Battlehawks 1942 manual
Battlehawks 1942 © 1989 Lucasfilm Games Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION..............................................................5 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW......................................................11 THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA..............................................13 THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY.....................................................17 THE BATTLE OF THE EASTERN SOLOMONS.......................................24 THE BATTLE OF THE SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS.....................................29 GAME PLAY................................................................35 LOADING INSTRUCTIONS.....................................................36 MAIN MENU................................................................38 TRAINING MISSIONS........................................................39 ACTIVE DUTY MISSIONS.....................................................41 REVIEW PLANES............................................................47 REVIEW SERVICE RECORDS...................................................48 READY ROOMS..............................................................50 RECOGNITION TEST.........................................................53 COCKPIT VIEW.............................................................54 KEYBOARD REFERENCE.......................................................57 FLIGHT REVIEW............................................................60 UNITED STATES NAVY MEDALS................................................62 JAPANESE NAVY MEDALS.....................................................64 PROMOTIONS...............................................................65 REFERENCE INFORMATION....................................................67 FLIGHT FUNDAMENTALS......................................................69 AERIAL TACTICS AND TIPS..................................................75 JAPANESE AND AMERICAN AIRCRAFT:1942......................................87 JAPANESE AND AMERICAN WARSHIPS:1942.....................................107 DESIGNER'S NOTES........................................................121 BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................125 COLOR BATTLE MAPS.......................................................129 THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY THE BATTLE OF THE EASTERN SOLOMONS THE BATTLE OF THE SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS 3 INTRODUCTION 5 PREFACE In 1940, I was ordered from Pensacola, Florida, to a dive-bombing squadron aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise. Even though I had been a flight instructor in Pensacola, I was still raw, and untested in battle, like most of the people I first flew with. Perhaps that was an advantage, as I was so pumped up that I wasn't fearful in combat-exhilarated was more like it! I can only speak for myself, but I suspect most other flyers on both sides felt the same way, and those who were scared but flew combat missions nevertheless were the bravest of the brave. "The six months I flew combat missions from the Enterprise were probably the best six months of my life. My greatest thrill came on the morning of June 4, 1942, at the Battle of Midway. As I started my bombing run on the Japanese carrier Akagi, I saw its great bight tan-colored deck with a tremendous orange Rising Sun painted on the deck just forward of the bridge, and I couldn't believe I was there. I had this tremendous feeling of holding the upper hand; it was heaven! "I must admit I was a little skeptical when Lucas-film Games first told me they had a computer program that simulated the excitement of flying combat missions like the ones I flew back in '42. But after seeing the program, I was impressed. I think you'll agree they've done a great job of capturing the details of the cockpits, the feeling of flight, and the sensation of attack. And when you're in the thick of battle, the reactions of the enemy planes and ships are authentic, no matter which side you choose to fight on. "My advice to you? Fly steady. Make every bomb, torpedo, or round of ammunition count. And above all, have fun!" Lieutenant Commander Richard H. Best, U.S.N. (Ret.) 6 INTRODUCTION Battlehawks 1942 is a World War II naval air combat simulator that lets you train for - and fight in - the four pivotal naval air battles of the Pacific war in 1942. In Battlehawks, you can choose the mission, the plane, and even the country you want to fly for. But whether you fight on the Japanese or the American side, Battlehawks, lets you relive history, or even rewrite it, if you're good enough! Through a series of menu choices, you can decide whether to improve your skills with Training missions, or fly the missions that count - Active Duty missions. You then pick the battle you want to fight in, the country you want to fight for, and whether you want to fight for, and whether you want to fly fighter escort, fighter defense, dive bombing, or torpedo-bombing missions. You can also inspect all the aircraft to learn about their strengths and weaknesses. Then, you move to the Ready Room to choose your plane, and make any last-minute modifications to your mission. Next comes the actual mission itself. You'll find yourself in the cockpit of the aircraft you chose, flying high above the water. Your plane will respond to the controls much the way a real plane does. But you'd better master the basics of flight quickly, because enemy planes and ships are nearby. You'll soon be flying in the face of danger! When you've completed your mission, you will be evaluated on your performance. Successful sorties will be rewarded with medals and promotion in rank, which will be kept track of in your Service Record. 7 HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL Although this manual is lengthy, a good deal of it has been devoted to the historical background of the war in the Pacific in 1942. There is also a large amount of detailed information about the ships and planes of that time. Don't worry, you won't need to read every word of the manual before you play the game. The manual is divided into four parts, Introduction, Historical Overview, Game Play, and Reference Information. There is also a separate Reference Card, which has specific loading instructions for your particular computer. If you're eager to get into the air in a hurry, see the Quick Start section on your Reference Card. With this set of instructions, you can take off on a sample Training mission and get a feel for flying. Once you're back on the ground, read the Historical Background section of the manual to familiarize yourself with the four major battles you'll be participating in. Game Play covers the details of choosing missions, flying, attacking, and winning promotions and medals. Finally, the Reference Information section give you tips on fighter plane maneuvers, dive-bombing and torpedo-bombing tactics, plus more information on the planes you'll be flying and the ships you'll be attacking. 8 QUICK START REFERENCE If you're like most game players, you probably want to get a taste of flying without doing a whole lot of reading first. The Quick Start instructions let you do just that. In a matter of minutes, you can be flying a U.S. Navy Wildcat fighter against eight Japanese Zero fighters. Your fuel and ammunition supplies are unlimited, and your mode is invincible, which means you cannot crash or be shot down. You'll find the Quick Start instructions on the Reference Card. For more detailed information on how to start up the game, see Loading Instructions, also on your Reference Card. 9 (THIS PAGE IS BLANK) 10 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 11 At the dawn of the year 1942, war was raging in the Pacific, a war thoroughly dominated by the Japanese. Their army and naval forces enjoyed a series of stunning victories, including the sinking of five battleships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Singapore, the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies, Guam, and Wake Island fell in rapid succession to the onrushing Japanese, who also pounded northern Australia with numerous air raids. As the Japanese expanded their Pacific territory, the U.S. forces, stung into action by the Pearl Harbor attack, could do little to stop them. Duty by the end of that eventful year, Japan and the United States would engage in a series of four epic naval clashes that would decide the fate of the entire Pacific. These battles, the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, all had one factor in common: they were fought primarily by aircraft flying from aircraft carriers. This relatively new type of ship would alter sea warfare forever. For the first time in history, carrier-based fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo bombers would be the principal attack weapons in naval combat. 12 THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA (MAY 4-10, 1942) After the capture of the Philippines, Singapore, the | "Your boys are not Netherlands East Indies, Guam, and Wake Island, the | going to be sent Japanese decided to expand their Pacific holdings | into foreign wars." even further. With Japanese troops already occupying | Franklin D. northwest New Guinea, their plan called for inva- | Roosevelt, October sion and capture of Port Moresby, the principal | 30, 1940, while Australian outpost in southeast New Guinea. The loss | campaigning in of this base would cut off the supply route between | Boston. Australia and the United States, and leave the coast |--------------------- of northeast Australia wide open to invasion. At the same time, Tulagi Island, east of Port Moresby, was to be captured and used as a seaplane base to further isolate Australia. The Japanese assembled two task forces. The Carrier Striking Force, led by Vice Admiral Takeo Takagi, left the base at Truk and headed south. This task force included the heavy carriers Shokaku and Zuikaky, veterans of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The invasion task force, under the command of Rear Admiral Aritomo Goto, was to leave the Japanese base at Rabaul on May 4th and head southwest toward Port Moresby. The light carrier Shoho, along with four heave cruisers, would escort the troop |----------------------------------------------------------- transports as they headed |The antiquated Brewster Buffalo fighter planes | toward New Guinea. |which guarded Midway were so obsolete that they | Unknown to the Japan- |were unofficially dubbed "Flying Coffins" by | ese, however, American in- |those who flew them. After most of them were | telligence had broken |wiped out in the Japanese attack on Midway, one | Japan's secret code, and the|of the commanders wrote in his action log that | U.S. forces had learned of |"It is my belief that any commander that orders | the impending invasion of |pilots out for combat in an F2A3(Brewster | Port Moresby. They also |Buffalo)should consider the pilot as lost before| knew that three Japanese |leaving the ground." The U.S. Marine SBU2-3 dive | carriers would arrive at the|bombers were equally despised. Their official | Coral Sea, northeast of |name was the Vindicators;their own crews | Australia and southeast of |referred to them as "Wind Indicators" and | New Guinea, before May 3rd. |"vibrators." | Two U.S. carrier task |-------------------------------------------------- forces were assembled, with Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher commanding the Yorktown task force, and Rear Admiral Aubrey Fitch heading up the Lexington group. The carriers Hornet and Enterprise, under the command of Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, headed south from Pearl Harbor, hoping to reach the other carriers in time to help. 13 "The sight of those |On May 3rd, a Japanese assault force captured heavy dive bomb- |Tulagi, which had been abandoned by the ers smashing that |Australians. The next day, SBD-3 Dauntless dive carrier was so |bombers and TBD Devastator torpedo bombers from awful I was |the Yorktown attacked Tulagi Harbor, sinking one physically ill." |Japanese destroyer and three minesweepers. Lieutenant Commander |Following this attack, the Yorktown met the Jimmy Flatley, de- |Lexington, and the two task forces headed west scribing the attack on|through the Coral Sea to engage the Japanese task the Shoho at the Bat- |forces. tle of the Coral Sea |Bad weather, poor visibility, and poor scouting kept |the opposing fleets from discovering each other right |away. At one point they were only seventy miles |apart, but each could not find the other. But at dawn ----------------------|on May 7th, search planes from both sides finally made sightings and attacks were launched. The Battle of the Coral Sea had begun. F4F-3 Wildcat fighters, Dauntless dive bombers, and Devastator torpedo planes from the Lexington and Yorktown searched for a reported "two carriers and four cruisers." Despite the fact that reconnaissance later reported no carriers in the area, the group pressed on, and at 11 a.m. they found the smaller task force, which was to cover the Port Moresby invasion. There, in the waters below, was an inviting target: the Shoho. Although it was protected by a small Zero fighter cover, this was not enough to fight off ninety-three American planes. Hit by thirteen bombs and seven torpedoes, the Shoho sank in half an hour. Meanwhile, the Shokaku and Zuikaku, out of sight of the attacking U.S. planes, launched a strike of their own against what a reconnaissance plane had reported as a carrier and a heavy cruiser. The "cruiser" turned out to be the destroyer Sims, which was struck by several bombs and sank. The "carrier" was the tanker Neosho, which was badly damaged and had to be scuttled several days later. The next day, May 8th, following a futile night attack on the American task force, a Japanese strike force of thirty-three Val dive bombers, eighteen Kate torpedo planes, and eighteen escorting Zeroes took off from the Shokaku and Zuikaku at 9 a.m. Scout planes had left earlier, the strategy being that if these scouts spotted the American carriers, an attack force would be right 14 behind. At the same time, the Lexington and Yorktown launched most of their available planes to attack the two big Japanese carriers. Just as they had done the day before, the two opposing fleets of fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo planes passed each other without sighting the opposition's planes. At 10:30 a.m., the U.S. planes spotted the Shokaku and attacked, scoring three bomb hits and severely damaging the heavy carrier. The Zuikaku, hidden in a rain squall, escaped detection by the attackers and was able to launch fighter planes to assist the Shokaku. While the American planes were attacking, Japanese scout planes found the U.S. task forces, and the Japanese attack force soon struck. With fighter cover provided by only seventeen Wildcats and twenty-three ill-suited Dauntlesses, the carriers and their escorting vessels virtually had to defend themselves. On this day, however, Japanese aim was poor. Twisting and turning, the Yorktown was able to dodge every torpedo while taking only one bomb hit. The less maneuverable Lexington was hit by two torpedoes and two bombs. Both of the damaged carriers were soon able to recover their returning planes. But when gasoline vapors deep inside the Lexington were accidentally ignited 15 by a spark from a generator that had been left running, the carrier was rocked by a tremendous internal explosion. Fires raged out of control, and the Lexington was abandoned. Later that evening, it was scuttled by torpedoes from the destroyer Phelps. The Japanese invasion task force, which had reversed its course when the Shoho was attacked, was ordered back to Rabaul until the U.S. carriers could be driven off. Thus, the invasion of Port Moresby was postponed. With both the Japanese and American task forces retiring for repairs and refueling, the Battle of the Coral Sea was over. Two historic "firsts" had occurred: a naval battle between aircraft carriers, and a naval battle in which the opposing ships never even saw each other. Who won this engagement off New Guinea? Judged strictly on the basis of ships sunk, it was a Japanese victory. The Japanese lost one light carrier plus the services of a heavy carrier, a destroyer, and a tanker. But because the losses to the Japanese carriers forced the postponement, and eventual cancellation, of the Port Moresby invasion, the U.S. fleet could claim a strategic victory in the Coral Sea. 16 THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY (JUNE 4-7, 1942) With a navy vastly superior to the Americans, Admiral Isoroku Yamamote, Commander in Chief of Japan's Combined Fleet, developed a plan to destroy the U.S. Pacific Fleet once and for all. After a surprise April 18th air raid on Toyko by American B-25 bombers from the carriers Hornet and Enterprise, he decided to move up the timetable for this decisive battle. Yamamoto's plan was to capture U.S. held Midway Island, and use it as a stepping stone to take over the Hawaiian Islands. To accomplish this, an armada would be sent to Midway to bomb the American base there with carrier planes, and then capture it with five thousand ground troops from twelve troop transports. As a diversionary move, a Japanese task force would head north to the Aleutian Islands. The day before the Midway attack, the U.S. base at Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians would be bombarded, and the islands of Kiska and Attu would be invaded. Japanese strategy held that the smaller U.S. fleet would immediately sail out of Pearl Harbor when the Aleutians were attacked. It would quickly be spotted by a Japanese submarine curtain outside Pearl Harbor. When the Midway attack commenced, the U.S. fleet would change course to assist the island, where they would change course to assist the island, where they would be crushed by the superior Japanese fleet. If any U.S. ships still headed for the Aleutians, they would be met halfway by a task force of four Japanese battleships. But as the Japanese armada steamed toward the east, American intelligence operations, having broken Japan's secret code, learned of the plan to invade Midway. