Abandonware DOS title

Centurion: Defender of Rome manual


The year is 275 B.C. Through conquest and careful diplomacy, the Roman
republic has brought the petty kingdoms and city-states of Italia under its
control.  This is the moment at which the heirs of Romulus and Remus step
onto the world stage.  This is the humble beginning of an empire that will
one day cover most of Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa.

As an ambitious young officer, you duty is to defend Rome. Your hope is to
become Caesar.  Your fate - to rule the world.

Because key commands and controlling devices vary with computer models, this
manual was written as a general guide to Centurion.  In it you'll find a
game overview, descriptions of the features, and historical notes.  For
loading instructions, keyboard commands, and other information specific to
your computer, see the COmmand Summary Card included in the package.

In this manual, 'select' means moving the arrow cursor to an item and
activating it by pressing an action button.  See selecting items on the
Command Summary Card for the action button on your computer.


Italia - The Beginning of an Empire:
When the game begins you only control the province of Italia.  The
legionnaire standing in Italia marks the single legion you command.  To go
to Rome, you must enter the province of Italia.  See Entering Provinces on
the Command Summary Card.

Rome Sweet Rome:  You start at the rank of Officer.  At this rank, you can't
raise more legions or build fleets.  And there's little you can do with the
Twenty talents in the treasury.  The good news is that you can raise your
rank and increase your wealth by adding - and holding onto - provinces. See
Ruling Roman Provinces for details.

Form Alliances: Winning Allies with the tongue is less constly than
subduing them with the sword.  When you first move your legion into a
province, you can try to negotiate alliances with your neighbors.  See
Negotiating Alliances for details on diplomacy and alliances.

Civilize through Conquest:  If the barbarians ignore your diplomats, they
may listen to the legion you brought with you.  When you go to war, you
choose a formation and a tactic, and then start the fight.  During the
battle, you can stop the action and direct individual units or cohorts.  See
legeion specifications and land battle for details on legions, formations,
and tactics.

Fight Marauding Scum:  Rome has no lack of enemies.  Barbarian tribes from
the north invade Italia looking for easy plunder. From the south, cities
like Carthago send out organized armies in hope of stemming Rome's rise to
power.  As a soldier, you're obligated to protect ROme and her allies from
foreign attack.  See Marauding Armies.

Smash Enemy Fleets:  Once you're high enough rank and you have enough moneym
you can build fleets to move legions overseas and fight foreign navies. See
Sea Battles.

Race the famous Circus Maximus:  With enough talents you can participate in
chariot races in Rome.  Winning can earn you more talents and improve your
reputation.  Watch out for agressive opponents and hairpin turns.  See
Chariot Races.

Spill Blood in teh Colosseum:  As a juvenal put it, the masses earn for 2
things - 'bread and circuses.'  Without a doubt, the masses are happier when
they're entertained, and the blood that flows during gladitorial events is
guranteed to increase your popularity.  See Gladitorial Shows.


Your goal in Centurion is to rule the world and keep the people happy.
While there is no single way to conquer the world, you may want to start by
occupying the Alpes.
1. Select Italia I.
2. Select Ultimatum. If they won't negotiate further, select Go To War.
3. Select Balanced Army.
4. Select Frontal Assault. The battle begins immediately, so you should
   pause the battle in order to get your bearings - See Directing Individual
   Units on the Command Summary Card.
5. Direct Individual Units. With the game paused, you can give orders to
   your units. Go ahead and experiment.  Try to use some of the tactics
   described under Scipio's Battle Notes.
6. Once the battle ends, select next turn from the Map.  A year will pass
   and you can strengthen your legion, move it into another province, or
   hold a chariot race. Every year check to see if you have gone up in rank
   - the higher your rank, the more legions you can have.  And watch out for
   marauding armies!


The Game Turn: The game progresses in single year increments or turns.  The
turn limits the actions you can take in a year.  For example, you can move
or strenghten an individual legion only once per turn.  Fleets can be moved
only once per turn, too.  To go to the next turn, select End Turn from the

Game Control Menu: From the game control menu you can load or save games,
start new games, adjust the difficulty level, or quit to DOS.  Select an
option from the menu:

Save Game - Save you current progress in the game.  You can save up to nine
games.  Select the number you want to designate as your current game.  Note:
You can't delete saved games, but you can save a game over an old one.

Load Game - Load a previously saved game. Select the game you want to
continue (1-9).

