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Mig 29 Fulcrum manual

MIG-29 FULCRUM U.S.A. RELEASE
PAGE 1
CONTENTS
FOREWORD
          By John Farley - Test Pilot                         3
INTRODUCTION                                                  5
INSTALLATION AND LOADING                                      9
 Hard Disk                                                    9
 Loading MiG-29                                               9
 Loading Sequence                                            10
QUICK START                                                  11
 Mission Selection                                           11
 Controls                                                    12
 Weapons Systems                                             13
 Simulation Controls                                         14
 Navigation                                                  15
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS                                       16
 BRIEFING                                                    17
  Mission Selection                                          17
  Pilot Ranking                                              17
 DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS                                       18
  Flight Instruments                                         18
  Flight Controls                                            23
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  Weapons System                                             26
  Countermeasures                                            28
  Aircraft System                                            28
  Navigation System                                          29
 SIMULATION CONTROLS                                         31
  View Controls                                              32
  Other Controls                                             32
 DEBRIEFING                                                  33
 DYING                                                       33
THE MISSIONS                                                 34
 Training                                                    34
 Solo                   Codename `Blue Seasprite`            36
 Solo                   Codename `Yellow Dragon`             37
 Solo                   Codename `White Pegasus`             38
 Solo                   Codename `Red Witch`                 39
 Final Mission          Codename `Desert Strike`             40
FLIGHT AND COMBAT                                            41
 BASIC FLIGHT TUTORIAL                                       41
 AIR TO GROUND ATTACKS                                       49
 AIR COMBAT                                                  52
APPENDICES                                                   56
 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE DATA                                   56
 AIR TO AIR MISSILE PERFORMANCE                              59
PAGE 3

FOREWORD
by JOHN FARLEY - Test Pilot
Ever since the MiG-29 was first displayed in public at the
Farnborough '88 airshow I've wanted to test fly the plane to see
for myself how it handled.  At Farnborough '90 I met Mikhail
Waldenberg, chief designer for the Mikoyan Bureau, and Valery
Menitsky, chief test pilot, to discuss the plane's aerodynamic
achievements.  Valery then offered me the chance of a lifetime -
a flight in their two-seater to see how the plane flew.  I wasn't
disappointed, after years testing aircraft such as the Harrier
for British Aerospace, the MiG-29 proved one of the most
exhilarating flights I've ever had.
Now with Dommark's MiG-29 Fulcrum flight simulation, you can
experience the nearest thing to actually flying the plane; this
is no over-simplified game - I was surprised at how accurate the
model is.  Practice flying using the combined 'angle of attack'
and 'g' meter.  But remember, too much 'g' and you'll lose
your color vision or, worse, black out - real features copied
from the MiG-29 for this simulation.
The Soviet plane has several important features which make it
different from British and American fighters.  For example,
on the Russian display of attitude,
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the little plane symbol banks in the instrument panel as you
turn (whereas with western avionics, the plane symbol is fixed
and only the background banks).
I was pleased to see that the model reacted very realistically
during testing.  When flying, note how the high thrust and low drag
of this remarkable machine allows it to accelerate at low level
during a 9g turn - just   like the real thing.
Try your hand at air-to-air and air-to-ground combat.  But recognize
that while you train and take risks, real MiG-29 pilots have only
one life!
Good luck and good flying.
P.S.: Do Try The Tailslide - a unique feature to the MiG-29 air display
Routine.  Start from level flight at 500kph, pull to the vertical and
hold it.  Close the throttles and wait until you slide back.  To
recover, pull the stick back until the nose starts to come down, at
which point you should apply full power, relax the stick and accelerate
away.
PAGE 5
INTRODUCTION
The Soviet Airforce: An Overview.
When Hitler's forces rolled into the Soviet Union in 1941, the Soviet
defenses were literally overwhelmed by the suddenness of the attack.
Thousands of Soviet warplanes were destroyed - caught unprotected
by the swiftness of the Blitzkrieg.  But the Soviets worked day and
night to replace the lost aircraft, even during air-raids!  Much of
the manufacturing was moved eastwards away from the frotline, out of
bomber reach.  Perhaps it is this economy of design, born out of
necessity as supplies of raw materials became evermore difficult,
that still pervades the Soviet aircaft design philosophy.
Traditionally, Soviet fighter designs are produced by the Design
Bureaux (OKB's) to fulfill a requirement published by the central
bureau.  The most famous of these in the West is the Mikoyan and Guryevich
Design Bureau known more commonly as MiG.  Sukhoi and Yakoviev (SU
and TU) are also prominent if a little less known counterparts.
The word MiG has become synonymous with the Soviet Airforce or VVS
as it is known, due to the exploits, in export form, of its planes
in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts.  Regardless of the design
studio, all Soviet aircraft share a common ideology - simplicity
of design, ease of maintenance,
PAGE 6
toughness and where possible the ability to operate from rough
unpaved airstrips of the shortest possible length.  The MiG-29
for example, can take off from a strip of only 240 meters!
(787 ft), the American F16 by comparison typically needs twice
this.
WS cadets who pass the rigorous weeding-out process typically
begin their jet-propelled flying career on an L29 jet trainer.
These are flight instructor controlled flights (FIC), but
gradually pupils will do more and more of the flying until, after
a year's intensive training, they graduate from the Gugarin Higher
Aviation Academy.  Pilots are then sent to operational conversion
units where they learn to fly supersonic planes such as the MiG-21,
a MACH 2 fighter whose role the MiG-29 was designed to replace.
The MiG-21 is encountered in this simulation in its export form -
the Chinese built Shenyang F-7M.
Soviet training has traditionally concentrated on the basics of
flying - formation flying, low level navigation and a rigid regime
of tactical combat flying.  Historically this has led to criticism
of soviet Air Combat Manoeuvres (ACM), as being too rigid and
inflexible during actual combat - "Show a soviet pilot initiative,
and the next thing you know he's landing in Japan" as the joke
goes - a reference to the famous defection of MiG-25 pilot, Lt.
Belyenko to Japan in 1976.  This inflexibility has had more to do
with the aircrafts' relative inferiority at dogfighting than any
lack of ability on the part of the pilots.  Recent advances in
Soviet aerodynamics in the shape of the MiG-29 and the SU-27
however, will probably lead to a new style of flying being taught at
Soviet air academies, although whether this will result in
American - style "Top Gun" schools remains to be seen.
The Soviet Air Force is known as the WS (Voyenno - Vozdushnye Sily)
and is itself divided into two main divisions, the FA (Frontovaya
Aviatsiya, or frontal aviation) which is the tactical wing and the
DA (Dalnya Aviatsiya, long-range aviation) which is the
strategic air arm.
The Simulation:
In this simulation you will operate the MiG-29 initially as a pilot
undergoing
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conversion training, before achieving combat status.  In combat you
will fly the MiG in a variety of locations within the Soviet sphere
of influence.  Each scenario has its own challenge and therefore tests
the pilot in different areas of skill - air to air, air to ground,
unguided missile attack and of course cannon.  Don't forget to use
your MiG's amazing manoeuvrability to dodge missiles, deplot chaff
to confuse radar guided missiles and flares for IR guided air to air
missiles.  Remember to study the performance characteristics of the
aircraft you encounter - A Mirage is a much more formidable opponent
than a Shenyang!
Finally a thank you for purchasing MiG-29 FULCRUM, our first flight
simulator.  We hope you enjoy discovering the depths of gameplay
within the simulation.  We have had a lot of fun researching and
developing it.
John Kavanagh
The Kremlin, Addlestone.
MiG-29 Development Team:
 Dave Payne
 Jonathan Newth
 Paul Stein
 Ray Jackson
Graphics:
 Steven Blake
 Lloyd Bak  er
 Matthew Hicks
Music:
 Jolyon Myers
PAGE 9
INSTALLATION AND LOADING
Amiga
Reset computer and insert MiG-29 boot disk, the game will load and
run automatically.  If you have 1MB of memory then you can select 32
Color display.  On 512K machines select 16 color display.  On PAL 1MB
machines select 256 line display, On NTSC OR 512K machines select 200
lines.
That's a lot of options so here they are fully listed:
512K machines:
PAL                  200 line 16 Color (fastest).
NTSC                 200 line 16 Color (fastest).
1MB machines:
PAL                  200 line 16 Color (fastest).
                     256 line 16 Color (bigger screen).
                     256 line 32 Color (best display).
NTSC                 200 line 16 Color (fastest).
                     200 line 32 Color (better display).