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, ordered Midway to be reinforced, and land-based B-17 bombers were flown in from Hawaii to repel the attack of the invading task forces. The damaged Yorktown, believed by the Japanese to have been sunk at Coral Sea, was worked on by fourteen hundred dockyard technicians at Pearl Harbor and repaired in three days, instead of the three months originally estimated. Repairs completed, the Yorktown carrier task force, commanded by Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, left Pearl 17 Harbor. The Enterprise and Hornet carrier task force, commanded by Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance in place of the ailing Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, also left Pearl Harbor. When the Japanese submarine barrier arrived, the U.S. Pacific Fleet was already out at sea. Even with three carriers, the U.S. forces were overmatched by the Japanese. The First Carrier Striking Force, under the command of Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, included the carriers Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu, and Soryu, all veterans of the Pearl Harbor attack, plus two battleships, three cruisers, and eleven destroyers. They were without the damaged Shokaku and the plane-depleted Zuikaku, but Yamamoto felt that his fleet could crush the opposition without the two battle-scarred carriers. On June 3rd, U.S. reconnaissance planes, on the alert for the Japanese task forces, finally spotted Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo's group, which included two battleships, eight heavy cruisers, and the troop transports. B-17 bombers from Midway were sent to attack the fleet, but the high-altitude strikes did no damage to the ships. Later, Japanese planes from the carriers Ryujo and Junyo attacked Dutch Harbor in the Aleutians. But Nimitz, along with the American task force commanders, Fletcher and Spruance, refused to fall for the Japanese Aleutians diversion. Their three carriers headed northwest of Midway, where they thought Nagumo's carriers would be. On the morning of June 4th, the four Japanese carriers launched 108 Val dive bombers, Kate torpedo bombers, and Zero fighters to attack Midway. But as these planes headed for the island, two of the Japanese carriers were spotted by an 18 American reconnaissance plane from Midway. Their position was barely within range of the U.S. carrier aircraft. Spruance now had a decision to make. Should the Hornet and Enterprise lose valuable time to get closer to the Japanese carriers? Or should they strike now, and hope to catch the carriers when they were the most vulnerable: with the returning Midway attack planes refueling and reloading on their decks? Spruance gave the order: attack now. Back at Midway, a counterattack was launched against the Japanese fleet. A motley assortment of B-17 and B-26 bombers, SBD-3 Dauntless and Vindicator dive bombers, and TBF-1 Avenger torpedo planes all headed for Nagumo's carriers. Midway's fighter cover of six Wildcats and twenty antiquated Brewster Buffalos also took to the air to protect the island. When the Japanese attack wave arrived at Midway, most of the American fighter planes were shot down by Zero fighters within twenty-five minutes. The installations at Midway were bombed, except for the runway, which the Japanese planned to use after Midway's capture. The counterattacking B-17s, flying high above the Japanese ships and their Zero fighter cover, dropped their bombs without any hits, and returned to Midway after the Japanese attack. The six Avengers, flying without fighter cover, were sitting ducks for the Zeros and only one returned to Midway. Again, no Japanese ships were hit. But then Admiral Nagumo made a serious mistake. He decided that the harassment from the Midway B-17s and other bombers, which was keeping his task force defense fighters in the air constantly, had to end once and for all. A number of torpedo loaded bombers had been reserved in case the American fleet was spotted. Nagumo ordered that these planes to be immediately rearmed with land bombs to destroy the remaining American planes while they were on the ground at Midway. When this conversion was partially completed, a Japanese scout plane radioed that they had sighted the American carrier fleet. Nagumo temporarily 19 halted the armament switch, then ordered that the land bombs be removed, and replaced with torpedoes. His indecision proved to be costly. Because while this time-consuming rearming was taking place, the Enterprise and Hornet had launched every available dive bomber, torpedo bomber, and fighter to engage the carrier force. An hour and a half later, the Yorktown launched its planes. The Hornet's dive bombers and fighters failed to locate the carriers, and were forced to turn back, with all of the Wildcats eventually running out of fuel and ditching. But the rest flew on, and at 9:25 a.m., the torpedo squadron from the Hornet, Torpedo 8, spotted the Japanese fleet. Flying in the slow, obsolete TBD Devastators, with no fighter escort, all three torpedo squadrons were no match for the swarm of Zero fighters protecting the carriers. Of the forty-one torpedo planes which attacked, thirty-seven were shot down, and no torpedoes hit any Japanese ship. Every plane from the Hornet's Torpedo 8 was shot down and only one man, Ensign George Gay, survived the onslaught. So far, the U.S. was faring terribly in the Battle of Midway. A total of ninety-three bombers and torpedo planes had attacked the Japanese fleet - without scoring a single hit. And Nagumo's planes, including those from the earlier Midway strike, were recovered, refueled, rearmed, and ready to be launched against the U.S. carriers. The four carriers started to turn into the wind to launch their planes. Suddenly, from the deck of the Kaga, the lookout screamed, "Dive bombers!" While 20 the Japanese fighter cover was busy destroying the low-flying torpedo planes, two squadrons of high-flying Dauntlesses from the Enterprise were diving on the carriers. With Lieutenant Commander Wade McCluskey leading the way, four bombs ripped the Kaga, setting off a chain of explosions as the planes on the deck were ignited. Lieutenant Richard Best's squadron attacked the Akagi, and leader Best's bomb was the first to hit the carrier, landing near the bridge. Other hits followed, and soon the Akagi was enveloped in flames. Then, Commander Max Leslie's dive bombers from the Yorktown, which had caught up with the Enterprise's squadrons, struck the Soryu's deck, and twenty minutes later, its captain ordered the crew to abandon ship. Six minutes after the first U.S. dive bomber struck, the assault was over, and three Japanese carriers were mortally wounded. Ironically, the Enterprise's dive bombers had been on their way back to their carrier when they spotted a Japanese destroyer, and followed its course toward Nagumo's carriers. Earlier, they had searched a different area in vain. Another irony: the decks on the Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu were crowed with fueled and armed planes about to be launched. Many bombs were strewn around the deck area while the crews were hastily rearming the planes. When the attack came, it was no wonder that the direct hits on their flight decks quickly turned the three carriers into blazing, exploding infernos. Had the attack come but a few minutes later, the three carriers would have already launched their planes, and perhaps the U.S. carriers would have been sent to the bottom instead of the Japanese. As the U.S. dive bombers flew off, one Japanese carrier remained untouched. Off in the distance, the Hiryu quickly began to launch a strike against the American carriers. Japanese Val dive bombers and Zero fighters followed some of the 21 Yorktown's planes back to the carrier, and while the Zeros engaged the Yorktown's Wildcat fighter cover, the Vals swooped in. Despite the fact that only seven bombers actually dropped their bombloads, three bombs struck the Yorktown and left it dead in the water. No sooner had the damage been brought under control when a wave of Kate torpedo bombers attacked the Yorktown, scoring two hits. The listing, powerless carrier was soon abandoned by its crew. Later in the afternoon, American reconnaissance planes located the Hiryu, and thirty-eight planes from the Hornet and Enterprise were launched. As the Hiryu's planes were being readied for a twilight attack on the American carriers, the U.S. planes dived out of the setting sun. Four direct hits later, the Hiryu was a burning wreck. As the day ended, four Japanese carriers and one American carrier were dead in the water. The Soryu and Kaga sank later that evening, while the next morning the Akagi and Hiryu were scuttled by Japanese destroyers to prevent them from falling into American hands. On the American side, a salvage party boarded the Yorktown, and with a towline secured to a minesweeper, the carrier was towed toward Hawaii. That night, Yamamoto, still hoping to catch the U.S. fleet with his big battleships, continued to sail toward Midway. But the intuitive Spruance decided that the U.S. task forces would not push their luck, and ordered them to sail east, where they would be in a better position to protect Midway from any 22 further attacks. Early the next morning, there was another engagement between the two sides. The American submarine Tambor sighted several Japanese ships and was spotted in return. In the scramble to evade the Tambor, however, two Japanese heavy cruisers, the Mogami and Mikuma, collided. Leaving an oil slick that was easily spotted by American planes, the two ships were later attacked by land-based aircraft, with little damage done. But the next day, planes from the Hornet and Enterprise attacked the cruisers, sinking the Mikuma and badly damaging the Mogami. On the afternoon of June 5th, Admiral Yamamoto, with his four carriers now lying on the ocean floor, realized that remaining in the area without air cover would put the rest of his fleet at serious risk. He cancelled the Midway invasion, and ordered his ships to head west. Meanwhile, the Yorktown and its escort ships had been spotted by the Japanese submarine I168. Having slipped through a screen of destroyers, the I168 fired four torpedoes at the Yorktown. Two struck the carrier while one hit the destroyer Hammann, which was alongside the Yorktown. The torpedo broke the Hammann's hull in two, and the destroyer sank within three minutes. The Yorktown now damaged beyond hope of salvage, finally sank on the morning of June 7th. With the sinking of the Yorktown, the Battle of Midway was over. It was a turning point in the war in the Pacific - a victory for a U.S. fleet that sorely needed one six months after Pearl Harbor, and a setback from which Japan would never recover. The loss of 4 carriers, 322 planes, and 3, 500 men dealt a severe blow to Japan's hopes of total domination in the Pacific. After Midway, Japan and the United States would be on virtually even terms. 23 THE BATTLE OF THE EASTERN SOLOMONS (AUGUST 24, 1942) With the victory at Midway, the American strategy for the war in the Pacific changed. Instead of fighting defensive battles, the American Joint Chiefs of Staff decided that a policy of seizing Japanese-held islands for use as forward bases was the best way to push back the Japanese Pacific perimeter. They agreed that the first Japanese base to be taken would be the newly- established one at Tulagi in the southern Solomon Islands. While scouting Tulagi in July, an American reconnaissance plane reported that an airstrip was being built on Guadalcanal Island, southeast of Tulagi. Orders were given to invade this island, seize the airfield, and prevent the Japanese from establishing air superiority in the region. On August 7th, U.S. Marines invaded Guadalcanal and Tulagi. Surprising the light Japanese force at the Guadalcanal airstrip, they captured it and renamed it Henderson Field, after a Marine Corps major who died in the Japanese attack on Midway Island. The U.S. Marines encountered much heavier resistance at Tulagi but managed to secure it by August 8th. From their base at Rabaul, northwest of Guadalcanal, the Japanese sent planes to bomb the new American positions. A naval task force was also dispatched to engage the American surface ships off Guadalcanal. At midnight on August 8th, a surprise Japanese attack, known as the Battle of Savo Island, sank three U.S. cruisers and one Australian cruiser, thus effectively wiping out the support fleet. For the next two weeks, the U.S. Marines at Henderson Field were largely isolated except for occasional relief from planes and ships when they could get through. Japanese troops, which held the remainder of the island, mounted attack after attack but were repelled by the outnumbered Americans. Every night, 24 Japanese ships sailed uncontested down the straits to the north of Guadalcanal, known as "The Slot, " landed troops and supplies, and bombarded the U.S. Marine positions. These raids took place with such regularity that they were nicknamed the "Tokyo Express." In an attempt to completely wipe out the Americans, a Japanese task force was assembled at Rabaul. The Japanese plan, known as Operation KA, called for the landing of fifteen hundred Japanese troops on Guadalcanal, supported by air and sea bombardments. This task force headed toward Guadalcanal covered by Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondo's group, which included the heavy carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku, veterans of the Battle of the Coral Sea. Rear Admiral Tadaichi Hara's diversionary task force, which included the light carrier Ryujo, steamed south, ahead of the main task force. The Japanese strategy was that if Americans took the bait and attacked the Ryujo group, the counterattacking planes from the Shokaku and Zuikaku would sink the U.S. carriers while their planes were away. This flurry of Japanese activity at Rabaul was detected by U.S. scout planes and submarines, and the American command guessed that an attack was forthcoming. The American task force, which included the carriers Enterprise, Saratoga, and Wasp, was ordered to remain south, away from Japanese search planes, to protect the shipping lanes east of Guadalcanal. On August 23rd, American patrol planes spotted Japanese troop transports heading for Guadalcanal. SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers and TBF-1 Avenger torpedo bombers from the Saratoga headed northwest to intercept them. However, the Japanese invasion task force, which had spotted the scout plane, abruptly reversed course, and the U.S. bombers could not locate it. They were forced to land at 25 Henderson Field that night, and rejoined the Saratoga the next day. With no definite knowledge of the Japanese task force position and not expecting a battle just yet, Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, commander of the carrier force, dispatched the Wasp and its destroyer escorts south for fuel oil. This left only two carriers to engage the Japanese. The next day, August 24th, the American task force radar picked up Japanese planes headed for Guadalcanal from the Ryujo. Thirty scout bombers and eight torpedo planes from the Saratoga were launched to search out and attack the carrier. While they were in the air, U.S. scout planes located the Shokaku and Zuikaku but poor radio reception prevented the Saratoga's planes from hearing the order to attack them. Instead, the Dauntlesses found the Ryujo, and attacked it with thirty 1, 000 pound bombs. Four to ten of these hit home and, following a torpedo attack from the Avengers, the Ryujo quickly went under. But it was a loss the Japanese could live with, because the Americans had swallowed the Ryujo diversion bait, while the Shokaku and Zuikaku remained untouched. As the Ryujo was being attacked, a Japanese scout plane located the U.S. carriers. Before it was shot down, it radioed the position of the U.S. ships, and soon an attack from the Shokaku and Zuikaku was launched. Since U.S. F4F-4 Wildcat fighters had downed the scout plane near the carriers, Admiral Fletcher assumed that the Japanese knew their position and would launch an attack. The task force was alerted to this possibility and fifty-three fighters were launched as a defensive screen. The attack soon materialized. The Enterprise and Saratoga were ten miles apart, 26 so the Japanese concentrated on the "Big E." Flying through a heavy screen of fighters and anti-aircraft fire, most of the Japanese dive bombers were shot down. Despite the murderous firepower, however, several Vals got through to the Enterprise and blasted it with three direct hits. Even though explosions ripped holes in the Ship's flight deck and jammed the rudder, damage control parties soon had the Enterprise fully operational again. A second wave of attacking Japanese planes was unable to locate the American fleet and had to return to the carriers. Meanwhile, American planes from the Saratoga could not locate the Japanese heavy carriers, and instead attacked and damaged a seaplane carrier, the Chitose. As night approached, the American task force decided to break off the attack and head south. The Japanese task force also sailed south, but at midnight, Admiral Kondo, not wanting to risk his ships in the darkness, ordered them to turn north. The next day Japanese scout planes unsuccessfully search for signs of the American task force, which was out of their range. His ships were now low on fuel, so Kondo ordered them back to the base at Truk. Meanwhile the Japanese transport group was still headed toward Guadalcanal. 27 But Dauntlesses from Henderson Field, which had failed to locate the carriers, stumbled upon the transports. Loaded with troops, the Kinryu Maru was struck by a bomb, as was the cruiser Jintsu. Army B-17 bombers followed this attack and, for the first time in the war, hit and sank a ship, an escorting destroyer. Since it was obvious that the U.S. controlled the skies over Guadalcanal, the Japanese invasion task force was also called back to Truk. The Battle of the Eastern Solomons was over, and the outcome was somewhat of a toss-up. The Japanese lost a small carrier, which Yamamoto had anticipated losing, plus numerous carrier aircraft and crews. The U.S. lost the Enterprise for two months to repairs. but the U.S. had prevented the Japanese from establishing air superiority over Guadalcanal and had turned back a major troop landing. And the U.S. Marines still held their position at Henderson Field. 