New Game - Begin a New Game

About Centurion - Game Credits

Difficulty Levels - Adjust the difficulty level of your current game.
Difficulty levels range from Galley Slave (EASY) to Emperor (HARD).  You can
select fine tuning to raise or lower the difficulty level of a particular
feature - Land Battle, Racing Chariots, Gladitorial COmbat, and Naval

Quit to Dos - Quit your current game.  Be sure to save your current game
before quitting, if you want to continue it later.

Continue Playing - Return to the game.


You begin at the rank of officer.  As you climb in rank, you can command
more legions and the senate grants you new powers.

Rank            Legions        Fleets           New Powers
Officer         1              0                  -
Centurion       2              0                  -
Tribune         3              1        Command Cavalry, Legions, FLeets
Legatus         4              1                  -
General         6              2                  -
Praetor         8              2                  -
Consul          10             3        Command Consular Armies
Proconsul       12             3                  -
Caesar          12             3                  -

Increasing Rank:  In Rome, your reputation determines your success.  Your
rank in the military depends on deeds and acts that distinguish you from the
rest of the Roman nobility.  As your social status increases, you'll recieve
promotions.  Doing any of the following increases your social Status:

Adding Provinces - Adding provinces (through conquest or negotiation)
increases your status.  Adding provinces that are rich in rescources -
Aegyptus, Carthago, Macedonia, Parthia, or Gaul - brings more honors than
adding poorer provinces.

Strengthening Treaties - Your reputation as a trustworthy administrator also
affects your status.  Every time an alliance is strengthened your reputation

Winning Chariot Races - Backing the Right Horse makes you look good.  When
your team wins a race, you win the people's admiration.

Building an Amphitheater - All levels of Roman society benefit from an
amphitheater.  This is a good way to win popular support.

Holding Gladiator Events - Lavish spectacles can increase your popularity,
but only when you fairly judge who should live and who should die.

Maintaining Rome's Honor - It's your duty to uphold Rome's reputation as a
strong power, reliable ally, and fair administrator.  Rome's honor is
tarnished whenever the people revolt.  Plundering a province also tarnishes
the honor of the empire.

Losing Social Status: Your reputation suffers whenever you lose a battle,
fail at a game, weaken an alliance, or fail to protect an ally from foreign
attack.  But though your social status can weaken, you can never be demoted
to a lower rank.

Becoming Caesar:  Conquering all the provinces in the world is not enough to
acheive the ultimate rank as Casear - after all, Roman emperors were
worshipped as gods.  To become Caesar you must also win the respect and love
of the people by sponsering games and races, strengthening alliances, and
maintaning Rome's Honor.


Once your in a Roman Province, you can direct legions in the area, set the
tribute the province pays, build fleets, and hold games.  If you're
desperate for money and you dont care about your reputation you can plunder
your provinces too.

Morale:  In Roman Provinces, the morale of the inhabitants depends on how
much you demand from them - both in tributes and in manpower.  The more
tributes and soldiers you take from the province, the less content people
will be to roman rule.  Of course, provinces that enjoy a good alliance with
Rome are more willing to give up talents and manpower - for example, your
demands will have a smaller effect on the morale of allies.  The honor of
Rome also affects the morale of every province.  If Rome's honor is
tarnished because you let your army plunder every province it occupies, the
morale of all of your subjects could plummet.  The morale of the people can
be Rebellious, Angry, Restless, or Content.  A rebellious morale may be the
sign that a province will soon revolt.

Alliances:  The Romans used a sort of graded system of punishment and reward
to rule the provinces of their empire.  Roman citizenship, which measured a
people's rights under Roman law, was the greatest reward.  It was a highly
coveted status and was granted only to deserving allies.  In Centurion, an
alliance is formed whenever you add a province to the empire.  There are
four kinds of alliances: Occupied, Colony, Ally, and Citizens.  An alliance
automatically improves over time providing the people's morale remains good.

Manpower:  Each province generates men that are obligated under Roman law to
serve in the army.  The manpower of a province is the current number of
recruitable men in the area.  The rate at wich manpower increases depends on
the population of the province.

Courage:  The courage shown on a province screen is the general courage of
the soldiers in the area.  Soldiers in a province can have Fierce, Good,
Weak, or Panicky courage.  See Legion Specifications for details on the
effects of people's courage.


Legions:  Select legions to get the following options.

Raise Legion - Form a new Legion.  Select raise legion, then select the type
of legion you want to form.  You cannot raise a legion without the necessary
number of talents.  The number of soldiers you recruit depends on the
manpower available to you in the province.  In addition, there are minimum
ranks at wich you can raise cavalry legions and consular armies (see Rank
for details).

