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Stellar Crusade manual

Stellar Crusade (a.k.a. Frontier)
The Manual

1.0 Introduction

     Frontier is a game of interstellar exploration,  exploitation, and 
conquest  for  one or two players.  Players will assume  the  roles  of 
supreme  commanders of colonial societies cut off from outside aid  and 
interference.   As years pass, you will be responsible for the economic 
and  military security of  your people in an environment of  constantly 
growing  competition for the finite resources of a small star  cluster.
This  will not be an easy task.   Exploration and colonization must  be 
carefully planned.  Eventually, you will face the necessity of deciding 
the  types  and  production sites of military/naval  units  and  covert 
operations you need for the defense of your society.  Finally, you will 
probably  need to guide your people through the conflict for which  you 
(hopefully) have prepared.  Good luck.

1.1 Description of Action

     Each  game turn represents a three month period  (quarter).   Each 
quarter, players will 1) Make economic decisions, and 2) Issue movement 
and mission orders for available forces.   At the end of each quarterly 
turn, any exploration or combat will be resolved.

1.2 Talking to the Computer

     Most  orders are issued by using the mouse to move the  cursor  to 
the  menu  line at the top of the screen,  and  selecting  the  desired 
action  from  one  of the menus.   Once an action  has  been  selected, 
players will follow prompts which usually direct them to use the  mouse 
to  place  the cursor over a colored box or boxes and  press  the  left 
mouse  button  in  order to complete the  action.   Keyboard  entry  is 
necessary  only  during the naming of ship classes and  save/load  game 
files.

1.21 The Graphic Star System Information Display 

     A graphic  star system information  display can be called when the 
player is in his economics or movement phase.  The display is called by 
pointing  the  mouse  cursor  at  the star map graphic of the system of 
interest and pressing the left mouse button.   Information will  appear 
in  the information area at the bottom of the screen,  and will  remain 
displayed  until  the  player moves the mouse.  
     On  the left side of the information box,  four 'pie charts'  will 
show:
          A: System habitability and farm deployment.  The green slice 
shows  the  fraction (number of farms deployed/99).   The  black  slice 
shows the fraction ((system habitability-farms)/99).   So the  combined 
black  and  green slices show  (system  habitability/99).   Light  blue 
indicates ((99-system habitability)/99).   Example:  A pie chart  which 
shows ~1/3 green,  1/6 black,  and 1/2 light blue would indicate a star 
system with about 30 farms deployed, and a habitability of about 50.      
          B: System organics rating and refinery deployment.  The red 
slice shows the fraction (number of refineries deployed/99).  The black 
slice shows the fraction ((system organics rating-refineries)/99).   So 
the  combined  red and black slices show (system  organics  rating/99). 
Light blue indicates ((99-system organics rating)/99).   Example: a pie 
chart which shows ~1/2 red,  1/2 black, and just a sliver of light blue 
would indicate a star system with about 50 refineries deployed,  and an 
organics rating near 100.       
           C: System metals rating and mine deployment.  The gray slice 
shows the fraction (number of mines deployed/99). The black slice shows 
the fraction ((system metals rating-mines)/99).   So the combined  gray 
and black slices show (system metals rating/99).   Light blue indicates 
((99-system metals rating)/99).   Example: a pie chart which shows ~3/4 
black and 1/4 light blue would indicate a star system with very few  or 
no mines deployed, and a metals rating near 75.   
          D:  System industrial development.   The blue slice shows the 
fraction (number of factories deployed/99).  The black slice shows  the 
fraction ((99-factories)/99).   The blue slice may be thought of as the 
percentage of total allowed industrial development for a given system.
     Within the pie chart area may appear a yellow "+" or "*" sign.   A 
"+"  sign indicates that the system has additional production  of  some 
type of raw material due to the presence of some special characteristic 
of the system.   The "*" sign indicates the presence of spiders in  the 
system.      
     To the right of the pie charts, there appear 3 boxes:
          A: The population  box shows population and locally available 
earthlike,   protected  and  belt  colony  numbers.   A  man  character 
represents  one colony unit or population point.   Lines under the  man 
character  represent powers of ten.   Example:  A man character with  2 
lines  under  it,  next to KPop:  indicates a local population  of  100 
(thousand). These displays are accurate to 2 significant digits only.
          B: The  military  information  box  shows the number of local 
deployment  sites  as  block blocks.   Any  locally  deployed  military 
formations will show as familiar unit symbols within the black  blocks.  
Security units show as an empty box.  Light regulars show as a box with 
diagonally crossed lines.  Heavy regulars will show as a box containing 
another box.  Special forces units will show as a box with one diagonal 
line.
          C:  The  naval  information  box shows the  number  of  ships 
deployed  locally by the owning player.   A maximum of 90 ships can  be 
shown.  Individual ships are shown as small gray crosses similar to the 
task force markers used on the map.

     Above  the population box,  there will be a row of flag  character 
symbols.  The number of flags show system loyalty to the owning player.  
Example: 9 flags indicate a system loyalty of 9.

     All  information  is of course only as accurate  as  the  player's 
current  system  information file.   Pie chart representations  of  the 
system  characteristics are accurate to within the limits  of  computer 
graphics resolution.   This same information, plus some additional data 
are  also  available in greater detail in the non-graphic  star  system 
information display the players can call from the menu.

1.22 The Mouse Icon

     At some times during the game,  the system bell will ring,  and  a 
mouse  icon  will be displayed in the information box  below  the  map.  
This  indicates  that the program is waiting for players to  press  the 
left mouse button before the game will continue.

 1.3 Saving a Game

     At the beginning of each turn, players will be given the chance to 
save the game in progress.  A formatted disk, hard disk, or ramdisk (on 
machines  with more than 512k of RAM) is required.   Players need  only 
follow  the prompts in order to save their game.   Saved games  may  be 
restarted at the saved point whenever the game is booted.  

1.4 The Map

     The map is a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional 
star field.  The location of a star system is marked in the xy plane by 
a  black square, and height above or below this plane is  indicated  by 
color  coded  elevation dots.   Green dots point to a  star  below  the 
plane,  and gray dots point to stars above the plane.   The squares  of  
the grid are five light years on a side in the xy plane,  and elevation 
dots are placed at two light year intervals on lines parallel to the  z 
axis.   Unexplored/unclaimed systems are colored white,  League systems 
are  light  blue,  and Republican systems are  red.   The  presence  of 
friendly  and  known  enemy naval concentrations is  indicated  by  red 
(Republic)   and  light  blue  (League)  task force  markers   in   the 
information box located to the lower right of each star system.  An 'x' 
marker in the information block indicates the presence of both friendly 
and  enemy naval forces in the system.   At the top of the map  is  the 
menu  bar.   Below the map is a display area for information  which  is 
compact to be given without resort to the full 80 column display of the 
second screen.
     Note that during a player's turn,  enemy task force  markers  will 
only  be  current  as of the beginning of the turn  and  will  only  be 
displayed  if  enemy task forces were present in a  star  system  which 
shows the current date in the 'report date' block of its system  report 
file.   

1.5 Starting the Game

     Owners  of 512k machines will probably find that they do not  have 
sufficient  memory for both Frontier and desk accessories or a  ramdisk 
of  useful size.   ST owners with more than 512k should leave 512k  for 
system  and  program use,  but any other space may be  freely used  for 
accessories  and  ramdisks.   This game is intended to be  usable  with 
accessories,  and does work with everything the author has tried.  Some 
experimentation  may be necessary in order to properly use  accessories 
with Frontier.   You may need to use the Show Map selection to clean up 
after some accessories.   Also be forewarned that many desk accessories 
are BIGTIME memory hogs.

     To start playing the game, power up your computer  in  the  normal 
manner.   It is suggested that you use the Frontier game disk (disk  A) 
as your boot disk if you aren't sure about how much memory your  normal 
boot disk leaves free.   If necessary,  select the low resolution  mode 
from  the Set Preferences desktop menu item.  The game will not run  if 
your  computer is not in the low resolution display mode.    Owners  of 
computers  with two disk drives should place the game disk in drive  A, 
and  the scenario disk (disk B) in drive B.   On single drive  systems, 
place the game disk in your disk drive and be ready to insert disk B if 
the program asks you to.   If there is no open window to the drive with 
your game disk in it,  'open' the drive icon.   Select the FRONTIER.PRG 
icon from the open window.  After the drive starts running, just follow 
the prompts.  You may remove the game and scenario disks from your disk 
drives  and  replace  them with save game disks once  you  receive  the 
prompt.   At  this point,  you may put away both Frontier disks as  the 
game is entirely RAM resident and does not require any program/scenario 
disk access once play has begun.   

2.0 Sequence of Play   

     Frontier  is  a two sided  game.   The Corporate  League  must  be 
controlled  by  a  human player.   The People's Holy  Republic  may  be 
controlled by either a human player or the computer.     
 
2.1 Game Mode and Recall Sequence

     Players follow prompts to select:  new vs. saved  game,  scenario, 
reality  levels,   solitaire  difficulty  level,  and  two  player  vs. 
solitaire mode.  The computer initializes the game as specified.

2.11 Recalling Saved Games     

     Players  will  be asked if they wish to load  a  previously  saved 
game.   If  players  do wish to load a saved  game,  the  program  will 
display a standard GEM selector box.   This box will display all  files 
with the extender "DAT" on drive A.  The search drive may be changed on 
the line above the file listing if the saved game disk is in some other 
drive.   Simply  select the saved game file normally or cancel to  exit 
without selecting a game.

2.12  Selecting Scenarios, Reality Levels, and Difficulty Level.

     If  the  players  have  not loaded a  saved  game,  they  will  be 
presented with a menu divided into areas for scenario,  reality  level, 
and  difficulty level selection.   Selections are made by clicking  the 
left  mouse button over colored boxes to the left of the  menu  screen.  
Current  scenario selection is indicated by a red box to the left of  a 
scenario name.   Reality levels are either "on" or "off",  and will  be 
indicated  as  such.    Difficulty  levels  range  from  "Pushover"  to 
"Hideous".    Adventurous   players  may  instead  select  a   "Random" 
difficulty  level which will randomly select from the available  levels 
without directly informing the players of the results.

     The scenarios are described in rules section 6.0.   As the effects 
of difficulty level and reality level selections are heavily  dependent 
on the scenario selection, they are also described in section 6.0.  

2.2 Turn Sequence

     Each game turn (quarter) will proceed in the following order:

     A. Game Save Opportunity
     B. People's Holy Republic Economics Phase  
     C. Corporate League Economics Phase
     D. People's Holy Republic Movement Phase 
     E. Corporate League Movement Phase
     F. Game Turn Resolutions Phase

     Phases B and D will occur only in two player games.   Phases B and 
C  will  only  occur  when players are playing one  of  the  long  game 
scenarios.
 
3.0 Economics Phase

     Players  will  perform  all economic planning  and  production  of 
material  goods.   Information  useful to intelligent planning  may  be 
accessed from the 'Assign' menu.   Actual planning and economic  orders 
are conducted from the 'Econ' menu.  General game control functions are 
accessed  from  the  'General' menu.   Since the  effects  of  economic 
activities are generally only apparent "over the long run",  the  short 
game scenarios skip this phase for both players. 

3.1 The 'Assign' Menu

     The   following  selections  are  available  from  the   Economics 
'Assign' menu:
          
     3.11: Transport Pool
     3.12: Special Support
     3.13: Army

3.11 Transport Pool

     Selection of 'Transport Pool' will present the player with a  list 
of ships currently assigned to that player's Transport Pool.  Ships are 
listed  by class name,  and individual ship's sizes and current  damage 
status are displayed.  Ships in the Transport Pool automatically act to 
transport  raw materials from systems with excess production to systems 
where those materials are needed.     

3.12 Special Support

     Selection  of  'Special Support' will present a  similar  list  of 
ships assigned to that player's Special Support Command.   Ships in the 
Special  Support  Command  are  necessary for  the  support  of  covert 
operations.

3.13 Army

     Selection  of 'Army' will present the player with a  list  of  all 
currently  active  military  formations.  Each unit's  type,  strength, 
capability,  transport size,  and location are displayed.   Each player 
may produce a maximum of sixty military formations of all types.
     The allowed types are:

Type:             Strength:  Capability:  Transport Size:  Cost:
Security Forces      2          1-4              3          4       
Light Regulars      2-4         1-8              6          10
Heavy Regulars      3-5         1-8              8          12 
Special Forces       1          1-10             2          10      

3.2 The 'Econ' Menu

     The   following  selections  are  available  from  the   Economics 
'Econ' menu:

     3.21: Surplus Goods
     3.22: Examine System
     3.23: Allocations
     3.24: Report
     3.25: Ship Classes
     3.26: Distance
     3.27: Exit Economics

3.21 Surplus Goods

     Selection  of  'Surplus  Goods' will open a small  window  in  the 
information  area below the map.   The current distribution of  surplus 
food,  metals,  and  organics  will be displayed above a  breakdown of: 
current total transport capacity in the transport pool,  used  capacity 
(that turn), and available (total - used) capacity.   Surplus goods are 
those excess raw materials which are available for use in systems which 
have requirements for those goods.
 
3.22 Examine System

     Selection  of  'Examine  System' will present the  player  with  a 
display of all known information on a particular system.   Included  in 
this  information  is the physical description of the  system  in  game 
terms,  types of goods produced at various production centers, sizes of 
industrial facilities,  and known naval/military presence.  Information 
on  friendly  systems  is constantly  updated.   Information  on  enemy 
systems  is  updated at the end of any turn in  which  friendly  forces 
perform  physical  reconnaissance  or  covert  system   reconnaissance.  
Physical  reconnaissance of an enemy system occurs whenever a  friendly 
naval  unit  survives through the Game Turn Resolutions Phase  at  that 
system.   When this happens, all system information will be updated and 
the  current date will be noted in the system report date block of  the 
system  display.   Covert  system reconnaissance is  described  in  the 
description  of  the Movement Phase.   It is best to  take  the  system 
report  with  a grain of salt if the report date precedes  the  current 
date by more than a few turns.

     Sample report screen: 

/////System Report/////                                               
System name..Progress   Population....2030 Deployment Sites..08
Ownership....Republic   Habitability..100  Defensibility.....03
Loyalty......10         Metals........40   Report Date.......01/2332
Special......No         Organics......60   Current Date......01/2332

Movable Units Present:
Colony............03  Exploration..00  Farm kits......00  Mine kits..0
Protected Colony..02  Ships........00  Refinery kits..00  Fctry kits.0
Belt Colony.......14  Military.....08SF 09SF 11SF 14SF 19Hy
 
Production Centers:  Size  Type Produced     Industry:
Shipyard #1..........20    AT:Chariot        Farms........85
Shipyard #2..........15    CH:David's Sling  Mines........39
Shipyard #3..........15    "spares"          Refineries...56
Training Center #1...04    "rations"         Factories....62
Training Center #2...02    Special Forces    Spares Pool..49
Training Center #3...04    Heavy Regulars    Ration Pool..00
Intelligence Center..03                  Idle Population..1725

[ ] Exit                   (Population indicated in thousands.)