Hard Disk Installation
Create a sub-directory called MIG on your hard drive.  Copy all
files from the program disk to the directory.  To run the program
from the CLI type CD MIG.  Press RETURN.  Type EXECUTE MIG-29.
PAGE 10
Loading Sequence:
When MiG-29 is run a loading screen is displayed, accompanied by theme
music, you can skip this at any time by pressing the space key.  The
music is followed by a MiG-29 flyby over red square!  You may also skip
this by pressing the space bar.  When the loading sequence is completed
you are placed in the briefing room.
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QUICK START
Mission Selection:
Selecting an option
You are placed in a briefing room with your options shown on a whiteboard.
You may select an option with the number keys (1-7) or using the cursor
keys (up/down).  To comfirm a choice press Enter or Space.
Scenario Summary
1. Basic Training.
                     Some ground targets and a safe enemy aircraft to
                     practice dogfights.
2. Artic Scenario.
                     A submarine to photograph and some Harriers as
                     opposition.
3. Chinese Scenario.
                     Dogfighting with Shenyang fighters over the Great
                     Wall.
4. Oil Field Scenario.
                     An island with storage silos, some oil rigs and
                     ships with SAMs and anti-aircraft guns.
5. Anti-terrorist ground attack scenario.
                     Bridges, trucks, SAMs, train, buildings.
6. Final Scenario.
                     Multi-role combat in the desert.  Destruction of a
                     nuclear plant.
Pilots Log
                     You may enter yourself in the pilot's log.
Dying
                     In the training scenario dying puts you back on the
                     runway.  In all the remaining scenarios dying is
                     terminal!!  You are placed back in the briefing
                     room.
PAGE 12
Debriefing
 You may enter the briefing room during a mission (provided that you
 have landed) for a debrief of the current state of play by pressing
 Ctrl-D.  To continue the mission press SPACE to re-enter the game from
 the briefing room.
Controls:
Head up display

 Hud on/off `H'
Flight Controls

 Engine on/off: `E'
 Throttle up: `='
 Throttle down: `-'
 Full power: Shift `+'
 Idle power: Shift `-'
 Landing gear: `L'
 Wheel brakes: `W'
 Air brakes: `B'
 Emergency Eject: `Ctrl-E'
Control Stick
 Ctrl-J selects analogue joystick.
 Alt-J selects switched joystick.
 Ctrl-K selects keyboard.
 Ctrl-L selects mouse.
 Ctrl-Z calibrate analogue joystick (move stick to extremes, press
        fire button to exit.)
PAGE 13
Keyboard control
roll left:                             `left arrow'
roll right:                            `right arrow'
pitch up:                              `down arrow'
pitch down:                            `up arrow'
center:                                `PAD 0'
Joystick center:                       `Z'
Joystick control power: Main keyboard  `1',`2',`3'
Pitch trim up:                         `PAD +'
Pitch trim down:                       `PAD -'
Zero pitch trim:                       `PAD *'
Rudder:                                `<',`>'
Weapons System:
 Cannon always available.
 S-240 unguided rockets.
 AA-8 Aphid heat seeking air to air missile.  HUD marker turns red for
  good lock.
 AS-7 Kerry air to surface heat seeking missile.  The target for guided
  missiles must be selected before launch.
Fire cannon:     `Joystick or Mouse button 1' or `Delete'.
Select Weapon:   `BACKSPACE'.
Select Target:   `RETURN'.
Fire Weapon:     `Joystick or Mouse button 2' or `Space'.
Drop flares:     `F'
Drop chaff:      `C'
PAGE 14
Aircraft System
Autostab on/off:        `A'
Radar/IR
Cycle radar range       `/'
Simulation Controls:
Sounds
 Engine noise on/off:    `N'
 All noise on/off:       `Q'
Views
 Keys in () are active when flying from the keyboard;
 PAD 8 (F8) - Forward view with head down displays.

 PAD 5 (F5) - Forward view without head down displays.
 PAD 9 (F9) - Forward Right.
 PAD 6 (F6) - Right.
 PAD 3 (F3) - Rear Right.
 PAD 2 (F2) - Rear.
 PAD 1 (F1) - Rear Left.
 PAD 4 (F4) - Left.
 PAD 7 (F7) - Forward Left.
 MiG outside view:    `V'
 "Tower" view:        `O'
 Missile view:        `M'
 Jump to enemy view:  `J'
 Pause on/off:        `P'
 Fast time on/off:    `X'
PAGE 15
 Toggle hedges:         `['
 Real Aircraft model:   Ctrl-A (only suitable for good joysticks and
                        fast PCs).
 Simple aircraft model: Ctrl-S (default).
 Debrief:               Ctrl-D (only when on runway).
 End Game:              Esc
Navigation:
 You have 4 waypoints preset for each scenario.
 Waypoint Zero is always over your home base.
 Waypoints One, Two and Three are set over enemy targets.
 Select waypoint `;', this cycles through the waypoints.
 There is a red steering pointer in the heading tape in the HUD.
 There is a combined direction/range pointer in the head down compass,
 a red LED just to its right shows the currently selected waypoint.
PAGE 16
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Chapter Contents:
 BRIEFING
 DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS
Section contents:
 Flight Instruments
  Head up display
  Reversionary instruments
 Flight Controls
 Weapons System
  Helmet Mounted Display
  Cannon
  Air-to-Surface Rockets
  Air-to-Air-Missiles
  Air-to-Surface Missiles
 Countermeasures
 Aircraft System
  Warning Indicators
 Navigation System
  Radar/IR
 SIMULATION CONTROLS
 DEBRIEFING
 DYING
PAGE 17
BRIEFING
When MiG-29 has loaded you will find yourself in the briefing room.
The pre-flight briefing allows you to choose which mission you wish to
undertake.  The missions available are projected onto a white board in
the briefing room, the selected mission is highlighted.  There is
considerable competition between the elite pilots of the MiG-29 squadron,
this is reflected by a pilot ranking table which is maintained in the
briefing room.  To enter the ranking select the Pilots option.
Selecting a Mission
On startup the training mission is selected.  You may select an option
on the whiteboard using the number keys (1-7) or with the up/down
cursors KEYS.  To begin the selected mission press Return or Space.
During the loading sequence for each mission a scene setting picture
is displayed.  (With the exception of training which takes you straight
to the runway).
The missions available are:
 Training
 Solo      Codename "Blue Seasprit"
           Codename "Yellow Dragon"
           Codename "White Pegasus"
           Codename "Red Witch"
 Final (you must attain a certain score to fly this mission).
More details about each mission may be found in the Missions chapter
later in the book.
Pilot Ranking
To enter the pilot ranking system select `PILOTS' and press return,
the current rankings will be projected onto the whiteboard.  You may
enter the rankings by selecting the `New Pilot' (6) option and
entering your name (max 10 characters).
PAGE 18
You may play as a ranked pilot by selecting a pliot (1-5).  The ranking
table is saved to disk every time you display the table or, if you are
flying as a ranked pilot, each time you exit a mission.
DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS
Flight Instruments
The primary instruments provide the pilot with all the crucial
information required to fly the plane.  The information is projected
onto the Head Up Display, where it is instantly available.  The head
down display contains a set of instruments which duplicate this
information.  They are called reversionary instruments, because they
provide backups in case of HUD failure.
MiG-29 Head Up Display Unit
           --------------------------------------------------------
           [                    HEAD UP DISPLAY                   ]
           [ Airspeed              Heading                        ]
           [ (Km/hr)                  |                           ]
           [     / ___________________|__________________Altitude ]
           [    / |06                09          121    1|  /     ]
           [  1206                    |                    /      ]
           [                                            420       ]
           [           0\                 Waypoint                ]
           [         /   \          __    Direction               ]
           [   Pitch/                 --  Indicator               ]
           [    Bars\            .  LFD                           ]
           [         \          .../     _ _                      ]
           [          \         .|.       _|                      ]
           [           \                   | --VSI                ]
           [           -1 --               |                      ]
           [                                                      ]
           [    G                   |                             ]
           [     \                  |                             ]
             [      2                 |               2             ]
           [                        |                \            ]
           [                  Velocity Vector        AOA          ]
           [______________________________________________________]
The MiG-29 HUD has a narrow field of view.  It has been praised for the
manner in which it presents complex data in a simple and easily
understandable way.
Altitude
Vertical height above the ground is shown in meters.
Airspeed
Airspeed is shown in kilometers per hour (100Km/h = 54 KNOTS).