Strengthen Legion - Recruit soldiers to strengthen a legion.  If there is
moe than one legion in a province, you must select wich legion you want to
strengthen.  Strengthening a legion requires talents.  The cost is
proportionate to raising a legion.  For example lets say 20% of your
infantry legion (840 soldiers) was lost in battle.  To strengthen the legion
back to its maximum, you'd pay 20% of the cost of raising an entirely new
legion (.2 x 20 talents = 4 talents).  However, the number of soldiers you
actually recruit may be limited by the manpower of the province.

Move Legion - Move a legion.  If there is more than one legion in a
province, you must select wich legion you want to move.  When the map
appears, select the province or fleet you want the legion to move into.

Upgrade Legion - Upgrade an infantry legion to a cavaltry legion, or a
cavalry legion to a consular army.  See Legion Specifications for details on
different kinds of legions.

Legion List - List all the legions in the empire and their current status
and locations.

Continue - Return to the main menu.

Plunder:  To plunder a province of all its wealth, select Plunder.  When the
box appears select Yes to confirm your order or select No if you changed
your mind.  A Roman legion must be in the province you want to plunder.
While plundering is a good way to fill up your coffers, the people you just
robbed dont appreciate it.  And once other countries witness Roman
Exploitation, they may be less willing to roll the welcome MATT when your
diplomats come knocking.  You can only plunder a province once.  Note: You
can not plunder Italia.

Tribute:  Each province must pay a tribute for the order and protection Rome
graciously provides.  Select Tribute, then select the level of taxation.
See tributes and tribute policy for details on exacting tributes.  If you
don't want to change the tribute level, select continue to return to the
main menu.

Hold Games:  Select Hold Games, then select with games you want to hold.  in
the provinces you can pay for games to keep the locals happy; in Rome you
can actually participate in chariot racing and gladiator shows.  If you
don't want to hold a game select continue to return to the main menu. (See
chariot racing and gladiator shows)

Build Fleet:  You can build a fleet in any province with access to a sea.
If a province is not on the sea this option will appear red and cannot be
selected.  Select build fleet and select the kind of ship you want to build
(see Ships for details about different ships).  When the box appears select
the amount of ships you would like to build.  You must be at least a Tribune
to build a fleet.

Tribute Policy: Select Tribute Policy to set a standard tribute level for
all the provinces in the empire.  This option is only available in Italia.
See tributes and trubute policy for details on exacting tributes.

See Province List: Select See Province List to see the current status of
each province - the last tax paid, the morale of the people, the type of
alliance you have, and the manpower available for recruitment.

Continue:  Return to Map


In real Roman fashion, you begin serious negotiations with a foreign country
by marching a legion over their border.  After receiving a scout's report on
the wealth and defenses on the land, you meet with the province's leader.
To respond to the leader, select a statement.  There are six kinds of
statements you can select: Friendly, Diplomatic, Offer Alliance,
Aggressive, Ultimatum,  Go To War.  Only 3 responses are available at any
time - which three depends on the direction the talks are going.

The statements you choose affect your success at negotiating, but other
factors come into play as well.  Your rank determines how serious a leader
you takes you, and some leaders may refuse to deal with you if your rank is
to low.  The size of your legion can also affect a leader's judgement (big
legions make big impressions).  Finally, the honor of Rome can also affect a
leader's willingness to negotiate - talks may break down early if Rome is
known as a poor ally or bad master.


You set the level of tribute paid by each province. You can set a different
tribute level for each province, or you can insititute a tribute policy that
sets a standard tribute policy for the whole empire.  A tribute policy can
be instituted only from Rome.  The exact number of talents you receive from
a province depends on three things:

Tribute Level - The more you demand, the more the province will have to
cough up; however, the more you squeeze out of them, the less content they
will be with Roman rule.  If your tribute level places to much of a strain
on the local economy, the province may revolt.  Always monitor the morale of
your provinces to see how close they are to rebellion.

Wealth - Some provinces are wealthier than others and you can pay more.
(This information is provided by your scouts when you first enter a

Alliance - Rome's relationship with a province affects the number of talents
paid each year.  The better the alliance, the more cooperative the
inhabitants will be in paying their tributes.


A rebellion can occur when Rome fails to protect a province, or when the
general morale sinks so low that the people percieve Rome more as a burden
than a boon.  If a marauding army invades an unprotected province, the
anti-Roman faction in the province automatically takes control.  Even if you
try to protect the province and fail, the province will revolt.  The only
way to win back a rebellious province is to re-conqueror it.


Occasionally marauding armies set out to raid foreign lands.  Some wander,
searching for weak provinces to invade; others set out with the sole purpose
of sacking Rome.  If you have a fleet you can intercept marauding armies
travelling by boat.