28 THE BATTLE OF THE SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS (OCTOBER 26-27, 1942) As the battle for Guadalcanal dragged on through September and October, 1942, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto drew up a plan to put an end to the conflict. His strategy called for a naval bombardment of Henderson Field, after which land-based troops would seize the airstrip. Once this was accomplished, carrier based planes would move in to aid in the offensive and prevent the Americans from landing reinforcements. Additional troops would then be landed on Guadalcanal to drive out any remaining U.S. Marines. The Japanese carrier task force, including the carriers Shokaku, Zuikaku, Junyo, and Zuiho, steamed south toward Guadalcanal. On October 23rd, U.S. reconnaissance planes spotted the Japanese ships. Two hastily-assembled carrier groups, led by the Hornet and the recently-repaired Enterprise, were ordered to a position north of the Santa Cruz Islands, east of Guadalcanal, to intercept the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Japanese mounted a fierce land-and sea-based attack on the American positions near Henderson Field. Although the devastating naval bombardment destroyed most of the U.S. planes on the airstrip, the Japanese ground troops were unable to overrun the U.S. Marines. On October 25th and 26th, additional sightings of the four Japanese carriers were made be scout planes. At dawn on October 26th, Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, commander of the South Pacific Force, gave the order to attack. Two SBD-3 29 Dauntless scout/bombers from the Enterprise located the Japanese task force and attacked the Zuiho. Two bomb hits damaged the carrier, and it was unable to launch or retrieve any more planes. The Hornet then launched two waves of attack planes while the Enterprise launched another one. Unfortunately for the Americans, the Zuiho had already launched its planes against the U.S. carriers. A search plane had spotted the Hornet earlier, and twenty-seven Zeros, twenty-two Vals, and eighteen Kates from all four Japanese carriers were on their way to the American ships. The first Japanese attack group passed a wave of American F4F-4 Wildcat fighters, TBF-1 Avenger torpedo bombers, and SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers from the Enterprise. In the ensuing skirmish, the Zeros shot down three Wildcats and four Avengers while losing three of their own. The two opposing groups then continued on to their targets. At 9:10 a.m., the Japanese squadrons found the American carrier groups. With the Enterprise hidden by a rain squall, the attackers pounced on the Hornet. Although many Vals were destroyed by anti-aircraft fire from the Hornet, a good number got through, and the carrier was ripped by four bomb hits and a deliberate suicide crash by a damaged Val. Two torpedoes from the attacking 30 Kates plus another suicide crash completed the damage, and the Hornet was left listing and in flames. While the Hornet was under attack, its planes, along with those from the Enterprise, were unleashing a similar attack on the Japanese carriers. The American Dauntlesses, noting that the Zuiho was already damaged from the earlier strike, concentrated on the Shokaku. Three to six 1, 000 pound bombs rocked the carrier and destroyed its flight deck, ending any further flight operations. Other planes attacked secondary targets in the task force and heavily damaged the cruiser Chikuma. Back at the American task force, an attacking Japanese submarine torpedoed the destroyer Porter, which later had to be sunk by the Americans. Then a second Japanese wave from the Shokaku and Zuikaku struck. First cane the Val dive bombers, flying straight into the murderous anti-aircraft fire from the Enterprise and the battleship South Dakota, which was later credited with twenty six kills. But the Vals still managed to damage the Enterprise with three bomb hits. Next came the Kate torpedo bombers, launching four torpedoes that the Enterprise was able to avoid. Another wave from the Junyo damaged the South Dakota and the cruiser San Juan. 31 In the wake of these attacks, the Enterprise was still operational and proceeded to recover its planes. On the dead-in-the-water Hornet, however, salvage crews were trying to tow the carrier when a wave of Japanese torpedo bombers and dive bombers from the undamaged Zuikaku and Junyo struck. The Hornet was hit by a torpedo and two bombs, and the order was given to abandon ship. With the Japanese fleet drawing nearer, the destroyers Mustin and Anderson were given the task of scuttling the Hornet. But even after taking nine hits from American torpedoes, the Hornet would not sink. The destroyers then fired four hundred and thirty rounds into the carrier and soon it was a floating inferno. When Japanese reconnaissance planes began dropping flares on the scene, the American destroyers fled. Later a Japanese destroyer division arrived, and fired four more torpedoes into the Hornet, sending it to the bottom. In terms of combat tonnage lost, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands was a Japanese victory. The loss of the Hornet left the damaged Enterprise as the only functioning carrier in the Pacific. Tactically, however, the U.S. gained the edge in battle. With two carriers damaged, and many aircraft and crews lost, the Japanese task force had to turn back and head for their base at Truk. Any yet another attempt to drive the U.S. Marines from Guadalcanal had failed. Four 32 months later, the Japanese would concede defeat and pull their remaining troops from Guadalcanal, the "Island of Death." For the next two and a half years, they would continue to fight a long, bloody series of defensive battles until September 2, 1945, when Japan would officially surrender to the United States. 33 GAME PLAY 35 LOADING INSTRUCTIONS Remove the Battlehawks floppy disk from the sleeve at the back of the book, then look at the Reference Card. There, you'll find instructions on how to load Battlehawks from a floppy disk, install it on a hard disk, and start up the program. When you have finished, refer back to the Menu Choices section of the manual below. MENU CHOICES Once you've loaded the Battlehawks disk, you'll be at the first of several menus. Here's how to move through all your menu choices, including reviewing planes, selecting missions, and keeping track of your pilot records. 36 HOW TO SELECT FROM THE CHOICES ON THE SCREEN From now on, we'll refer to your cursor keys, mouse, or joystick as "the controller." At many points in the game, you'll see a display of your current options with one option highlighted in bright color. You can move this highlight in a bright color. You can move this highlight from one choice to another by moving your controller in the appropriate direction, or by pressing the correct keys (see keyboard reference). Then, to actually choose the highlighted selection and move on to the next screen, press RETURN (or press and release your controller button). GAME START Press any key or bottom to move through the title screen and the title screen and the credits to the Main Menu. YAMAMOTO (PICTURE) 37 MAIN MENU You'll know you've reached the Main Menu when you see a screen with a close-up of an American Wildcat fighter plan on the deck of a carrier. There will be five menu choices: SELECT TRAINING Allows you to choose a Training mission, which will not reflect on your Service Record. SELECT ACTIVE DUTY Allows you to choose an Active Duty mission that will count on your Service Record. REVIEW PLANES Allows you to inspect the different Japanese and American aircraft you can fly in Battlehawks. REVIEW SERVICE RECORDS Allows you to inspect and manage the records of all pilots. You'll automatically start the game with a default American pilot named TRAINEE. If you want to use a different pilot, or start with a new one, you must choose this option before your first Active Duty mission. EXIT FROM PROGRAM Allows you to leave the game. 38 TRAINING MISSIONS Here's where you can develop, practice, and improve the skills that can help you perform well in your Active Duty missions. Since none of the results of these Training missions will appear in your Service Record, we encourage you to take chances and make mistakes when flying them. It's the best way to become a better pilot in actual combat situations. Once you have chosen a Training mission, you will move to the Ready Room screen, where you can make modifications to your mission. Experiment with as many different modifications as you can. CARRIER (PICTURE) 39 You'll have four types of Training missions to choose from: FIGHTER INTERCEPT You'll attack incoming enemy planes with your fighter. You must defend your ship by shooting down enemy bombers or their fighter escorts before they can attack. FIGHTER ESCORT You'll fly a fighter and defend friendly aircraft as they attack enemy ships. With enemy fighters everywhere, your fellow pilots will need all the protection you can give them. DIVE-BOMBING You'll drop your bomb load on an enemy ship. Dive bombers flew at high altitudes, then plunged almost straight down, releasing their bomb and pulling out close over their targets. Depending on your mission, you may face enemy fighter opposition. For more information, see the section on Aerial Tactics and Tips. TORPEDO-BOMBING You'll fly a hazardous torpedo run. The low-flying torpedo bombers had to practically skim the waves to launch their torpedo - and to avoid being detected by the enemy. Fly low and slow toward the enemy ship, and drop your torpedo when you're close. Enemy fighters may be in the area. Techniques of torpedo-bombing are discussed in Aerial Tactics and Tips. EXIT This returns you to the Main Menu. To select one of these Training missions, move your controller up and down until the type of mission you want to fly is highlighted. Next, move your controller right to view the different scenarios for that type of mission, then left to view them again. The first scenarios are the easiest, and you may face little or no opposition. As you continue to move the controller to the right, the scenarios will become more and more difficult. 40 ACTIVE DUTY MISSIONS These are the ones that count! Success in your Active Duty missions will be rewarded with promotions and medals, which will be logged in your Service Record. But failure to execute your mission correctly will also be recorded. And remember - in 1942, many pilots did not make it back to their ships. These missions can be hazardous! When you move to the Active Duty missions screen, the name and nationality of your current pilot is displayed at the top. With the original pilot, TRAINEE, you won't be able to save your Service Record. If you want to change the pilot, select EXIT, then select REVIEW SERVICE RECORDS from the Main Menu. (For more information, see the Review Service Records section of this manual.) To start your Active Duty mission, choose one of the battles shown on your screen. Then, move your controller right to view the various missions you can fly, then left to look them over again. These missions will vary, depending on the battle you've chose, and the nationality of your pilot. You may select the missions in any order, but you must complete all the missions in a given battle to qualify for top honors. On the menu screen, you'll see the following four battle choices: THE BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA A duel of the flattops, where for the first time a naval battle was fought entirely with air power. The Americans lost more ships, but won the more important victory of preventing a Japanese invasion. This time, the outcome is up to you. THE BATTLE OF MIDWAY The pivotal battle of 1942, perhaps of the whole Pacific war. When it was over, four Japanese carriers were at the bottom of the sea. Can you recreate history or change it? THE BATTLE OF THE EASTERN SOLOMONS The Japanese want to land troops on the island of Guadalcanal. The Americans want to stop them. Historically, it was a trade-off in ships, but a strategic victory for the Americans because the Japanese invasion fleet turned back. Now, it's in your hands. INFAMY (PICTURE) 41 THE BATTLE OF THE SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS The last major carrier battle of 1942. A victory here, and the Japanese could still dominate the Pacific theater. Will you give the Empire of the Rising Sun new hope - or stop it cold? EXIT This returns you to the Main Menu. In each of these battles, you can experience the same situation from both sides of the battle. The composition of the forces may not be precisely the same for each side, as exciting situation were chosen to maximize each side's challenge. After you've chosen one of these battles, move your controller right to view your mission choices, then left to see them a second time. Remember, to distinguish yourself in combat, you're encourage to fly all the missions in a given battle. BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA: MISSION CHOICES U.S. Fly one of several SBD Dauntlesses launched from the carrier Lexington in a dive-bombing attack on the damaged and burning light carrier Shoho. Enemy fighter cover is expected. (In the actual battle, the Shoho was sunk.) JAPAN Fly a Zero fighter on an intercept mission to protect the Shoho from approaching U.S. dive bombers. U.S. You're in a F4F Wildcat fighter, escorting a group of dive bombers in their attack on the Shokaku, a heavy carrier. An aggressive CAP (Combat Air Patrol) of Zeros will try to protect the carrier. (In this action, the Shokaku was damaged and had to sit out the Battle of Midway.) JAPAN You and your Zero fighter must intercept the approaching American air strike and save the Shokaku, an honored veteran of the Pearl Harbor attack. U.S. You're on the defensive in your Wildcat as a group of Kate torpedo bombers, escorted by Zero fighters, closes in to attack. Concentrate on the Kates, and 42 don't let them get through to the Lexington. (Historically, this attack succeeded and the Lexington sank soon after.) JAPAN Recreate history in your Kate torpedo bomber by attacking and sinking the carrier Lexington. U.S. Defend the Yorktown from attacking Japanese Val dive bombers. You'll have to move your Wildcat quickly to save the carrier. (The Yorktown was damaged in the actual battle, but was repaired in record time at Pearl Harbor, and went on to play an important part in the Midway battle.) JAPAN Try to change history by dive-bombing the Yorktown into oblivion with your Val. Enemy fighter cover is present. BATTLE OF MIDWAY: MISSION CHOICES U.S. You fly a Dauntless dive bomber as the wing man for Lieutenant Dick Best as he makes his run on the carrier Akagi. Enemy fighters (CAP) are at low level, having just devastated the American torpedo planes. Follow Lt. Best in and drop your bomb on the carrier. (Historically, both bombs hit, and Lt. Best went on to become one of the first heroes of the war, and later the Battlehawks technical advisor.) JAPAN Perhaps the most critical minutes of the entire war for the Japanese! You and your Zero must intercept the numerous American bombers attacking your carriers. Honor the Emperor, and rewrite history. U.S. The carriers Akagi, Kaga, and Soryu are damaged. Your squadron of Dauntless dive bombers can help send them to the bottom, or seek out and destroy the carrier Hiryu. (In the actual battle, the Hiryu was not attacked in the first dive-bombing strike, and launched a strike of its won against the Yorktown.) JAPAN Protect the Hiryu from the attacking Americans. Only your Zero can save the carrier so it can launch a counterstrike. RABAUL (PICTURE) 43 U.S. The tables are turned as you pilot a Wildcat in defense of the Yorktown. Stop the Vals that are attacking in great numbers. (In this action at Midway, the Yorktown was heavily damaged.) JAPAN You and your Val represent a chance to avenge your fallen comrades. Dive bomb the Yorktown and sink it! U.S. One last chance to save the Yorktown. The Val attack has damaged the carrier, and the follow-up attack is a squadron of Kate torpedo bombers. Pilot your Wildcat skillfully and you may prevent the Yorktown's historical fate. JAPAN Use your powerful "Long Lance" torpedo to send the Yorktown to the bottom. You must pilot your Kate through the heavy enemy CAP that protects your target. BATTLE OF THE EASTERN SOLOMONS: MISSION CHOICES U.S. Your TBF Avenger packs a powerful punch. If you can deliver its torpedo to the carrier Ryujo, you may repeat history and sink it. JAPAN Fly your Zero with distinction, and the Ryujo can live to fight again. U.S. Attacking Japanese planes threaten the Enterprise. You fly a Wildcat in CAP to protect the carrier. The attack is fierce, and it will take every bit of skill and daring you can muster. (Historically, the Enterprise was damaged but survived.) JAPAN Try to turn the tables on the U.S. forces by sinking the Enterprise. You 44 fly a Zero, escorting some Val dive bombers. U.S. You've dropped your torpedo on the Ryujo and your home carrier is in sight. But the battle isn't over. You'll have to fly your Avenger as a fighter when you encounter a flight of Japanese bombers returning from their attack on the Enterprise. JAPAN It's an unusual match. Will the superior maneuverability of your Val let you outfight the slow but tough and well-armed Avenger? Remember, you both have tail guns! U.S. Fly your unescorted Dauntless in a strike against the well-protected Japanese Support Group ships. There are no carriers, so pick out a cruiser and dive in. JAPAN You're lucky enough to be flying CAP in your Zero over several cruisers and a seaplane carrier of the Support Group when enemy dive bombers make their appearance. Save the ships! BATTLE OF THE SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS: MISSION CHOICES U.S. Your scouting Dauntless has spotted the main Japanese force's carriers. Attack despite the heavy CAP resistance, and you may better the inconclusive historical results. JAPAN Bring down the enemy dive bombers with your Zero before they can reach your carriers. Be sure to watch out for their tail gunners. U.S. Fly CAP in your Wildcat, and protect the Hornet from a combined attack of Vals and Kates. (In the actual battle, this proved to be too great a challenge and the Hornet was badly damaged, and later sank.) JAPAN Your Kate torpedo bomber is to attack the Hornet in concert with a Val dive-bombing attack. Your torpedo carries a deadly punch, but the American fighter cover and anti-aircraft fire offer a strong defense. HELLCAT (PICTURE) 45 U.S. Fly your Avenger torpedo bomber in an attack against your old nemesis, the Shokaku. The carrier is well-protected, but with courage and luck, you could sink it. (In 1942, the Shokaku was badly damaged in the attack and knocked out of action for nine months.) JAPAN Save the Shokaku with your Zero, and air superiority in the Pacific may again belong to the Empire of the Rising Sun. U.S. A difficult Wildcat fighter mission unfolds as you escort damaged torpedo bombers home. You must pass through a gauntlet of Zeros eager for a chance to even the score. JAPAN Your last chance for an honorable victory! Fly your Zero like a samurai, and pick off the enemy torpedo bombers and their fighter escort. 46 REVIEW PLANES When you select REVIEW PLANES from the Main Menu, you'll be sent to a new menu screen. Here you can inspect American and Japanese aircraft from top and side views, and read about their characteristics, both in the air and in battle. Your menu choices are: AMERICAN/JAPANESE (FLAG) Select either flag to view the fighters, dive bombers, and torpedo bombers from that country. NEXT PLANE After you select this option, the top and side profile of a plane will appear, along with a description of its features, strengths, and weaknesses. Move your controller right to look at the next aircraft, or left to look at the previous plane again. ROTATE PLANE This lets you rotate the side view of the plane. Move your controller left and right to see what the plane looks like at different angles. EXIT This will return you to the Main Menu. SPRUANCE (PICTURE) 47 REVIEW SERVICE RECORDS The menu choice REVIEW SERVICE RECORDS lets you look over and modify the records of current and previous pilots who have flown Battlehawks missions. The name and nationality of your current pilot are shown at the top of the screen. If you're playing from a floppy disk, you'll be asked to insert a Service Record disk to save your records on. If you don't have one yet, insert a formatted disk and use the PREPARE DISK command described below. As you move the highlight up and down through the menu choices, specific instructions on how to use them will be displayed on the screen. These are the selections you'll see on the screen: SELECT PILOT This lets you choose one pilot from the list of current ones to become your active pilot. You need to do this before starting on any Active Duty missions that you want to record. When you boot up the program, a preselected American will be your current pilot. 