Pitch Bars
The pitch bars stay parallel with the ground at all times.  You can
therefore use them to recover from unusual altitudes and to keep your
wings level when the horizon is not visible.  The lines are at 10 degree
intervals with a cross at 90 degrees.  When you see the cross
PAGE 19
you are either heading straight up or straight down.
VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator)
This shows your rate of climb or descent.  It is especially useful when
turning steeply near the ground.  The VSI has two fixed markers in it,
the upper marker is the center point (zero rate of climb), the lower
marker is the maximum rate of descent which the MiG can tolerate on
landing.
LFD
The Longtitudinal Fuselage Datum marker shows the direction the nose is
pointing.
G
This shows the G-force currently on the MiG.  The MiG-29 service limit
is 9.5g, however the airframe can withstand considerably more.
AOA (Angle of Attack)
The angle of attack is the angle between the direction of the airflow
approaching the aircraft and a line joining the leading and trailing
edges of the wing.  For normal flight AOA is red-lined at 26 degrees on
the MiG-29, however the airframe will remain controllable at higher AOA
for short periods of time.
The lift generated by the wing is dependant upon this angle.  If the
angle is too high the wing stalls, lift is reduced dramatically and
control of the aircraft may be lost.  Conventional wings may stall at
AOA of less than 20 degrees.
Velocity Vector
This red marker shows the direction in which the MiG is flying.
Heading
The horizontal band across the top of the HUD shows the current heading
in tens of degrees.  00 is north, 90 is east, 27 is west and 18 is south.
PAGE 20
Waypoint Direction Indication
This red marker in the heading band shows the heading to the currently
selected waypoint.  To fly to the waypoint you should turn until the
marker is directly above the central tick.
HUD on/off `H'
Turns the head up display system on/off, when the display is off
(or damaged) a reversionary LFD will be projected onto the HUD.
Reversionary Flight Instruments
Altitude
Vertical height above the ground is shown in meters.  One revolution
of the needle is 1000M, the thousands of meters are shown as digits in
the center of the dial.
Airspeed
Airspeed is shown in kilometers per hour (100Km/h=54 knots)
Artificial Horizon and Turn
This is a uniquely Soviet instrument.  It shows the pitch and roll
elements of your attitude separately on the same instrument.  The pitch
element is shown on a rotating cylinder as horizontal lines which move
up and down in the display.  Flying flat (zero pitch) puts the zero
degree line in the center of the dial.  The roll element of your attitude
is shown by a bar rotating about the center of the dial.  Traditional
western artificial horizons use rotating roll lines free floating in
pitch (as in the MiG HUD).
VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator)
This shows your rate of climb or descent.
AOA/G
Combined angle of attack and G meter.  AOA is shown on the left half of
the dial, it is redlined to 26 degrees.  G is shown on the right side of
PAGE 21
the dial, it registers 0->9 G's.
Engine Instruments and Controls
Engine gauge
This pair of bars show the engine rpm's.  There are 3 color bands.
Yellow is the idle band, green is the normal operation band.  Red shows
that the afterburners are on.
Fuel
This gauge shows the amount of fuel left.  There is also a low fuel
warning lamp.
Engine: `E'
Turns engine on/off.  The engine must be started before the throttle
controls work.  You must switch the engine off after landing to refuel
and rearm.
Throttle up: `='
Increases throttle.  When throttle is at maximum throttling up further
turns on the afterburners.
Throttle down: `-'
Decreases throttle.
Full power: Shift `+'
Sets throttle to maximum.  The engines will idle.
Idle power: Shift `-'
Sets the throttle to minimum.  The engines will idle.

Hydraulic Systems
The hydraulic indicator shows the position of the hydraulically driven
systems on the aircraft.
PAGE 22
Indicator
 Wheel brakes
  This single green light indicates that the wheel brakes are applied.
 Gear Position
  Three greens show that the landing gear is down.  The indicators show red
  when the gear is retracted.
 Air brakes
  Two greens show that the airbrakes are   applied.
 Flaps
  Two greens show that the flaps are extended.
 Controls
  Landing gear: `L'
  The landing gear produces a great deal of drag and should be raised
  for normal flight to increase performance.  You will not be able to
  lower or raise the landing gear after hydraulic system failure.  It
  is possible to land with gear up if the descent rate is very low and
  the wings are almost level.
  Wheel brakes: `W'
  The wheel brakes work on all wheels and are needed for slowing down
  after landing.  You must release the brakes before starting your
  takeoff, a useful techinique is to throttle up to full power before
  releasing the brakes as this reduces your takeoff run.
  Air brakes: `B'
  The air brakes provide extra drag.  This helps you to reduce speed
  which can be useful while in a steep ground attack or when you are too
  fast on a landing approach.  Slowing down reduces your turning circle,
  which makes the airbrakes useful in dogfights.
PAGE 23
  Emergency Eject: `Ctrl-E'
  If you lose control of the aircraft - 2 missile hits or low altitude
  stall, you can eject to safety by pressing Ctrl-E.  After a few moments
  the parachute will open and you will begin to spin to the ground.  You
  can still look around using the Pad/Function keys.  Press Space to exit
  and return to the briefing room.

  Flaps
  2 greens indicate that the flaps are out.  The flaps increase the drag
  and lift of the wing, effectively braking the aircraft and increasing
  its performance at low speed.  The flaps automatically extend below an
  airspeed of 250 knots.
Flight controls:
  Control Stick
The joystick is used to control the orientation and direction of the plane
in the air.  You may choose between a number of ways of controlling the
joystick from your computer:
1.     Keyboard.
2.     Mouse.
3.     Switched game joystick.
4.     Analogue joystick.
The control selected at startup is:
PC - Joystick.
PAGE 24
Amiga/Atari - mouse.
To change the input:
Ctrl-J selects analogue joystick.
Alt-J selects switched joystick.
Ctrl-K selects keyboard.
Ctrl-L selects mouse.
Ctrl-Z: Calibrate analogue joystick (move stick to extremes, press fire
        button to exit).
Keyboard: The arrow keys are used to control the joystick.
Mouse: The mouse is used to represent an aircraft joystick.  Imagine that
       the mouse is the top of a joystick.  Pushing the mouse away lowers
       the nose of the aircraft, pulling it towards you raises the nose.
       Moving the mouse left rolls left and moving right rolls right.

       The neutral position is wherever the mouse started and it must be
       returned to this position for no control input.  The joystick
       position indicators on the display are useful for fine centering
       of the mouse.  It takes a while to get used to using the mouse,
       but once mastered the extra control and precision makes keyboard
       or switched game joystick seem inadequate.
MOUSE CONTROL
Mouse Up - Pitch Down
Mouse Down - Pitch Up
Mouse Left - Roll Left
Mouse Right - Roll Right
Left Mouse Button - Cannon
Right Mouse Button - Rocket
PAGE 25
Switched Joystick
A switched joystick provides a crude but intuitive way of controlling
the game.  It requires no calibration.
Analogue Joystick
An analogue joystick is the most realistic way of controlling the game,
it provides an accurate and intuitive way input.  You will have to
calibrate your analogue joystick before use, this can be done from
within the game by pressing Ctrl-Z whilst on the runway.  Move the
joystick to all its extremes, press a key on the joystick to end the
calibration.
Joystick Center: `Z'
This centers the joystick, it is most useful with the mouse.
Joystick control power: Main keyboard `1',`2',`3'.
You can choose the mouse control response that is best for your flight
mode and experience.  Low power (1) is useful for training, normal power
(2) is useful for most flying, high  power (3) is best for dogfights but
makes precise control difficult.
Pitch trim
 Pitch trim up: `PAD +'
 Pitch trim down: `PAD -'
 Zero pitch trim: `PAD *'
Rudder `,',`.'
The rudder has 2 uses.  On the ground the rudder input is used to control
nose wheel steering.  In the air the rudder turns the aircraft without
roll, but the effect is small.  You can use the rudder for small aiming
corrections while attacking ground targets and for final heading
correction while landing.
PAGE 26
Weapons System
Cannon
The MiG-29 is armed with a 23mm cannon, used for air combat and ground
attack.  The cannon fires about 1000 rounds per minute and is initially
loaded with 250 rounds.  The number of rounds left is shown at the top
of the stores display on the left of the cockpit.
Air-to-Surface Rockets
The MiG-29 is armed with unguided rockets housed in rocket pods, these
are used in its ground attack role.  You are initially armed with 36
S-240   unguided rockets, these are fired two at a time.