Sometimes things just happen that are beyond your control.  Your luck can be
good or bad, and there's nothing you can do when fortune smiles or frowns on
you but accept the consequences. Oh well!


You can command three types of armies: infantry legions, cavalry legions,
and consular armies. Your rank determines wich kind of legions you can have,
Legions cannot be combined

Type               Maximum Infantry          Maximum Cavalry
Infantry Legion    4200                      -
Cavalry Legion     4200                      300
Consular Army      6000                      600

Difficulty Levels:  The difficulty level set under the Game Options menu
affects how the soldiers are divided into Cohorts.  At the lowest difficulty
level there are more soldiers per cohort.  While this gives you fewer
cohorts on the field, it actually works to your advantage - the more
soldiers you have per unit, the less likely they are to panic under attack.
Higher difficulty levels give you cohorts that are less resistant to direct
assaults, which places a greater emphasis on wise tactical use of your
units.  The following table shows you the maximum number of soldiers per
unit at each difficulty level:

Difficulty Level             Infantry Cohorts           Cavalry Cohorts
Galley Slave                 500/cohort                 150/cohort
Legionnaire                  400/cohort                 150/cohort
Senator                      350/cohort                 150/cohort
Emperor                      350/cohort                 150/cohort

* At all difficulty levels, consular armies have 500 soldiers/cohort

The difficulty level also affects your enemies' courage - the harder the
difficulty level, the more courageous your enemies will be.

Courage:  A legion's courage is the general morale and bravery of the
soldiers.  Courage is measured as Fierce, Good, Weak, or Panicky, but it
should be thought as a continum, for example one fierce legion may be more
fierce than another.  A legion's courage depends on which province the
soldiers were drawn from. Strengthening a legion could raise or lower its
courage.  If you add weak soldiers to the legion with good courage, you'll
lower the legion's courage.  If you add enough weak soldiers its overall
courage may drop to weak.

Satus: A legion's status can be one of the following:

Forming - the legion is still forming - you just raised or strengthened it.
A forming legion can act on the next turn.

Ready - The legion can still be strengthened or moved this turn.  Note:
Upgrading a legion doesn't affect its ready status.

Moved - The legion has been moved to a neighboring province.  It can't act
until the next turn.


Infantry Cohorts        Elephant Cohorts       Cavalry Cohorts
Speed: Slow             Speed: Good            Speed: Fast
Size: 1-500 soldiers    Size: 20 elephants     Size: 1-150


The general directs and motivates his army.  Each general has leadership
qualities that effect his ability to command: voice, charisma, and sphere of
influence.  To see a general's leadership qualities, select his unit.

Voice - The range of the general's control over his cohorts.  Voice is the
numerical equivalent of the general's sphere of influence.  It can range
from 8 (low) to 18 (high).

Charisma - As a leader, the general inspires his troops and increases their
courage.  Unit's within the general's sphere of influence won't panic as
easily as units outside his direct control.  If a general falls in a battle,
many troops may flee the field - a disaster for any army.

Sphere of Influenc - The general can only direct units within his sphere of
influence.  Troops outside his sphere of influence act only on the tactics
chosen before the battle, or on any Melee or Retreat command.


When you fight soldiers on a province you are actually reducing the manpower
of that province.  You may want to kill as few enemy soldiers as possible so
that once you add the province to your empire there will be more soldiers to
recruit.  On the other hand if you're worried about a rebellion in the
province, you may want to kill as many soldiers as possible to decrease the
number of soldiers the rebels can field.

Choose a formation and Tactic:  Once you've chosen to go to war you must
meet the enemy on the field.  At the prompts, select a formation and tactic
for your legion.  These are the preliminary orders for your cohorts.  once
you've chosen a tactic, the battle begins.

Pausing the battle:  You can pause the battle in order to direct individual
units or review the courage status of any unit on the field.

Checking unit status:  Once the battle is paused you can check the unit
status.  To check a unit's status select a unit.  The unit status box
appears, giving you critical information about the unit's current strength
and courage.  You can check the status of an enemy unit by moving the cursor
to the unit and holding down the action button.

Reviewing Orders:  If you want to review the current orders for the whole
army, pause the battle and select Select Roman Unit.

Melee:  To order a unit to move and attack the nearest enemy, select a unit
then select Melee.  If you want ALL units to Melee select Melee without
specifying any particular unit. This 'releases the Roman Legion' every unit
will move to the nearest enemy and cut their balls off.
Note: When you 'release a legion' the army will proceed to slaughter with
reckless abandon.  Melee doesn't produce a very systematic defeat of the
enemy and can very well lead to your defeat if intiated to early.  On the
other hand, Melee is a handy way to get units outside your general's sphere
of influence to move and attack.  You can give ne orders to a unit in Melee,
but once it receives these orders it is no longer in Melee Mode.