48 This pilot will be named TRAINEE, and will also appear whenever you delete your current pilot. If you fly any mission with TRAINEE as your pilot, that Service Record cannot be saved. Enter your own pilot name and nationality when you want to save the results of a mission. The nationality of the pilot will determine which side you fight on. You may select a pilot that has been grounded, retired, or killed in action (KIA) if you want to review his record. This pilot cannot fly any more missions. NEW PILOT This allows you to enter a new name on the list of pilots, and select his nationality. VIEW RECORD This displays the battle history of the selected pilot. Medals are shown in the cases on the lower part of the screen. See the Medals and Promotions section for more information on these. The battle history keeps track of victorious missions as well as a count of defeated enemy planes and ships. Each small ship and aircraft symbol stands for one ship or plane destroyed; each large symbol stands for five. The number of planes your pilot has lost is also shown. If a pilot loses ten planes, he'll be grounded, unable to fly again. After sixteen missions he'll be retired, and can live out his life as a genuine World War II hero. RENAME This lets you change the name of an existing pilot. DELETE Use this to remove a pilot from the list. PREPARE DISK Use this on a formatted floppy to set it up as a Service Record disk. BEST CAREER Choose this to display a list of the pilots with the all-time best combat careers. BEST MISSION Choose this to display a list of all-time best single missions pilots have flown, regardless of their total career record. EXIT This sends you back to the Main Menu. CRUISER (PICTURE) 49 READY ROOM Once you have chosen a mission, you'll be sent to the Ready Room. There, you'll get your mission briefing. You can modify your missions in the Ready Room, but if you modify Active Duty missions there, they will NOT count on your record. The blackboard in the center of the screen describes your new mission. The indicator boxes along the top show those characteristics of your mission that you can modify. From left to right they are: PLANE MODEL, AMMUNITION/FUEL/DAMAGE LEVELS, STARTING ALTITUDE, and ENEMY SKILL LEVEL. You can change these mission settings by selecting MODIFY PLANE. When you do, the briefing will be replaced by a list of options. Move the highlight through the options, and make your selections. As you press RETURN (or your controller button), you will change the settings. These changes will be displayed in the corresponding box at the top of the blackboard. 50 Here are your choices: PLANE MODEL Use this to change to a different model of aircraft. You'll retain the current type of plane (FIGHTER/DIVE BOMBER/TORPEDO BOMBER), but you can try newer or older models of that plane which might have been on a Japanese or American carrier in 1942. In Active Duty missions, if you want to fly planes of a different nationality, you must register as a pilot of that nationality. (See the section on Review Service Records.) AMMUNITION Use this to change between STANDARD or UNLIMITED amounts of ammunition. In the STANDARD mode, you'll carry the same amount of ammunition as the planes in 1942 did (see Reference Information for data on ammunition loads). In the UNLIMITED mode, you'll never run out of ammunition. FUEL Use this to choose between STANDARD (picture of fuel gauge) or UNLIMITED amounts of fuel. STANDARD is the amount of fuel that planes in 1942 carried. Since Battlehawks concentrates on the combat part of a flight mission, there is often little chance of running out of gas, even at the STANDARD fuel setting. If you're low on fuel you can decrease your fuel consumption by cutting back on the throttle (see Keyboard Reference. PLANE DAMAGE LEVELS With this, you can change between STANDARD and INVINCIBLE modes. STANDARD is the normal amount of damage that can be sustained by that plane, and INVINCIBLE lets your plane take an endless amount of damage, so you can't crash or be shot down. In the INVINCIBLE mode, you'll never hit the water. STARTING ALTITUDE This gives you a choice of altitudes from which you can begin your mission. (In general, starting a few thousand feet higher than your enemies gives you an advantage.) ENEMY SKILL LEVEL With this setting, you can select the skill level of your enemies. In increasing order, these levels are CADET, VETERAN, and ACE. (Since the Japanese did not acknowledge aces by numbers of planes shot down, the ACE skill level is used here to denote top-quality pilots). RESET ALL VALUES This restores the values for this mission to the default settings, or the settings that initially appear in the Read Room. IMPORTANT: If FLETCHER (PICTURE) 51 you can change ANY values for an Active Duty mission, it will not be recorded in your Service Record. Only valid, historically-accurate missions are counted. For this reason, if you decide you don't want to change any values after all, use this option. EXIT This drops you back to the selections at the bottom of the screen. Use this when you're finished with your modifications. Other Ready Room commands are: BEGIN FLIGHT Select this only when you're ready to begin your mission. When you do, you'll be given a recognition/password test, and then sent to the skies. NEW MISSION If you decide you don't like your current mission after seeing the briefing, use this command to return to the mission selection screen. EXIT TO MAIN This lets you leave the Ready Room, and return to the Main Menu. 52 RECOGNITION TEST This is your final step before take off. The Flight Deck Officer will show you a silhouette of a Zero fighter. Turn to the Loading Instructions and following sections of your Battlehawks manual, and look for the matching illustration in the bottom, right-hand corner of one of the pages. When you find it, enter the corresponding password with your keyboard, and press RETURN (or your controller button). For example if the silhouette is: (PICTURE) you should find it on the second page of Loading Instructions with the corresponding password YAMAMOTO. Type in: YAMAMOTO and press RETURN (or your controller button). This test is an important part of pre-flight preparation. Take your time, and be careful when you compare the picture on the screen to the one in the manual. If you make a mistake in recognition, you'll be judged unready for advanced combat duty and sent to a basic training mission. FLATTOP (PICTURE) 53 COCKPIT VIEW You always start your mission inside the cockpit of your aircraft. Here are the instruments you'll see in front of you: 1. SPEED BRAKES (SBD Dauntless only) This indicates the position of your speed brakes. Down is open, up is closed. Use your speed brakes to slow your dive bomber while diving on a target. 2. FLAPS This gives you the position of your flaps. Up means flaps up, down means flaps down. Put your flaps down to lower your stalling speed, so you can fly slower without stalling (useful in torpedo runs). Otherwise, fly with your flaps up for greater speed. 3. LANDING GEAR This shows you the position of your landing gear. In the Val dive bomber, the landing gear is always down. Lowering your landing gear can slow you down slightly by increasing drag. 4. NAME This indicates the name and model of your aircraft. 5. AIRSPEED INDICATOR This reads in hundreds of miles per hour, so 2 is 200 MPH. Stalling speed is about 70 MPH with the flaps up. 6. CLIMB/DIVE INDICATOR This dial shows how fast you're gaining or losing altitude. The positive readings at the top show a climb, the negative ones at the bottom show a dive. All readings are in thousands of feet per minute. 7. RPM INDICATOR This shows your throttle setting in revolutions per minute. The higher the setting, the farther to the right this indicator goes. The red area warns you when you're using fuel at a high rate. 8. CAMERA INDICATOR This red light comes on when your replay camera is recording (see Keyboard Reference for details on how to control the camera). Use this feature to record and replay the events happening around you. While you're watching your replay, you can use your controller to move your point of view all around the sky. The replay camera is an excellent tool for learning flight tactics, as well as a way to enjoy the game from a movie-like perspective. 9. BANKING INDICATOR This dial shows the roll of your plane. (See the Flight Fundamentals section for an explanation of roll.) When you're flying with your wings level, the indicator will display a straight horizontal line with a small vertical bar to show which way your tail points. As you bank to the left or right, the indicator will change to show your orientation. 10. PITCH INDICATOR This shows how far above or below the horizon the nose of your plane is pointing. The + direction is up, o is level, and - is down. 11. VIEW INFO This small panel serves several functions. When you're in normal forward flight, it is blank. On some computers, RIGHT, LEFT, DOWN, or REAR will be displayed when you look out your cockpit window in those directions. Your screen will also display the corresponding view from the cockpit. (See Keyboard Reference for information about looking out your cockpit.) Other computers will show you these views through the appropriate side or rear window. VIEW INFO can also be used in the SCAN mode to let you look around in any direction, using your controller to move your point of view. In this mode, the VIEW INFO panel shows two numbers. The first indicates how many degrees up or down you're looking. It ranges from -90 degrees (straight down), through 0 (horizon level), up to +90 degrees (straight up). The second number shows the direction you're looking, relative to your line of travel. If you're looking to the right, it goes from 0 degrees (straight ahead), through +90 degrees (directly to the right), to +180 degrees (behind you). If you look left, it goes from 0 degrees (straight ahead), through -90 degrees (straight left), to -179 degrees (nearly straight behind you). CACTUS (PICTURE) 55 In the replay camera mode, REPLAY will be displayed here (see the Keyboard Reference section for instructions on using the replay camera). 12. ALTIMETER This dial shows your altitude in feet. The digital display on the dial shows thousands of feet, the little hand hundreds of feet, and the big hand tens of feet. For example, if the digital displays reads 02, the little hand is on the 6, and the big hand is midway between 1 and 2, your altitude in 2, 615 feet. 13. COMPASS This indicates which direction you're heading: north, south, east, or west. 14. ENGINE/AIRFRAME DAMAGE COUNTERS These twin dials show the total damage to the engine (top dial) and the airframe (bottom dial). Severe damage to either the engine or the airframe will push the indicators over into the red. If that happens, you're likely to completely lose engine power or lose control of your aircraft. Your only option will be to bail out. 15. GUN ROUNDS This indicator shows how many rounds of ammunition are left in your forward pointing gun. The Japanese Zero fighter has two indicators here. The top one shows the number of rounds in your 7.7 mm machine guns, and the bottom one indicates the number of rounds in your more powerful 20 mm cannon. When you're flying dive bombers or torpedo bombers, an indicator in the rear view shows how many rounds are left in the rear machine gun. 16. FUEL GAUGE This gauge shows how much fuel you have: E means empty, F means full. 17. WARHEAD RELEASE This shows if you have a warhead (torpedo or bomb) to release. Fighter planes never carry warheads in Battlehawks. 56 KEYBOARD REFERENCE LEAVING THE GAME To exit the Battlehawks program directly to your computer's operating system, you may press the ESCAPE key any time you are not in the cockpit. From the in- flight, cockpit view, you must press: q first to quit, then ESCAPE to exit. KEYBOARD/MOUSE/JOYSTICK To find out which of these controllers is supported by your machine, please see your Reference Card. For players without a mouse or a joystick, the keyboard will control all of the game features. However, we strongly recommend that you use either a joystick or a mouse as your primary flight controller. They joystick will give the most "true to life" control and is easier to use for loop maneuvers. The mouse gives the smoothest fine control. In any case, the cursor keys (arrow keys) can function as the controller. In this section, the mouse, joystick, and cursor keys will be referred to collectively as the controller. Buttons on the mouse or joystick will be referred to as controller buttons. In the menu screens (all screens except the cockpit views, which are the ones you'll see in-flight), the controller allows you to move up, down, right, and left through the menu choices. If you have a non-standard mouse or joystick, you may be confused about which of your buttons are the ones referred to in the manual as left button or right button. Here's a simple way to find out. Fly a fighter intercept training mission, and select a Japanese Zero fighter and STANDARD ammunition (not UNLIMITED). Once you're in the cockpit, look at the GUN ROUNDS display (item 15 in the cockpit illustration on page 56). When you press one button on your controller, the top number will decrease. This button is the one referred to as the left button. A different button will make the bottom number decrease. On a dive-bombing or torpedo-bombing mission, pressing both these buttons at once will drop your bomb or torpedo. MIDWAY (PICTURE) 57 USING THE CONTROLLER TO ADDITIONAL IN-FLIGHT KEYS PILOT YOUR AIRCRAFT Key Function Your plane will respond to the direc- P Pause game;press any key tion you move your controller much the Q Quit game;get evaluation same way a real plane would. For more E Toggle only the engine information, see the Flight Fundamen- S Toggle ALL sounds on/off tals section. V Display version of game. CONTROLLER DIRECTION FUNCTION Controller Move the nose of forward the plane down (away from you) Controller Move the nose of L Drop/lift landing gear backward the plane up (all planes except Val) (toward you) F Drop/lift flaps Controller Bank the plane B Open/close speed brakes right to the right (on Dauntless only) Controller Bank the plane + Increase throttle (you do not left to the left need to use the shift key) CONTROLLER BUTTON FEATURES - Decrease throttle These allow you to fire your forward G Flip gun sight up/down firing guns, and to drop your warhead load. CONTROLLER BUTTON FUNCTION C Toggle replay camera on/off Left controller Fire main R Enger REPLAY mode button machine gun (see below) (or space bar) Right controller Fire 20 mm J Jump from plane, parachute button cannon (in Japanese to safety (or RETURN) Zero fighter only) (may be button NUMERIC KEYPAD CONTROLS on tip of joystick) The following numeric and keypad keys control the different views you Left AND Right Drop warhead can switch to and from in your cock- controller (torpedo or bomb, pit. Your computer may require the buttons if you have one) NUM LOCK on for keypad use. (or RETURN) KEY FUNCTION 8 Look forward (your mission starts in this view) 6 Look right 4 Look left 58 2 Look back (in torpedo or dive REAR GUN CONTROLS bomber, this also activates All dive bombers and torpedo rear gun; see below) bombers have rear guns. After you have 3 Look down (straight down, switched from the front view to the regardless of flight angle) rear view to control the rear gun, your 9 Look around- (SCAN view, plane will fly on "automatic pilot, " see below) with the controls set where you left them. If you stall or are about to REPLAY MODE CONTROLS crash into the water, return to the When you turn your camera on, it forward view to regain control of your starts recording your actions. It stops aircraft. When you turn it off or run out of film. CONTROL FUNCTION Starting the camera again erases your Controller Move rear gun and old film, making a fresh recording. view;only works behind When you are watching a replay of and above current one of your aerial battles, use the con- position troller to change your viewing angle. Left button/ Fire rear gun This lets you look at the replay from space bar anywhere in the sky. 8 Return to forward view and In the replay mode, your instrument controlled flight panel will reflect what was happening to your plane during the original flight. When the replay is over, you will be SCAN VIEW back in your plane at the moment you CONTROL FUNCTION started the replay. You may not use Controller Move viewing angle all replay mode after you have crashed or around;angle degree is bailed out of your plane displayed Any valid Switch to a different ADDITIONAL REPLAY MODE CONTROLS number key view. The 8 key returns KEY FUNCTION you to forward view. Left button/ Move forward space bar (at a constant altitude) + Increase camera altitude - Decrease camera altitude R Reposition camera to your plane's location F Resume normal flight CATALINA (PICTURE) 59 FLIGHT REVIEW ENDING YOUR MISSION There are several ways to end your mission. You may press: q to end it at any time. The game may tell you to press this key once your mission has been completed (this is to give you time to look at a replay before you end your mission). This mission will also end if you crash or are shot down. You may ditch your plane (come to a level landing on the water), or parachute safely down to the water. In rare instances, you may even run out of fuel. In any case, once your mission is over, you will be given a flight review. NOTE: If your current pilot is killed in action during a mission, you will not be able to repeat that mission. You'll have to start up a new pilot, or fly with the assigned pilot, TRAINEE. YOUR FLIGHT REVIEW This takes place in the ready room. On the screen before you, you'll see your commander, and a written description of how well you performed in your mission. The most critical factor in your review is whether or not you have successfully completed the mission. On fighter intercept missions where you are defending your carrier, quitting before the enemy planes have attacked is NOT a successful completion. You need to shoot down or drive away all attackers. If you are on a fighter escort mission, your priority is to keep the enemy aircraft away from the planes you are escorting. Finally, if you are on a bombing mission, you must make a successful hit on an enemy ship with your warhead (torpedo or bomb) to complete your mission. The flight review blackboard also shows the number of friendly and enemy planes and ships that have been damaged or destroyed during the mission. 