Air-to-Air Missiles
Your MiG is supplied with AA-8 "Aphid" dogfighting missile.  The Aphid
is a sophisticated modern heat seeking air to air missile.  Your MiG
is armed with up to four Aphids on the outboard wing pylons.  On mainly
air attack missions an additional two Aphids are mounted on the inboard
pylons.
Air-to-Surface Missiles
For the MiG's ground attack role it is armed with AS-7 "Kerry" air to
ground guided missiles.  The Kerry missiles are loaded on the four
inboard wing pylons.  On missions with mainly ground attack targets an
additional two AS-7'S are mounted on the outboard pylons.
Helmet Mounted Display
The MiG-29 has a helmet mounted sighting system displaying current
weapon status and missile "lock" in the pilot's helmet.  The sighting
PAGE 27
System allows true off-boresight missile firing capability, freeing the
pilot from the necessity of pointing the nose of his aircraft at the
target to lock it up.
Weapon Selected
This shows the currently selected weapon.  The MiG is amred with S-240
unguided rockets, AA-8 "Aphid" air-to-air missiles and AS-7 "Kerry"
air-to-surface missiles.
Bottom left of Helmet Mounted Display shows the type of weapon.
(i.e.: AA-8 would indicate "Aphid" air-to-air missiles, S-240 would
indicate unguided rockets, etc.).
Track Box
When a guided missile is selected and a target is being tracked a track
box is displayed outlining the target.
(This being slightly off center to the right of the Helmet Mounted
Display).
Selecting Weapons
The cannon is always selected on the primary fire control.  One of the
S240 / AA-8/ AS-7 may be selected as secondary fire control.  The
selected secondary weapon is shown in the helmet mounted display.
Fire cannon: `Joystick or Mouse button 1' or `Delete'
Select Secondary Weapon: `BACKSPACE'
This cycles the currently selected weapon S-240 -> AA-8 -> AS-7
Select Target: `RETURN'
If the secondary weapon selected is a guided missile (AA-8 / AS-7) the
weapon system must attain a "lock" on a target before a missile can be
fired.  Pressing RETURN when a target is selected deselects it.
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The target only stays selected for a limited time (- 30 seconds).
Fire secondary weapon: `Joystick or Mouse button 2' or `SPACE'
S-240 - fires two rockets.
AA-8  - if target is selected fires one air to air missile.
AS-7  - if target is selected fires one air to ground missile.
Countermeasures
The MiG-29 countermeasures system comprises of Flare and Chaff
launchers.  Flares are used to decoy heat seeking missiles.  Chaff is
used to confuse radar guided missiles.
Drop Flares: F'
 4 Flares are dropped.
Drop Chaff: `C'
 Chaff is dropped 8 units at a time.
Aircraft System
Warning Lamps
These are situated on the right side of the cockpit.  There are two
banks of lamps, 4 failure indicators and 4 warning indicators.
Failure lamps:
Hydraulic system failure
This indicates that the hydraulic system has been damaged, your landing
gear and air brakes will remain in their current positions.  You attempt
landing for repair.
Navigation system failure
The navigation computer has malfunctioned or been damaged.
PAGE 29
Radar/IR failure
The radar and/or IR system has suffered a failure.  You may lose some or
all of the information displayed on the radar/IR display.
HUD failure
The head up display computer has been damaged, you will have no head up
display.
Low altitude:
Stall
 The aircraft is in a stall.
Low fuel
 Low fuel warning.  Return to base for refuelling.
Autostab
 Autostab is on when indicator is lit.
The Autostabilizer
Your MiG-29 is fitted with an autostabilizing system.  The autostab
enhances the aircraft stability.  This makes it return to straight and
level flight although you can still fly in the normal way.  You should
use the autostab while you gain experience and it will always be useful
for long distance straight and level flying.  For combat the autostab
hinders aerobatic manoeuvres and should be switched off.
Autostab on/off `A'
Navigation System
The MiG-29 compass is a rotating ball with the heading marked in tens
of degrees.  Your current heading is shown in the center of the ball.
This compass duplicates the heading band in the head up display.
The MiG-29 inertial navigation system has 4 waypoints which are
PAGE 30
Preset before each mission.  The cockpit display consists of a pointer
overlayed on the compass dial.  The direction of the pointer indicates
the relative bearing to the waypoint.  The pointer is half green and
half red with the green half indicating the direction to fly.  When the
green pointer is orientated directly north then you are on course for the
waypoint.  A white bar crosses the pointer indicating the distance to the
waypoint.  When the bar is at the end of the pointer the waypoint is 25Km
or more away.  When the bar crosses the center of the pointe  r you are
directly over the waypoint.  The relative bearing to the waypoint is also
indicated by the red steering indicator in the head up display.
Waypoint Selected
This single digit shows the current waypoint selected.  There are 4
waypoints (0-3) which are preset before flight.
Waypoint cycle `;'
This cycles the currently selected waypoint 0->1->2->3->0->.  The
currently selected waypoint is displayed in the head down display.
Radar and Infra Red System
The combined radar and Infra Red display head is situated at the top
right of the cockpit.  It displays the information obtained from the
forward looking radar and all round IR sensors.
The radar covers a 90 degree forward cone with a maximum range of 30
kilometers.  The radar range is selectable from 30km, 15km, 8km; the
range is shown at the bottom left of the display.
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The Infra Red sensors provide all round directional information, but
not range.  IR signals are shown as spokes on the display.
Cycle radar range `/'
This cycles the current radar range(Km) 30->15->8->30.  The current
range is shown in the radar display.
SIMULATION CONTROLS
Sounds
 Engine noise on/off: `N'
 All noise on/off: `Q'
Views
 Views from aircraft;
 The numeric keypad is used to select all round views from the
 plane.
 PAD 8 - forward view with head down displays.
 PAD 5 - forward view without head down displays.
                                PAD 8 / 5
                     PAD 7                     PAD 9
                     PAD 4                     PAD 6
                     PAD 1                     PAD 3
                                  PAD 2
If the keyboard is being used as the primary control input then the
function keys control the outside views.
F8 - Forward view with head down displays.
F5 - Forward view without head down displays.
F9 - Forward Right.
F6 - Right.
F3 - Rear Right.
F2 - Rear.
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F1 - Rear Left.
F4 - Left.
F7 - Forward Left.
View Controls
MiG Outside view on/off: `V'
This places you outside the aircraft.  The relative position of the
viewer to the aircraft can be controlled on the numeric keypad (or
function keys) as above.
Missile View: `M'
If a guided missile is in flight this shows the view from the missile's
infra-red eye.
While you are looking from the missile's point of view you are still in
control of the aircraft.  It is advisable to be in a straight and level
Flight before selecting another view!
Jump to enemy view: `J'
This allows you to see the world from the enemy`s point of view.  If an
enemy target is selected (air or ground) by the weapons system `J' will
jump to the enemy view.  It is most entertaining to select an enemy
plane whilst dogfighting and follow his manoenvres!
Control tower view: `O'
This selects a view of your aircraft from your home runway.  You can fly
the MiG-29 like a radio controlled aircraft!  The control tower view
automatically zooms in on you when you fly away from the tower.  The
maximum range is 10km.
Other Controls
Debrief: `Ctrl-D'
This places you in the briefing room for a post mission debrief.  You
can only be debriefed after you have landed on the runway.
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Pause: on/off: `P'
Fast time on: `X'
 Turning on fast time speeds up simulation for the entire game by a
 factor of 3.
DEBRIEFING
You can enter the briefing room for a debrief at any time during a
mission (provided that you have landed).
Your mission debrief informs you if your mission is complete, and if
not how many targets remain.  Your current score is also shown.
To continue the mission press Return or Space to get to the briefing
room and Return or Space again to restart.
DYING
If in the unfortunate event of your crashing or being shot down the
screen blacks out and a death screen appears describing the reason of
your crash.
You are then placed in the briefing room.
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MISSIONS
The missions available in MiG-29 are:
 Training
 Solo:                  Codename `Blue SeaSprite`
                        Codename `Yellow Dragon`
                        Codename `White Pegasus`
                        Codename `Red Witch`
 Final:                 Codename `Desert Strike`
Level of difficulty
Each mission features a different aspect of flying the MiG-29 and demands
a different level of pilot skill.  In the training missions a high level
of skill is required giving you the opportunity to learn in a benign
enviroment.  The solo missions each feature a different aspect of flying
the MiG-29 and all require similar levels of skill.  The final game
requires skill in all areas of combat.
Training Missions
You`re welcome to the Elite Pilots' School"
Welcome to the pilots' school at Orzusk Aerodome.  As one of the elite
group of cadets chosen to train on the prestigious MiG-29 you will be
under a lot of p  ressure to perform well during your training and to go
on to one of the many MiG-29 squadrons around the USSR.