Retreat:  To order a unit to retreat, select the unit and then select
retreat.  A unit will continure retreating untill it is off the field or
untill you give it new orders.  If you want ALL units to retreat, select
retreat without specifying any particular unit.
Note: If you are protecting a Roman Province from a marauding army and you
order your entire army to retreat, the people of the region will rise up and
annihilate your army.

Battle Outcome:  When one of the armies is routed or destroyed, the battle
ends and the battle outcome screen appears.  Generals are not counted among
the survivors or casualties.


Flanking:  A cohort marches with shields and swords forward, making its
falnks and rear vulnerable to attack.  Flanking is attacking a unit at one
of these vulnerable points.  Whenever possible, you want to move your
units into positions to flank enemy units.

Doubling Up: When 2 cohorts are attacking, their combined strength is thrown
at the enemy.  "Double Up" on enemy units whenever possible.

Routing:  From a purely tactical standpoint, routing an enemy unit (making
it flee the battle field) is just as good as destroying it; after all a
panicked enemy unit poses no threat to you.  Once you rout an enemy unit you
may want to turn your attacking cohorts on another enemy unit.

Defence Vs. Offense:  Defense is easier than offense.  Units that are set
have an advantage over units that are moving - the defending unit can
inflict damage just before an approaching unit closes in.  If there isnt a
tactical advantage in moving your unit to meet the enemy, let it stand where
it is.

Cavalry:  Because of their speed and power, cavalry cohorts are the most
effective on the field.  A flank attack from a cavalry unit is deadly.

Elephants:  The Romans discovered that the sheer size and strangeness of
elephants were enough to set ranks of men and horses in disorder.  Troops
are more likely to panic the first time they face elephants.  Once a legion
has soldiers who are veterans of battles with elephants, their courage when
facing these beasts goes up.  Elephants are will armoured towards the front
but can be effectively attacked from the flanks or rear.  A panicked
Elephant will behave erratically, often turning on its own troops in its
attmept to flee.

Generals:  A cohort's courage may drop when its general falls in battle.  if
the cohort's courage drops to panicked, the cohort will flee the field.  To
keep your army's courage up, don't let your general move into a position
where the enemy can attack him.  At the same time take advantage of any
oppurtunity to destroy the enemy's general.


The Romans armed their ships with catapults and ballistae or large arrow
launchers.  In addition, each ship had a large ram fixed to the prow of the
ship wich could be used to punch a hole in the enemy's hull.  The Romans
also devised special spiked bridges wich they used to board enemy ships.  In
Centurion there are 3 types of ships that vary in speed, size, and

Triremes               Quinquereme           Galleon
Speed: Fast            Speed: Good           Speed: Slow
Durability: Weak       Durability: Good      Durability: Strong
Size: 50 soldiers      Size: 100 Soldiers    Size: 200 Soldiers

Roman ships were operates by experienced saliors, but most of the fighting
was done by legionnaires.  When you build a fleet, your ships are manned by
a skeleton crew of sailors.  You need to place soldiers on your ships in
order to make your fleet an effective weapon.  To man your ships, move a
legion or army onto the fleet (See Moving legions from the map on the
command summary card).  Your ships can carry cavalry units as well.  Cavalry
units take up more room onboard - one Cavalry unit requires the room of 4
foot soldiers.  Though the size of your fleet is important, the kinds of
ships you have is critical.  For example a fleet made up of sturdy galleons
will naturally have an advantage over an equal number of triremes.


If you have more than one type of ship in your fleet you must select a
flagship before a battle begins.  Each type of ship has its advantages and
disadvantages when acting as your flagship.  For example the triremes is
fast but not very sturdy - a few rammings and your sunk.  A galleon on the
other hand can take alot of punishment but may hav esome trouble moving into
a position to attack the enemy.  The size of the ship is also a
consideration, the more soldiers you have when you board a ship, the easier
it is to slaughter the enemies crew.  If no legion is aboard your fleet,
your flagship will be manned by a skeleton crew of one-half the maximum ship
capacity; with a legion, your flagship will have the maximum # of soldiers
it can carry.


When you fight a sea battle, you actually only control your flag ship.  As
you fight the enemies flagship your fleet's morale rises or falls with your
progress.  There are 2 things to watch in a sea battle - your progress
against the enemy flagship and how well your fleet is fighting.
See Naval Battle on the Command Summary Card for details on controlling your

Catapults and Arrows:  The catapult only fires in a straight line from the
bow of the ship.  See Naval battle on the Command summary card for info on
firing your catapult.  The soldiers on board your ship automatically launch
arrows whenever your ship comes in range of an enemy.  If all men on your
ship die, arrows will no longer be launched - the catapult crew however will
continue to fire when ordered to.