60 The plane and ship symbols you'll see are for ALL kinds of planes and ships, not just the aircraft carriers and fighter planes pictured on the blackboard. The numbers under the Tot column are the totals of enemy losses; the numbers under the You column are the specific enemy losses you caused. If other friendly planes cooperate with you in shooting down an enemy plane, you'll get credit for the sinking even if it's hit by other bombs after yours. If you're an American pilot, the losses credited to you will make you more likely to get a medal or promotion that if you're a Japanese pilot. If you fly for the Japanese, you're more likely to be rewarded for distinguished service. Once you've seen your flight review, press any key or your controller button to get to the next screen. If you've just finished an Active Duty mission and didn't change any mission parameters on the Ready Room screen, you'll see your current Service Record on the screen (see the Review Service Records section for more information). You may even be eligible for a medal or a promotion. To exit from these screens, press any key or your controller button. This will send you to a text screen. There you'll have two choices. Pressing s will repeat the same mission, while pressing RETURN will send you to the Main Menu. MEDALS AND PROMOTIONS To win a medal, move up in rank, and make the Best Missions list, the most critical factor is fulfilling your basic mission requirements. If you've successfully guarded your ship, escorted those torpedo bombers, or whatever your mission called for, you're more likely to be rewarded. Causing other damage to the enemy is secondary. In attack missions, every bomb or torpedo that hits an enemy ship helps your chances for promotion significantly. Of course, damaging friendly planes and ships will count against you. Finally, protecting other friendly planes will add to your final rank. CORSAIR (PICTURE) 61 UNITED STATES NAVY MEDALS (LISTED IN ORDER OR RANK) After you have successfully completed an Active Duty mission in Battlehawks, you may be awarded one of the following medals: CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR The highest award in the U.S. Military, the Medal of Honor, was the first medal established by the United States government, and was approved by Congress and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on December 21, 1861. It may be given both in wartime and peacetime for an extraordinary act of heroism or self sacrifice in a combat or non-combat situation. The Medal of Honor is awarded by Congress to a person who "distinguish(es) himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty and without detriment to the mission of his command or to the command to which attached." It is the only medal presented by the president in the name of Congress. The Medal of Honor may be awarded only once; a Gold Star is awarded instead of a second medal, and is worn on the ribbon of the Medal of Honor. NAVY CROSS Awarded by outstanding heroism while engaging an armed enemy, the Navy Cross is the highest U.S. Navy medal given strictly for combat action and ranks just below the Medal of Honor. A Gold Star is awarded if a second Navy Cross is warranted. DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL This award is presented for "exceptionally meritorious service to the government in a duty of great responsibility" in a combat or non-combat situation. Only one Distinguished Service Medal may be given to an individual, with a Gold Star given instead of additional medals. SILVER STAR MEDAL This medal is awarded for an act of "gallantry and intrepidity in action" that does not warrant the awarding of the Medal of Honor or the Navy Cross. It is the second-highest award given strictly for combat action ranking just behind the Navy Cross. DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS A person may be awarded this medal if they perform an extraordinary act of heroism while in flight, either in a combat or non-combat situation. It can only be awarded once; a Gold Star is given for subsequent heroic acts. 62 AIR MEDAL The Air Medal is given to an individual who distinguishes his or herself with "meritorious achievement in an aerial flight, " either in combat or non-combat actions. It ranks just below the Distinguished Flying Cross. PURPLE HEART Originally established by George Washington in 1782, this medal is given to any individual who is wounded by enemy action in such a way that requires medical treatment. A Gold Star is awarded if wounded in action again. SENDAI (PICTURE) 63 JAPANESE NAVY MEDALS Unlike their United States Navy counterparts, the Japanese did not honor their military heroes with medals or other citations for acts of bravery. To single out an individual for such an award would have been inconsistent with the Japanese emphasis on the group over the individual. Acts of bravery and self- sacrifice were expected of Japanese airmen, and even the concept of the "ace, " so widely idolized by the Americans, was ignored by the Japanese. A posthumous promotion in rank was the only official recognition of bravery in combat. ORDER OF THE RISING SUN While the Japanese did not recognize heroism with a medal, on rare occasions they did honor meritorious service with the Order ot the Rising Sun. This medal had eight different classes, each representing how distinguished the act of service was. Originally founded in 1875, the Order of the Rising Sun was awarded in both wartime and peacetime. Officers, noncommissioned officers, and even civilians were eligible for this medal. CAMPAIGN MEDALS These were issued to personnel who participated in various campaigns during the Pacific war. In Battlehawks, a Campaign Medal is award for successfully completing an Active Duty mission at the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, or the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. 64 PROMOTIONS In both the U.S. and Japanese Navies, promotions were granted based on experience more than individual valor. Simply by serving well, not losing too many planes, and surviving, pilots would rise in rank. In the U.S. Navy, the exception to this rule was when a pilot flew a particularly successful mission. This would often result in a promotion. Similarly, the Japanese sometimes honored their war dead with a posthumous promotion. A Japanese pilot's highest honor (or more appropriately, his family's highest honor) was a posthumous double promotion. HALSEY (PICTURE) 65 (THIS PAGE IS BLANK) 66 REFERENCE INFORMATION 67 (THIS PAGE IS BLANK) 68 FLIGHT FUNDAMENTALS 69 This chapter discusses the dynamics of flight, both in a real working aircraft and in Battlehawks 1942. The paragraphs that apply these dynamics to the game situation have a * in front of them and behind them. Although today's military aircraft are strikingly different from their World War II predecessors, they both share many of the same aircraft design fundamentals. And they both rely on the same aerodynamic principles to get off the ground and maneuver in the air, starting with the principle known as lift. If you've ever stuck your hand outside a moving car window and felt the wind rush over it, you've already experimented with lift. When you hold your palm down, then rotate it upward, your arm is pulled up. This is caused by lift, or the vertical "push" of air flowing around your hand, which creates high air pressure below your hand and low air pressure above it. Substitute an aircraft wing for your hand and you have some idea of how a plane flies. Of course, the wing of a plane has a much more streamlined, aerodynamic shape than your hand. This shape is needed to create high and low pressure zones around the wing, as well as to ensure a smooth flow of air around it. Furthermore, without a streamlined shape, too much drag, or wind resistance, is produced, which will reduce the amount of lift. A wing needs a continuous, smooth flow of air over and under it to produce lift. To create this, an engine drives a propeller to provide forward thrust. Lift increases with airspeed; the faster 70 the forward thrust, the more lift is created. *To increase your thrust, increase your throttle setting. See the Keyboard Reference section to find out how to adjust your throttle.* When this smooth flow of air around the wing is interrupted, a dangerous situation known as a stall can occur. This happens when the wing is tilted upward at a steep angle or when the plane is moving too slowly. When a plane stalls, it can go out of control and crash. *In Battlehawks, stalls may occur when the plane's airspeed drops below 70 MPH. If this happens, push forward on your control stick (see below) until the message STALL RECOVERED appears, showing that you're now going fast enough for normal flight. Then, quickly pull back on the stick until you're level. It's easy to stall when you're trying to fight a plane that is passing by at a higher altitude. This can be deadly. Stalls are also dangerous when flying low and slow, which unfortunately are the very conditions necessary for a successful torpedo attack. Learn to judge when you are close to stalling from the sound your engine makes, as well as by watching your airspeed indicator.* When in flight, the plane can maneuver three different ways. It can pitch, or move up or down; it can yaw, or swivel left or right; and it can roll, or bank left or right. To execute these maneuvers, the pilot has a control stick or column that controls pitch and roll. 71 Yaw is controlled by a combination of pitching and rolling. *The stick is controlled in Battlehawks by either the cursor keys, a joystick, or a mouse. The stick is not shown on the screen, but it may help you to imagine the stick in the following explanations of maneuvers. Pitch is controlled by forward lowers the nose; pulling the stick back raises it. If you push forward or pull back far enough, the plane may loop, flipping completely over.* The best way to execute a turn is to combine yaw which roll and bank the plane either left or right. Roll is controlled by moving the control stick left or right, which causes the plane to roll in that direction. When the plane has its wings tilted to one side or the other, it is in a bank. When banking to the right, the plane will turn to the right. The steeper the bank, the faster the turn, up to full 90 degree bank with the wings pointing straight up and down. *Steep banking will cause you to lose lift, and the nose of your plane will pitch down. To counteract this, you may wish to pull back on your stick slightly or increase your throttle when you bank. Then, to come out of the turn, push the stick in the opposite direction (for example, when turning right, push left), which should level your plane.* Flaps are the trailing-edge (or rear) sections of the wing that are hinged down- ward to increase lift. When they're fully extended downward, flaps can also slow the airplane by increasing the amount of drag on a wing. *Since torpedo-bombing missions require low, slow flight, flaps can come in handy.* 72 Speedy brakes are special flaps found only on dive bombers. They open both up and down from the back of the wing and are perforated to avoid buffeting when they are open. *Use speed brakes to slow your dive as you come in to drop a bomb on a ship.* Landing gear are the wheels of your plane along with their supports. *All the planes in Battlehawks can extend or retract landing gear except for the Japanese Val dive bombers, whose gear are permanently fixed in an extended position. By extending your landing gear, you can slow your plane down quickly by increasing drag.* To find out more about advanced flying techniques, see the Aerial Tactics and Tips section. 73 (THIS PAGE IS BLANK) 74 AERIAL TACTICS AND TIPS 75 This section describes many of the tactics used in combat by World War II pilots, as well as those that are applicable to game situations in Battlehawks 1942. A valuable tool for analyzing your tactics for any engagement is the replay feature of Battlehawks. This lets you record your action and then view it from any angle. See the Keyboard Reference section for more information. FIGHTER TACTICS:1942 Whether escorting dive bombers and torpedo planes, or providing aerial defense cover for an aircraft carrier, the fighter pilot had but one principal task: shoot down enemy aircraft as quickly as possible. When the enemy was sighted, a pilot had to quickly maneuver his fighter into a position to attack the often swift and maneuverable enemy planes. There were several approaches a fighter pilot could take to make an attack, depending on his position relative to the enemy and the speed and direction the enemy planes were flying in. The STERN ATTACK was an approach that dated back to the earliest aerial duels, and was the easiest for poor marksmen. An attacking fighter would simply get on the tail of the enemy and fire a short burst. This attack could start from a higher or lower position, or from the same altitude as the enemy. The stern approach could be dangerous if the enemy aircraft had a tail or rear gunner who could fire back, or if the enemy was more maneuverable. The OPPOSITE ATTACK sometimes gave equally great shots to both the enemy aircraft and the attacking aircraft! In this approach, the attacking fighter would fly head-on at the enemy plane and fire continuously. U.S. Navy pilots using this approach would try to come up from slightly underneath the enemy at a 15 degree angle, where the enemy aircraft was especially vulnerable. This way, if the enemy tried to dip its nose down and fire, it risked a head-on collision. After this attack was executed, it was often difficult for either plane to set up another approach unless they both turned toward each other again. 76 In these two types of attacks, pilots could fire straight at the target. However, since attacking planes often had to pursue the enemy at angles, the pilots sometimes needed to fire ahead of the target. That way, the bullets would arrive in a given area at the same time as the enemy aircraft. This was known as DEFLECTION SHOOTING. This shooting skill was necessary for more complicated approaches, such as the OVERHEAD APPROACH FROM THE SAME COURSE. This called for the attacking aircraft to fly in the sam direction as the enemy and at a position 2, 000 feet above. When the attacking pilot reached a position ahead of the enemy and in the same vertical plane, he would roll up and over onto his back. Continuing the roll, he would dive down on the enemy at a 60 degree angle, and attack at a 45 degree angle. This gave the attacking aircraft many opportunities for a clear shot, and made it difficult for the enemy to fire back. The OVERHEAD APPROACH FROM THE OPPOSITE COURSE, which was slightly easier to execute than the same course approach, was used when the attacking aircraft and the enemy aircraft were flying toward each other. Again, the attacking fighter had to be at least 2, 000 feet higher than the enemy. As the enemy got closer, the attacking fighter would bank his wings at a 90 degree angle to keep the enemy in his sight. When the attacking aircraft reached the same vertical plane as the enemy and the two planes had passed each other, the attacker would execute a half-roll and drop the nose of his aircraft toward the enemy. Like 77 the same course approach, the attacker would dive at a 60 degree angle, and attack at a 45 degree angle. Both of these overhead attacks were difficult to execute. They required a good deal of air space both above and below the enemy aircraft, so they could not be used at low altitudes. Yet, when executed properly, they could be extremely effective. Finally, the SIDE ATTACK was a true test of marksmanship because of the amount of deflection shooting required. It could be executed above the enemy's flight path, at the same level, or below the flight path. Flying parallel to the enemy, the attacking fighter would execute an s-turn, briefly heading in the opposite direction of the enemy before turning in and beginning his attack at a 90 degree angle. As the attacking pilot finished his s-turn, the final loop would put him closer to actually following behind the enemy. Like the overhead attacks, side attacks offered the enemy a poor target to shoot back at. They were also ideal at low altitudes, when overhead attacks could not be executed. FIGHTER TACTICS: BATTLEHAWKS 1942 DEFLECTION SHOOTING was a specialty of American fighter pilots, who practiced it frequently with difficult side approaches. In Battlehawks, use the gunsight to help you determine where to aim. You will need to compensate for the speed of your target, the angle at which it crosses your line of sight, and its distance away from you. When it is faster, closer to perpendicular to your path, or farther away, you will have to lead your shots more. Try to judge the direction it is flying, and aim along an imaginary line in front of it. You can judge distance by seeing how large the plane is compared to the rings of your gunsight. With practice, you'll be able to score hits every time. The Japanese excelled at tactics that used their planes' superior agility. The SCISSORS was a maneuver used often by the nimble Zeros against the more sluggish American planes. If an enemy is behind you, simply alternate steep banks, turing first left, then right, then left again, while cutting back on your throttle to slow down. The plane behind you will not be able to turn as quickly and will gradually pull ahead of you. This should put you on its tail. If an enemy plane heads toward you then passes you, your fastest way to turn is not to bank to one side but to execute a fancy maneuver. Two good ones are the 78 IMMELMAN TURN and the SPLIT-S. The Immelman is useful when your target is at the same or a higher altitude and you aren't close to stalling speed. To execute it, pull back on your stick and flip completely over, so you are upside- down pointing directly back along your path. If you perform this maneuver correctly, you should see the enemy plane in front of you. Push the stick to one side or the other to right your plane. The split-s is sort of a vertical mirror image of the Immelman. Use it to turn around if you are close to stalling speed, if you need to shake an opponent, or if the enemy has passed by below you. First, push the stick fully to one side (preferably toward the enemy who has just passed beneath you)until you are upside-down. Then, pull back on the stick until you have looped back to a vertical position. Don't try this if you are within a thousand feet of the water! If you execute this maneuver correctly, you'll be flying back the way you came