Once you have completed the training missions you will be assigned
a number of missions based on real-world scenarios which must be
completed successfully.  Each scenario is designed to test one
particular area of the MiG-29's theatre of operations, and your
skill in completing these missions will dictate how soon you can
pass on to join the elite cadre of MiG-29 veterans.
PAGE 35
The Training Scenario
The training scenario features a number of elements to introduce
you to the capabilities of the MiG-29.  There is a firing range designed
to exercise use of your 23mm cannon and unguided rockets.  The lake has
targets for your guided air to surface rockets.  There are a number of
manoeuvring air drones allowing you to learn the art of dog-fighting
with.
Each of these elements is marked with a waypoint preset in the navigation
computer.
Waypoint 0 Home runway (one).
Waypoint 1 Firing range.
Waypoint 2 Lake.
Waypoint 3 Runway two.
Your training will require the completion of the following tasks (if you
do not master these basic skills in training you will certainly die when
you attempt a solo mission - but you are free to try!).
Suggested Training Program:
Takeoff, perform a controlled turn and land on visuals.
Takeoff, fly to firing range (waypoint 1), destroy tragets, return
(waypoint 0) and land on runway.
Takeoff, fly to lake (waypoint 2), use AS-7's to destroy targets, return
and land.
Takeoff, fly to next airfield (waypoint 3), engage enemy drones using
AA-8's and land on runway two.
PAGE 36
Solo Missions
Codename "Blue SeaSprite"
The counter-intelligence analysis section of the GRU has intercepted
American communications traffic indicating that two days ago a Dallas
"Boomer" class ICBM submarine developed a reactor fault and has had to
surface.  It is now trapped in ice, but latest weather estimates that
the ice will start breaking up in the next twenty-four hours.  The
submarine is trapped INSIDE NATO territorial waters and consequently
unapproachable by one of our Russian sea based fleet.  A continuing
heavy cloud layer prevents the use of spy satellites to photograph the
submarine.  This is too valuable an opportunity to miss, so a single
MiG-29 will be despatched to film the sub.  To further complicate
matters there are believed to be three British Sea Harrier jets
operating from the ice providing air cover for the sub.
Mission:
Takeoff from airbase in Siberia.
Navigation at normal flight levels to within 30Km of submarine.
Descend to below radar horizon and continue to navigate to submarine.
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When within range of sub fly towards it at 200 meters, approach within
100 meters of submarine.  Note numbers on side of submarine.
Return to base "ASAP"!
NB: We are not prepared to start WW3 so if you intercepted by British
fighters, do not REPEAT DO NOT engage, if necessary terminate the
mission.
Waypoint 0 Home base.
Waypoint 1 Submarine.
Waypoint 2 Harrier base.
Codename "Yellow Dragon"
Over the last week there have been a worrying number of "incidents"
involving Chinese illegal incursions into Soviet airspace.  These
incidents have always taken the same form with a group of three
Chinese fighters flying into restricted airspace towards Tbliski
aerodrome.  Units of the Tbliski's ageing SU-21 fighters are scrambled,
but as soon as they fly into visual range the Chinese the Chinese
fighters turn around and fly home.  That is until yesterday when the
Chinese shot down one of the Soviet fighters.  The Chinese Ambassador
regrets this unfortunate "Accident"!  We have decided that a single
MiG-29 should fly an
PAGE 38
intercept mission to teach the Chinese an important lesson about
"Tickling the bear's nose" too many times!
Mission:
Scramble from Tbliski.
Fly towards Shenyang Fighters and shadow them until they leave Soviet
airspace.  Do not engage in hostilities unless provoked by direct
action.
Return to base.
Waypoint 0 Home base.
Waypoint 1 Great Wall.
Waypoint 2 Chinese runway.
Waypoint 3 Chinese runway.
Codename "White Pegasus"
Tension has been rising over the last few days after a leader of the
middle Eastern state of Arzaria, General Hasouz proclaimed that Arzarian
territorial waters would henceforth stretch 200 miles into open sea.
(The internationally accepted standard is 12 miles).  In addition, he has
proclaimed that all sea traffic within this 'Territorial Sea Zone"
directly violates Arzarian territorial waters, and that any such shipping
would be fired upon.  Yesterday, a Soviet oil tanker, the Rodina, ran
into severe difficulties after a fire in the engine room completely
destroyed all rudder control.  The Rodina drifted for 12 hours to within
80 miles of the Arzarian Coast.  Despite numerous pleas for help was
ignored.  Eventually an Arzarian gunboat was dspatched and the Rodina was
boarded.  After mu  ch arguing and posturing by the Gunboat captain, the
crew of the Rodina were "removed" from the ship and the Rodina was then
sunk by a torpedo launched from the gunboat.  It has been decided that
this incident cannot pass without notice and that some form of
retaliatory action MUST be taken.  Since Hasouz has directly attacked
the Soviet oil supply, it has been decided that the same should happen
to him.  A single MiG will fly a covert mission to attack targets
opportunely (preferably oil
PAGE 39
refineries or oil rigs).
Mission:
Take-off from island aerodrome.
Low level flight towards oil fields.
Air-to-ground missile attack on refinery and oil rigs.
Return to aerodrome.
Waypoint 0  Home base.
Waypoint 1  Island.
Waypoint 2  Oil Rig.
Waypoint 3  Oil Rig.
Codename "Red Witch"
A Terrorist group operating WITHIN the Soviet territory have been
destroying road and rail links between major cities.  One of the reasons
they have been so hard to track down is that they constantly move their
base thus making it difficult to pinpoint their location.  It is also
believed that they only travel on back roads and always at night to avoid
detection.  Fortunately the KGB have managed to infiltrate an agent into
the terrorist group, and he has given us a date, time and approximate
position of their convoy.  Your mission is to provide air support for a
Spetnatz commando group acting covertly to "remove" the terrorist threat.
Mission:
Take-off from airbase.
Navigate to predicted area of operations.
Track terrorist vehicles to base.
Destroy vehicles and base.
Return home.
Waypoint 0  Home base.
Waypoint 1  Bridge.
Waypoint 2  Enemy HQ 1.
Waypoint 3  Enemy HQ 2.
PAGE 40
Final Mission:
Codename "Desert Strike"
Terrorist elements of a Middle Eastern state have been attacking merchant
ships in the strait of Hormuz.  The leader of the state has been shown on
TV publicly ridiculing both the USA and USSR as weaklings.
Normally this would be of no consequence, but other elements in the Middle
East are now looking towards a potential "Jihad".
Over the last few months the KGB's Satellite Intelligence Service (SIS)
have noted a large amount on construction work in one particular area of
the Lahal desert.  Analysis indicates that this construction is for a
fast breeder nuclear reactor.  The technology to develop nuclear weapons
is already possessed by the Middle East; this reactor would provide the
plutonium required for production.
It has been decided that this reactor MUST be destroyed at all costs.
Mission:
Take off from airbase in `friendly' Middle Eastern state.  Fly across
border and secure an advanced airbase for further operations.  Create
safe path through ground defense network by destruction of ground
defenses and aerodromes.
Destroy nuclear facility and support complexes.
Waypoint 0  Advance base.
Waypoint 1  Desert fort.
Waypoint 2  Truck base.
Waypoint 3  Fuel dump.
PAGE 41
FLIGHT AND COMBAT
BASIC FLIGHT TUTORIAL:
A flight simulation on a personal computer can't move you physically
in the same way that a real aircraft would.  This means that instead
of you rolling with the aircraft as it banks, the simulated world is
rolled the other way instead.  You will soon get use to compensating
this as you move and the world staying still.  Until this happens you
may find this confusing that banking to the right makes the world
roll to the left or that pitching up makes the world move down.
The controls of an aircraft cause the aircraft to move while the control
is applied and to stay at the same attitude when the control is neutral.
This means that the aircraft will not return to straight and level
flight just because the controls are central.
The main control for a fighter aircraft is a joystick.  Moving this
backwards and forwards changes the angle of the tailplane which
causes the aircraft to change its pitch.  Pulling the joystick back
causes the nose to pitch up, and pushing it forward causes the nose
to pitch down.  Moving the joystick from side to side changes the
angle of the ailerons which cause the aircraft to roll.  Moving the
joystick left rolls left and moving it right rolls right.  The
controls work by reacting against the air flowing over them which
means that at low speeds the controls have less effect.