     This  is  the  Progress  system as  developed  during  a  playtest 
session.   The  date is first quarter of the year 2332 A.D.  and  since 
this  a  friendly  system  for the  player  calling  the  display,  all 
information is current as of that date. 
     'Loyalty'  ranges from 1 (poor) to 10 (good) for  claimed  systems 
and influences local industrial production.
     'Special'  characteristics of a star system (if any) can  include: 
Gasworlders, Oort People, Aborigines, Paleotechnology, or Spiders.
     'Population' ranges to a maximum value of about 5.5 million for  a 
system with a habitability of 100.      'Habitability',  'Metals',  and 
'Organics'  ratings are generated when a system is first  explored  and 
range from 5 to 100.
     The  number following 'Deployment Sites' ranges from 3 to 8 and is 
the  maximum  number of military formations per player  allowed  to  be 
active on planetary surfaces in the system at any given time.  
     'Defensibility' ranges  from 1 (poor) to 3 (good)  and  influences 
the   outcome   of  any  ground  combat  occurring   in   the   system.    
     'Colonies' are units  of one thousand people ready and equipped to 
varying  levels  of  readiness for movement  to  newly  exploited  star 
systems.
     'Exploration'  teams  are   the  units   which  actually   perform 
exploration tasks at unexplored star systems.
     'Ships'  gives  the number of ships in active  task forces  in the 
system.
     'Military' displays the unit designations for military  formations 
active in the system.  In this  case, five formations are present: four 
Special Forces teams and one battalion of Heavy Regulars.
     'Kits' are prefabricated industrial facilities awaiting  transport 
to locations where they are needed.
     'Shipyards'  and  'Training Centers' may accumulate a  maximum  of 
'Size'  build points per turn toward the production of whatever  'Type' 
of unit is currently produced at the facility.
     'Intelligence  Centers' may  produce a maximum  of  'Size'  covert 
operations options per turn.
     'Farms',   'Mines',   'Refineries',   and  'Factories'  are  basic 
industrial facilities.
     'Spares' and 'Rations' are necessary for the maintenance of  naval 
and military units.
     'Idle  Population' is that portion of local  population  available 
for assignment to production  facilities, colonies, and military units. 

3.23 Allocations
           
     Selection  of 'Allocations' will begin a three screen  routine  of 
economic decisions for the system in question.  Once begun, allocations 
for a system may be completed normally or aborted (cancelled) from  the 
allocations 3 screen.   The sequence is described below and followed by 
an example.
     The  player  is prompted to: select a system by placing the  mouse 
cursor  over  a  star graphic on the map and clicking  the  left  mouse 
button,  let  the computer select a system,  or exit from the  sequence 
before  going to allocations for a particular system.   If a system  is 
selected, the Allocations 1 screen appears.

3.231 Allocations 1:Build Point Production

     The  Allocations 1 screen is the display for the quarterly  'Build 
point'  production phase for a particular system.   'Build  points' (or 
build  units)  are the basic building blocks used to create  all  other 
manufactured items.   They are produced at 'factories'.   One 'factory' 
will produce one 'build point' from:  one 'food',  one 'metal', and one 
'organics'  points.   Systems produce their own raw  materials:  'food' 
from 'farms',  'metal' from 'mines',  and 'organics' from 'refineries'.  
Raw  materials are normally produced at a rate of one point  from  each 
facility.   If  local loyalty is less than ten (the  maximum  loyalty), 
then  production  is  (normal  total*loyalty*10%).    Any  system  will 
automatically  produce one build point or  build unit  from each  local 
factory   which  can  draw one point each of the  three  types  of  raw 
materials from local sources.   Factory output is not directly affected 
by  local  loyalty.   Raw materials (food,  metal,  and  organics)  not 
automatically used in this manner  become 'excess raw  materials'.   As 
long as the number of build points produced locally is smaller than the 
number of local factories,  needed goods may be drawn from the  surplus 
goods  pool as indicated by the prompts.   Maximum local production  of 
build points is equal to the number of local factories.  Any excess raw 
materials  produced by the system will go into the surplus  goods  pool 
for  the  next  turn if sufficient transport  capacity  exists  in  the 
transport pool.  The current levels of surplus goods are displayed near 
the bottom of the screen.   When the player finishes with Allocations 1  
(by selecting   '[ ]Exit to Allocations 2'),  the second screen in  the 
sequence appears.
    
3.232 Allocations 2:Build Production Facilities 

     The  Allocations 2 screen is the display for the quarterly  'Build 
Production  Facilities' phase for the system.   All  system  shipyards, 
training centers,  intelligence centers,  farms, mines, refineries, and 
factories are listed here with their current sizes,  build  costs,  and 
production assignments.   The cost and maximum number of farms,  mines, 
and  refineries  is determined by a system's values  for  habitability, 
metals,  and  organics  as displayed on the 'Examine  System'  display.  
Cost  (per facility) is determined as follows:  5+(100-system value for 
habitability (farm),  metals (mine),  or organics (refinery)) / 2, to a 
maximum  of 30 build points.   Other facilities will all cost 10  build 
points  each.   Any  facility  will  also require  one  point  of  idle 
population for construction.  A wise player will attempt to produce raw 
materials  in  systems  where their costs are  low,  and  use  a  large 
transport pool to ship these inexpensive raw materials to systems where 
they would be more difficult to produce.   The number of:  build points 
currently available,  idle population,   and the number of build points 
which should be saved (not spent in  Allocations 2) in order to operate 
existing  production facilities during Allocations 3 are listed at  the 
bottom of the screen.   Production facilities are produced by selecting 
the Build box for a particular facility.  When the player finishes with 
Allocations  2 (by selecting '[ ]Exit to Allocations 3.'),   the  third 
screen in the sequence appears.

3.233 Allocations 3:Allocate Build Points

      The Allocations 3 screen is the display screen for  the 'Allocate 
Build  Points' phase of quarterly production.   This is  where  players 
actually  produce  such things as  ships,  military  formations,  spare 
parts,  rations,  and the prefabricated industrial facilities necessary 
for  colonial expansion.   Selecting one of the leftmost line of  boxes 
will  allocate one build point to the facility listed next to the  box.  
On any given turn,  only build points of a number less than or equal to 
the  facility size may be allocated to a  particular  facility.   These 
points  can and usually will accumulate from turn to turn until  enough 
points  are  available at a facility during the  Resolutions  phase  to 
create a new unit of the type listed to the right of the facility name.  
The right line of boxes (marked with an 'x') controls the type of thing 
produced at a particular facility.   Selecting one of these boxes  will 
change the type of unit being built at the center named to the left  of 
the  box.   Shipyards  may build spare parts or any  of  twenty  player 
defined classes of ships.  Training centers build rations or any of the 
four types of military units available to players.   Changing the  type 
of  unit  produced at a particular facility will wipe  out  any  points 
accumulated  towards production at that facility,  and the  first  unit 
(not spares or rations) produced at a particular facility will be  more 
expensive than succeeding units.  This prototype cost multiplier ranges 
from  a  factor of two to four.   Wise players will  avoid  unnecessary 
changes  in production types.   The lower group of four  boxes  selects 
production  of prefabricated industrial facilities.   When a player  is 
finished  with Allocations,  he selects 'Exit to Map/Menu',  or  'Abort 
Allocation.    Selection  of  "Exit..."  will  inform  the  program  of 
completed  allocations for the system.   Selection of  "Abort..."  will 
cancel  this allocation for the system.   In either case,  the  program 
will return to the main map/menu.   Any build points not expended  will 
be applied to the research pool  (detailed later).   

3.234 Example of Allocations

     Example:  First you might select 'Examine System' to get some idea
of what you already have in the system.   Things like idle  population, 
levels  of spares and rations,  and numbers of kits and military  units 
are likely to be of interest while you make your production  decisions.  
Once you have some idea of what you need, select 'Allocations' in order 
to get to the decision screens.    Once again we will use the  Progress
system  as  shown  in  the  sample  system  report  above.    A  sample 
Allocations 1 screen is shown below.

///// Allocations /////                                               
1:PRODUCE BUILD POINTS
 Progress ......... has produced:         System excess production was:
85 Food from....... 85 Farms              46 Food
39 Metal from...... 39 Mines              00 Metal
56 Organics from... 56 Refineries         17 Organics
39 Build units from 62 Factories          System idle population:1725 
          Excess production will be contributed to the
          surplus goods pool for the next quarter.
23 Factories are idle in this system.  In order to operate these
factories at full capacity, it is necessary to draw materials from the
surplus goods pool by clicking the left mouse button over the box 
below.
[ ] Draw from pool
Surplus goods pool holds:
31 Food     36 Metal    23 Organics

[ ] Exit to Allocations 2 

     This  system  is going to require additional  metal  and  organics 
drawn  from  the  surplus goods pool in order to  operate  all  of  its 
factories.   Placing the cursor over the 'Draw...' box and clicking the 
left mouse button will draw these required goods from the pool as  long 
as  they  are needed and available.   Getting maximum  production  from 
local  factories  will  in this case require 23 metal  and  6  organics 
points  from the pool.   Local excess production will then be  23  food 
points to be contributed to next quarter's surplus goods pool.  In this 
case,  we will draw the maximum usable goods from the pool in order  to 
get the full production of 62 build points.   Once we reach this point,  
no  more goods will be drawn from the pool and a note '(No  more  build 
units  may  be produced in this system in this quarter.)'  will  appear 
above  the  exit box.   We select '[ ] Exit to Allocations 2'  and  the 
following screen appears.

/////Allocations/////                                                .
2:BUILD PRODUCTION FACILITIES
 Click left mouse button over boxes to build up chosen facility.
 [ ] Exit to Allocations 3
Facility            Current         Cost:Build Units   Currently
Name                Size/Max  Build    /Population     Producing
Shipyard #1..........20/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       AT:Chariot
Shipyard #2..........15/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       CH:David's Sling
Shipyard #3..........15/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       "spares"
Training Center #1...04/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       "rations"
Training Center #2...02/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       Special Forces
Training Center #3...04/99     [ ]    ...10/1...       Heavy Regulars
Intelligence Center..03/99     [ ]    ...10/1
Farms................85/99     [ ]    ...05/1
Mines................39/39     [ ]    ...30/1
Refineries...........56/59     [ ]    ...25/1
Factories............62/99     [ ]    ...10/1
Idle population is 1725                 62  Build units are available
63 Build Units should be saved for Allocations 3 phase in order to 
operate current production facilities at 100% capacity.  

     Notice  that we have 63 local production  facilities.   Any  build 
units  we spend here in Allocations 2 will not be available for use  in 
Allocations 3, so we want to take care that we leave enough build units 
to produce any ships,  military formations,  etc.  that we really  need 
later.   We will spend 15 build units on one farm and one shipyard  #1, 
bringing the sizes of those facilities to 86 and 21 respectively.  Idle 
population declines to 1723 and we are left with 47 build units for use 
in Allocations 3.   Selecting '[ ] Exit to Allocations 3' brings in the 
last screen:

////Allocations/////                                                  .
3:ALLOCATE BUILD POINTS    
Click left mouse button over boxes to build up or increment type.  The
upper right column of boxes controls facility production type.
 Facility                Facility Currently           Currently Unit
 Name                    Size     Producing           Committed Cost
 [ ]Shipyard #1.......... 21    [X] AT:Chariot         41        42
 [ ]Shipyard #2.......... 15    [X] CH:David's Sling   14        29
 [ ]Shipyard #3.......... 15    [X] "spares"           00        01 
 [ ]Training Center #1... 04    [X] "rations"          00        01
 [ ]Training Center #2... 02    [X] Special Forces     00        10
 [ ]Training Center #3... 04    [X] Heavy Regulars     00        12
 [ ]Intelligence Center.. 03   .....                   00
 [ ]Farm "kit"....... 00  [ ]Mine "kit"............ 00 
 [ ]Refinery "kit"... 00  [ ]General Factory "kit". 00
The first unit of any particular type, constructed at any particular
location, will cost two to four times the normal cost to build.
Kits cost 35 build units!  Build Units Remaining... 47
 [ ]Exit to Map/Menu       [Abort Allocation]

     We have 47 build units to play with here.   Selecting Shipyard  #1 
21  times  (just press the mouse button and hold it down)  changes  our 
Build  Units  Remaining  to 26 and the amount  currently  committed  to 
Shipyard  #1 to 62.   Allocating 15 units to Shipyard #2 will  increase 
the amount committed to Shipyard #2 to 29.   We'll also spend 10  units 
on "spares" (Shipyard #3) and 1 unit on our Intelligence Center.
     We have all the Special Forces units we need so we can select  the 
box with the "X" in it next to Training Center #1 to increment the type 
to Light Regulars.   Selecting '[ ]Exit to Map/Menu' returns us to  the 
map screen and ends allocations for this system.
     Assuming that the ships being produced at Shipyards #1, #2 are not 
the first of their classes, one each of these ships will be produced at 
the  end  of  the  turn,  and  20  units  will  accumulate  toward  the 
construction  of another AT:Chariot class ship.   Ten "spares" will  be 
produced and one covert operations option will become available for the 
next turn.   Since we did not allocate any build units to any  Training 
Centers or "kits", no military units, rations, or kits will be produced 
in this system this turn. 

3.24 Report
     
     Selection  of  'Report'  will present the player  with  a  graphic 
planning  aid for use in efficient resource allocation.   A  grid  with 
multicolor plot and sub menu will appear at the top of the  screen.  At 
the bottom of the screen is a section of suggestions.
     The  grid  displays  the  end of turn  values  for  all  important 
economic  variables  over the previous ten  turns.   Each  variable  is 
plotted  in the same color as its name to the right of the  grid.   The 
names to the right of the grid identify the available information,  and 
act as a sub menu.   Selection of any of these names will plot the most 
recent ten turn history of the associated variable.  The 'Options' menu 
item gives the player additional choices.
     When  the grid first comes up,  all eight of these  variables  are 
plotted simultaneously.   This may be rather confusing.   Selection  of 
'Options'  will  present the player with an alert box  asking  for  the 
selection of:  Clear graph,  Current data, or Exit.  Selection of Clear 
graph will simply erase any information plotted in the grid area.  This 
allows a player to select for plotting only the information he desires.  
So  a player wishing (for example) to examine the relationship  between 
factory  output  and transport pool capacity  would  select  'Options', 
Clear graph,  Factory output,  and Transport pool.  If a player selects 
Current  data,  a  bar  graph  of the current  turn's  values  will  be 
displayed in the grid area.   Use of the bar graph can  allow a  player 
to  determine  economy  wide  imbalances  at  a  glance.   The  running 
historical  values  can be overlaid on the bar graph  by  selection  of 
items from the menu area.   Selection of 'Exit' will return the  player 
to the main menu/screen.     
     Below  the  grid  area may be one or  more  suggestions  from  the 
program  on  ways to improve the player's  economic  situation.   These 
suggestions will sometimes include a star system name in parentheses if 
an action is best performed in a particular place.  The suggestions are 
the  result  of  analysis of the player's  current  situation  and  are 
designed  to  help  players along a path of  constant  gentle  economic 
growth.
     The variables available for plotting are defined below:

          Industrial capacity:  This is the sum total of all shipyards, 
     training   centers,   and  intelligence  centers  at  all   player 
     controlled star systems (current player).   
          Transport  pool:  The  total cargo carrying capacity  of  the 
     player's transport pool.
          Research:  The  total  number  of build  units  allocated  to 
     research   through   direct   allocation,  system  allowance,  and 
     exploitation of paleotechnology.   
          Factory output: The total number of build units produced by a 
     player's factories.   In a well run economy,  this should be about 
     equal to the number of player factories.
          Food:  The total number of food units produced by all  player 
     controlled farms and trade with aborigines.
          Metal: The total number of metal units produced by all player 
     controlled mines and trade with Oort people.
          Organics:  The total number of organics units produced by all 
     player controlled refineries and trade with Gasworlders.
          Factories: The total number of player controlled factories.

