2                    80%
   4              .93-1.16                 3                    84%
   5              .91-1.20                 4                    86%
   6              .89-1.24                 5                    88%
   7              .87-1.28                 6                    89%
   8              .85-1.32                 7                    90%
   9              .83-1.36                 8                    91%
  10              .81-1.40                 9                    92%
  11              .79-1.44
  12              .77-1.48
  13              .75-1.56
  14              .73-1.58
  15              .71-1.60
  16              .69-1.64
  17              .67-1.68
  18              .65-1.72


         DEFENDER ODDS                             AIRPOWER TABLE

  ODDS             MODIFIER                        # AIR            LOSS

  .5-1.               .25                            0                0
   1-1                .50                            1                1
   2-1               1.00                            2                2
   3-1               1.50                            3                3
   4-1               2.00                            4                4
   5-1               2.50                            5                5
   6-1               3.00                            6                6
   7-1               3.50                            7                7
   8-1               4.00                            8                8
                                                     9                9

Attacker Losses: Find the loss in the Combat Loss Chart Multiply this loss by Risk
and add losses due to Defender's Airpower. These losses are distributed among
attacking units according to their combat strength. Each unit has its loss
multiplied by the Morale modifier.

Defender Losses: Same as Attacker except also modify the loss in Combat Loss Chart
by the odds modifier along with the risk.


                                      VICTORY CHART

  Compare your score to the ranges below for the level of victory.

 Tobruk'41  Tobruk'42  El Alamein  Camp.'41  Camp.'42  Campaign      Victory Level
  <-130       <-60        <-400       <-30      <-700     <-900     Allied Strategic
-130 to -31   60-179      400-599    30-129    700-899   900-1199   Allied Tactical
-30 to 49    180-249      600-799   130-219    900-1099  1200-1599  Allied Marginal
  50-119     250-399      800-999   220-364   1100-1299  1600-1999  Axis Marginal
 120-219     400-549     1000-1599  365-479   1300-1499  2000-2399  Axis Tactical
  220+         550+        1600+      480+      1500+      2400+    Axis strategic
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