The ideal control for a simulated aircraft is an analogue joystick.
This has a greater effect the further it is moved and is sprung-
loaded back to the center position.  The next best is a mouse,
which gives very precise control but is hard to return its starting
position to give zero control input.  The simulation cockpit has a
special joystick position display to make it easier to return the
controls to neutral.
In the absence of an analogue joystick or mouse a switched joystick
or the keyboard can be used.  Both these controls have more effect
the longer pressure is applied or the keys are held down.  Reversing
the direction
PAGE 42
i  mmediately returns the control to zero and then continues in the
new direction.  These effects can be seen by noting the control
position indicator.
The best way to learn to fly is to practice.  MiG-29 has a special
training scenario which simply returns you to the starting position
on the first runway if you crash.  This allows you to learn to control
the MiG without waiting for the program to go through a long restart
sequence.
You can select the training scenario from the briefing room.  You will
be placed on the first runway with your engine idling and wheel brakes
on.  Press CTRL-D to exit to the briefing room and select another
scenario.
You should have the controls and display reference card to hand to
remind you of all the keyboard functions.
Take off:
When you are ready to take check that your controls are central and
then use the = key to throttle up to full power.  You will start to
move as the brakes are not powerful enough to hold you against full
power.  Press W to release the wheel brakes which allows you to
accelerate faster.

You airspeed is the number at the top left of the Head Up Display (HUD).
This is in kilometers per hour (km/h).  2 km/h is about 1 Knot.  When
your airspeed is over 300 Km/h you should pull back on the joystick
to take off.  This may take a large control input but as soon as you
leave the ground return the elevator to neutral.  If your nose has
pitched up to more than about 10 degress you should move the stick
forward to reduce your pitch to 10 degrees.  10 degrees is the first
line marked with a 1 on the HUD and the central green cross gives the
position of your nose.
You should retract your landing gear by pressing L as soon as
convenient.
Straight and Level Flight:
Keep your wings level by correcting with sideways movements of the
joystick.  If the left wing is low then move the joystick to the
right until the horizon is level and then center the joystick.
If the right wing is low use left joystick.  If the horizon is out
of view you can look at the lines in the HUD which are always
PAGE 43
parallel to the horizon.
Initially you should try to fly at a height of between 1000 and 2000
meters.  You height is shown at the top right of the HUD.  Maintain
height by keeping the central green cross on the horizon.
If you get into an unusual attitude your should always level your
wings before using the elevator to pitch your nose back to the
horizon.  If you lose control you can use the auto-stabilizer to
recover.  First center your joystick by pressing Z and then switch
on the auto-stabilizer by pressing A.  You may prefer to leave the
auto-stabilizer on for your initial flights.
Turns:
When you have mastered flying straight and level it is time to
practice turning.  A fast jet is not east to turn quickly.  The
faster you fly the more force is required to make the turn.  The
force is known as g force and the MiG can produce over 10g in a
tight turn.  This is 10 times the force of gravity.  The only way
of producing this force is by using the wings.  When you are banked
over the lift from the wings is going sideways rather than up and you
use this force to turn.  Pulling back on the joystick not only
pitches the nose up but also increases the angle of the wings to the
airflow, thus producing more lift and therefore more g force.
Flying straight and level requires 1 g of lift.  Simply banking the
aircraft produces just 1g over to one side allowing the aircraft to
turn slowly.  To turn fast the aircraft should be banked until the
wings are nearly vertical and then the elevator can be used to control
the rate of turn.  It is quite difficult to control the bank angle
while pulling back on the joystick, but controlled high g turns are an
essential part of flying a high performance aircraft like the MiG-29.
While practicing turning you will probably notice that the nose of the
aircraft drops towards the ground.  This is caused by sideslip
and makes turning at low altitudes difficult.  The best way to
counteract this is to bank to less than 90 degrees and to use the
elevator to keep the nose up.  The closer you are to 90 degrees the
more elevator you will need.
PAGE 44
Navigation:
When you can make controlled turns it is time to learn to navigate.
Fighter aircraft have simple navigation systems so that the pilot
can concentrate on flying and combat.  The MiG-29 simulation includes
several waypoints, which are points on the ground preprogrammed into the
navigation system.
The training scenario starts with waypoint 0 selected which is set to the
center of your base runway.  To return to this runway you can use the red
line on the compass display at the top of the HUD.  When the red line is
centered you are flying directly towards the selected waypoint.  The head
down navigation instrument also shows information about the waypoint.
The green line shows the direction relative to your nose and the white
cross bar shows the distance.  You can change waypoints by pressing   the
; key.
To return to base keep heading towards waypoint 0, and keep your altitude
to about 1000 meters.  If you are too high you won't see any ground
features.
If you fly with afterburners on you will use more fuel and your range
will be much less.  If you have gone too far during practice you may
run out of fuel before you can land to refuel.  This is an easy way
to get back to base.
Try and experiment with different throttle settings and the airbrake
to see what effect they have on speed.  It takes a long to lose
speed in straight and level flight, but tight turns at low throttle
will burn off speed much faster.  Climbing steeply will reduce speed
and diving steeply will increase it.
At low levels the speed of sound is a barrier which the MiG can only
just break.  Its top speed is 1400 Km/H at sea level and even
afterburners increase your top speed by less than 150Km/H.  If you
go higher the top speed will increase to 2500Km/H at 10000 meters.
Landing:
When you can navigate back to your base runway, the next problem is
landing on it.  A good landing requires a low descent rate with the
wings nearly level and a low enough forward speed to stop before the
end of the runway.
The secret of a good landing is a good approach.  This means that you
need to
PAGE 45
start a long way out from the runway.  The base runway is aligned
North-South and there is no wind so you can land from either end.
A simple way to align the aircraft with the runway is to fly over
the runway heading North and South and keep going at an altitude of
of about 1000 meters for at least 30 seconds.  Then make a tight 180
degree turn until you are heading back to the runway.  Unless you
have flown slightly off the due North or South course, the turn will
put you to one side of the direct line to the runway.  You should get
back to a straight line from the runway as soon as possible.
A good speed for the approach is 500Km/H.  The throttle should be
rduced to zero and the airbrake used if needed.  At 500Km/H and about
5 kilometers from the runway, lower the landing gear and take off the
airbrake.  Point the aircraft's nose down, directing it at the start of
the runway.  Increase throttle slightly if the speed get too low.
The steeper your descent the less throttle you will need to maintain
airspeed.  The landing gear adds drag and therefore slows you down.
When you are about 2 kilometers out you should start to slow down to
about 250 Km/H and lower the landing gear.
There is a red aircraft symbol in the center of the HUD.  This is your
velocity vector.  It shows the direction in which you are actually
travelling as opposed to the direction the aircraft's nose is pointing.
The slower you fly the more you have to keep your nose up to maintain
level flight.  The velocity vector shows you true direction and as you
slow down you can use it to show you where you will land.  Your nose
can be well above the horizon but your downward speed can still be too
high to enable a safe landing.  The velocity vector shows this.  In
addition, the vertical speed indicator in the HUD shows your
descent rate.  This has to be above the lower line for a good landing.
When you down to about 10 meters you should pull back on the joystick
to round for a gentle touch down.
If you slow down too much you will stall.  This happens when the angle
of attack of the wings to the airflow is greater than about 20 degrees.
If you stall, the nose will drop and you will height.  If you are low
you will hit the ground.  If while landing the velocity vector gets
close to the bottom of the
PAGE 46
screen, then this is a good sign of an impending stall.  The angle
of attack indicator at the bottom right of the HUD is also useful.
When you are safely on the runway, ensure that the nose is down,
apply wheel brakes and use the rudder/nose wheel steering to stay on
the runway.  You will automatically be refueled when you stop.
ADVANCED FLIGHT:
The MiG-29 uses advanced aerodynamcis.  It does not have a fly-by-
wire computer system and therefore relies on good handling and pilot
skill for its performance.  The most remarkable feature is its
controllability at very high angles of attack.  A conventional wing
stalls at about 15 degrees but the MiG is still under control at 25
degrees.  The drag is of course considerable at high angles of attack
and the afterburners are essential for maintaining speed.
The MiG-29 simulation has two different aircraft models.  The standard
model is designed to compromise between ease of flying and realism.
There is also a more advanced model that is a much more accurate
simulation, but which requires a fast computer to run effectively.
This is because the forces acting on the aircraft are calculated
and then used to determine its acceleration and velocity.  If the
time step for this calculation is more than about 1/10 second,
inaccuracy can build up causing oscillations.  It is also more
difficult to fly.  (A fast response time to control inputs   is
important).  This limits the advanced model to 16/32 bit
computers with a clock speed of 16MHz or above which can maintain
a frame rate of over 10 Hz.