3.25 Ship Classes and Ship Systems

     Selection  of 'Ship Classes' will present a player with a list  of 
his  20  allowed  ship  classes.   There are  four  choices  of  action 
available to the player: 1) Exit to main menu  2) Enemy Ships
3) Change Class,  and 4) Examine Class.
     'Exit to main menu' returns the player to the map/menu screen.
     Selecting '[ ]Enemy Ships' allows the player to examine the  other 
player's currently producible ship classes.
     The player selects a particular class then:
     Selecting  'Change  Class'  presents the  player  with  the  class 
definition  screen.   Following  the prompts,  the player  will  select 
systems  to  be  included in the new ship class.   As a  new  class  is 
designed,   a  ship  schematic  graphic  will  take  form.   Any  later 
references to ships of this class will include this schematic.  The old 
class  is  deleted and any shipyards currently building units  of  this 
class  will  lose all build units accumulated toward  ship  production.  
Existing  ships  of  this class are unaffected.   This  option  is  not 
available when viewing enemy ship classes.

     Selecting 'Examine Class' presents the player with all data on the 
class selected.

3.251 Ship Systems 

     Each  ship in the game is defined in terms of a list of  installed 
operational  systems.   There are twelve ships system types,  and  each 
system has different uses:

     1)Long  Range  Anti  R:  Any ship mounting one or  more  of  these 
systems must have at least one 'R scan' system mounted as  well.   Long 
range weapons are fired first in combat.  When they are fired, they are 
permanently expended.  Most ships can  not  take more than one hit from
this kind of weapon.  the 'Anti R' designation means that these weapons 
are only effective against enemy ships operating in 'real space'.       
     2)Long  Range  Anti i:   Any ship mounting one or  more  of  these 
systems  must have at least one 'i scan' system mounted as  well.   The 
'Anti  i'  designation  means that these  weapons  are  only  effective 
against enemy ships operating in 'i(imaginary) space'.
     3)Short Range Anti R:   Short range weapons may not fire until all 
long  range fire has taken place.   Unlike long  range  weapons,  short 
range systems are not expended as they are fired.   Short range weapons 
are  not as destructive as long range weapons.   'Anti r'  systems  are 
only useful against ships operating in 'real space'.
     4)Short  Range  Anti i:   As above,  but these  weapons  are  only 
effective against ships operating in 'i space'.
     5)Long Range Defense:   These expendable systems act to reduce the 
number of long range weapons hits on an entire friendly task force.
     6)Point  Defense:   These  systems attempt to deflect  long  range 
weapons  from the ship carrying point defense systems.   They  are  not 
expended in use.
     7)R Scan:   These systems act to acquire 'real space' targets  for 
any long range weapon systems on board.
     8)i Scan:   These systems act to acquire 'i space' targets for any 
long range weapon systems on board.
     9)Command   Module:    A   command   module   is   the   planning, 
communications, and control center of a task force. As long as at least 
one ship in a task force has at least one active command  module,  that 
task  force  may  have a commander assigned.   Task  forces  without  a 
command module must act under central command.
    10)i Space Drive:   This is a variant of the standard  interstellar 
drive  which  allows ships so powered to sense and attack  enemy  ships 
while still in an 'imaginary' space.   Such a ship can only be attacked 
by 'anti i' weapons.  Any ship not so equipped operates at all times in 
the familiar world of 'real space'.
    11)Cargo  Capacity:    One  point  of  cargo  capacity  allows  the 
transport of one size point worth of cargo.  Any cargo transported must 
be carried on one ship,  (not distributed among several ships) so  only 
ships  with  large  cargo capacities may carry  things  such  as  heavy 
regulars or exploration teams. 
    12)Assault  Capacity:   Assault  capacity  acts  exactly  as  cargo 
capacity, but it has the additional ability to project military  forces 
into space to ground assaults on enemy systems.   In order to project a 
unit  into combat,  the ship's original (pre-damage)  assault  capacity 
must be at least as large as the transport size of the  projected unit.
i.e. in order to project a heavy regular unit into combat, the original 
assault capacity of a ship must be at least 8. 

3.26 Distance

     Selecting  'Distance' will allow the player to find  the  distance 
from one system to any other on the map.   The player will be  prompted 
to select a source system ( by moving the mouse to the system 'star' on 
the map and clicking the left mouse button ).   The source system  will 
be  marked and the player may now select any destination system on  the 
map  in the same fashion to receive distance information in  the  small 
window below the map area.

3.27 Exit Economics
     
     Selecting  'Exit  Economics' will allow the player  to  leave  his 
economics phase and proceed to the next game phase.

3.3 The General Menu

     The  General  menu  allows access to the  following  general  game 
control functions.

     3.31: Quit
     3.32: Erase Map
     3.33: Show Map
     3.34: Control
     3.35: End Game

3.31 Quit

     Selection  of  this  menu  option  presents  the  player  with  an 
opportunity  to  stop playing the game and return to the desktop  in  a 
controlled manner.
     
3.32 Erase Map

     Selection  of  Erase  Map will immediately  clear  the  screen  of 
everything but the menu bar and mouse use prompt.   This function  will 
be most useful in two player games.
          
3.33 Show Map

     Selection  of Show Map will immediately restore the screen to  the 
standard low resolution map display.   This is useful for recovery from 
Erase Map or any desk accessories which don't bother to clean up  after 
themselves.

3.34 Control

     Selection  of  Control  will present a player with  an  80  column 
medium resolution screen which displays the default colors for text and 
background normally used for information displays during the game.  The 
default colors are:
     Black : Background.
     Green :  Text color used for comments,  instructions, and constant 
numerical values.
     Blue :  Text color used for values which may change with different 
situations.  Also used for selection box indications.
     Red :  Text color used for special attention notes, warnings, text 
selection indications,  and negative numerical values.   Also used  for 
button color on information screens.
     Players  may follow the prompts to change the display  colors  for 
text and background.   Each player may select a separate set of display 
colors  for  information screens without affecting the  other  player's 
displays.   In  these  rules,  the default colors are  assumed  in  any 
references to colors on information screens.         
     The  button  delay control will vary the time  delays  built  into 
mouse selected button repeats.   While it is convenient for this  delay 
to  be small if a player has nimble fingers,  many players may be  more 
comfortable with longer delays.   Unintended button repeats can be very 
annoying.  The author prefers a button delay of 5 (the default).

3.35 End Game

     Selection  of End Game will give the player an opportunity to  end 
the  game  with  a count of current  victory  levels.   The  Game  Turn 
Resolutions  Phase and certain menu selections are  disabled,  and  the 
game  is  placed  in a two player mode for ease of  inspection  of  the 
computer player's situation in a solitaire game.     

4.0 Movement Phase

     Players will issue any covert operations and ship transfer orders.
Task forces are given commanders and mission orders.   Cargo is  loaded 
/  unloaded  /  moved  from one  star  system  to  another.  Task force 
operations  and  special (covert) operations are accessed  through  the 
'Move'  menu,  and  Commands,  ships-in-transit, and commanders are are 
accessed through the 'Assign' menu.  General game control functions are 
accessed through the 'General' menu as in the Economics  phase.   After 
the 4/2330 turn,  each player is given the opportunity to begin limited 
hostilities.   Players  may not initiate open hostilities.   This  will 
happen  automatically  in  from 6 to 18 turns after the first  turn  of 
limited  hostilities.   Once  open hostilities have  begun,  a  crossed 
swords graphic will appear near the lower  right corner of the map.

4.1 The 'Assign' Menu

     The  following  selections are available  from  the  'Assign' 
menu:
     4.11: Transport Pool
     4.12: Training Command
     4.13: Escort Command
     4.14: Raiding Command
     4.15: Special Support
     4.16: Ships In Transit
     4.17: Commanders
     4.18: Army

4.11 Transport Pool
    
     Selecting 'Transport Pool' will present the player with a list  of 
all ships currently assigned to the transport pool.  The transport pool 
may  be thought of as a player's merchant marine.   Ships in  the  pool 
will sum  their total of undamaged cargo/assault capacities for use  in 
efficient  distribution  of surplus goods.   While they remain  in  the 
pool,  ships do not require maintenance.   Once hostilities begin,  any 
ships  in  the  transport pool are subject to  attack  by  armed  ships 
assigned to the enemy 'Raiding Command'.   Friendly armed ships in  the 
'Escort  Command'  will  be  needed in  order  to  provide  protection.     
Information  on  each ship includes:  Class  name,  size,  and  current 
damage.   Two  choices  are presented to the player:  '[ ]  Exit'  will 
return  the player to the main map/menu screen.   '[ ] Reassign  Ships' 
will open the following small window below the ship listing:

  +  - Change          Select       [ ] Exit
 [ ][ ]...Task Force...[ ] TF: nn         [ ] Scrap
 [ ][ ]....Command.....[ ] Commandname

     Once  this window appears,  the player will be able to select  any 
ship or ships on the list by moving the cursor over the box to the left 
of the ship's name and pressing the left mouse button.   Selected ships 
are indicated by blue select boxes next to the ships' names. 
  
     The two leftmost columns of buttons in the reassignment window are 
used to increment/decrement the nn and Commandname to the right of  the 
reassignment  window select buttons,  and the select buttons  select  a 
destination for the reassigned ships.  If the player wishes to send the 
first,  second, and ninth ships on the list to the training command, he 
will select those ships, then select the left (Increment) button on the 
Command line until Commandname reads 'Training Command', and finally he 
will select the right (Select) button on the command line.  The listing 
will  be  redrawn  without the reassigned  ships,  indicating  the  new 
composition  of the transport pool.   The reassigned ships will  be  in 
transit (see rule 4.16) to the training command.

     Selecting the '[ ] Scrap' button will give the player a chance  to 
delete any indicated ships from his list.  This may become necessary if 
a player is near his 120 ship limit and wishes to produce  newer,  more 
efficient types.  Ships carrying cargo will not be scrapped.

     Selecting the '[ ] Exit' button will return the player to the main 
map/menu screen.

4.12 Training Command

     This  selection will present the player with a list of  all  ships 
currently  assigned to the Training Command.   Whenever a new  ship  is 
produced  at  a  friendly star system,  that ship will  be  placed  'in 
transit' to the Training Command.   Once in the Training  Command,  the 
ship  may  be  reassigned to any other command or  task  force.   Ships 
assigned  to the Training Command do not require  maintenance  and  are 
not subject to any form of attack at any time.   The exit and  reassign 
ship selections function as described in rule 4.11.

4.13 Escort Command

     This  selection will present the player with a list of  all  ships 
currently assigned to the Escort Command.  Ships assigned to the Escort 
Command  do  not require maintenance unless damaged  by  enemy  action.  
Once  hostilities begin,  ships assigned to this command act to  attack 
vessels  in  the enemy  Raiding Command,  and are in  turn  subject  to 
attack  by  enemy  raiders.   The exit  and  reassign  ship  selections 
function as described in rule 4.11.

4.14 Raiding Command

     This  selection will present the player with a list of  all  ships 
currently  assigned  to the Raiding Command.   Ships  assigned  to  the 
Raiding  Command  do not require maintenance unless  damaged  by  enemy 
action.   Once hostilities begin, ships assigned to this command act to 
attack  ships  assigned to the enemy Transport Pool,  and are  in  turn 
subject  to attack by enemy ships assigned to Escort Command.   Due  to 
the  nature  of  the  Raiding  Command/Transport  Pool/Escort   Command 
interaction,  raiding command ships equipped with 'i space' drives will  
perform  exceptionally well against ships in the enemy transport  pool.  
The  exit  and reassign ship selections function as described  in  rule 
4.11.

4.15 Special Support
  
     This  selection will present the player with a list of  all  ships 
currently  assigned  to the Special  Support  Command.   Assignment  of 
operations options by the 'Special Ops' menu selection (rule 4.21)  may 
require that some ships be assigned to this command.  Ships assigned to 
the Special Support Command do not require maintenance, but are subject 
to a 2% attrition rate each quarter.  Old or inexpensive ships are best 
used for this duty.   The exit and reassign ship selections function as 
described in rule 4.11.

4.16 Ships in Transit

     This selection will present the player with a display of the first 
34  ships  currently in transit to major commands  and  task forces.  A 
total of 51 ships may be in transit for each player at any given  time.  
The  following information is displayed for the first  34  ships:  ship 
class  name,  ship number (from 1 to 120),  the destination command  or 
task  force,  and  the quarter and year of their projected  arrival  on 
station.   The  total number of ships in  transit and the current  date 
are  also  given at the bottom of the screen.   Select '[  ]  Exit'  to 
return to the main map/menu.
     Important:  Any ships which are "reassigned" to another command or 
task force will be placed in transit to their destination,  and will be 
out of play for from 1 to 4 turns.   Ships "transferred" from one  task 
force  to  another  are  not  placed  in  transit.    Transfers   occur 
immediately. 

4.17 Commanders

     This  selection  will  present  the player  with  a  list  of  all 
available commanders,  listed by code name and unit of assignment,  and 
individually  rated for:  ship to ship attack,  ship to  ship  defense, 
space  to  ground (amphibious?) military  planning  ability,  and  age.  
Commanders  who  have  not been tested in combat  will  not  be  rated.  
Untested  ability ratings will be shown as '??'.   Age is always  known 
for  all  commanders.   Command  ratings will vary  from  one(poor)  to 
five(good).   As commanders age, they will eventually be retired and/or 
replaced.  Players may increment the unit of assignment for a commander 
by  selecting the box to the left of the commander's code  name.   Task 
forces  to  which other commanders have been assigned will  be  skipped 
during  the  incrementing  process.   'NA'  in  the  assignment  column 
indicates that the commander is not currently assigned to a task force.  
Commanders  may  only be assigned to task forces which  currently  have 
assigned  to  them at least one ship with a functional command  module.  
Selecting  the  '[ ] Exit' button will return the player  to  the  main 
map/menu.

4.18 Army

     This choice is exactly the same as the 'Army' selection  described 
in rule 3.13.

4.2 The 'Move' Menu

     The following selections are available from the 'Move' menu:

     4.21: Special Ops
     4.22: Examine System
     4.23: Task Forces  
     4.24: Move Task Force
     4.25: Command Autonomy    
     4.26: Distance
     4.27: Exit Movement

4.21 Special Ops

     Selection of 'Special Ops' presents the player with an analysis of 
the  enemy player's special (covert) operations on the  last  completed 
turn.   Selecting '[ ] Exit' will replace this information with a  list 
of support ships and operations options available for friendly actions.  
Operations  options are raw intelligence manpower and  resources.  They 
may not be accumulated from turn to turn, so those not used on the turn 
of  their  availability are automatically used for  internal  security. 
Only  10  operations options per turn,  per activity  are  allowed  per 
player.  Options may be allocated toward the following activities:
     
     '[ ] Foment  Rebellion':    Encourages  popular  unrest  at  enemy 
systems.   This is reflected as a drop in the affected systems' loyalty 
level.   One support ship must be available for each operations  option 
allocated towards this activity.    This action will be ineffective  if 
the enemy player heavily garrisons his systems.
     '[ ] System Reconaissance':    Gathers information on the  current 
state  of  enemy  star systems.   This is  reflected  by  updating  the 
friendly  player's  system  report file.   One  support  ship  must  be 
available for each operations option allocated towards this activity.
     '[ ]  Internal  Security':    Counteracts  the  effects  of  enemy 
attempts to foment rebellion or reconnoiter friendly star systems.   No 
support ships are needed for this activity.