Ramming:  To ram, simply steer the ram on the prow of the ship into the
enemy's ship.  The heavier your ship and the faster you're going the more
damage you will inflict.

Boarding:  See Naval Battle on the Command Summary Card for details on
lowering your boarding ramp.  You can lower the boarding ramp any time
during combat.  If the ramp makes contact with the enemy flagship your
troops automatically board and hand to hand combat ensues.  If the ramp
doesn't make contact, it will automatically be rasied.

Fleeing:  See Naval Battle on the Command Summary Card for more details on
fleeing the battle.


The Romans were great horse-racing enthusiasts, and virtually any festivity
was a reason to hold races.  Races were run between professional companies
or faciones, each with their own stables, horses, and full time charioteers.
 Every company had a color - red, white, blue, or green - and its own group
of devoted fans.  Charioteers were accorded as much fame as modern
atheletes, and their pay was comparable, too - a skilled charioteer could
retire at an early age with a huge fortune.  But while racing was an
excellent oppurtunity for a man of lowly birth to gain social status, it was
a hazardous profession - most charioteers suffered early deaths on the

Select a Chariot:  You control the white team's chariot.  The first thing
you have to do is decide whether you want to race a light, mdeium, or heavy
chariot.  When selecting a chariot there are several things to consider.

Speed - Light chariots are faster than heavier chariots.

Durability - Running into opponents is a real danger.  Heavy chariots can
take alot of damage.

Cost - The lighter the chariot, the cheaper.

Betting Odds - The odds against you winning are higher if you're racing a
medium or heavy chariot. See Bet Below.

Racing Styles:  Be sure to note the racing style of your opponents.
Aggressive opponents will race fast but are more likely to make mistakes
than steady or cautious opponents.

Prepare for the Race:  You can prepare for the race by getting money.  If
you don't think your chances of winning are goo dyou cna cheat.

Skulduggery - Select an option to bribe an opponent, hire a physician, or
invoke the help of the gods. Select Done.

Bet - Select an option to increase or decrease the amount of your bet.  The
maximum bet is 100 talents.  Select done to place your bet.  The betting
odds are always a minumum of 1-1.  Medium and heavy chariots are more
difficult to master, so the odds are increased - 2-1 if you're racing with a
medium chariot, 3-1 if your racing with a heavy chariot.
Note:  Every time you win, the odds go down - for example, if you're racing
a heavy chariot and you win, you'll only get 2-1 odds next time you compete
with a heavy chariot.  The odds can never be less than 1-1.  Every time you
lose badly the odds go up one. The Odds cannot exceed 5-1.

On the Track:  See Racing Chariots on the Command summary card for detail on
controlling your chariot.  You must circle the track 3 times to complete the
race.  Whenever you finish a lap, one of the fish on the lap counter flips
up.  The finish line appears when one chariot finishes 2 circles around the
track.  To win the race you must cross the finish line before the other

Watch out for turns:  It's difficult to make a sharp turn while going at a
high speed.  The Red Speed Limit Line marks the maximum speed you can be
going when you enter the turn.  If you're going to fast your chariot will
break apart.  The closer you are to the outside track the higher the speed
limit and the faster you can take the turn.  Note, however, the inside of
the turn is shorter - even though you cant go fast on the inside, you may
get around the bend quicker than chariots on the outside.  Just as you want
to stay under the speed limit while turning, avoid whipping your horses in
the turns - the accerlation causes your chariot to break apart.


Games were held to celebrate everything from an emperor's birthday to a
foreign conquest.  Ambitious politicians often stage lavish spectacles to
curry the public's favor and keep the peasants from worrying about more
radical issues like land reform.  Though gladitorial games started on a
snmall scale, they grew over time.  Competitions that could be once staged
in a single day became month long marathons in which thousands perished.
One such spectale - celebrating Trajan's campaigns in Dacia - laster 117
days and involved 10,000 gladiators and 11,000 wild animals.

Select Gladiators:  Select the gladitor you want to control and then select
how much you want to pay for training.  Now select the galdiator you want to
compete against and his level of training. Once you've chosen you combatants
the fight begins. See Gladiator Show on the COmmand Summary Card for details
on controlling your gladiator.