but at a lower altitude. By banking a little as you are pointing straight down, you can quickly change your final direction to any angle you want. DIVE-BOMBING TACTICS:1942 In the war in the Pacific, dive-bombing was a deadly art that required as much raw nerve as it did sheer flying ability. For attacking moving targets, such as ships, it was much more accurate than high-level bombing, but it was also much riskier. Flying at an altitude as high as 12,000 feet to avoid enemy detection, a dive bomber pilot would pick out a target. Then, he would open his dive flaps so that his diving speed would be about 250 mph, and push the stick forward so that his aircraft would plunge toward the target at a 70 to 75 degree angle. The direction of the dive determined the trajectory of the bomb so the pilot kept the nose of the dive bomber right on the target, preferably the stern of the ship. For a harrowing 35 to 40 seconds, the aircraft would dive while anti-aircraft fire burst around it. The pilot would keep his eye on his bomb-sight telescope and move the ailerons to adjust for wind or any movement of the target. Frequently, pilots would zig-zag during the first part of the dive to make the plane a more difficult target for enemy fighters and anti-aircraft fire. At around 2, 000 to 1, 500 feet, the pilot would release the bomb. Since a bomb 79 takes less than three seconds to hit a target from 1, 000 feet, the aircraft would be in danger of being blown up by its own bomb if it dived any lower. The pilot would then quickly pull the nose up, subjecting himself to a large amount of centrifugal force - usually from 5 to 6 Gs. If he was lucky and anti-aircraft fire or a fighter cover didn't get him, he would then hear the unmistakable sound of his bomb exploding on the target. DIVE-BOMBING TACTICS: BATTLEHAWKS 1942 You should start your dive from at least 5, 000 feet up, preferably from 7, 000 feet. Below 5, 000 feet, you may not be able to dive, aim, drop, and pull out in time. Starting your dive at an even higher altitude is fine. Use your speed brakes to limit the velocity of your dive; the extra time will give you plenty of opportunities to correct your aim. To aid you in your approach to the target, Battlehawks provides you with two special views. The scan view allows you to fly in one direction while you look in another. Use this to look down while continuing to fly level, and thus adjust your course so you are headed directly toward the target ship. Then switch to the straight down view. See the Keyboard Reference section to find out which keys control these views on your machine. If you have lined up correctly with your target ship, it will eventually creep into view below you. This is the time to go into your dive. You may wish to switch on the camera to record your bombing run. Then, extend the speed brakes, select the forward view, and push the control stick forward into a steep dive. By watching your pitch indicator, you can judge how steep your descent is. A 70 degree dive (about 3/4 of the way down the indicator) is ideal for your final approach. A longitudinal attack approach, along the line of your target ship's course, is best as you'll have a longer area for your bomb to hit. Attacking your target ship from the bow is better than from the stern since the ship will sail directly away from you in a stern attack. This will force you to flatten your dive to catch it, and will also pull you out of the relatively safe region directly over the ship. Remember that it is more important to surprise the enemy with your attack than to take the time to line up for the perfect attack approach. Always go directly for the ship. With practice, you'll be able to hit a ship even with an angle of attack that's perpendicular to its course. 80 In your dive, you may see that your target is not directly in front of you, but rather to one side or the other. Correcting your aim just by banking is dangerous since this could force you to slip or skid (moving sideways in relation to the direction your plane is pointing). To avoid this, push forward until you are in a nearly-vertical dive - all the way down on the pitch indicator. Then you can rotate your plane by moving your control stick left or right until the target is directly in front of you. Pull back gently to resume your 70 degree dive. As you get closer to the enemy carrier, ignore the flak bursts. Your mission is 81 critical, and you don't need the added problems of dodging flak while aiming. If there are other friendly planes joining you in the attack, it is very important to stick together and use defensive fire to protect each other. But once you have released your bomb, by all means split up from the group, and weave and doge to make yourself a tougher target. Fighter defense is another critical problem. Dive bomber pilot Richard Best would often shake a fighter plane by letting it approach from behind, then going into a sharp turn just as it came within range. This threw off the aim of the fighter, causing it to miss. Meanwhile, the rear gunner of his dive bomber had a minimum deflection shot at the approaching enemy. As you near 2,000 feet you should be ready to release your bomb. If you are in a 70 degree dive, your gunsight should be pointed slightly ahead of where you want the bomb to fall to compensate for gravity pulling the bomb out of the line of your dive. If you release too high, the bomb will fall longer and stray 82 farther from your aiming point. TORPEDO-BOMBING TACTICS:1942 Launching a torpedo from a moving plane against a moving ship was an extremely difficult art that the Japanese excelled at. This was due to their complete mastery of torpedoing techniques, an excellent torpedo, and, for a while, a better torpedo plane (the American TBD Devastator was far less effective than the Japanese Kate, though the TBF-1 Avenger proved to be a successful replacement). To launch a torpedo strike against a ship, a torpedo squadron would cruise at a high altitude and dive when a target was spotted. They would break out of their dive at an altitude of 100 feet or less above the ocean. Sometimes a torpedo squadron would split up to attack a target from different directions. If they flew together in formation, torpedo planes were easier targets for fighters and anti-aircraft fire, as were the American torpedo squadrons at the Battle of Midway. Flying at a low altitude, a torpedo plane would approach a target. The preferred attack position was to be facing either the bow or stern of the ship, since any way the ship turned would leave it vulnerable to a hit. When the torpedo plane was within 1, 000 yards or less of the target, the torpedo was released. A lot could go wrong with a torpedo once it was launched. It had to land perfectly flat on the water to run true to the target. If it landed at a sharp angle, it would dive straight down; if it landed at a shallow angle, it would bounce up and down on the surface. Occasionally the torpedo would simply break up when it hit the water. If the torpedo did land perfectly, it was designed to dive, then rise to a pre-set depth just below the surface. If the depth mechanism was faulty, it could cause the torpedo to run too deep and end up going underneath the target. Sometimes, a slow-moving torpedo could be exploded by machine gun fire aimed at its warhead. 83 And even if all went well and the torpedo did hit the target, there was always the chance that it would be a dud and fail to explode. American torpedoes were notorious for this, to the point where it was an occasion to celebrate when one actually did detonate. But when a torpedo hit and exploded, it struck a highly damaging blow to a ship in a vulnerable area - below the waterline. The ability to inflict such damage on a surface ship, no matter how great the odds of failure, made torpedo-bombing an important weapon in the Pacific war. TORPEDO-BOMBING TACTICS: BATTLEHAWKS 1942 The best attack approach to make when your target is sighted is to stay low, coming in just a few feet above the water. By flying at a low altitude, you risk disaster in a stall but you also make it hard for enemy fighters to safely engage you. As they dive in at you, they will need to attack at a very shallow angle or risk crashing into the water themselves, since they are limited to firing in the direction they fly. Furthermore, your rear gunner has no such limitation and can pick them off while you fly a steady course toward your target. To make the most of your rear gunner, make sure you are flying level, or at least in a gradual climb with no loss in speed, before switching to the rear view. Since you're one person doing the job of two, you'll have to make sure the plane is on a relatively safe heading before looking back. As with dive-bombing, try to ignore the flak on your way in. Staying low is your best defense. A higher approach may give you more room to maneuver, but it will expose you to more gunfire. It will also force you to waste precious seconds diving into position and slowing to torpedo-release speed before dropping your "fish." To release your torpedo, you'll have to fly low, slow, and level. If you're flying an American TBF Avenger, with inferior torpedoes, you'll have to stick below 100 feet and 100 MPH. If you fly and faster or higher, your torpedo will malfunction 84 when it hits the water. If you're piloting a Japanese Kate, with its powerful "Long Lance" torpedoes, you can fly up to 150 MPH at an altitude of up to 500 feet, but you should stay low anyway to avoid anti-aircraft fire. Because guns are arranged all along the length of a ship, your safest approach is directly toward the bow or stern. To maximize the chance of a torpedo hit, the head-on approach (toward the bow)is strongly recommended. Then, swing to one side or the other to release your torpedo at a small angle off the bow. Remember to turn and dodge once you've released the torpedo. 85 (THE PAGE IS BLANK) 86 JAPANESE AND AMERICAN AIRCRAFT: 1942 87 There were three different types of aircraft on board both Japanese and American aircraft carriers. The first, called fighters, were the smallest and most maneuverable. Their two main missions were to protect ships from incoming enemy bombers (fighter intercept mission) and to protect their own bombers on their way to enemy targets (fighter escort mission). The primary Japanese carrier fighter in 1942 was the Zero, while the main American carrier fighter was the F4F Wildcat. The second group of carrier planes were called dive bombers. Larger and less agile than fighters, dive bombers were designed to drop bombs on sea or land targets. This dive-bombing mission was accomplished by diving down on the target at a steep angle, then releasing the bomb at an altitude low enough for maximum accuracy, yet high enough to escape the resulting bomb blast. Sometimes dive bombers were used for scouting and reconnaissance missions, though they carried bombs in case they found a target. In 1942, the Japanese used the Val bomber for divebombing missions, while the Americans relied on the SBD Dauntless dive bomber. Finally, torpedo bombers made up the third group. In a torpoed-bombing mission, these bombers would attack enemy ships by flying toward them at a very low altitude, then releasing self-propelled torpedoes, which would speed to the targets. A low flying altitude was necessary because the gyroscopes on torpedoes would malfunction if dropped from too high up. The Kate torpedo bomber was used by the Japanese, while the U.S. Navy Avenger torpedo bomber saw its first Pacific action in mid-1942. 88 AIRCRAFT SQUADRON DESIGNATIONS Carrier aircraft personnel were divided into four different types of groups, or squadrons. In the U.S. Navy, fighter squadrons were designated by the letters VF, with V being the symbol for "heavier-than-air craft, " and F for fighter. VB stood for dive-bombing squadron, VT for torpedo squadron, and VS for scout or reconnaissance squadron, which was essentially another dive-bombing squadron. These identification letters were followed by the identification number of the carrier the squadron was based on. The number 2 was for the Lexington, 3 for the Saratoga, 5 for the Yorktown, 6 for the Enterprise, and 8 for the Hornet. Therefore, if your squadron was called VB-6, you were in a dive-bombing squadron based on the Enterprise. If you were a member of VT-3, you were part of the Saratoga's torpedo squadron, and so on. The Japanese Navy had similar groupings for their carrier aircraft personnel. All the aircraft on board a given carrier comprised the carrier air unit, or hikokitai, and was divided into three flying units. These units were the equivalent of U.S. Navy squadrons. Fighters made up the carrier fighter unit, and dive bombers were the carrier bomber unit. The third unit was called the carrier attack unit, and was made up of aircraft that could be used as either torpedo bombers or dive bombers. 89 JAPANESE NAVAL AIRCRAFT MITSUBISHI A6M2 TYPE 0 MODEL 21 ZEKE CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER The plane that terrorized Pacific skies, the A6M2 Zeke, or Zero, was a key participant in nearly every Japanese naval action of the Second World War. This swift, long-range fighter could outfly and outmaneuver every type of U.S. fighter during the first two years of the war. The earliest version of the A6M2 was extremely successful in the China campaign, at one point destroying ninety- nine Chinese aircraft, with only two Zeros lost to ground fire. In later attacks on Pearl Harbor, Wake Island, Darwin, Ceylon, the Philippines, and the Netherlands East Indies, the Zero was virtually unstoppable. The A6M2 Model 21 was developed specifically for carrier operations. A 1 foot 8 inch section of each wingtip folded upward, allowing the Model 21s to fit inside carrier deck elevators. In combat, they were used for bomber protection, carrier defense, and for strafing military ground installations. MITSUBISHI A6M3 TYPE 0 MODEL 32 ZEKE CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER Just before the last major carrier battle of 1942, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the A6M2 Model 21 was replaced by the A6M3 Model 32. This updated version was faster than its predecessor due to its larger, more powerful engine. However, to make room for this engine, a smaller fuel tank had to be used, which reduced the range of the Model 32. Instead of folding wingtips, the Model 32 had a smaller wingspan, so it could still be used in carrier operations. A6M2 EVALUATION: Top climbing speed:2, 625 Power loading:5.5 Speed:excellent feet per minute pounds/horsepower Climbing:excellent Ceiling:32, 810 feet Armament: Maneuverability:excellent Range:1, 162 miles Guns:two 7.7 mm Type 97 Gun firepower:good Crew:one machine guns, mounted in Durability:poor Dimensions: the engine cowling, plus Range:excellent Wingspan:39 feet 4 inches two 20mm Type 99 can- Performance: Wing area:242 square feet non, mounted in wings Engine:one Nakajima Length:29 feet 9 inches Warhead:two 132-pound, NKIC Sakae 12 14 Height:10 feet wing-mounted bombs cylinder, air-cooled radial Weights: (ground attack) Horsepower:940 at take Empty:3, 704 pounds off;980 at 9, 350 feet Loaded:5, 313 pounds Top speed:331 miles Wing loading:22 pounds/ per hour square foot 90 Both the A6M2 Model 21 and the A6M3 Model 32 were faster and more agile than their U.S. counterparts. But this speed and maneuverability came at the price of pilot protection. To save weight, the Zeros were less heavily armored than U.S. Fighters, and also lacked self-sealing fuel tanks. As a result, hits that might not do much damage to a U.S. fighter would turn a Zero into a ball of fire. When these facts became known to U.S. pilots, they began to take advantage of this ability to outgun, if not outrun, the less durable Zero. A6M3 Evaluation: Top climbing speed:2, 689 Power loading:5 pounds/ Speed:Excellent feet per minute horsepower Climbing:excellent Ceiling:36, 250 feet Armament: Maneuverability: Range:1, 477 miles Guns:two 7.7mm Type 97 excellent machine guns, mounted in Gun firepower:good Crew:one the engine cowling, plus Durability:poor Dimensions: two 22m Type 99 cannon, Range:good Wingspan:36 feet 1 inch mounted in wings Performance: Wing area:232 square feet Warheads: 2 132-pound Engine:one Nakajima Length:29 feet 9 inches bombs, mounted on the NKIC Sakae 21 14 Height:11 feet 6 inches wings (ground attack) cylinder, Weights: air-cooled radial Horsepower:1, 130 Empty:3, 984 pounds at take off; 1, 100 at 9, 350 feet Loaded:5, 609 pounds Top speed:338 miles Wing loading:24.2 per hour pounds/square foot 91 AICHI D3A1 TYPE 99 MODEL 11 VAL CARRIER-BASED BOMBER First delivered in 1940, this distinctive-looking dive bomber helped the Japanese achieve many of their victories during the early months of the war. The Val sank more Allied ships than any other type of plane, and figured prominently in Japanese successes in China, Indochina, the Indian Ocean, and at Pearl Harbor, where 126 D3A1s dropped the first Japanese bombs on U.S. ships. The D3A1 was so maneuverable it was sometimes used as a fighter, though with its fixed landing gear, it had a relatively slow airspeed. Despite the fact that it could only carry a light payload, it was considered one of the best dive bombers of its time. D3A1 Evaluation: Top climbing speed:1, 515 Armament: Speed:fair feet per minute Guns:2 forward-firing Climbing:fair Ceiling:30, 500 feet 7.7 mm Type 97 engine Maneuverability:excellent Range:915 miles cowling-mounted machine Gun firepower:fair Crew:two guns and 2 rear-firing, Durability:fair Dimensions: flexible-mounted 7.7 mm Range:fair Wingspan:47 feet 2 inches Type 92 machine guns Performance: Wing area:376 square feet Warhead:one 551-pound Engine:1 Mitsubishi Length:33 feet 5 inches fuselage-mounted bomb; Kinsei 42 14-cylinder Height:12 feet 7 inches also could carry 2 132- radial Weights: pound wing-mounted Horsepower:1, 000 at take Empty:4, 309 pounds bombs (ground attack) off;990 at 6, 650 feet Loaded:8, 047 pounds (earlier model) Wing loading:21.4 Top speed:240 miles pounds/square foot per hour Power loading:8 pounds/horsepower 92 AICHI D3A2 TYPE 99 MODEL 12 VAL CARRIER-BASED BOMBER With the staggering losses in aircraft carriers, planes, and crews suffered by the Japanese in the naval battles of 1942, many D3A1 Vals were assigned to land- based bombing duty in the Solomon Islands. Since their low fuel capacity and range made them insufficient for this task, they were replaced by the D3A2 Model 12. This improved version had a larger fuel tank, a more powerful engine, and a longer rear canopy section than its predecessor. The D3A2 saw its first combat action in the fall of 1942. It was later used in the defense of the Philippines in 1944, and even saw service as a kamikaze plane during the last year of the war. D3A2 Evaluation: Top climbing speed:1, 697 Power loading:6.4 Speed:fair feet per minute pounds/horsepower Climbing:good Cruising speed:184 miles Armament: Maneuverability:excellent per hour Guns:2 forward-firing Gun firepower:fair Ceiling:34, 