     '[  ]  Abort':  Will cancel any previous allocation of  operations 
options for a player.  This essentially allows a player to re-start his 
covert operations allocations if necessary.
 
4.22 Examine System

     This choice is exactly the same as the 'Examine System'  selection 
described in rule 3.22.

4.23 Task Forces

     Selection of 'Task Forces' presents the player with the  following 
information on all 36 friendly task forces:

     Location : System name of current task force location.
     Size : The number of ships in the task force.
     Status :  This line is left blank for inactive task forces  (those 
with  no  ships currently assigned).   Active task forces  will  have a 
status  of 'Ready' or 'Moved',  and a mission suffix of A  (attack),  T 
(transport), or R (reserve) .

     The player may '[ ] Exit to Map/Menu.', (which does exactly  that) 
or '[ ] Examine or modify task force.'.   One of the task forces listed 
will  be printed in red letters.   This is the task force which will be 
examined if the '[ ] Examine...' option is chosen.   In order to change 
the  task force of interest,  the player simply moves the cursor to any 
portion of the display area of the task force he wishes to look at  and 
presses the left mouse button.   The text line for that task force will 
turn red to indicate the new task force of interest.
 
     Selection  of  'Examine or modify task force.'  will  present  the 
player with the following information:

     A list of all ships in the task force, including ship size (number 
of original  ship's  systems),  cargo (number of functioning cargo  and 
assault capacity systems), and maximum movement range.
     Task force number.
     Current task force mission.
     Current task force commander.
     Movement status (ready or moved).
     Task force location.
     Task force maximum movement range.

     The player will also be given seven choices of action:
    
     '[ ] Exit'
     '[ ] Change Mission'
     '[ ] Transfer or Reassign ship'
     '[ ] Examine ship and load/unload cargo'
     '[ ] Express load taskforce'
     '[ ] Express unload taskforce'
     '[ ] Relocate inactive taskforce'

     Selecting  '[ ] Exit'  will return the player to  the  main  'Task 
Forces' screen.

     Selecting  '[ ] Change Mission'  will  increment  the  task  force 
mission  order in single steps from Reserve to Transport to  Attack  to 
Reserve etc.

     Selecting  '[ ] Transfer or Reassign ship' will open the following 
small window below the ship list:

     Transfers(In system, no delay in arrival)
     [ ][ ] Increment/Decrement Task Force
     [ ] Transfer ship to Task Force... nn

     Reassignments(1-4 turn delay in arrival) 
     [ ][ ] Increment/Decrement Task Force
     [ ][ ] Increment/Decrement Command
     [ ] Reassign ship to Task Force... mm
     [ ] Reassign ship to Command...... Commandname
     [ ] Exit

     All transfer and reassignment orders act on any ships indicated by 
blue boxes next to their names.   To indicate a ship for an action, the 
player  places the cursor over the ship box and presses the left  mouse 
button.   That ship box will turn blue to indicate the selection.   Any 
or all ships in the task force may be so indicated.  Reselecting a ship 
box will reverse the selection/indication. 
     Transfers  may occur between any two task forces in the same  star 
system.   Ships may not transfer out of task forces which have  already 
moved in the current turn.   They  may  transfer into such task forces.
All transfers are instantaneous.   Selection of '[ ] Transfer ships  to 
Task Force...  nn' will immediately assign the indicated ships to  task 
force nn.   Selection of '[ ][ ]  Increment/Decrement task force'  will 
simply increment/decrement the number 'nn' shown above.   Only inactive 
task forces (from anywhere) or active task forces in the system will be 
selected.   If  ships are transferred to an inactive task  force,  that 
task  force  will become active at the location  of  transferring  task 
force.
     Reassignments  are similar to transfers,  but do  not  necessarily 
take  place  between  forces at the  same  system.   Unlike  transfers, 
reassignments are not immediate.   Transferred ships will be placed 'in 
transit'  (and out of play) for from one to four turns.   This  is  the 
only  way to move ships from task forces to one of the  major commands.  
The    '[ ][ ]    Increment/Decrement    Task  Force'  and      '[ ][ ] 
Increment/Decrement  Command'  buttons act to  increment/decrement  the 
'mm'  and  'Commandname' values referred to  above.   Selecting   '[  ] 
Reassign  ship to Task Force...  mm' will place the indicated ships  in 
transit   to  task  force  mm.    Selecting  '[  ]  Reassign  ship   to 
Command......Commandname' will place the indicated ships in transit  to 
the major command 'Commandname'.
     Selecting '[ ] Exit' will close the Transfer/Reassignments window.

     Selecting '[ ] Examine ship and load/unload cargo' will present  a 
detailed display of the indicated ship.  The ship to be examined may be 
changed  by selecting any ship box before  selecting the '[  ]  Examine 
ship...' option.  The newly selected ship will be indicated with a blue 
box in the brackets next to the ship class name. When  the '[ ] Examine 
ship...' option is called, the following information is displayed:
     
     The operational status of all ship's systems,  giving current  and 
original values for those systems.  Any difference between these values 
is damage. 
     The ship schematic will show any damaged systems in red.
     Ship class name.
     Ship number.  This will be a number from 1 to 120.
     Class effectiveness. ( A combat modifier )
     Current load of spares and rations.
     Current cargo/assault space available.

     The player will be given five choices of action:

     '[ ] Exit'
     '[ ] Examine next ship in task force'
     '[ ] Examine previous ship in task force'
     '[ ] Check/load available cargo'
     '[ ] Check/unload available cargo'
     
     Selecting  '[ ] Exit'  will return the player to the  'Examine  or 
Modify Task Force' screen.

     Selecting  '[ ]  Examine next ship in task force' will  allow  the 
player  to step 'forward' through the task force to examine  subsequent 
ships .

     Selecting '[ ] Examine previous ship in task force' will allow the 
player to step 'backwards' through the task force to  examine  previous 
ships. 

     Selecting  '[ ]   Check/load available cargo' will  open  a  small 
window  below  the  ship  status  display.   All  items  available  for 
transport  from  the system the task force currently occupies  will  be 
displayed  along  with transport sizes and,  in the  case  of  military 
formations:  unit  strength and capability.    Selecting any item  will 
load it into the cargo/assault section of the loading ship if there  is 
enough room on the ship for that item (item size is less than or  equal 
to space available). 

     Selecting  '[ ] Check/unload available cargo' will open  a  window 
similar to the one described above.  All items currently carried on the 
transported ship are displayed.   Note that some items change character 
when  unloaded.   Kits  will  cease being kits  and  become  production 
facilities  if  the local total of such production facilities  is  less 
than 99,  and under the proper conditions,  colonies will become  local 
population.   If local population is less than (system habitability*50) 
then:  Belt colonies will become local population.   Protected colonies 
will  become  local  population if habitability  is  greater  than  34.  
Earthlike  colonies  will become local population  if  habitability  is 
greater  than  64.   Military units in excess of the  local  deployment 
limit imposed by the number of deployment sites in the system will  not 
be allowed to unload.

     Ships may go through the load/unload sequence an unlimited  number 
of times in each turn.   The deployment of colonies  and  kits  in  the 
system of their origin is allowed as intra-system settlement.   This is 
the only way in which facilities beyond the 'maximum' number imposed by 
the physical characteristics of the star system may be installed in the 
system.

     Selecting '[ ]Express load...' will present the player with a list 
of  items  which may be loaded by the task force automatically  and  in 
large  quantities.   Selecting one of these items will load as many  of 
them as the task force is capable of carrying.

     Selecting   '[ ]Express unload...' will present the player with  a 
list of items which may be unloaded by the task force automatically and 
in large quantities.   Selecting one of these items will unload as many 
of them as the task force is carrying.

     The   express  load/unload  functions  operate  under   the   same 
restrictions  as do normal load/ unload operations.   They can be  very 
useful when moving things such as spare parts or colonists.

     Selection  of  '[ ] Relocate inactive task force' will  allow  the 
player  to change the current location of a task force to any  friendly 
system.  This works only for inactive (empty) task forces.
                          
     4.24 Move Task Force

     This  is  the  option  used to  move  active  task  forces.   Upon 
selection  of  this option,  the player will be prompted  to  'Use  the 
cursor to select the system of origin',  or '[ ] Exit'.
     Selection of '[ ] Exit' simply cancels the  sequence  and  re-sets 
the menu.
    
     If the player selects a system on the map,  (by moving the  cursor 
to the 'star' graphic and pressing the left mouse button) the  computer 
checks  to see if any friendly active task forces of 'ready' status are 
present.   If no such task forces are present, this has the same effect 
as '[ ] Exit', otherwise an information display box will open below the 
map showing:  task force  number,  size,  commander,  mission,  maximum 
movement  range,  and  total  cargo for  the  lowest  numbered  'ready' 
task force in the system.   By selecting boxes to the right of the task 
force  information,  the player may 'skip' to the next task  force  (if 
any),  go into the 'Show Distance' routine (returning to movement  when 
finished), or 'exit' back to the main menu.  When the player has a task 
force  he  wants to move,  he simply places the cursor on  the  desired 
destination  system  and  presses  the  left  mouse  button.    If  the 
destination  system  is  within the player's  maximum  movement  radius 
(12+(lowest  ship effectiveness level in task force * 2) light  years), 
the  player  will  be  asked to verify that this  is  indeed  the  move 
intended.   Otherwise,  the player will be notified that the  requested 
movement is not allowed, and asked to select another destination.  Once 
the move is verified,  the task force status is changed to 'moved'  and 
the  task  force may not move again in the current  turn.  Task  forces 
given orders to 'move' to their current location are not considered  to 
have been moved.   The computer will continue to present task forces to 
be moved from this system until either the player 'exit's or no 'ready' 
unskipped  task forces remain in the system of origin.  If an 'x'  mark 
appears  near the destination system map graphic,  enemy forces are  in 
the  destination  system  (although  they  may  move  out  before   the 
resolution phase of the turn).

4.25 Command Autonomy

     Selection of Command Autonomy will present a player with a  choice 
of  enabling or disabling the command autonomy  feature.   The  current 
status is displayed as the default (heavily outlined) selection in  the 
alert box.  If enabled, command autonomy will automatically ensure that 
any  damaged ships in the Transport Pool,  Escort Command,  or  Raiding 
Command   are  automatically  routed  to  task  force  34,35,   or   36 
(respectively)  for  repairs.   Any  fully functional  ships  in  these 
taskforces will automatically be re-assigned to duty in the appropriate 
command.  This frees the player from having to monitor the condition of 
ships in his commands.   In some cases,  the player may wish to  retain 
direct control of his repair schedule. This will mean disabling command 
autonomy.

4.26 Distance 

     This  choice  is  exactly the same  as  the  'Distance'  selection 
described in rule 3.26.

4.27 Exit Movement

     Selecting  'Exit  Movement'  will allow the player  to  leave  his 
movement  phase  and  proceed to the next game  phase.

4.3 The General menu

     This is the same menu as described in rule 3.3.

5.0 Game Turn Resolution Phase
     
     All  command  level  and task  force  combat,  military  assaults, 
exploration,  production,  maintenance, covert operations, and calendar 
dependent  functions occur during this phase.   There is a 0.5%  chance 
for  unplanned hostilities to break out on any game turn after  4/2330.  
When  significant  events occur,  players will be notified in  a  small 
window below the map.   Information will be displayed for a few seconds 
before being replaced by any new display.

5.1 Command Level Combat

     Command  Level Combat will occur only if hostilities  have  begun.  
     Any ships  assigned to the Raiding Command of either  player  will 
attempt  to locate targets in the enemy Transport  Pool.   Each  raider 
will have a 5% chance of locating each enemy transport, and will attack 
the only the first transport located.  Each 'short range anti r' weapon 
system mounted on the raider will do:  1 to 10 points of damage to  the 
target  (if the raider is equipped with a functional i space  drive for 
use in setting up his attack) or,  1 point of damage (if the raider  is 
not  equipped with an i space drive:  player's current effectiveness  * 
10% chance of hit).   There is a 20% chance that raiders will attack  a 
ship in the Escort Command instead, following the same procedure.
     After all raiders have attempted to attack,  any ships assigned to 
the  Escort Command of either player will attempt to locate targets  in 
the  enemy  Raiding  Command.   Each escort will have a  4%  chance  of 
locating  each  enemy raider,  and will attack only  the  first  raider 
located.   If the target raider is equipped with a functional  i  space 
drive, the escort will attack with all functional anti i weapons.  Each 
long  range anti i weapon will do 3 points of damage (firing  player's 
current effectiveness*10% chance to hit),  and each short range anti  i 
weapon   will   do  1  point  of  damage   (firing   player's   current 
effectiveness*10% chance to hit).  If the target raider is not equipped 
with  a  functional  i space drive,  the escort will  attack  with  all 
functional anti r weapons.  Each short range weapon fired by the escort 
will  do 1 point of damage (firing player's  current  effectiveness*10% 
chance  to  hit).   Each long range weapon will do 5 to  15  points  of 
damage (firing player's current effectiveness*10% chance to  hit).   If 
the target raider mounts functional point defense weapons,  there is  a 
chance  that  any long range weapon hit will do no  damage  (number  of 
point defenses*7%).
     Note  that raiding ships will not fire long  range  weapons.   Any 
long range weapons fired by escorts will automatically be  replenished.  
Ships  damaged in command combat may only be repaired by assigning  the 
damaged  ships to  active task forces and leaving the damaged ships  in 
those task forces until normal maintenance effects repairs.
     After  all command level combat has taken place,  if raiders  were 
active,  the players will be notified.   Any damage taken by transports 
or  escorts will be indicated as 'tonnage hit'.   This figure  includes 
all tonnage damaged in both transport pool and escort command,  as well 
as  private  shipping (not otherwise treated by this game)  engaged  in 
trade  to  and  from friendly explored systems.   The  bulk  of  damage 
reported is going to generally be to shipping in the transport pool. 