A good analogue joystick is also an advantage for flying the advanced
model.  A good joystick has very little backlash which means that it
returns to precisely the central position when released.  A second
joystick for rudder and throttle is also very useful.  With enough
practice the mouse works quite well but keyboard control is difficult.
Some of the manoeuvres and techniques discussed in this section can
only be performed by the advanced model.  This is enabled by pressing
CTRL-A.  Using the fast time feature makes the advanced model hard
to control and it
PAGE 47
may become unstable on slower computers.
The MiG-29 airframes is very strong and can take about 13g.  An
experienced pilot can take about 10g after which there is a high
risk of blacking out.  Blacking out is not covered in this
simulation, but using full elevator control at high speeds is
unwise as there is no fly-by-wire system to prevent you breaking
the airframe.  There is a g meter at the bottom left of the HUD
and this should be airframe.  There is a g meter at the bottom left
of the HUD and this should be used to avoid pulling more than 10g.
The reduction of air density with altitude is simulated.  This means
that the aircraft can fly much faster at high altitude, but it
becomes harder to control.  Thin high altitude air does not provide
much lift so high g manoeuvres become increasingly difficult.  The
MiG has an operational ceiling of about 20,000 meters (60,000 feet).
Above this altitude the air is too thin for the jet engine which
produces almost no power.
The drag increase at the speed of sound is also simulated.  This
prevents high speed flight at low level.  The MiG-29 can fly at 1,400
Km/H (Mach 1.1) at sea level, but up to 2,500 Km/H (Mach 2) at an
altitude of 10,000 meters.  This means that flying high is the best
way to reduce travel time.  However, dogfighting at high level is
difficult.
The simulation deals with unusual aircraft altitudes and continues
to calculate forces on the aircraft even when far outside the normal
flight envelope.  This allows you to perform the full range of
aerobatics.
There is a velocity vector in the HUD.  This is the red aircraft
symbol.  It shows you the point in space towards which you are
actually moving.  It stays close to the central green cross at
high speed and low g.  When flying at low speed or high g, the
velocity vector can be a long way from the center.  For example,
at 25 degrees angle of attack, the velocity vector is 25 degrees
below the center line of the aircraft, and out of the field of
view of the HUD.
The velocity vector can be very useful for accurate flying.  For
example, when you are pulling a high g turn you have to keep the
velocity vector above the horizon to avoid losing height.  If you
are below 100 meters and the velocity
PAGE 48
vector is much below the horizon you should start worrying.  The
velocity vector will show you exactly where you will touch down
when landing.  For a controlled, slow landing, the nose may have to
be nearly 10 degrees above the horizon and you have to use the
velocity vector to monitor your "round out".
The elevator on the MiG-29 is very powerful and is easily capable
of holding the nose up even when the wings are fully stalled.
The design of the wings prevents them from producing roll
instability as they stall, so it is quite easy to fly the aircraft with
the wings at 25 degrees angle of attack.  However, there is a large
amount of drag at these high angles and you will need lots of engine
power to sustain them for long periods of time.  If you fly slowly
enough and with insufficient power, the elevators will be incapable
of holding the nose up and a full stall will develop.
The controls become less effective as airspeed drops.  Below about
200 Km/H this effect is very noticable and there is no choice but
to wait for airspeed to build up to regain full control.
AEROBATIC STUNTS:
The MiG-29 is famous for its tailslide manoeuvre which would probably
be outside the envelope allowed by a fly-by-wire aircraft.  This
manoeuvre is quite easy to perform provided you have sufficient
height for recovery.
Fly straight and level at about 500 meters altitude and about 800
Km/H airspeed.  Pull back hard on the stick while reducing throttle
to an idle.  Aim to climb at 80 degrees upwards as shown by the
HUD and ensure the wings are level while you still have sufficient
airspeed for control.
Your airspeed should drop to zero by about 1,500 meters altitude
and you will then start to slide backwards.  Note that the elevator
control is reversed when moving backwards so you will need to pull
back on the joystick to make the nose drop faster.
Let the nose drop until you can see the velocity vector again and
apply full power and pull out carefully.  You should be back in
level flight at about   500 meters altitude.  The only real problem
is trying to recover too soon and getting
PAGE 49
locked into a stall right down to the ground.
Another fun manoeuvre is a dead stick landing.  Start from about
2,000 meters near a runway and switch the engine off.  You need to
descend at an angle of about 10-20 degrees to maintain airspeed
and pulling any tight turns will lose speed very quickly.  Wait
until you are very low before lowering your landing gear and "round
out" precisely.  Any ballooning after the "round out" can lead to a
stall and a crash.
AIR TO GROUND ATTACK
You have three different weapons to use for ground attack.  The
simplest is the cannon.  This is always ready for use simply by
pressing the main joystick or mouse button, or by pressing the
Delete key.  Some of the shells are "tracer" which mark the path
of the shells.  The trajectory of each shell is simulated as it
PAGE 50
falls under gravity and you will see it explode on contact with
the ground or any solid object.  The explosions clearly mark the
impact point of the shells and you can use this to steer a long burst
onto the target.  You only have 250 rounds so you can only do this
a few times in any one sortie.
The effective range of the cannon is about 2 kilometers, but you
will probably not hit anything at over 1 kilometer.  The cannon is
useful against soft ground targets which include trucks, anti-
aircraft guns, SAM sites and some buildings.  The best way to use
the cannon is to approach in a shallow dive at low throttle.
If you miss on the first pass, the simplest way to get back is to
open up to full power and fly straight ahead for a few seconds.
Then do a fast half loop, cutting power as you go over the top,
and keep going over until you can see the target.  Do a quick
half roll to level, apply airbrakes and fire when close.  Allow
plenty of height to pull out of the dive as pressing on until the
target is
PAGE 51
hit often does not give you time to recover.
The S-240 unguided rocket is the default weapon selection as shown
by the type at the bottom left of the helmet mounted display.  A
salvo from both underwing stations can be fired at any time by the
second joystick or mouse button, or by pressing the spacebar.
The S-240 will destroy any target, although some may require several
hits.  The rockets drop with gravity, but are fired slightly upwards
so that they cross your centerline after about 1.5 kilometers, which
is a good firing range.  The tactics for the S-240 are very similar to
the cannon, but you only have 36 salvos so they should not be wasted in
ranging shots.
The AS-7 Kerry heat seeking missile can be used to attack any major
ground target.  The AS-7 is activated by cycling your chosen weapon
using the Backspace key.  Any target that is tracked by your combined
infra-red and radar system, and shows as a yellow point on your head
down screen, may be designated by looking at it and using the Return
key.  The target nearest the center of your view will be chosen.  This
means that you can designate targets while looking sideways.  The
selected target will be shown by a box drawn around it on the helmet
mounted display.  However, the missile will only lock onto targets
within 45 degrees of your heading, so you should be flying towards
the target before firing.
Some targets may require more than one hit to destroy them and you only
have up to 6 AS-7's so you will have to use them carefully.
Some ground targets are defended by by anti-aircraft guns or SAMS,
it is advisable to reduce these defenses before attacking the main
target.
Anti-aircraft guns may be ground based point defenses or mounted on
a tank or a ship, depending on the scenario.  They are fairly accurate
and difficult to hit without being shot down.  They use a simple
predictor system so the best defense is to weave continuously while
flying away and trust to luck while attacking.  Either cannon or
rockets will destroy anti-aircraft guns.
The SAMs are radar guided, with various ranges.  The launchers appear
as red
PAGE 52
points on your radar when active.  The only way to avoid their
attention is to fly low.  They can be destroyed by cannon, rocket
or AS-7 missiles.
If your infra-red system detects a SAM launch you will hear a warning
and the direction of the missile is shown as a red line on the head
down display.  Your only defense is to drop radar reflective chaff
and turn hard.  Some missiles may have enough fuel to turn back
for a second pass if you manage to dodge the initial attack.
The training scenario allows you to practice ground attack without
any opposition.  There is a rocket firing range at waypoint 1 which
is North-West of your base.  You should approach the range from the
South to see the range markers on the ground.  The target is at
the North end of the white V.  If you enter the South end of the V
at about 200 meters and about 800 Km/H and fly straight at the point
of the V, you should be able to fire your ro  ckets from a range of
about 1500 meters and score a direct hit.