500 feet 7.7 mm Type 97 engine Durability:fair Range:915 miles cowling-mounted machine Range:good Crew:two guns and 2 rear-firing Performance: Dimensions: flexible-mounted 7.7 mm Engine:1 Mitsubishi Wingspan:47 feet 2 inches Type 92 machine guns Kinsei 54 14-cylinder Wing area:376 square feet Warhead:1 551-pound radial Length:33 feet 5 inches fuselage-mounted bomb; Horsepower:1, 300 at Height:12 feet 7 inches also could carry 2 132- take off;1, 200 at 9, 845 Weights: pound wing-mounted feet;and 1, 100 at 20, 340 Empty:5, 666 pounds bombs (ground attack) feet Loaded:8, 378 pounds Top speed:267 miles per Wing loading:22.3 hour pounds/square foot 93 NAKAJIMA B5N1 TYPE 97 MODEL 11 KATE CARRIER-BASED TORPEDO BOMBER An earlier version of the Kates, which were so effective in Pacific carrier battles, the B5N1 Model 11 enabled the Japanese to become the masters of the art of torpedo-bombing. The Model 11 went into production in 1937, and was first used in combat as a land-based bomber to support ground troops in China. Even though it was lightly armored, and had only a single rear-firing machine guns to ward off attackers, the Model 11 was highly successful in the China campaign. Carrier-based versions of the Model 11 had folding wingtips that overlapped above the cockpit for easy storage aboard ship. B5N1 Evaluation: Top climbing speed:1, 257 Weights: Speed:good feet per minute Empty:4, 643 pounds Climbing:good Ceiling:24, 280 feet Loaded:8, 157 pounds Maneuverability:good Range:1, 404 miles Wing loaded:20.1 Gun firepower:poor Crew:two pounds/square foot Durability:fair Dimensions: Power loading:11.5 Range:good Wingspan:50 feet pounds/horsepower Performance: 11 inches Armament: Engine:1 Nakajima Wing area:406 square feet Guns:1 flexible 7.7 mm Hikari 3, 9-cylinder Length:33 feet 9 inches Type 92 rear-firing ma- air-cooled radial Height:12 feet 2 inches chine gun Horsepower:700 at take Warhead:1 1, 764 pound off;800 at 11, 485 feet torpedo;also could Top speed:229 miles carry per hour 1, 764 pounds of bombs 94 NAKAJIMA B5N2 TYPE 97 MODEL 12 KATE CARRIER-BASED TORPEDO BOMBER At the time of the outbreak of war between Japan and the United States, the B5N2 Model 12 was the most advanced carrier-based torpedo bomber in the world. It had replaced the earlier B5N1 Model 11 by the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, where 144 Kates did heavy damage to the U.S. battleship fleet. During the four critical carrier battles of 1942, B5N2s fatally wounded the U.S. carriers Lexington, Yorktown, and Hornet. They also saw service in campaigns in the Solomons and the Philippines, but advances in the advances in the aviation design of other aircraft relegated the Kates to aerial reconnaissance and anti submarine duty at the close of the war. In appearance, the B5N2 Model 12 was nearly identical to the B5N1 Model 11. The B5N2, however, had a larger, more reliable engine than the B5N1, a factor which was critical during long flights over the water. A redesigned cowling also provided a better view for the pilot, while reducing drag on the aircraft. B5N2 Evaluation: Top climbing speed:1, 285 Weights: Speed:good feet per minute Empty:5, 024 pounds Climbing:good Ceiling:27, 100 feet Loaded:8, 378 pounds Maneuverability:good Range:1, 237 miles Wing loading:20.6 Gun firepower:poor Crew:two pounds/square foot Durability:fair Dimensions: Power loading:8.4 Range:good Wingspan:50 feet pounds/horsepower Performance: 11 inches Armament: Engine:1 Nakajima Wing area:406 square feet Guns:1 flexible 7.7 mm NK1B Sakae 11 14- Length:33 feet 9 inches Type 92 rear-firing ma- cylinder, air-cooled radial Height:12 feet 2 inches chine gun Horsepower:1, 000 at take Warhead:1 1, 764 pound off;970 at 9, 845 feet torpedo;also could Top speed:235 miles carry per hour 1, 764 pounds of bombs 95 UNITED STATES NAVAL AIRCRAFT 96 GRUMMAN F4F-3 WILDCAT CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER The fighter that would be the mainstay of the U.S. carrier force until 1943 had its earliest incarnation as the F4F-3. After the first version had fared miserably in performance tests, the addition of a more powerful and reliable engine convinced the U.S. Navy to place an initial order for fifty-four. The first F4F-3 rolled off the assembly line early in 1940. The F4F-3 was first used by the British late in 1940. The following year, both the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps were flying Wildcats, with 187 being used by the navy alone at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. F4F-3 Evaluation: Horsepower:1, 200 Height:11 feet 4 inches Speed:good Top speed:331 miles Weights: Climbing:good per hour Empty:5, 238 pounds Maneuverability:fair Rate of climb:2, 300 feet Loaded:7, 056 pounds Gun firepower:good per minute Wing loading:33.6 Durability:excellent Ceiling:37, 000 feet pounds/square foot Range:fair Range:860 miles Power loading:7.3 Performance: Crew:one pounds/horsepower Engine:1 Pratt & Dimensions: Armament: Whitney R-1830-76 (early); Wingspan:38 feet Guns: 4 .50 caliber 1 Pratt & Whitney Wing area:260 square feet machine guns, 2 in each $-1830-86 (late) Length:28 feet 9 inches wing 97 GRUMMAN F4F-3A WILDCAT CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER By late 1940, the U.S. Navy, concerned about production delays with the F4F-3's Pratt & Whitney R-1830-36 engine, placed an order with Grumman for a version that would use a different powerplant. Known as the F4F-3A, this model was identical to the F4F-3 in every respect, except that it featured a supercharged Pratt & Whitney R-1830-90 engine. This new engine was slightly less powerful than the R-1830-36, and pilots reported that the F4F-3A was slower and didn't handle as well as the F4F-3. The F4F-3A was the first Wildcat to see action against Japan. In the battle at Wake Island, four F4F-3As attacked the Japanese invasion fleet, sinking a destroyer, and forcing the fleet to turn around. Eleven days later the fleet returned, but this time the few remaining Wildcats were no match for it, as Wake Island fell on December 23, 1941. F4F-3s and F4F-3As also participated in numerous engagements early in 1942, including the Battle of the Coral Sea. F4F-3A Evaluation: Top speed:312 miles Weights: Speed:fair per hour Empty:5, 216 pounds Climbing:fair Rate of climb:2, 430 feet Loaded:6, 876 pounds Maneuverability:fair per minute Wing loading:27.1 Gun firepower:good Ceiling:34, 300 feet pounds/square foot Durability:excellent Range:825 miles Power loading:5.8 Range:fair Crew:One pounds/horsepower Performance: Dimensions: Armament: Engine:one Pratt & Wingspan:38 feet Guns 4 .50 caliber Whitney R-1830-90 Wing area:260 square feet machine guns, 2 in each Horsepower:1, 200 Length:28 feet 9 inches wing Height:11 feet 4 inches 98 GRUMMAN F4F-4 WILDCAT CARRIER-BASED FIGHTER Recognizing that the fixed wings of the F4F-3 and F4F-3A would severely limit the number of aircraft that could be stored on board an aircraft carrier, the U.S. Navy ordered a prototype F4F-3 with folding wings and two extra .50 caliber machine guns. This version of the Wildcat, the F4F-4 and F4F-3A aboard U.S. carriers. It saw extensive action in the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, and in many other engagements. Even after the Wildcat had been replaced by the F5F hellcat, it continued to play an important role in the Pacific campaign up until the end of the war. In a one-on-one dogfight situation, the F4F-4 was no match for the Japanese Zero fighter, which was faster, more maneuverable, and had a higher ceiling and a longer range. However, by avoiding dogfights and pairing up in twos against a Zero, pilots of the Wildcat could take advantage of its superior firepower and its ability to withstand battle damage. F4F-4 Evaluation: Top speed:320 miles Weights: Speed:good per hour Empty:5, 895 pounds Climbing:good Rate of climb:2, 190 feet Loaded:8, 765 pounds Maneuverability:good per minute Wing loading:26.4 Gun firepower:excellent Ceiling:34, 000 feet pounds/square foot Durability:excellent Range:1, 275 miles Power loading:5.7 Range:fair Crew:one pounds/horsepower Performance: Dimensions: Armament: Engine:one Pratt & Wingspan:38 feet Guns:6 .50 caliber Whitney R-1830-86 Wing area:260 square feet machine guns, 3 in radial engine Length:29 feet each wing Horsepower:1, 200 Height:11 feet 4 inches 99 DOUGLAS SBD-2 DAUNTLESS CARRIER-BASED DIVE BOMBER Perhaps the most popular carrier aircraft of the Second World War among U.S. Navy pilots, the Dauntless was easy to fly, and deadly effective at delivering bombs. Otherwise known as the "Barge, "the "Clunk, " and the "Slow but Deadly, " it played an important role in the carrier battles of 1942, especially at the Battle of Midway. The earliest version of the Dauntless to be accepted by the U.S. Navy was the SBD-2. This model had a larger fuel capacity than the earlier SBD-1, but it lacked armor-plating and a bulletproof windshield. Even though it was not considered combat-worthy, it was in use aboard U.S. carriers at the time of Pearl Harbor. Seven SBD-2s from the Enterprise were shot down in the attack, while shooting down two Japanese aircraft. SBD-2 Evaluation: Ceiling:27, 400 feet pounds/horsepower Speed:fair Range:1, 225 miles(bomb- Armament: Climbing:fair (ing);1, 370 miles(scouting) Guns:1 fixed .50 Maneuverability:fair Crew:two caliber machine gun, Gun firepower:fair Dimensions: mounted in front of the Durability:excellent Wingspan:41 feet 6 inches cockpit, and 1 flexible Range:good Wing area:325 square feet .30 caliber machine gun Performance: Length:32 feet 2 inches mounted in the rear of Engine:Wright R-1820-32 Height:13 feet 7 inches the cockpit. Horsepower:1, 000 at Weights: Warhead:1 1, 000 pound take off Empty:6, 293 pounds bomb. Also could carry Top speed:252 miles Loaded:10, 360 pounds 1 of these combinations per hour Wing loading:31.8 2 100 pound bombs or Rate of climb:1, 080 pounds/square feet depth charges plus 1 per minute Power loading:10.3 500 pound bomb, or 1 1600 pound bomb. 100 DOUGLAS SBD-3 DAUNTLESS CARRIER-BASED DIVE BOMBER In March of 1942, the U.S. Navy began replacing its SBD-2s with SBD-3s. This new version was far more combat-worthy, with a more powerful engine, extra machine guns, armor-plating around the crews and fuel tanks, and a bulletproof windshield. The SBD-3 was the first Dauntless model to be widely produced and, after 1942, it would go down in history. Bombs dropped from SBD-3 Dauntlesses sank Japanese ships at the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, in addition to four aircraft carriers at the Battle of Midway. It would continue to be the workhorse of the U.S. fleet throughout the entire Solomons campaign. The SBD-5 Dauntless and SB2-C Helldiver replaced the SBD-3 in 1943. SBD-3 Evaluation: Ceiling:27, 400 feet pounds/horsepower Speed:fair Range:1, 345 miles(bomb- Armament: Climbing:fair ing);1, 580 miles(scounting) Guns:2 .50 caliber for- Maneuverability:fair Crew:2 ward-firing machine Gun firepower:good Dimensions: guns mounted in front Durability:excellent Wingspan:41 feet 6 inches of the cockpit, + 2 .30 Range:good Wing area:325 square feet caliber flexible Performance: Length:32 feet 8 inches machine gun at the rear Engine:Wright R-1820-52 Height:13 feet 7 inches of the cockpit. Horsepower:1, 000 at Weights: Warhead:1 1000 pound take off Empty:6, 345 pounds bomb. Also could carry Top speed:250 miles Loaded:10, 400 pounds 1 of these combinations per hour Wing loading:32 pounds/ 2 100 pound bombs or Rate of climb:1, 190 feet square feet depth charges + 1 500 per minute Power loading:10.4 pound bomb, or 1 1, 600 pound bomb. 101 GRUMMAN TBF-1 AVENGER CARRIER-BASED TORPEDO BOMBER Sometimes known as the "Turkey" or "Pregnant Beast, " the rugged, reliable Avenger proved to be a far superior replacement for the slow, obsolete TBD-1 Devastator, which failed so disaterously at Midway. The TBF-1 saw its first action as a land-based bomber in that battle, and replaced the Devastator on carriers soon after. Avengers later participated in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, and played valuable roles in other major naval engagements throughout the war. In 1944, Avengers scored four torpedo hits against the Japanese battleship Yamato, the most heavily-armed vessel in the world. Avengers were also used extensively and effectively against Japanese shipping and in anti-submarine duty. The TBF-1 proved to be a very sturdy platform from which to launch a torpedo. It was heavily armored, so it could sustain a good deal of damage from fighters 102 while in the air. With machine guns located in the front of the canopy, in the power turret in the rear, and in the underside of the aircraft, it could also unleash a good deal of damage. TBF-1 Evaluation: Dimensions: the power turret at rear Speed:good Wingspan:54 feet 2 inches of canopy Climbing:good Wing area:490 square feet Warhead:1 500 pound Maneuverability:fair Length:40 feet MK13 torpedo. Also Gun firepower:excellent Height:16 feet 5 inches could carry 1 of these Durability:excellent Weights: combinations:1 2000 lb Range:good Empty:10, 080 pounds general purpose bomb, Performance: Loaded:13, 667 pounds 2 1000 pound general Engine:1 Wright Wing loading:27.8 purpose bombs, 4 500 lb R-2600 pounds/square foot general purpose bombs, Horsepower:1, 700 Power loading:8 pounds/ 1 1600 pound armor- Top speed:257 miles horsepower piercing bomb, or 4 350 per hour Armament: pound depth bombs. Rate of climb:1, 430 Guns:1 forward firing .30 feet per minute caliber machine gun, 1 .30 Ceiling:21, 400 feet caliber machine gun in belly, Range:1, 215 miles and 1 .50 caliber machine gun Crew:three in 103 JAPANESE AIRBORNE WEAPONS 7.7 MM MACHINE GUN Two major variations of this light machine gun were used in Japanese carrier planes. The forward firing Type 97 was fixed to the engine cowling of the Zero and Val. The flexible mounted Type 92 was used by the rear gunners of the Val and Kate. It took many bullets from these guns to damage the sturdy American planes. Zero pilots used them for ranging once they were hitting the target accurately, the more powerful cannons were used. 20 MM CANNON This wing mounted weapon on the Zero was powerful at close range. But, with a limited magazine of sixty shells, it ran out of ammunition quickly. It also had a low muzzle velocity, meaning that the bullets would travel slowly once they left the cannon. This made it difficult to hit a moving target effectively. 250 KILOGRAM BOMBS These "iron bombs" were packed with high explosives, and were used by the Val for dive-bombing ships and land targets. Often, a near miss on a ship with one of these bombs was as effective as a hit because the explosion in the water could breach the hull below the waterline, much like a torpedo. TYPE 95 TORPEDO Otherwise known as the "Long Lance, " this was the best torpedo in the world at the time, far outclassing any U.S. torpedo. It could be dropped from a bomber at a height of 500 feet above the ocean, and would speed to its target at an incredible 45 knots, . Its warhead weighed 900 pounds and would nearly always explode when it hit the target, unlike U.S. torpedo warheads. 104 UNITED STATES AIRBORNE WEAPONS .30 CALIBER MACHINE GUN Similar to the Japanese 7.7 mm guns, this 7.6 mm gun was used by rear gunners on the SBD Dauntless and TBF Avenger, where it could prevent a Zero pilot from executing his favorite tactic -- a tail attack. It came in single barrel and double barrel varieties. .50 CALIBER MACHINE GUN This gun measured 12.7 mm and could do heavy damage to the Japanese planes, which lacked selfsealing fuel tanks and armor-plating. The incendiary tracer bullets would sometime cause a Zero to explode if they hit its gas tank. It was the main forward gun on the F4F Wildcat, the SBD Dauntless, and the TBF Avenger. 500/1, 000 POUND BOMBS Like their Japanese counterparts, these were high explosive "iron bombs" which could be used against land and sea targets. The SBD carried either type, usually the larger 1, 000 pounder. When there was insufficient deck space on the carrier for a long take off, the 500 pound bomb was used to lighten the load and shorten the take off distance. MARK 13 TORPEDO Perhaps one of the most unreliable weapons ever devised, the Mark 13 was slow, inaccurate, and often defective. Its fragile guidance system would go haywire if it hit the water at a high speed or at an angle that wasn't perfectly flat. With its sluggish speed of 33.5 knots, it could sometimes be deliberately detonated by machine gun bullets. If it did hit the target, its 500 pound warhead often failed to explode. 