5.2 Movement Resolutions

     All  movement related actions are resolved.   All  task forces  are 
reset to 'ready' status for the next turn.   Exception:  task forces not 
in  friendly  systems  during  this phase have only  an  80%  chance  of 
becoming 'ready'.  The following actions take place during the Movement 
Resolution phase:

     5.21: Ship to Ship Combat
     5.22: Exploration
     5.23: Space to Ground Assaults

5.21 Ship to Ship combat

     Once  open hostilities have begun,  the computer will check  every 
star  system  on  the map for the presence  of  mutually  hostile  task 
forces.  If any such situation exists, and if any of the task forces in 
the  involved system have an attack mission,  ship to ship combat  will 
occur.  The system will be marked with an 'x' in the system information 
box, and a small window will open below the map:
  
///// Resolutions /////
 
Contact Report:                      |This display shows information| 
System: Systemname                   |only for ships which are      |
Ship to Ship combat hours: nn        |currently engaged.  A graphic |
           Republic League           |display will show all ships   |
Ships R/i     nn/nn nn/nn            |present in the star system.   |
L. Range wx:   nn    nn   
S. Range wx:   nn    nn 

     Along with the text information at the bottom of the  screen,  the 
program  will provide a graphic display of the forces involved  in  the 
combat.  Ships are shown as colored dots on a black background, arrayed 
by task force.   Individual task forces will be displayed in formations 
dependent on their assigned missions.   Attack forces will be displayed 
in generally wedge shaped formations.   Transport forces will be  shown 
in generally linear formations,  and reserve forces will be shown in  a 
disorganized staggered formation.
     The computer will first resolve all combat between any task forces 
with attack missions.   If,  after combat,  one player still has active 
task  forces with attack missions;  those task forces will  attack  any 
enemy  forces present under any other mission.   The range of the  last 
round's combat is displayed next to "Contact Report:". 
     Combat  begins  with long range fire and will continue  until  all 
long range weapons on both sides are  exhausted  or one player's forces 
are  eliminated.   In any given round of combat (one hour),  each of  a 
player's  long range weapons has the following chance to  fire:(50*task 
force  commander's attack rating*the number of enemy targets  available 
for  this weapon type at the beginning of the round / total  number  of 
weapons of this type available to the firing player at the beginning of 
the round)*1%.  Each weapon fired has the following hit probability:(10 
*the effectiveness of the firing ship+10*the number of scanner  systems 
of the appropriate type mounted on the firing ship)*1%.  Once the total 
number  of  hits  of  both anti r and  anti i  long  range  weapons  is 
determined,  any  long range defensive systems will attempt to  destroy 
incoming hostile long range anti r weapons.   Long range defenses  will 
fire one at a time until there are no more incoming hostile long  range 
anti r weapons,  or defensive weapons are exhausted.  Each weapon fired 
has   the   following  probability  of   eliminating   one   hit:(3*the 
effectiveness  of the firing ship * the task force commander's  defense 
rating )%.   Any surviving long range weapons will then randomly select 
targets   from   target  task  forces.   Any  surviving   weapon   will 
automatically  hit  unless  the target ship  mounts  functional   point 
defenses.  The chance that point defenses will eliminate any particular 
hit  is:(the  number  of point defense systems mounted  on  the  target 
ship*14 %). A maximum of 5 point defense weapons will be fired from any 
target ship.   Any target ship hit by a long range weapon will take  10 
to 15 points of damage per hit.   This damage will be distributed among 
functional  systems mounted on the target ship.   Any ship with  damage 
left  undistributed  after  all systems have  been  destroyed  will  be 
deleted from the player's list of active ships,  and any cargo on  that 
ship  will  be lost.   Once all long range weapons are  expended  short 
range combat begins.
     Short  range  combat will continue until a round occurs  in  which 
neither player makes any hits on enemy ships,  one player  successfully 
disengages,  or only one player has R space ships remaining in the star 
system.  (It is possible that both players may have surviving ships  at 
this point.)  In any given round (one hour),  each of a player's  short 
range weapons will fire (maximum of 5 per ship per round).  Each weapon 
has  the  following hit probability:(the effectiveness  of  the  firing 
ship*10%).   Any  hits will be distributed randomly among ships in  the 
target task forces,  and each hit will do 1 point of damage to a system 
mounted on a target ship.   If the target ship has no undamaged systems 
remaining,  that  ship will be deleted (destroyed) ,  and any cargo  on 
that ship will be lost.
      Each  action which requires a check of a  commander's  attack  or 
defense rating will check the rating of the commander of the task force 
to  which the affected ship belongs.  If at  any time,  no  ships  with 
command modules (damaged or undamaged) are present in a particular task 
force,  any commander assigned to that task force will be retired  (all 
ratings are set to ??,  and a new age will be generated), and  the task 
force will come under central command.  Central command has attack  and 
defense ratings of 2.  It is possible for one part of a player's forces 
to perform brilliantly,  while other elements perform poorly.  Any ship 
which is equipped with an i space drive may only be targeted by  anti i 
weapons  unless  its   i space drive  is  damaged.    Any  task  forces 
completely  destroyed in  combat  will return (inactive) to a  player's 
home system.
     Beginning with the second hour (round) of combat, the program will 
ask  if  any  player wishes to attempt to  disengage  his  forces  from 
combat  at the end of each hour.   In a two player game,  the  computer 
will also ask which player wishes to  disengage.   Disengagement is not 
automatic.   Average values for commander ability will be computed  for 
each  player  when  disengagement  is  requested.   For  equal  average 
command  values,  the disengagement  chance is about 60%.   An  extreme 
difference  in command ability (favoring  the  non-disengaging  player) 
can  make  disengagement  very  difficult.   When  forces  successfully 
disengage, all  combat in the affected system ends and  the disengaging 
player's  task forces in  the system will all  be  assigned  a  reserve 
mission.  Disengaged transport task forces will not land their troops.
     Players will also be given the option of ordering their commanders 
to  'engage  aggressively'.   If  either player  orders  an  aggressive 
engagement,  the number hits on engaged ships (of both players' forces) 
will be increased by 25% for that round of combat. 
     After the last round of combat in any particular system,  a  short 
'after action' report will be displayed.
     After  all  ship to ship combat is  resolved,  the  computer  will 
perform exploration resolution.

5.22 Exploration

     The computer will check every unexplored system on the map for the 
presence  of  task forces with transport missions.   If any  such  task 
force  exists in a system,  the computer checks for the presence of  an 
Exploration  team in the cargo/assault hold of each transport  in  that 
task  force.   If an Exploration team is present,  it will be  unloaded 
into  the star system and system exploration will  occur.   The  system 
will  be  hilighted  on  the  map and  a  notice  will  appear  in  the 
information area below the map.   System ownership will be given to the 
exploring  player,  and  the following system characteristics  will  be 
determined:

     Habitability......... 5 - 100
     Metals............... 5 - 100
     Organics............. 5 - 100
     Deployment Sites..... 3 - 8
     Defensibility........ 1 - 3
     Loyalty.............. 10
     Special.............. None, Gasworlders, Oort People, Aborigines,
                           Paleotechnology, or Spiders.
     All Others........... 0 or none

     Only  the  exploring player will have access to  this  information 
unless  the  other  player performs  system  reconnaissance.   If  both 
players attempt to explore the same system on a given turn, each player 
will  have  a  40%  chance of  exploring  the  system.   Since  in  the 
historical  case,  each society found a nearly perfect system early  in 
its exploration program, systems explored in the first few turns of the 
game  will have a high probability of being very useful.   One  'nearly 
perfect' system will almost certainly be found by each player. 
     Special features of a star system will affect the exploring player 
in the following manner:
     None : No effect.
     Gasworlders  :  The  system will add 3 units of  organics  to  the 
player's  surplus goods pool per turn for as long as the  player  holds 
the system.
     Oort  People  :  The  system will add 3 units  of  metals  to  the 
player's  surplus goods pool per turn for as long at the  player  holds 
the system.
     Aborigines :  The system will add 3 units of food to the  player's 
surplus goods pool per turn for as long as the player holds the system.
     Paleotechnology :  The system will add 2 points (as opposed to the 
normal  1)  per turn to the player's research pool for as long  as  the 
player holds the system.
     Spiders  :  No  spontaneous population growth will  occur  in  the 
system until the spiders have been eliminated.   Any population  growth 
will occur only as the result of colony placement.
  
5.23 Space to Ground Assaults

     The  computer  will check every explored system on the map for the 
presence  of enemy task forces with transport missions.   If  any  such 
task force exists in a system,  the computer checks for the presence of 
military formations in the cargo/assault hold of each transport in that 
task  force.   If security forces,  heavy regulars,  or light  regulars 
are  present in ships with assault capacities greater than or equal  to 
the  transport  size of each unit,  or if special  forces  are  present 
(special  forces may assault from regular cargo transports and  do  not 
require the assistance of ship mounted assault capacity),  those  units 
will  be unloaded.   A maximum number of units equal to the  number  of 
deployment  sites  in  the system  may  be  unloaded.   Units  will  be 
unloaded in the following order:  
     
     A.Task forces unload in order of lowest to highest numbered force.
     B.Transports  within each task force will unload in the  order  in 
which they are listed when that task force is displayed by the 'Examine 
or  Modify  Task  Force'  option of the  movement  menu  'Task  Forces' 
selection.
     C.Units will unload from transports in the order in which they are 
listed  in the 'Cargo Available For Unloading' box for  the  individual 
ship.   The maximum size unit (other than special forces) which may  be 
unloaded from a particular transport is a unit with transport size less 
than  or  equal to the (designed) assault capacity for  the  transport.  
Damage (short of complete destruction) has no  effect on the ability of 
a transport to unload any cargo.   The assault capacity of a  transport 
also  has  no  effect on the number of units  which  may  be  unloaded, 
assuming that it meets the minimum requirements of each unloaded unit.

     Once  a  wave  of units is landed,  a display  will  open  in  the 
information area below the map:

/////Results/////
Assault: Systemname

Attacker: Playername
Defender: Playername

A:  nndd nndd nndd nndd
    nndd nndd nndd nndd
D:  nndd nndd nndd nndd 
    nndd nndd nndd nndd
Ground Combat: nn days.

     The  'nndd'  is  a unit designation such as 22Hy  for  the  Twenty 
Second Heavy Regular Battalion.  The maximum number of units for either 
player is 8 in a system with 8 deployment sites.  Each day of combat (a 
few seconds of real time),  the display will be updated.  No additional 
units will be landed by the attacking player after the initial wave  of 
units  begin  combat.   Attacking  units will  draw  command  from  the 
commander  assigned  to the highest numbered task force in  the  system 
with a transport mission.   
     Each day, the computer will add up the total strength of all: 
defenders:  (for each unit:unit strength*unit capability*assault rating 
of assault commander)/5. 

attackers:    (for  each  unit : unit  strength*unit  capability*system 
defensibility)/5.   

     There  is a total strength % chance of causing a casualty  to  the 
enemy.  That casualty will be randomly determined among enemy units.  A 
force composed of the following units: 

     Unit         Strength          Capability        
     10Hy             5                8
     11Hy             4                7
     13Hy             4                8
     16SF             1                10
 
      with  a commander assault rating or system  defensibility  of  3, 
would  have  a ((5*8+4*7+4*8+1*10)/5)*3% = 66%  chance  of  causing  an 
enemy   casualty.    The  enemy  would  probably  lose  one   (randomly 
determined) unit in this case.
     Each day of fighting:  system habitability,  farms, and population 
will be reduced by 1.  Habitability will not be reduced below 5.  Farms 
and population will not be reduced below 0.
     Combat  will  continue  until only one player  has  units  in  the 
system.   If this player is the defender,  there is no further  effect.  
If  the  attacker's assault  is  successful,  the  system  will  change 
ownership, with the following effects:

     A. Loyalty is set at 1
     B. Half of all local spares and rations will be captured.
     C. All  build  points accumulated at local shipyards and  training 
centers will be lost.
     D. All  local  shipyards and training centers will be  reduced  in 
size by from 1 to 20 points.
     E. Any local intelligence centers will be reduced to a size of  0. 
     
     Regardless  of  the  outcome  of  combat,   both  players'  system 
information files will be updated.  As with task force combat, assaults 
will only be executed if open hostilities have broken out.  

5.3 Economics Resolution 

     All economic activities will be resolved.   The following  actions 
will take place during the Economics Resolution phase:

     5.31: Naval Maintenance
     5.32: Military Maintenance
     5.33: Production
     5.34: Surplus Goods Pool Formation

5.31 Naval Maintenance

     Each quarter,  the computer will check all ships assigned to  task 
forces for systems damage.  Any ship's system has about a 10% chance of 
breaking down (dependent upon solitaire difficulty level  setting).  (A 
ship  with 12 systems installed will lose an average of 1.2 systems per 
turn to wear and tear.) Once all ships have been checked,  the computer 
will  check  all active task forces for damaged ships.   Ships  may  of 
course  also be damaged by combat.  Each damaged ship's system will  be 
repaired at a cost of one 'spare',  if spares are available in the star 
system  that the task force of assignment currently occupies.   A  star 
system with spares in it's spares pool can repair points of ship system 
damage equal to the size of it's spares pool.   Ships assigned to major 
commands do not require and can  not receive  maintenance.  Task forces 
will  be checked in order of lowest to highest  numbered  force.   Task 
forces  with  attack missions will receive repairs before  task  forces 
with transport missions, which in turn will receive repairs before task 
forces  with reserve missions.   Ships which have no undamaged  systems 
left will not be deleted (destroyed) unless damaged in combat.
     Example:  3 Goliath class transports are assigned to a task  force 
in  the Laird's Star system.   The Laird's Star system has 7 spares  in 
it's  spares  pool.   Goliath class transports have  15  cargo  systems 
installed  when built.   One of the ships has 5 points of  damage  from 
combat  earlier  in the turn,  leaving 10 cargo systems  functional  on 
board  the ship.   This ship also loses 1 point of cargo space to  wear 
and  tear.   The next ship loses no systems to damage this  turn.   The 
third  ship loses 2 points to wear and tear.   Since the  Laird's  Star 
system has only 7 spares available:  the first ship is fully  repaired, 
but  the third ship still has 1 cargo system knocked out at the end  of 
the maintenance turn.   This task force could load a total of 44 points 
of cargo on the next turn. 

5.32 Military Maintenance

     Each turn, the computer will subtract one point of capability from 
each military unit.   Each unit will then be checked for location.   If 
the unit is located (not on board ship) in a star system with at  least 
one  ration  in  it's ration pool,  the unit will have  two  points  of 
capability added (up to the unit maximum as defined by type),  and  one 
ration will be subtracted from the local ration pool.   Note that  this 
means that units left on board ship will slowly deteriorate.   It  will 
also take several turns for a newly created or neglected unit to  train 
to a reasonable level of capability.

5.33 Production

     Each turn, the computer will check each shipyard, training center, 
and intelligence center for accumulated build units.   If the  facility 
has enough points accumulated, it will produce:
     Shipyard: One ship, or a number of spares equal to the accumulated 
build points.
     Training Center:  One military unit,  or a number of rations equal 
to the accumulated build points.
     Intelligence Center:  A number of operations options equal to  the 
number of accumulated build points.
     Whenever a center is producing a type of ship or unit it has never 
produced before,  that unit will cost two to four times the normal unit 
cost for that item.   A maximum size assault transport can cost as much 
as 45 build points to construct.  If this the first unit of it's class, 
it  can  cost as much as 180 points!   It is best  to  avoid  excessive 
switching of production types at your production facilities.  
     Any  new  military  formations  will  appear  at  the  system   of 
production, if space is available.  Units in excess of the local number 
of deployment sites will not appear until space is available.   Only 60 
military units may be produced by each player.  
     Any  new ships will be placed in transit to the training  command.  
New  ships  will  not appear if more than 50  ships  are  currently  in 
transit.  Only 120 ships may be produced by each player.
     New  spares and rations will appear in the system of  manufacture.  
Only 999 spares and 999 rations may accumulate in each star system.
     If any item is prevented from appearing,  build units will  simply 
continue to accumulate until the item may be produced.
     Operations options will be available for use in covert  operations 
on the next turn only.  
     Each  system's population increases by a random number from  1  to 
(current population/50)  if  the local population is less than  (system 
habitability*50), and if there are no "spiders" in the system.  
     Each  system's habitability increases by 1 if local population  is 
greater than 0.
     Each system with local population greater than 250 (thousand)  may 
produce colonies.   Appearance of colonies is random.   3 earthlike,  2 
protected, and/or 1 belt colony will appear.

5.34 Surplus Goods Pool Formation

     All excess production of raw materials (food,  metal, organics) is 
pooled.   Transport/assault  capacity  in the transport  pool  is  also 
pooled.   If  the  smaller  number (transport or  goods)  is  transport 
capacity,  equal  proportions of goods will be placed in the  available 
surplus  goods pool for the next turn (if possible).   If  the  smaller 
number (transport or goods) is total materials,  all materials will  be 
placed in the available surplus goods pool for the next turn.   