Waypoint 2 is a lake with a target barge in the middle and a tank
on the shore.  Both these targets can be designated for the AS-7 missile,
although a successful rocket attack is more satisfying.  The tank is
difficult to hit.
Waypoint 3 is an airfield.  There is a hangar which can be destroyed
by AS-7 or rocket and Mirage aircraft on which to practice with air-
to-air weapons.  The hangar will keep producing replacement Mirages
until you destroy it.
AIR COMBAT
Dogfighting is an essential part of the MiG-29 simulation.  The final
scenario is probably impossible to complete without first gaining
superiority.
In the final scenario the enemy aircraft are Mirage 2000 and MiG-29's
which means that you have some strong opponents.  You will also be
outnumbered, sometimes by as many as 4 to 1.  The only advantage
you will have is pilot skill, so it is worth using the harmless
aircraft in the training scenario for practice.
You have 2 air combat weapons.  The first is the cannon.  You have
to be very
PAGE 53
close to the enemy aircraft and probably behind it to stand much
chance of hitting it.  If it is turning you will have to shoot a
considerable distance ahead.  It takes a lot of practice to judge
the lead distance, but the first time you see the explosions of your
shells hitting the airframe, followed by a trail of smoke as it
spirals towards the ground, it will seem worthwhile.
The easier of the weapons is the AA-8 Aphid heat-seeking missile.
You select this with the backspace key.  You designate your target
with the return key.  The chosen target is the one nearest the center
of your view, which does not have to be forwards.  The AA-8 has
similar limitations to the AS-7 and can only lock onto a target
that is within its view cone.  You should only fire at a selected
target that is ahead of you.  The selected target is boxed in standard
HUD color which turns red when the heat signature is very strong.  This
is when its jet exhaust is towards you and your missile has the best
chance of hitting.  You can fire when the box is green but the success
rate will be lower.
The enemy is also equipped with cannon and heat seeking missiles.
If you avoid flying straight and level in front of enemy aircraft
you will probably not be hit by cannon fire.  However enemy missiles
are a bigger problem.  There is a
PAGE 54
warning alarm sound when an enemy launch is detected and the direction
of the missile is shown by the red line on the head down display.
You can decoy the missile with well timed flares and by pulling high
g evasive manoeuvres.  Once the missile has gone past it is harmless
and cannot return for another pass.  Enemy aircraft can only launch
missiles when you are in front of them, so the best defense is to get
behind them.  This is often impossible when fighting more than one
opponent.
The head down display shows the position of enemy aircraft when in
front and when range can be measured by radar or laser ranging.
They appear as a green point.  When they are out of the range sensors'
field of view, their direction is measured and shown as a green line.
     MiG-29 COCKPIT HEAD DOWN DISPLAYS (see diagram: Page_54.IFF)
 1. STORES:
    flares
    chaff
 2. cannon
    S-240
    AA-8
    AS-7
 3. AOA/G
    Meter

 4. Horizon
 5. Airspeed

 6. Altitude
 7. Radar/IR
    Display

 8. WARNING LAMPS:
    Hydraulic
    Nav System
    Radar
    HUD
 9. Low Altitude
    Stall
    Low Fuel
    Autostab
10. Flaps
11. Wheel
    Brakes
12. Gear
    Position
13. Compass
    Nav
14. Waypoint
    Selected
15. Joystick
    Position
16. VSI

17. Engine Guage
18. Fuel
PAGE 55
There are many different successful tactics for air combat, but there
are a few golden rules.  The most important is maintaining energy.
The energy is in two forms, height and speed.  You can usually trade
one for the other, but both at once is an advantage.  However too
much height puts you into thin air where high g turns are impossible
and it is much harder to avoid missiles.  It is best to stay below
5000 meters for good manoeuvrability.
It is very easy to lose airspeed when performing high g combat
manoeuvres.  You should usually use afterburners to maintain speed.
If you have some spare height you can dive to regain speed, but
otherwise you must level out, which makes you more vulnerable to
missile attack.
A useful technique is to make sure your opponent is designated and
use the direction line in the helmet display to keep in touch with
his position.  The all round infra-red sensors can track an enemy
aircraft when it is out of view.
PAGE 56
APPENDICES
AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE DATA
MIKOYAN MIG-29 FULCRUM
 Dimensions (meters to nearest .5m)
 Length:                  17.50 m
 Span:                    11.50 m
 Height:                  4.50 m
 Wing Area:               32.00 m2
 Weights (kg to nearest 100kg)
 E  mpty:                   10,200 kg
 Takeoff:                 16,000 kg
 Combat:                  13,700 kg
 Power (kN, from 2 x Tumansky R-33D turbofans)
 Thrust (Dry):            81.3
 Thrust (Augmented):      50.0
 Performance
 Vmax (High altitude):    Mach 2.2
 Vmin (Sea level):        Mach 1.1
 Ceiling:                 16,800 m
 Armament
 Internal Cannon:         30 mm
 Missiles:                AA-8 Aphid, AA-9 Amos, AA-10
                          Alamo, AS-7 Kerry
BRITISH AEROSPACE SEA HARRIER FRS.1
 Dimensions (meters to nearest .5 m)
 Length:                  14.50 m
 Span:                    7.50 m
 Height:                  3.50 m
PAGE 57
 Wing Area:               18.50 m2
 Weights (kg to nearest 100 kg)
 Empty:                   5,900 kg
 Takeoff:                 8,900 kg
 Combat:                  7,800 kg
 Power (kN, from Pegasus 104)
 Thrust (Dry):            95.5
 Thrust (Augmented):      N/A
 Performance
 Vmax (High altitude):    Mach 0.97
 Vmin (Sea level):        Mach 1.2
 Ceiling:                 16,800 m
 Armament
 Internal Cannon:         Two 30 mm Aden
 Missiles:                AIM-9L Sidewinder, or
                          .550 Magic, AIM-120 Amrram
SHENYANG F-7M AIRGUARD
 Dimensions (meters to nearest .5 m)
 Length:                  14.00 m
 Span:                    7.00 m
 Height:                  4.00 m
 Wing Area:               23.00 m2

 Weights (kg to nearest 100 kg)
 Empty:                   5,300 kg
 Takeoff:                 7,900 kg
 Combat:                  6,800 kg
 Power (kN)
 Thrust (Dry):            60.0
 Thrust (Augmented):      34.0
PAGE 58
 Performance
 Vmax (High altitude):    Mach 2.00
 Vmin (Sea level):        Mach 1.0
 Ceiling:                 18,200 m
 Armament
 Internal Cannon:         Two 30 mm
 Missiles:                PL-2, PL-2A, PL-7, can also be
                          configured for Sidewinder and Magic
DASSAULT-BREGUET MIRAGE 2000
 Dimensions (meters to nearest .5 m)
 Length:                  14.00 m
 Span:                    9.00 m
 Height:                  4.50 m
 Wing Area:               41.00 m2
 Weights (kg to nearest 100 kg)
 Empty:                   7,600 kg
 Takeoff:                 11,800 kg
 Combat:                  10,200 kg
 Power (kN from SNECMA M53)
 Thrust (Dry):            95.0
 Thrust (Augmented):      64.0
 Performance
 Vmax (High altitude):    Mach 2.35
 Vmin (Sea level):        Mach 1.20
 Ceiling:                 18,300 m
 Armament
 Internal Cannon:         Two 30 mm
 Missiles:                Matra Super 530D, or Matra .550
                          Magic
PAGE 59
AIR TO AIR PERFORMANCE
Many simulations simplify the operations and aerodynamics of missile
systems.  In MiG-29 we have attempted to model this as accurately as
possible.  In practice this means that a missile has a 30-40% chance
of impact if fired without red lock, rising to to 80-90% chance
of impact with confirmed red lock.  The reasons for this are many and
complex, but put simply, an object travelling at Mach 3 may travel very
fast, but doesn't turn exceptionally well.  Altitude and launch
velocity (the speed at which the fighter that launches the missile
is travelling) make a big difference to effectiveness.  Missiles
travelling at Mach 3 can pull turns of up to 30 g which sounds
formidable but produces a turning circle of no better than 16
degrees/sec - a figure any respectable fighter can manage a
subsonic speeds.  The MiG-29 uses IR guidance on its AA-8 Aphid,
a short range missile, which gives true fire-and-forget performance
ie; the plane is free to manoeuvre once the missile has been
launched.  As previously stated, the optimum firing position is
therefore with the target directly in front of you, heading away
from your aircraft - the IR heat signature is at its best and the
target has less chance of out-manoeuvring your missile.
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