In the Arena:  As you fight, the crowd's pleasure will rise and fall with
the blood, gore, and action in the arena.  The more wild swinging and good
blocks, the more the crowd likes it.  The Spectators don't like to feel
cheated, so drag out the carngae as long as you can but avoid mooments where
there is no action.  When a gladiator falls, you get to judge whether he
lives or dies.  Select Thumbs Up if the gladiator gave the people a decent
fight; select thumbs down if the worthless dog dropped to quickly.  If the
crowd agreed with your ruling your pleasure bar will rise, if they did not
your pleasure bar will fall.

                 The Command Summary Card for Amiga Computers

To save a game:

1. Press ESC or select the year icon in the upper right hand corner to bring
   up the Game Options menu.

2. Select Save Game

3. Select the disk you want save the game on
   One Drive users: Remove disk 1 and replace with disk 2 and click on the
   Df0: box

4. Select a # 1-9 for the game you're currently saving.  Type a name and
   press return

You control the game by selecting items such as menu options, provincesm or
units on the battlefield.  Use the mouse to point at an item and press the
mouse button to select the item. On the map screen the right mouse button
selects legions and the left mouse button selects fleets.

Special Key commands:   E = End Turn              F = Complete Fleet List
                        L = Complete Legion List  P = Complete Provine List
                        Q = Quit                ESC = Game Control Menu
                        M = Music On/Off          R = Retreat (in the Water)

You can enter provinces only from the map, Provinces belonging to your
empire are outlined in Blue.  Move the cursor to a legion and press the
right mouse button.  The ghost legion icons indicate the provinces you can
move into and the fleets you can board.  Point to where you want to go and
press a mouse button. Note: Disembarking a Legion from a fleet is no
different than moving it on land.  Point the cursor at the legion icon on
the fleet and press the right mouse button.  Point to the province you want
to move and press a mouse button.

Moving Fleets: Move the cursor to a fleet and press the left mouse button.
The ghost fleet icons indicate the bodies of water you can move into.  Point
to where you want to fo and press a mouse button.

Directing Individual units: To give orders to units on the battle field you
must first pause the battle.  Click a mouse button or press a key to pause
the battle.  Now you can direct any troops within your general's sphere of
influence.  To select a unit click on it and hold the button while dragging
the mouse in the direction you want the unit to move.  Once you've
determined the direction and distance, release the mouse button.

Naval Battle:  Once you've selected a flagship the splash screen appears.
Click a mouse button to begin the battle.  You can fight naval battles using
the keybad or joystick.

Keypad:                         7   8   9

                                4   5   6

                                1   2   3 

8 = speed up, 4 = turn left, 6 = turn right, 2 = slow down
space bar = fire catapult, ENTER = Lower boarding ramp.

The joystick button both fires your catapult at long range and lowers the
boarding ramp at close range.

To flee from the battle, move your flagship towards any edge of the screen.
You will be asked whether you want to retreat or re-engage in battle.
Or simply press R if you are sure you want to retreat.

Chariot racing:

Keypad: 8 = whip horses, 7 = whip opponent on left, 9 = whip opponent on
right, 4 = move left, 6 = move right, 2 = slow down

The joystick button whips your horses when pressed forward at the same time,
when pressed to the left or right it will whip opponents.

Gladiator Show:

Keypad: 8 = high block, 7 = high strike, 4 = move forward, 6 = move back
2 = low block, 1 = low strike.

                                  THE END!

                              CENTURION HINTS....

  In this game you  are trying to be "Ceasar of Rome",  by trying to Conquer
  the  Provinces of  Europe. It  is a  Difficult Game  to Win  (I have won 4
  times, but played for about 2 days straight through).

                          The Object of the Game

  Move your  Legions to the  Different Provincesand either  try to Negotiate
 with them, or Defeat them In battle.

                               | GAME PLAY |

  A few things you Must know before you play.

  Talents  are Like  Money. You  must  pay  out Talents  for things  such as
  Strengthening, Forming,  and Upgrading your  Legions. It costs  Talents to
  Hold  Games, Build  Fleets, etc....  It does  not cost  Talents to  Move a
  Legion, or have a battle though.

  If you  do not have  a Legion on  a province that  you have overtaken, and
  enemy can take it  from you by merely going to it. So  if you see an Enemy
  near a province of yours you better get a Legion there.

  You have to run a Course of One  year in this game. You can Move a Legion,
  Strengthen a legion,  Build a Legion, ewtc. in One  years time... When you
  can make no more  moves, you go to the Icon in  the top right corner, next
  to the Year. This will revolve in  a one year increment, then allow you to
  make more moves.