5.4 Calendar Functions

     The date is incremented to the next quarter. 
     All due dates for ships in transit are checked.  If a ship is  due 
at  a particular command or task force,  and if there is room  for  the 
ship in the command (max size 36) or task force (max size 20) the  ship 
will be assigned. 
     If this is the beginning of a year,  all commander's ages will  be 
incremented by one.
     Each commander is checked for retirement.  If a commander's age is 
greater than 35, there is a chance that the commander will retire.  Any 
commander  reaching  the  age of 150  is  automatically  retired.   The 
average  commander  will retire by about the age of  60.   Any  retired 
commander will be replaced by a new commander with '??' ratings and  an 
age of 20 to 60.

5.5 General Resolutions

     Any build units unspent during the economics phase are added to  a 
pool  of  accumulated unspent build units (the  research  pool).   Each 
player  also  receives 1 point per turn (or 2 points per  turn  if  the 
system  has  paleotechnological  resources)  for  each system he claims 
(colored  with  the  player's  colors).   When  500  build  units  have 
accumulated for a player,  that player's 'effectiveness' will  increase 
by  one and 500 units are subtracted from the player's  research  pool.  
Effectiveness  affects  the distance that all of a player's  ships  can 
move  (see rule 4.24),  and the effectiveness level of all  classes  of 
ships  created  by a player.   In order to achieve the full  effect  of 
increased  effectiveness,  the  player  will have to  design  new  ship 
classes,  and  change his production facilities to manufacture the  new 
classes.
     Each  star system is checked for loyalty.   If the local total  of 
(farms+5*(locally deployed military units+local intelligence centers))* 
35  is  less  than  the local population,  or  if  (the  enemy  'Foment 
Rebellion'  allocation-the friendly 'Internal Security' allocation)  is  
greater   than (2*(the number of locally deployed military  units+local 
intelligence centers)) then 2 is subtracted from local loyalty. Players 
will  be  notified of these occurrences ( 'Food riots'  and  'Political 
Unrest' ).
     Each  star  system is checked for update.   Each  player  has  his 
system information file updated for all friendly systems.   Each player 
also receives updates on 1) any enemy system at which the player has an 
active task force(physical recon).  or 2) some enemy systems on a  turn 
in which the player has allocated 'System Reconnaissance' and/or  ships 
in his raiding command (chance is:  ((friendly  'System Reconnaissance' 
allocation+number  of  ships  in raiding  command/6) - enemy  'Internal 
Security' allocation/2)*5%).
     Each  star  system is checked for  special  features.   Any  food, 
metals,  organics, or build points produced due to special features are 
added  to the appropriate pool.   If military units are present in  the 
same  star system as spiders,  each unit has a 20% chance to  eliminate 
the spiders.
          
5.6 End of Game Test

     The  computer  tests to see if either player has met  his  victory 
conditions,  or if the final turn of a short scenario has been reached.  
If so,  the game ends and victory is awarded;  otherwise,  the  current 
victory levels are displayed for each player, and the game continues.

6.0 Scenarios and Victory Conditions

     There are seven scenarios available for play.   The long scenarios 
all  use the standard victory conditions listed  below,  while  shorter 
scenarios  have their own victory conditions as listed in the  scenario 
descriptions.   In each scenario, difficulty level settings have unique 
effects on play balance.   These effects and any special rules are also 
listed for each scenario.

     The following scenarios are available:

          The long scenarios:
     6.1 : Long Campaign
     6.2 : Short Campaign
     6.3 : Historical War
     6.4 : Alternate War
          The short scenarios:
     6.5 : Exploration
     6.6 : Gold River
     6.7 : Jericho

                     Standard Victory Conditions
     Victory levels are computed by the following schedule:

     A: For each friendly system:
          (population+all colonies)*system loyalty/100.
     B: 50*(current effectiveness-4).
     C: 50 points per turn that a player occupies his opponent's 'home' 
star system.   The Corporate League home system is Alger.   The  P.H.R. 
home system is Progress.
     D: Research Pool total/10.
     Total victory level=A+B+C+D.
    
     The first player for  which this total reaches 750 is the  winner.  
If  either player is reduced to a total of 20 or less,  then the  other 
player  wins.   If  both players satisfy these conditions on  the  same 
turn, and if both players have exactly the same totals, then the winner 
is The People's Holy Republic.

              Standard Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects

     Ship system failure % for the Corporate League player's ships will 
vary  from  8% at the 'pushover' level to 12% at the  'hideous'  level.  
People's Holy Republic ships always have a 10% system failure rate.
     In the solitaire play mode, the  Republican  player's  commanders'  
command capabilities will vary from 2/2 at the 'pushover' level to  5/5 
at the 'hideous' level.  There is no effect in the two player mode 
     At  levels above 'moderate',  the Republican player  will  receive 
from  outside  (at  no  charge) an  additional  2  (challenging)  to  6 
(hideous) spares and rations per turn at Progress.
     Starting  population  at  Progress  will  increase  slightly  with 
increasing difficulty level.

                         Reality Level Effects

     If  the Maintenance and Training reality reality level  is  turned 
off,  then production and transport of spares and rations is prohibited 
and  every star system will be given 500 spares and 50 rations  at  the 
beginning of each turn.   This frees players from having to worry about 
the logistics of maintenance and training.
     If the Command, Control, and Fog reality level is turned off, then 
the Commanders,  Special Support,  and Special Ops menu selections  are 
disabled.   All forces will come under central command, and each player 
will  receive  a complete update on all star systems  every  turn.   No 
rebellion or food riots will occur.
     Note that since the computer player is designed to take  advantage 
of  the effects of the reality levels,  turning them off gives a  human 
player  an  advantage in solitaire  play.   Also,  turning  off  either 
reality  level  will  in  general  give  an  advantage  to  any  player 
conducting offensive operations.

     In the following descriptions of the scenarios,  a standard set of 
abbreviations for ship types is used.  These are defined as follows:

     BC:Battlecruiser.  This  is  a P.H.R.  designation for  any  large 
warship (cost greater than 20 build units). 
     CH:Heavy Cruiser.   This is a Corporate League designation for any 
large warship (cost greater than 20 build units).
     CL:Light  Cruiser.   This  is a designation for  any  medium  size 
warship (cost greater than 8 and less than 21 build units).
     CLE:Light Escort Cruiser.   This is a Corporate League designation 
for any small warship (cost less than 10 build units).
     F:Frigate.   This  is a P.H.R.  designation for any small  warship 
(cost less than 10 build units).
     i:i Space Cruiser.   This a designation for any ship equiped  with 
an i space drive.
     AT:Assault Transport.   This is a designation for any ship equiped 
for the projection of military units into space to ground assaults.
     T:Transport.    This  is  a  designation  for  any  ship  intended 
for use primarily as a cargo carrier.

     In  general,  Corporate League ships are more varied in type  than 
those produced by the People's Holy Republic.   Both players' ships are 
generally of conservative design.

                         ****The Scenarios****

6.1 The Long Campaign

                             Introduction

     This  is intended to be the primary game scenario.   It  puts  the 
players  in  the  position described by  the  historical  notes  (rules 
section  8.0).   The  starting  positions are  very  chaotic  and  will 
probably  be  quite difficult for a new player to  manage  effectively.  
Players are advised to play scenarios 6.5,  (6.2,  6.3 or 6.4) and (6.6 
or 6.7) before attempting to play the long campaign.
     Game  play  begins with the 04/2320 turn and continues  until  the 
standard  victory conditions (see above) are met.   Typical games  will 
last until about 2345 (approximately 100 turns).
     
     There are no special victory conditions for this scenario.
     
              Special Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects:

     The  pace  of P.H.R.  exploration will  increase  with  increasing 
difficulty level.
     Initial naval forces will be increased by about 5 ships per  level 
for  levels  above  'moderate'.   The additional ships  will  be  small 
transports and warships.
     Initial  factory,  farm,  mine,  and refinery deployment  will  be 
increased by about 3 units each at levels above 'challenging'.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
          Population..........900         Habitability/Farms....100/60
          Naval presence......TF1         Metals/Mines..........40/36
          Military presence...3Sy         Organics/Refineries...60/54
          Factories...........60

     Brotherhood star system:
          Population..........97          Habitability/Farms....10/08
          Naval presence......TF02,TF32   Metals/Mines..........80/33
          Military presence...2Sy         Organics/Refineries...40/28
          Factories...........20

     Unity star system:
          Population..........12          Habitability/Farms....80/01
          Naval presence......TF03        Metals/Mines..........50/01
          Military presence...1Sy         Organics/Refineries...20/01
          Factories...........1

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T,CL              TF03:T
          TF02:T                   TF32:2*T

     In Transit:T
     Training Command:F
     Transport Pool:T

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Population..........1000        Habitability/Farms....70/40
          Naval presence......TF01        Metals/Mines..........60/50
          Military presence...1Sy         Organics/Refineries...50/50
          Factories...........50

     Laird's Star star system:
          Population..........75          Habitability/Farms....90/20
          Naval presence......TF02        Metals/Mines..........20/10
          Military presence...none        Organics/Refineries...65/20
          Factories...........10

     Task Forces:
          TF01:6*T
          TF02:2*T

     Transport Pool:7*T

     All  star  systems except those listed above  are  unexplored  and 
unclaimed.

6.2 The Short Campaign

                             Introduction

     This  is essentially the same situation as 6.1 above,  but set  10 
game  years later.   The initial (2320) economic imbalances  have  been 
resolved,  and  the star cluster has  been explored.   Players  inherit 
stable,  well run economies and face only the task of organizing  their 
colonial expansion and military/economic buildup.  Although the central 
systems' moratorium  on  'unauthorized  warfare'  has   expired,   open 
hostilities are still at least a few years away.     

     Game  play  begins with the 04/2330 turn and continues  until  the 
standard  victory conditions (see above) are met.   Typical games  will 
last until about 2345 (approximately 75 turns).
     
     There are no special victory conditions for this scenario.
     
     Special Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects:
     Initial naval forces will be increased by about 5 ships per  level 
for  levels  above  'moderate'.   The additional ships  will  be  small 
transports and warships.
     Initial  factory,  farm,  mine,  and refinery deployment  will  be 
increased by about 3 units each at levels above 'challenging'.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
        Population..........1350           Habitability/Farms....100/96
        Naval presence......TF02,TF04,TF05,TF06
        Military presence...7Sy,9Sy,13Hy   Metals/Mines..........40/39
        Factories...........64             Organics/Refineries...60/59
          
     Brotherhood star system:
        Population..........182            Habitability/Farms....50/10
        Naval presence......TF03           Metals/Mines..........80/50
        Military presence...3Sy,8Lt,12Hy   Organics/Refineries...40/28
        Factories...........25

     Unity star system:
        Population..........27             Habitability/Farms....100/01
        Naval presence......none           Metals/Mines..........50/01
        Military presence...1Sy,4Sy        Organics/Refineries...20/01
        Factories...........01

     Alpha Felis star system:
        Population..........100            Habitability/Farms....100/02
        Naval presence......TF01           Metals/Mines..........100/14
        Military presence...6Hy,10Hy,11Hy  Organics/Refineries...100/14
        Factories...........10

     Glance's Star system:
        Military presence...2Sy,5Sy

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T
          TF02:4*T
          TF03:T
          TF04:T
          TF05:2*T
          TF06:2*T

     In Transit:2*T,AT,2*BC,F,2*i
     Training Command:17*BC,F
     Transport Pool:10*T
     Raiding Command:F,2*CL,5*i
     Special Support:F
     Escort Command:13*F

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Population..........1267         Habitability/Farms....100/65
          Naval presence......TF01,TF07    Metals/Mines..........60/59
          Military presence...7Hy,11Hy,13Lt,15Lt
          Factories...........73           Organics/Refineries...50/54

     Laird's Star system:
          Population..........118          Habitability/Farms....100/20
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........20/10
          Military presence...1Sy,2Sy      Organics/Refineries...65/20
          Factories...........14

     Kiffryn's Star system:
          Population..........35           Habitability/Farms....71/00
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........50/00
          Military presence...8Hy,9Hy,10Hy,12Lt,14Hy
          Factories...........00           Organics/Refineries...100/00

     Bennett's Star system:
          Population..........210          Habitability/Farms....100/03
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........100/29
          Military presence...5Hy,6Hy      Organics/Refineries...100/24
          Factories...........10

     Epsilon Felis star system:
          Population..........00           Habitability/Farms....30/00
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........100/00
          Military presence...3Sy,4Sy      Organics/Refineries...40/00
          Factories...........00

     Brotherhood star system: (owned by P.H.R.)
          Naval presence......TF04

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T
          TF04:T
          TF05:3*T

     In Transit:4*CLE,i,CH
     Training Command:13*T,8*CH,2*AT
     Transport Pool:9*T
     Escort Command:14*CLE
     Raiding Command:3*i

6.3 The War (Historical)

                             Introduction

     The  Corporate League colonial expansion met with greater  success 
than similar efforts by the People's Holy Republic.   Seeing this  (and 
having a head start in the armament race) the P.H.R.  began a  campaign 
of raiding League trade routes.  Given the League response of beginning 
it's  own military/naval buildup,  it was only a matter of time  before 
the eruption of open hostilities 
     As the scenario starts, limited hostilities have just begun.  Open 
hostilities will commence in from 6 to 18 turns.

     Game  play  begins with the 04/2334 turn and continues  until  the 
standard  victory conditions (see above) are met.   Typical games  will 
last until about 2345 (approximately 45 turns).
     
     There are no special victory conditions for this scenario.
     
     Special Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects:
     Initial  factory,  farm,  mine,  and refinery deployment  will  be 
increased by about 3 units each at levels above 'challenging'.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
          Population..........1556         Habitability/Farms....100/96
          Naval presence......TF02,TF04,TF05,TF06
          Military presence...14Hy,16Hy,17Hy,18Hy,19Lt,20Hy         
          Factories...........80           Metals/Mines..........40/39
                                           Organics/Refineries...60/59

     Brotherhood star system:
          Population..........218          Habitability/Farms....66/10
          Naval presence......TF03         Metals/Mines..........80/50
          Military presence...8Lt,12Hy,15Lt
          Factories...........33           Organics/Refineries...40/28

     Unity star system:
          Population..........38           Habitability/Farms....100/01
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........50/01
          Military presence...1Sy,4Sy      Organics/Refineries...20/01
          Factories...........01

     Alpha Felis star system:
          Population..........173          Habitability/Farms....100/04
          Naval presence......TF01         Metals/Mines..........100/28
          Military presence...6Hy,10Hy,11Hy,13Hy
          Factories...........10           Organics/Refineries...100/28

     Glance's Star system:
          Military presence...2Sy,3Sy,5Sy,7Sy,9Sy

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T
          TF02:4*T
          TF03:T
          TF04:T
          TF05:2*T
          TF06:2*T

     In Transit:3*BC,2*AT,3*F
     Training Command:28*BC,2*AT
     Transport Pool:13*T
     Escort Command:22*F
     Raiding Command:2*CL,F,8*i
     Special Support:F

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Population..........1377         Habitability/Farms....100/70
          Naval presence......TF01,TF02,TF03  
          Military presence...7Hy,11Hy,13Lt,16Hy,17Lt,19Lt,21Lt,22Hy
          Factories...........77           Metals/Mines..........60/59
                                           Organics/Refineries...50/54

     Laird's Star star system:
          Population..........184          Habitability/Farms....100/21
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........20/10
          Military presence...1Sy,2Sy      Organics/Refineries...65/20
          Factories...........16

     Kiffryn's Star system:
          Population..........91           Habitability/Farms....87/00
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........50/00
          Military presence...8Hy,9Hy,10Hy,12Lt,14Hy,20Hy
          Factories...........00           Organics/Refineries...100/00

     Bennett's Star system:
          Population..........245          Habitability/Farms....100/03
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........100/35
          Military presence...5Hy,6Hy,15Lt,18Hy
          Factories...........10           Organics/Refineries...100/30

     Epsilon Felis star system:
          Population..........00           Habitability/Farms....30/00
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........100/00
          Military presence...3Sy,4Sy      Organics/Refineries...40/00
          Factories...........00

     Alpha Felis star system: (owned by P.H.R.)
          Naval presence......TF04

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T
          TF02:3*T
          TF03:7*T
          TF04:T,CLE

     In Transit:4*CH,CLE,i
     Training Command:5*T,19*CH,6*AT
     Transport Pool:10*T
     Escort Command:28*CLE,2*CH
     Raiding Command:8*i

6.4 Alternate War

                             Introduction

     Everyone was expecting war after the departure of the peacekeeping 
forces.  The amazing thing was that peace lasted as long as it did.  In 
this alternate war scenario,  war comes early.   Neither side is really 
prepared for it.  Assault transports are in particularly short supply.
     This  scenario  not  only  provides for  an  early  war,  but  the 
preceding   history  is different.   The strategic situation  is  quite 
different from that in the previous scenario.
     As the scenario starts, limited hostilities have just begun.  Open 
hostilities will commence in from 6 to 18 turns.