105 (THIS PAGE IS BLANK) 106 JAPANESE AND AMERICAN WARSHIPS: 1942 107 JAPANESE WARSHIPS AKAGI CLASS Converted from the hull of a partially built battle-cruiser, the Akagi was completed as an aircraft carrier in March of 1927. In 1938, the Akagi was modernized, with the addition of a full flight deck and an island on its port side. The heavily-armored Akagi was an important part of the Imperial Japanese Navy's carrier strike forces, and participated in the campaigns at China, Pearl Harbor, Rabaul, Darwin, Java, and Ceylon. On June 4, 1942, the Akagi was seriously damaged by planes from the Enterprise off Midway Island, and was scuttled by destroyers the following day. Number of ships in class:1 Length:855 feet Beam:102 feet 9 inches Draft:28 feet 7 inches Displacement:36, 500 tons Shaft horsepower:133, 000 Top speed:31 knots Crew:2, 000 Armament: six 8-inch .50 caliber guns, twelve 4.7 inch .45 caliber guns, twenty eight 25 mm anti-aircraft guns Number of aircraft:91 SHOKAKU CLASS Completed on August 8, 1941, the Shokaku and its sister ship, the Zuikaku, were part of a new Japanese Navy class of "supercarriers". The two fast carriers played an important role in many of the battles in the Pacific, including attacks on Pearl Harbor, Rabaul, Darwin, Java, and Ceylon. On May 7, 1942, the Shokaku was heavily damaged by U.S. planes from the carriers Lexington and Yorktown at the Battle of the Coral Sea. As a result, it was laid up for repairs and missed the critical Battle of Midway. The Shokaku returned to action in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. It was 108 damaged at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, and knocked out of action for the next nine months. On June 19, 1944, the Shokaku was sunk by the U.S. submarine Cavalla off Yap Island. Number of ships in class:2 Length:844 feet Beam:85 feet 4 inches Draft:29 feet 1 inch Displacement:25, 675 tons Shaft horsepower:160, 000 Top speed:34 knots Crew:1, 660 Armament: sixteen 5 inch .40 caliber dual purpose guns, forty two 25 mm anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:84 Soryu Class While not as large as the Akagi or Kaga, the Soruy and its sister ship, the Hiryu, were faster, more maneuverable, and more powerful than the bigger carriers. Both the Soryu and Hiryu were built along roughly the same lines, with the Hiryu weighing slightly more and having somewhat larger dimensions. Interestingly, the Soryu's island was on its port side, while the Hiryu's was on its starboard side. The soryu was completed in 1937, and the Hiryu in 1939. Both carriers took part in the engagements at China, Pearl Harbor, Wake Island, Rabaul, Ambon Island, Timor, Darwin, Java, and Ceylon. On June 4, 1942, the Soryu was attacked and sunk by dive bombers from the Yorktown at the Battle of Midway. That same day, the Hiryu was badly damaged by aircraft from the Yorktown and Enterprise, and was scuttled the next day. Number of ships in class:2 Length:746 feet Beam:69 feet 11 inches Draft:25 feet Displacement:18, 800 tons Shaft horsepower:152, 000 Top speed:34 knots Crew:1, 100 Armament: twelve 5 inch .40 caliber guns, twenty eight 25 mm anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:71 109 KAGA CLASS Like the Akagi, the Kaga was built on the hull of an unfinished battlecruiser. Both of these hugh carriers had horizontal funnels, and smoke was constantly seeping into the crew's quarters. Nevertheless, the Kaga and the Akagi were favorites of the Japanese Navy. The Kaga was completed in 1928, and modernized to hold more aircraft in 1935. After seeing service at China, Pearl Harbor, Rabaul, Darwin, and Java, the Kaga was sunk on June 4, 1942 by dive bombers from the Enterprise at the Battle of Midway. Number of ships in class:1 Length:812 feet Bean:106 feet 8 inches Draft:31 feet 1 inch Displacement:38, 200 tons Shaft horsepower:127, 000 Top speed:28 knots Crew:1, 340 Armament: sixteen 5 inch .40 caliber guns, ten 8 inch .50 caliber guns, twenty two 25 mm anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:90 RYUJO CLASS With its distinctive high bow and low stern, the Ryujo was one of the smaller ships in the Japanese Navy. It was completed in 1933 and reconstructed in 1936. After seeing service in China, the Philippines, the East Indies, and the Indian Ocean, the Ryujo was part of the task force that made a diversionary raid on the Aleutians on June 3, 1942, the day before the Battle of Midway. Later that year, the Ryujo was sunk at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons by planes from the Saratoga. Number of ships in class:1 Length:590 feet Beam:68 feet 2 inches Draft:23 feet 3 inches Displacement:10, 600 tons Shaft horsepower:66, 269 Top speed:29 knots Crew:924 Armament: eight 5 inch .40 caliber guns, twenty-four 13.2 mm anti-aircraft guns, four 25 mm anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:48 SHOHO CLASS The Shoho and its sister ship, the Zuiho, were originally built as submarine support ships, and were later converted to aircraft carriers. The slightly-larger Zuiho was reconstructed in 1940, and the Shoho in 1942. In its only battle, the Shoho was sunk by planes from the Yorktown in the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 7, 1942. The Zuiho enjoyed a longer career, seeing action in the Philippines and the Aleutians before being damaged in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. After repairs, the Zuiho took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea before being sunk off Cape Engano in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Number of ships in class:2 Length:674 feet Beam:59 feet 8 inches Draft:21 feet 7 inches Displacement:11, 262 tons Shaft horsepower:52, 000 Top speed:28 knots Crew:989 Armament: eight 5 inch .40 caliber guns, eight 25 mm anti-aircraft guns Number of aircraft:30 111 HEAVY CRUISERS FURUTAKA CLASS The first Japanese cruiser designed and built to comply with the 1925 Washington Treaty, which limited warship size, the Furutaka was completed in 1926 and modernized in 1939. It saw action in the Battle of the Coral Sea and at the Battle of Savo Island, near Guadalcanal. The Furutaka was sunk in October, 1942, by the cruisers Salt Lake City and Boise at the Battle of Cape Esperance. Number of ships in class:2 Length:607 feet Beam:51 feet 9 inches Draft:18 feet 3 inches Displacement:7, 100 tons Shaft horsepower:102, 000 Top speed:34.5 knots Crew:625 Armament: six 8 inch .50 caliber guns, four 3 inch .40 caliber guns, ten MGs, twelve 24 inch torpedo tubes Number of aircraft:1 MOGAMI CLASS Originally designed as light cruisers, the Mogami, along with her sister ships Mikuma, Suzuya, and Kumano, were rearmed as heavy cruisers before the outbreak of war with the U.S. The Mogami was constructed in 1935 and rebuilt in 1938. In the Battle of Midway, the Mogami was heavily damaged, both by aircraft from the Enterprise and in a collision with the Mikuma. After extensive repairs, and modifications for seaplane carrying, the Mogami was again severely damaged, this time off Rabaul in 1943. In 1944, the Mogami was finally sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf by U.S. cruisers. Number of ships in class:4 Length:649 feet 10 inches Beam:63 feet Draft:19 feet 4 inches Displacement:11, 200 tons Shaft horsepower:152, 000 Top speed:35 knots Crew:850 Armament: fifteen 155 mm .60 caliber guns, eight 127 mm .40 caliber guns, eight 25 mm anti-aircraft guns, four 13.2 mm anti-aircraft guns, four racks of three 610 mm torpedo tubes Number of aircraft:3 112 TONE CLASS Completed in 1938, the Tone, along with its sister ship the Chikuma, took part in the Battle of Midway. There, the Tone's defective seaplane catapult delayed the launch of a reconnaissance plane and prevented the U.S. fleet from being discovered until it was too late. The Tone was later sunk by U.S. aircraft off the coast of Japan near Kure in 1945. Number of ships in class:2 Length:649 feet 7 inches Beam:60 feet 8 inches Draft:21 feet 3 inches Displacement:11, 215 tons Shaft horsepower:152, 000 Top speed:35 knots Crew:850 Armament: eight 8 inch .50 caliber guns, eight 5 inch .40 caliber guns, twelve 25 mm anti-aircraft guns, four racks of three 610 mm torpedo tubes Number of aircraft:5 113 DESTROYERS FUBUKI CLASS The oldest class of Japanese destroyers to serve in the Pacific war, Fubuki class destroyers were the first in the world to have guns in enclosed mountings. Date of construction:1925-1928 Number of ships in class:20 Length:378 feet 3 inches Beam:34 feet Draft:10 feet 6 inches Displacement:1, 750 tons Shaft horsepower:50, 000 Top speed:38 knots Crew:197 Armament: six 5 inch .50 caliber guns, two 13 mm anti-aircraft guns, nine 24 inch torpedo tubes, eighteen torpedoes, eighteen mines, eighteen depth charges. HATSUHARU CLASS This class of destroyers was designed as an improvement on the Fubuki class, and had lighter armament. Date of construction:1931-1935 Number of ships in class:6 Length:359 feet 3 inches Beam:32 feet 9 inches Draft:9 feet 11 inches Displacement:1, 490 tons Shaft horsepower:42, 000 Top speed:36 knots Crew:200 Armament: five 5 inch .50 caliber guns, two 13 mm anti aircraft guns, nine 24 inch torpedo tubes, fourteen depth charges KAGERO CLASS Slightly larger and more powerful than the fubuki or the Hatsuharu classes, the Kagero class was known as a cruiser-type destroyer. Date of construction:1937-1941 Number of ships in class:18 Length:388 feet 9 inches Beam:35 feet 5 inches Draft:12 feet 4 inches Displacement:2, 033 tons Shaft horsepower:52, 000 Top speed:35 knots Crew:240 Armament: six 5 inch .50 caliber guns, four 25 mm anti-aircraft guns, eight 24 inch torpedo tubes, sixteen depth charges. YUGUMO CLASS This class of destroyer was developed as an improvement to the Kagero cruiser type. Date of construction:1940-1945 Number of ships in class:20 Length:390 feet 11 inches Beam:35 feet 5 inches Draft:12 feet 4 inches Displacement:2, 077 tons Shaft horsepower:52, 000 Top speed:35 knots Crew:228 Armament: six 5 inch .50 caliber guns, four 25 mm anti-aircraft guns, eight 25 inch torpedo tubes, thirty six depth charges. 114 UNITED STATES NAVY WARSHIPS LEXINGTON CLASS The Lexington, and its sister ship the Saratoga, were the oldest carriers in the U.S. fleet at the time of the Pacific war. They were also the longest. Originally designed and partially constructed as battlecruisers, they were completed as aircraft carriers in 1927. The Lexington was the first U.S. aircraft carrier to lost in action, following attacks by aircraft from the Shokaku and Zuikaku at the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. The Saratoga was damaged so many times during the course of the Pacific war that the Japanese listed it as sunk on several occasions. The big carrier participated in numerous engagements, including the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, and the invasions at Bougainville, the Gilbert Islands, Kwajalein, Eniwetok, and Iwo Jima. Number of ships in class:2 Length:888 feet Beam:105 feet 6 inches Draft:24 feet 2 inches Displacement:33, 000 tons Shaft horsepower:180, 000 Top speed:34 knots Crew:1, 900 Armament: eight 8 inch .55 caliber guns, twelve 4 inch .25 caliber anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:81 115 YORKTOWN CLASS The Yorktown, and its sister ship the Enterprise, were among the first ships designed and built exclusively as aircraft carriers. The Yorktown was commissioned in 1937, and the Enterprise in 1938. Both of these carriers were renowned for their speed and their ability to take heavy punishment, and their design inspired the later Essex-class carrier. With only seven aircraft carriers in service when war broke out, the Yorktown and Enterprise saw a great deal of action early on. The Yorktown was damaged in the Battle of the Coral Sea, and was sunk by a Japanese submarine at the Battle 116 of Midway. The Enterprise participated in nearly every major action in the Pacific war, including the Doolittle raid on Tokyo and the Battle of Midway. In both the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the Enterprise was heavily damaged. After repairs, the Enterprise supported numerous island invasions, and participated in the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Number of ships in class:2 Length:809 feet 6 inches Beam:83 feet 3 inches Draft:21 feet 8 inches Displacement:19, 900 tons Shaft horsepower:120, 000 Top speed:34 knots Crew:2, 072 Armament: eight 5 inch .38 caliber guns, sixteen 1.1 inch anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:81 HORNET CLASS The only carrier in its class, the Hornet was a modified Yorktown class design. Commissioned just before Pearl Harbor, the Hornet enjoyed a distinguished, though brief, career. It launched the B-25s which bombed Tokyo in the Doolittle raid, and participated in the Battle of Midway. The Hornet was finally sunk by Japanese planes and destroyers at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Number of ships in class:1 Length:809 feet 6 inches Beam:83 feet 3 inches Draft:21 feet 8 inches Displacement:20, 000 tons Shaft horsepower:120, 000 Top speed:34 knots Crew:2, 072 Armament: eight 5 inch .38 caliber guns, sixteen 1.1 inch anti-aircraft guns. Number of aircraft:81 117 HEAVY CRUISERS ASTORIA CLASS Commissioned between 1934 and 1936, the seven heavy cruisers of the Astoria class were more heavily protected than earlier versions. Between 1940 and 1941, they were modified, with additional armor-plating added and anti-aircraft batteries strengthened. Astoria-class cruisers saw action in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Three Astoria-class cruisers, including the Astoria itself, were sunk at the Battle of Savo Island on August 9, 1942. Number of ships in class:7 Length:588 feet Beam:61 feet 9 inches Draft:19 feet 5 inches Displacement:9, 950 tons Shaft horsepower:107, 000 Top speed:32 knots Crew:700 Armament: nine 8 inch .55 caliber guns, eight 5 inch .25 caliber anti-aircraft guns. ATLANTA CLASS Smaller than the Astoria-class cruisers, the sleek Atlanta-class cruisers were among the fastest cruisers in the world at that time. Commissioned between 1941 and 1943, they were used mainly to provide anti-aircraft defense for aircraft carriers. The Atlanta itself, along with a sister ship, the Juneau, was lost off Guadalcanal in November, 1942. Number of ships in class:11 Length:541 feet Beam:52 feet 10 inches Draft:20 feet Displacement:6, 000 tons Shaft horsepower:75, 000 Top speed:33 knots Crew:700 Armament: sixteen 5 inch .38 caliber guns, 20 and 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, eight 21 inch torpedo tubes. 118 BATTLEHAWKS 1942 REFERENCE CARD FOR AMIGA This card contains a set of start-up instructions specifically for your Amiga 500, 1000, or 2000 computer. These instructions include Quick Start, which lets you fly a Battlehawks 1942 mission right away. There are also instructions for loading and starting up the game, and for installing Battlehawks on a hard disk. Once the program is running, please refer to the Game Play section of the manual starting with Menu choices. For your convenience, Battlehawks is not copy protected. Before playing, we recommend that you make a copy of the two game disks by following the instructions in your Amiga user's manual. GAME CONTROLLERS You may use either a mouse or the keyboard controls for playing Battlehawks. The program does not support a joystick. QUICK START REFERENCE To take Battlehawks 1942 for a test flight. Turn on your machine. When your computer asks for the Workbench disk, insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into drive df0:. Insert Battlehawks Disk #2 into any drive when prompted. A title screen and game credits will appear, followed by the Main Menu, which has a close-up illustration of a plane taking off from a carrier. On this Main Menu SELECT TRAINING will be highlighted. To proceed, press RETURN (or your mouse button). See the Main Menu section of the manual if you need more help. 1 Read the mission description for the selected FIGHTER INTERCEPT MISSION, then press RETURN (or your mouse button) to proceed. More details are given in the Training Missions section of the manual. Now you will be sent to the Ready Room, where you'll see BEGIN FLIGHT highlighted on the screen. Press RETURN (or your mouse button) to continue. An explanation of this screen is found under the Ready Room section of the manual. Next, you must answer the Recognition Test. The profile of an aircraft will appear on the screen. Turn to the Loading Instruction and following sections of the manual. At the bottom of every other page, you'll see a profile of a plane, with a word above it. One of the profiles in the manual matches the one on your screen. When you find it, use your keyboard to type in the word that appears above it. Once you've entered the correct word, you'll find yourself flying over open water in an American Wildcat fighter. Eight Japanese Zero fighters are flying maneuvers but are not shooting at you. Your Wildcat has an unlimited supply of fuel and ammunition, and it cannot crash. Your mission is to shoot down all the Japanese fighters. Good luck! Note that when you type: p the game pauses. Refer to the Cockpit View and Keyboard Reference sections 2 of the manual for more information about cockpit controls and flying your plane. To end your mission, type: q at any time. This will return you to the Main Menu. You may also press: esc to leave the game, except when you are flying a mission. For a more comprehensive explaination of how to play, first read the section below, Loading and Start-Up Instructions, then turn to the Game Play section of the manual. LOADING & START-UP INSTRUCTIONS The game play of Battlehawks 1942 is enhanced by having as much free memory as possible. Keep this in mind if you have a lot of other programs loaded into your computer. IMPORTANT NOTE FOR 512K AMIGA USERS ONLY: Only the Cold Start and Warm start instructions may be used for loading the program. HOW TO LOAD FROM A FLOPPY DISK Cold Start If your Amiga hasn't been started up yet: Turn on your machine. When it asks for the Workbench disk, insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into drive Df0:. Insert Battlehawks Disk #2 into any drive when prompted. Warm Start If your Amiga is already up and running: 3 Take out the Workbench disk. Insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into drive df0:. Press CTRL and the two Amiga keys simultaneously. Insert Battlehawks Disk #2 into any drive when prompted. Starting from the Workbench Insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into any drive. Open the Battlehawks 1942 disk icon (labelled BHawk1). Double-click on the icon labelled bh. Insert Battlehawks Disk #2 into any drive when prompted. Starting from the CLI Insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into any drive. From the CLI command prompt, type: cd followed by a space, the name of your drive, then a colon. Press RETURN when you have finished typing. For example, if you're starting from an external drive named df1:, you'd type: cd df1: and press RETURN. Next type in: bh and press RETURN. This will send you to the Main Menu. Suggestion for Two Disk-Drive System To load the game faster and eliminate disk-switching, insert both game disk at the same time, rather than just inserting Battlehawks Disk #1. Then, when you get to the Main Menu, remove Disk #1, and replace it with a Service Record disk (see next page). 4 SAVING YOUR SERVICE RECORD As you fly the various missions in Battlehawks, you'll be using a variety of pilot names. To keep track of the successes, failures, medals, and promotions of each "pilot, " you'll need to create a Service Record disk. This is a two step process. First, you must format a blank disk BEFORE you start playing the game. Then, go into the game to prepare the disk for use. TO FORMAT A DISK: You can do this from either the CLI or the Workbench. From the CLI, if you are formatting a disk from a drive named df1:, you'd type: format drive df1: name "BHPilots" and press RETURN. Be sure to include the spaces when you are typing. To format a disk from the Workbench: Insert a blank disk into any drive. Select the icon for the disk. Choose "Initialize" from the disk menu. After the disk has been initialized, choose "Rename" from the Workbench menu. Use the delete key to erase the word "Empty." Type in the word: BHPilots and press RETURN. TO PREPARE A DISK: Once you've formatted your disk, go to the Main menu of the program, and select Review Service Records. Then, use the PREPARE command to set up the disk as a Service Record Disk. 5 HARD DISK INSTALLATION If you have a hard disk drive, we recommend that you play Battlehawks from it. Here's an example of how to copy the program from the two game disks onto your hard drive. If you hard disk is named "dh0:, " start from the CLI, and type: cd dh0: and press RETURN. Then type: makedir bh1942 and press RETURN. Next, insert Battlehawks Disk #1 into and drive, and type: copy BHawk1:bh1942 ALL QUIET and press RETURN. Now, insert Battlehawks Disk #2 into any drive, and type: copy BHawk2:bh1942 ALL QUIET and press RETURN. The game will now be installed on your hard drive. To start up the game once it has been installed, type: cd bh1942 and press RETURN. Then type: bh and press RETURN. When you've finished, you'll be ready for take-off! For additional Battlehawks instructions, refer to the Game Play section of the manual, starting with Main Menu.
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