     Game  play  begins with the 04/2331 turn and continues  until  the 
standard  victory conditions (see above) are met.   Typical games  will 
last until about 2345 (approximately 55 turns).
     
     There are no special victory conditions for this scenario.
     
     Special Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects:
     Initial  factory,  farm,  mine,  and refinery deployment  will  be 
increased by about 3 units each at levels above 'challenging'.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
          Population..........1268         Habitability/Farms....100/96
          Naval presence......TF01,TF04    Metals/Mines..........40/39
          Military presence...7Sy,9Sy,13Hy
          Factories...........65           Organics/Refineries...60/59

     Brotherhood star system:
          Population..........158          Habitability/Farms....51/07
          Naval presence......TF03         Metals/Mines..........80/47
          Military presence...3Sy,8Lt,12Hy
          Factories...........25           Organics/Refineries...40/25

     Unity star system:
          Population..........28           Habitability/Farms....100/01
          Naval presence......TF06         Metals/Mines..........50/01
          Military presence...1Sy,2Sy,4Sy,5Sy
          Factories...........01           Organics/Refineries...20/01

     Glance's Star system:
          Population..........100          Habitability/Farms....91/00
          Naval presence......TF02,TF05    Metals/Mines..........100/17
          Military presence...6Hy,10Hy,11Hy
          Factories...........10           Organics/Refineries...100/17

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T
          TF02:4*T
          TF03:T
          TF04:T
          TF05:2*T
          TF06:2*T

     In Transit:BC,i,F,T
     Training Command:18*BC,AT,F
     Transport Pool:12*T
     Escort Command:5*F
     Raiding Command:4*CL,4*F,6*i
     Special Support:6*F

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Population..........1274         Habitability/Farms....100/57
          Naval presence......TFO2         Metals/Mines..........60/59
          Military presence...4Hy,9Hy,12Hy,14Hy,15Hy,16Hy     
          Factories...........71           Organics/Refineries...50/54

     Laird's Star system:
          Population..........153          Habitability/Farms....100/26
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........20/10
          Military presence...none         Organics/Refineries...65/20
          Factories...........14

     Bennett's Star system:
          Population..........61           Habitability/Farms....88/00
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........75/00
          Military presence...6Lt,7Hy,8Lt,13Hy   
          Factories...........00           Organics/Refineries...70/00

     Kiffryn's Star system:
          Population..........154          Habitability/Farms....100/26
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........100/21
          Military presence...3Lt,5Hy,10Hy,11Hy    
          Factories...........10           Organics/Refineries...100/10

     Gamma Felis star system:
          Population..........00           Habitability/Farms....85/00 
          Naval presence......none         Metals/Mines..........65/00
          Military presence...1Sy,2Sy      Organics/Refineries...65/00
          Factories...........00

     Task Forces:
          TF02:4*T

     In Transit:3*CLE,CH
     Training Command:10*T,10*CH,i
     Transport Pool:10*T
     Escort Command:16*CLE,3*CH
     Raiding Command:3*i

6.5 Exploration

                             Introduction

     In  this scenario,  the players are placed in the chaotic  04/2320 
positions they also face in the long campaign game.   This scenario  is 
intended primarily as a training game for those who wish to prepare for 
a long campaign scenario.   Special victory conditions reflect the long 
range implications of player actions during this short  scenario.   Pre 
planned industrial production allows players to concentrate exclusively 
on exploration, maintenance, and colonization.   
     As the scenario starts,  the exploration/colonization phase of the 
game has just begun.  There will be no occurrence of hostilities.

     Game play begins with the 04/2320 turn and continues until the end 
of the 04/2324 turn (21 turns). 
     
     Special  Victory Conditions:  In addition to the standard  victory 
conditions, victory levels will be computed by the following schedule:
    
     A: For each friendly system:
          (population exclusive of colonies)*system loyalty/50.
     B: Transport capacity of transport pool/20
     Total victory level=Standard victory level+A+B.

     Special Solitaire Difficulty Level Effects: 
     The  pace  of P.H.R.  exploration will  increase  with  increasing 
difficulty levels. 

     Special:  There  will be no economics phase for either  player  in 
this  scenario.   All actions will take place from the movement  menus.  
Movement to and from Escort,  Raiding,  and Special Support Commands is 
prohibited.

     Initial Resources are the same as in the long campaign scenario.

6.6 Gold River

                             Introduction

     The war lasted longer than most people had expected.  Fighting was 
fortunately  limited  primarily to the  Brotherhood-Ramage  C-Kiffryn's 
Star corridor, although destruction was quite extensive in the affected 
systems.  Brotherhood had traded hands four times by war's end.
     This  scenario  picks  up  the action  as  the  League  player  is 
preparing to conduct his second assault (The 'Gold River' operation) on 
the  Brotherhood  system.   Both players' fleets are at close  to  full 
strength.  In the historical case, the 04/2347 quarter saw both players 
holding the same (somewhat more radioactive) systems as at the start of 
the operation.  
     Game play begins with the 03/2345 turn and continues until the end 
of the 04/2347 turn (10 turns). 
     
     Special  Victory Conditions:  The standard victory conditions  are 
not used.  Victory is dependent solely on control  of  the  Brotherhood 
system. 
 
     There  are no special solitaire difficulty level effects for  this 
scenario.

     Special:  There  will be no economics phase for either  player  in 
this scenario.  All actions will  take  place  from the movement menus.
Movement to and from Escort,  Raiding,  and Special Support Commands is 
prohibited.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
          Naval presence......TF01,TF04,TF7,TF14,TF32,TF36
          Military presence...19Hy,20Hy,21Hy,22Hy,23Hy

     Brotherhood star system:
          Naval presence......TF08,TF15,TF17,TF22,TF23,TF31
          Military presence...08Hy,15Hy,16Hy

     Unity star system:
          Naval presence......TF06
          Military presence...01Sy,04Sy

     Glance's Star system:
          Naval presence......TF05
          Military presence...02Sy,03Sy,05Sy,07Sy,09Sy

     Alpha Felis star system:
          Naval presence......TF02
          Military presence...06Hy,10Hy,11Hy,13Hy

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T           TF15:2*BC
          TF02:4*T           TF17:5*BC
          TF04:T             TF22:16*BC
          TF05:2*T           TF23:11*BC,F
          TF06:2*T           TF31:3*AT : 14Hy,17Hy,18Hy embarked
          TF07:3*T           TF32:AT : 12Hy embarked
          TF08:2*T           TF36:CL,i
          TF14:BC

     In Transit:4*T,AT,3*i,3*BC
     Training Command:T,2*BC

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Naval presence......TF01
          Military presence...08Hy,09Lt,10Hy,11Hy,22Hy

     Laird's Star system:
          Naval presence......TF36
          Military presence...01Sy,02Sy

     Bennett's Star system:
          Military presence...05Hy,06Hy,15Lt,18Hy

     Kiffryn's Star system:
          Military presence...12Lt,20Hy
    
     Ramage C star system:
          Naval presence......TF03,TF10,TF11,TF12,TF20
          Military presence...07Lt,13Lt,16Lt,17Lt,19Lt,21Lt,23Hy

     Epsilon Felis star system:
          Military presence...03Sy,04Sy

     Task Forces:
          TF01:7*T                 TF12:6*CH,7*CL,3*CLE
          TF03:3*T                 TF20:2*T,4*AT : 20Lt embarked
          TF10:8*CH,6*CL,2*CLE     TF36:2*i
          TF11:7*CH,5*CL,4*CLE

     In Transit:4*CH,T,2*CL,3*CLE,3*i
     Training Command:4*AT,6*T,CLE,CL,CH

6.7 Jericho

                             Introduction

     Each  side  began  the  war with it's  own  ideas  about  how  the 
situation would develop.   As this scenario starts, an early war P.H.R. 
plan  (Plan  Jericho) for the first stage of an advance on  the  League 
home systems is about to be executed.   A Republican force has gathered 
at  the Glance's Star system for the primary assault,  while a  smaller 
force is preparing for action in the Ramage ABC area.

     Game play begins with the 04/2340 turn and continues until the end 
of the 04/2342 turn (9 turns). 
     
     Special  Victory Conditions:  The standard victory conditions  are 
not  used.   Victory  is  dependent solely on control  of  the  'border 
systems'.   1  victory point is awarded for the control of each of  the 
following systems: Delta Felis, Epsilon Felis, Glance's Star, Bennett's 
Star,  Kiffryn's Star, Ramage B, Ramage C, Brotherhood.  A 'tied' score 
is a People's Holy Republic victory.
 
     There  are no special solitaire difficulty level effects for  this 
scenario.

     Special:  There  will be no economics phase for either  player  in 
this scenario.   All  actions  will take place from the movement menus.
Movement to and from Escort,  Raiding,  and Special Support Commands is 
prohibited.

                          Initial Resources

People's Holy Republic:
     Progress star system:
          Naval presence......TF02,TF04,TF05,TF06,TF07,TF32  
          Military presence...19Lt,20Hy,21Hy,22Hy,23Hy,24Hy,25Hy,26Hy  

     Brotherhood star system:
          Naval presence......TF03,TF18,TF19,TF30  
          Military presence...08Lt,15Lt,12Hy

     Unity star system:
          Military presence...01Sy,04Sy 

     Alpha Felis star system:
          Naval presence......TF01
          Military presence...06Hy,10Hy,11Hy,13Hy

     Baker's Star system: (owned by Corporate League)
          Naval presence......TF20

     Glance's Star system:
          Naval presence......TF08,TF22,TF23,TF31
          Military presence...02Sy,03Sy,05Sy,07Sy,09Sy

     Task Forces:
          TF01:2*T            TF18:F
          TF02:4*T            TF19:BC
          TF03:T              TF20:BC
          TF04:T              TF22:14*BC
          TF05:2*T            TF23:9*BC,2*F
          TF06:2*T            TF30:AT,3*F,3*BC : 17Hy embarked
          TF07:T              TF31:3*AT : 14Hy,16Hy,18Hy embarked
          TF08:3*T            TF32:AT

     In Transit:6*T,2*CL,4*F,5*BC,AT,i

Corporate League:
     Alger star system:
          Military presence...17Lt,19Lt,21Lt,22Hy,23Hy,24Lt

     Laird's Star star system:
          Naval presence......TF33,TF35,TF36
          Military presence...01Sy,02Sy

     Kiffryn's Star system:
          Naval presence......TF02,TF12
          Military presence...08Hy,09Hy,10Hy,12Lt,14Hy,20Hy

     Bennett's Star star system:
          Naval presence......TF03,TF20
          Military presence...05Hy,06Hy,15Lt

     Gamma Felis star system:
          Naval presence......TF04

     Delta Felis star system:
          Naval presence......TF10,TF11
          Military presence...07Hy,11Hy,13Lt,16Hy

     Epsilon Felis star system:
          Military presence...03Sy,04Sy

     Task Forces:
          TF02:2*T            TF12:2*CLE,CL,10*CH
          TF03:5*T            TF20:CLE,T,4*AT
          TF04:CLE            TF33:T
          TF10:CLE,CL,10*CH   TF35:CLE
          TF11:CLE,9*CH       TF36:i

     In Transit:CH,T
     Training Command:3*T,3*AT,6*CH,CL,3*CLE

7.0 Solitaire and Two Player Play

     In two player mode,  the game will pause and display an alert  box 
stating  'Begin  next  game phase [begin]' before  beginning  the  next 
player's  phase.   This  allows the players to exchange places  at  the 
computer without either player seeing any information he shouldn't see.  
All  task  force information etc.  is erased before the  alert  box  is 
displayed, and the next player's information is not displayed until the 
alert box [begin] button is selected.
     Any saved game may be restarted  in the two player mode;  however, 
only  games  initiated  in  the solitaire  mode  may  be  restarted  in 
solitaire mode.  (The computer player might do pretty weird things with 
someone else's deployments.)
  
8.0 Historical Background

     By  the  early part of the 24th century  A.D.,  mankind  had  been 
exploring and colonizing the stars for over two hundred  years.   Early 
colonization efforts were financed by governments in much the same  way 
as  early  colonization of 'the new world' on Earth during the  era  of 
European expansion in the 16th through 19th centuries A.D.  As with the 
conquest  of  the  new  world,   private  groups  became  involved   in 
interstellar colonization as soon as this became financially  possible.  
Many  of  these groups settled in the systems originally  developed  by 
governments,  but some saw flight into the infinite volume of space  as 
the perfect way to escape outside interference.  Any organization which 
could raise the necessary funds could establish itself well outside the 
boundaries claimed by the great powers.  Since it was more expensive to 
ship colonists to locations distant from civilization, only groups with 
great  interest in freedom of action went to the trouble of setting  up 
shop on the frontiers of human expansion.   These radical groups sought 
things  such as ethnic purity,  political and  religious  freedoms,  or 
simply  a new start for mankind;  far from the perceived  decadence  of 
Earth.   As  some  areas  of space were  more  desirable  than  others, 
conflicts would occasionally arise between rival groups in these areas.  
     One  of the most desirable of the frontier areas of this time  was 
the  Kiffryn's Cats star cluster.   This rather oddly named  volume  of 
space was originally surveyed by a small naval force under the  command 
of the famous explorer Pyotr Kiffryn;  who claimed that the star  field 
made up of  the Felis sector and its background stars, when viewed from 
the  system later to be known as Kiffryn's star, resembled two cats  at 
play.  Thus those stars in the cluster which were not named for various 
scientists  or  commanders in Kiffryn's command came to  be  given  the 
names of feline mascots aboard ships in the command.
    Two groups  settled in this cluster.    The People's Holy  Republic 
was  founded by Christian Communists of Northern and  Central  American 
origins during the latter part of the 23rd century A.D., after the fall 
of  The  People's  Holy Marxist Union  of  Northwest  American  States.  
Although  the  Holy  Republic  was  originally  established  with   the 
intention  of government by literal interpretation of The New  Reformed 
Worker's Bible, local government rapidly developed into a rigid form of 
patriarchal oligarchy.   About twenty years after the original People's 
Holy  Republic settlement in the Brotherhood system,  a  consortium  of 
large  privately owned European and Middle Eastern industrial  concerns 
established a colony in the Alger system.   In response to the adoption 
of  new tax and labor relations laws in the central systems,  what  had 
begun as an experimental frontier trading post became a primary  center 
of interstellar business.  As the resources and most of the families of 
the partners of the consortium transferred to the new colony at  Alger, 
a loose anarchic form of local regulation developed into the  Corporate 
League.   The  P.H.R.  had originally welcomed the newcomers  into  the 
cluster, but quickly grew alarmed at the rapid rate of expansion of the 
League  settlement.   Hawkish  members of the Holy Bureau of Elders  of 
the  P.H.R.  succeeded in cutting all economic ties with the  Corporate 
League,  purchased  and rearmed an old East Asian  space  cruiser,  and 
began local construction of a class of small warship.   Several popular 
political organizations based in the central systems,  still angered by 
the economic effects of the what they saw as an unjustified mass exodus 
of corporate wealth, offered open military support to the Holy Republic 
in  the  event of war.  A period of rapid exploration  and  territorial 
expansion began in the cluster.
     Peace  was  maintained through the threat of intervention  by  the 
great powers in any local open warfare.   By 2320 A.D.  this threat was 
wearing  a bit thin as no such intervention had in fact occurred in any 
of  the  small  but  growing local  conflicts  on  the  frontier.   The 
governments  with  the power to effectively intervene  were  coming  to 
realize  that the frontier area was far enough away from their  spheres 
(literally)  of  interest that  localized frontier  conflicts  were  no 
threat  to them,  and that possible future competitors on the  frontier 
were dissipating their energies on local power struggles.   It is  also 
true that the societies of the central systems were coming to view  the 
frontier  societies  as cultural nut cases,  hardly worth  saving  from 
their own folly.  In an effort to gracefully withdraw from their duties 
as galactic police,  the important powers of the central systems agreed 
to  enforce  their  ban on 'unauthorized' warfare for a  period  of  10 
years,  to  end in 2330 A.D.   Seeing the light at the end of what  had 
begun  to look like a very long dark tunnel,  the  central  governments 
began  vigorously  enforcing  the  peace  in  2320.   Central  business 
interests  were  given 10 years to pull out of the  frontier,  or  stop 
complaining about poor conditions for commerce.   An enforced peace did 
return to all of human space for a brief time as a  brisk black  market 
trade  in obsolescent weapons developed.   From the viewpoint  of  2320 
A.D.,  the  beginning  of  the fourth decade of the  24th  century  was 
expected  to  be a very interesting time for those not  living  in  the 
central systems.
     This  is  the  situation when the game  begins.   Welcome  to  the 
Frontier.
 
9.0 Hints and Designer's Notes

     A typical long campaign game of Frontier can be divided into three 
distinct phases.  First, players will explore as many stars as they can 
reach,  while  trying  to consolidate their starting  industrial  base.  
Effective  exploration  will require  careful  planning.   The  typical 
exploration  task  force  should  include at  least  one  transport  in 
addition  to  the  ship  carrying  the  exploration  team.   Additional 
transports  should  be  loaded  with  spares.    Once  the  exploration 
transport is damaged by 'wear and tear', it will not be able to re-load 
the exploration team until it has been repaired.   Neither player has a 
large  supply of exploration teams to leave lying  around.   While  the 
computer will produce new exploration teams,  the rate of production is 
quite  slow  (One percent chance per quarter at any system  with  local 
population of 250 thousand or more).   It will probably be necessary to 
set up a bucket brigade of transports to keep the exploration forces in 
spares.  The  People's  Holy Republic player should build  a  class  of 
maximum  size  (15 cargo system) transports as quickly as  possible  in 
order to explore and exploit his neighborhood.
     Next,  the  players  will expand into the cluster.   Only  a  very 
unlucky player will fail to find a 'nearly perfect' system near  enough 
to his home system for easy colonization.  Generally, it will be a good 
idea  to  concentrate on building up this  system.   Each  player  must 
identify  the  materials needed by his society,  and  colonize  systems 
where  production  of these materials will be  inexpensive.   The  most 
effective way of setting up a colony is to produce ten factory kits for 
placement in a new system.  Let your transport pool carry the necessary 
goods  to run colonial factories until they become self  supporting  by 
producing local farms, mines, and refineries.  If you know that you are 
going  to  be  setting  up a colony in a  system  but  don't  have  the 
resources  yet,  be sure to move at least one colony to the  system  in 
order  to  begin  building up  the  local  habitability  rating.   Your 
transports  can  move  Earthlike and protected colonies  around  a  lot 
faster than belt colonies.   Concentrate on one colony system at a time 
to  begin with.   You will not have the resources to do a good  job  on 
more than this.  It may be necessary to allow some slack in  production 
at your original star systems in order to free up raw materials for use 
in starting up your colonies.  Be sure to ship out enough population to 
support the build up of colonial industry.   No facilities may be built 
if  no  idle population exists locally to man them.   Build  the  local 
colonial population up to around 100 (thousand) as quickly as possible. 
If  your planning is good,  the colony should be self supporting in  at 
least  one category of raw materials production by this time,  and  you 
can begin building the next one if necessary.  Be sure to build up your 
raw materials production before building up factories,  shipyards  etc, 
or you will end up with a lot of idle production facilities.
     Keep  an  eye  on  what  the other  player  is  producing  at  his 
shipyards.   While the ability to view the other player's current  ship 
classes  is  not  a particularly reliable way to  count  current  force 
strengths, it can be useful in avoiding nasty surprises.
     Depending upon the distribution of resources in the  cluster,  the 
players will probably end up fighting over some star system eventually.  
Campaigns must be planned.  Players should try to create a mix of large 
and  small  warship  types.   Large  (100+) pools  of  spares  must  be 
accumulated at the star systems near the points of conflict.   Warships 
should be kept in training, escort, and raiding commands until they are 
needed  in task forces.   Once warships are pulled out of the  commands 
and  placed in active task forces,  the players will have  to  maintain 
them.  This will be expensive.  Active task forces should contain a few 
small warships as well as the larger,  more powerful  varieties.   This 
will  limit  the cost effectiveness of enemy long range  weapons  since 
these weapons will select their targets at random.   On the other hand, 
if you make nothing but small warships,  you will soon bump against the 
120 ship limit.   When you plan an assault on an enemy system, separate 
your forces into two or more task forces with different missions.  Most 
of your warships should go into task forces with attack missions.  This 
will  force  any  defending forces to engage your  attack  task  forces 
first;  limiting  the number of long range weapons your transport  task 
forces will have to dodge. Pay attention to the order in which military 
units are loaded onto transports.  If you bring along a few extra units 
for occupation duty after a space to ground assault (a good idea if the 
other player maintains a reaction force),  you probably don't want some 
of those units to take the place of your intended assault force  during 
the landings.   If a naval battle is going poorly,  don't be afraid  to 
disengage   your  forces.   There is no  penalty  for  a  disengagement 
attempt and any forces saved may live to fight another day.   Find  out 
how good your younger commanders are.  A 25 year old military genius is 
a very valuable asset.  Command has a significant effect on the game.
     Remember that once you begin hostilities,  they can't be  stopped.  
The  Corporate  League  player should take advantage  of  his  superior 
starting exploration position.   An aggressive Corporate League  player 
should  be  able  to  explore much of the  cluster  before  the  P.H.R. 
exploration  program really gets rolling.   Both players would do  well 
(in  early  games) to pay attention to the suggestions offered  by  the 
program  during  economics  reports.   The  initial  industrial  growth 
potential of the P.H.R.  should be exploited by the Republican  player.  
One last note: If you feel that you don't have enough resources to do a 
proper  job of everything that needs to be done,  you're  right!   Just 
remember that the other player is in no better shape.

10.0 Glossary

     Aborigines:   While no technologically advanced races (other  than 
humanity) had been found by the time covered by this game,  a number of 
promising  pre-technological species were known.    These  beings  were 
useful as workers,  and sometimes as trade partners.  A thorough search 
was  always  conducted for aborigines during  any  system  exploration. 
     Build Unit:  Also called Build Points.   Build Units are the basic 
element  of industrial production.   They are used to construct  ships, 
military  units,  covert  operations  options  etc.   Build  Units  are 
produced from Raw Materials at factories.
     Colonies:    Colonies  are  privately  organized  groups  of  self 
financed  volunteers ready to settle new systems as soon as  the  local 
government provides transport.  Protected and Belt colonies aren't just 
better equipped, they are also generally organized by wealthier groups.  
Even if they end up being shipped to a perfectly earthlike planet, they 
are  still  going  to be heavily encumbered the type  of  baggage  that 
poorer and more desperate colonists aren't likely to have.   That's why 
protected   and  belt  colonies  always  require  seemingly   excessive 
transport.    These  folks  aren't  going  to  go  if  they  can't   be 
comfortable.  
     Commanders:   Individuals and their planning staffs.   Given   the 
time scale of the game, these individuals will come and go.  Both sides 
employed a system of operational code names for their commanders.   The 
code names used in the game are a representative selection of the  code 
names  used  by  the People's Holy Republic and  the  Corporate  League 
during the period covered by this game.
     Covert Operations Options:  See Operations Options.
     Effectiveness:    The   technological  levels  of  the   societies 
represented  in this game can change if the players invest in  research 
(by leaving build units unspent during Allocations).   Tech levels  are 
represented  by player effectiveness.  Any class of ship designed by  a 
player will have the player's current effectiveness level.   This level 
affects the combat and movement capabilities of a player's ships.
     Exploration:   Initial  exploration of an entire star system is  a 
major  undertaking.   Each expedition is as much  a research trip as  a 
search for valuable real estate.   It is sobering to realize that as of 
1988  A.D.  we still aren't sure we've found all of the planets in  our 
own system.   It seems reasonable to assume that just about any  system 
is going to have interesting and economically attractive  features,  if 
we  can ever handle the transport costs.   The game assumes  that  some 
personnel remain behind in each star system, and entrepreneurial  types 
begin exploiting new systems as soon as possible.  This is why a player 
gets  some  benefit from each claimed system regardless of  whether  he 
ever  develops it.   It also explains why the exploring player  has  to 
send a massive exploration team to explore a new system,  and the  next 
player  to  visit the system gets all that  wonderful  information  for 
free.  'Explored' systems are crawling with prospectors, salesmen, etc.  
These  aren't the kind of people to keep  state  secrets.   Exploration 
occurs automatically if a task force containing one or more exploration 
teams ends a turn with a transport mission in an unexplored system.
     Gasworlders:   These are peculiar critters which live in the dense 
atmospheres  of 'gas giant' worlds such as Jupiter  or  Saturn.   While 
none of the gasworlders of the game are assumed to  be  technologically 
advanced,  they  do trade exotic organics with players in exchange  for 
manufactured goods.    
     Hostilities:   Before open hostilities begin,  players are limited 
to  covert  operations and command level combat in  their  attempts  to 
damage  the other player.   No task force or assault combat  will  take 
place.   Open  hostilities  will  begin from 6 to 18  turns  after  the 
initiation of limited hostilities.   Before limited hostilities  begin, 
no command level combat takes place.
     i  Space:   Physicists and engineers are in love with  the  number 
'i',  the  square  root of -1.  Any coordinate system defined  in  part 
by  the  use of i is typically called an  imaginary  space.   Imaginary 
spaces  abound  in  modern mathematical treatments  of  all  manner  of 
physical phenomena.  In this game, all interstellar (faster than light) 
movement  is  assumed  to  take place in  some  such  imaginary  space.  
Without  specialized  equipment,  i  space  travel  is  rather  crudely 
controlled over short distances.  The i space drive is such specialized 
equipment.
     Local :  In the particular star system under consideration at  the 
moment.
     Major  Command:   Some  ships may be assigned to  perform  special 
tasks  without  the direct involvement of a  player.   Such  tasks  are 
performed  by the following Major  Commands:   Transport  Pool,  Escort 
Command,   Raiding  Command,  Training  Command,  and  Special  Support 
Command.   Functions  of the Major Commands are detailed in rules  4.1, 
5.1 and 5.34.
     Military Formation: See Military Unit.
     Military  Unit:  Any  game entity which  performs  ground  combat.  
Allowed types of units include:  Security Forces, Light Regulars, Heavy 
Regulars,  and Special Forces teams.  Security Forces and regular units 
are battalions (around 1000 men),  and Special Forces teams are company 
sized  formations  (around 100-200 men).  Whenever a military  unit  is 
created,  the  local population drops one point to reflect  a  manpower 
drain.    The  term  'military  unit'  is  synonymous  with   'military 
formation'.
     Mission:   Any  task force must be assigned a  mission.   Missions 
include:  attack,  transport,  and  reserve.   Task forces assigned  an 
attack  mission  will (after open hostilities have  begun)  attack  any 
enemy task forces in their star system.   Task forces with a  transport 
mission  will  attempt to place exploration teams (military  units)  in 
unexplored  (enemy)  star systems (once open hostilities  have  begun).  
Task forces with reserve missions will take no offensive  actions,  but 
will defend themselves if attacked.
     Oort People:  Oort people are seemingly intelligent (there is some 
disagreement)   migratory organisms which inhabit the far reaches of  a 
star  system.   Under  certain circumstances,  they will  trade  exotic 
metals in exchange for original radio frequency 'musical' sequences.
     Operations  Options:   Operations Options are the basic  units  of 
manpower  and resources which can be allocated to the following: foment 
rebellion  among  enemy  star systems,  reconnaissance  of  enemy  star 
systems,  and  internal security.   They are produced  at  intelligence 
centers.  Operations Options are also called covert operations options.
     Paleotechnology:  'Ancient technology'.  This stuff is usually too 
old  to  be of much use,  but on occasion the artifacts of  an  earlier 
starfaring race can provide useful insights to solutions of  scientific 
or engineering problems.
     Production  Facilities:    Production  Facilities  are  the   game 
entities  which  produce  all  raw  materials,   build  units,   covert 
operations options,  ships,  spares,  military units, and rations.  The 
following  are  production  facilities:   farms,   mines,   refineries, 
factories, shipyards, training centers, and intelligence centers.
     Rations:   Rations represent any and all materials needed for  the 
training and refitting of military units.
     Raw  Materials:   Raw Materials are used to produce  build  units.  
Raw Materials consist of the following:  food,  metals,  and  organics.  
They are produced by farms, mines, and refineries.
     Reassignment:   Ships  may  be reassigned from  one  taskforce  or 
command to another task force or command.   Ships which are  reassigned 
will be placed in transit to their destination, and will not arrive for 
from 1 to 4 turns.
     Space to Ground Assault:  This is the projection of military units 
from  transports  into an enemy controlled star  system.   A  space  to 
ground  assault  will occur automatically if a task force with  one  or 
more  military units loaded on the proper types of transports ends  the 
turn with a transport mission in an enemy star system.  
     Spiders:   Microbiological hazards are relatively easy to  protect 
against;  but  small, fast moving, fearless predators can be  a  tricky 
problem.  The most common biological impediment to colonization in this 
region of space usually resembles a very large spider.
     Task Force:   A Task Force is any unit of 20 or fewer ships  which 
are under the direct control of a player.  Any task force with no ships 
currently  assigned is considered to be 'inactive'.   Task forces  will 
perform different actions based upon their assigned missions.
     Transfer:   A transfer of ships may occur between two task  forces 
in  the  same star system,  or between any active task  force  and  any 
inactive (empty) task force.  There is no time delay involved.  

     Current: 28 January 1988.
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