  MOUSE  BUTTONS: The  left button  clicks to  the province/legion where the
  arrow is sitting.  (In the case of moving  a legion off of a  ship you use
  the RIGHT button when the pointer is on the fleet holding your legion)

  Keyboard buttons: The Space bar is what  you use to "CLICK" on a province.
  In  the Case  of Moving  a Legion  OFF of  a Fleet  of ships  you use your
  RETURN/ENTER key, then it will show you your allowable moves)

     a) Raise Legion -->To Form a Legion
        20 Talents for small Army:
        40 Talents for a Calvery:
        60 For a Full Army
       (You can only Handle So many  Legions at each level of Authority, and
       certain Types of Legions at each level.)

     b) Strengthen Legion --> To Bring your Legion to Full force.
        After you have fought a battle, and lost some men, you might want to
        'Strengthen"  you Legion.  But you  must look  at the  Province "Man
        Power"  in  order  to  get  an  idea  of  How  much you are going to
        Strengthen it. (If a Province only has 400 in man power and you need
        700 men to  give you a full 4200 men,  then you will only Strengthen
        your Army to 3900 men)

     c) Move Legion --> Moves Legions from one Province to another.
        When you  choose this option, it  will go back to  the Map, and show
        you Gray Markers  to where you can move  to. You can only move  to a
        Province connected directly to the Province you are already in.

     d)  Upgrade Legion  --> Upgrades  your  Legion  (only the  one you  are
         working with) to a Higher Ranking Army.

     e) Legion List --> Shows your List of Legions that you command.

  2 TRIBUTE --> The  Amount your Conquered/Allied Provinces will  give you in
    a) Exempt  this Province --> The  province you Own give Nothing
    b)  Tolerable Tribute  --> A  Tribute that  will have  your people  in a
                               content mood. (The ideal Tribute)
    c) Irritating Tribute --> Just like it says.  Irritating!
    d) Oppressive Tribute --> This really pisses the People off.
    e) Bleed them Dry --> This Tribute takes everything they have.

  3 TRIBUTE POLICY -->  You only get this selection in  the Menus for Italy.
    This sets a Tribute for all Provinces that you run, are allied with, and
    that you Conquer.

  4 HOLD GAMES --> You hold games when  the Provinces are in a Bad mood, and
    want entertainment.
    a) In Rome (Italy) you Hold either a Gladiator Show, or a Chariot Race.
       They Both  cost you Talents, but  Racing you can Bet  talent that you
       will win.
     i) Skulldugery --> When you are about to race you can have a Physician
        come out and  give your Horse medicine, Have the  Gods help you, or
        Bribe the other racers to let you win.
    ii) Bet --> to bet however many Talents that you will win the race.
    b) In any other  of the Provinces you just select a  type of Game set up,
       and it just costs you Talents.
  When  Holding games  in Rome  you have  two choices,  Chariot racing,  and
  Gladiator fights. Use your Cursor Controls  when you are in the GAME MODE.
  To make the Horses  go faster hit the UP arrow key  to Whip the Horses. If
  the Chariot starts  going to the Sides, Slow down  a little by hitting the
  Down arrow key.  To move the Chariot from side  to side use the LEFT/RIGHT
  arrow  keys. In  Gladiator fighting   the LEFT/RIGHT  arrow keys  move the
  Gladiator back and fourth. the Up arrow give the Gladiator High Gaurd, the
  Down arrow  gives him Low Gaurd.  The HOME/7 key hits  the other gladiator
  HIGH, and the END/1 Key hits him Low.  If you happen to win the Fight, you
  will get  the Choice to KILL  or SPARE the other  Gladiator. In some cases
  the crowd likes it if you kill him, in other cases they get Upset.

  5 BUILD FLEET --> To build a fleet of Ships. You can only do this if Water
    is directly connected to the province you are working with.
   a) Triremes : 5 Talents each -> These are the smallest ships, but yet the
      fastest. They are not very powerful, but  if you master the art of sea
      battle, you can easily win battles with these.
   b) Quinqueremes : 10 Talents  each ->  These  are the next  step up, but
      a little more powerful.
   c) Galleons  : 20 Talents each  -> These are the  most powerful of Ships,
      and in a large fleet, winning sea battle is almost inevitable.
      *** When in Sea Battle, Use your Cursor Controls to do battle. ***

  6 PLUNDER --> This  is like going through the Province,  and Taking all of
    what the  people have (Money,  jewels, etc...) I  do not recomend  doing
    this to just any Province. I would only do it to Provinces that are very

  7 PROVINCE LIST --> This will give you a list of all of YOUR provinces and
    the mood they are in, etc...


  When you MOVE  your Legions to an Unoccupied province  you will have a few
  choices in  front of you after  reading about the Province,  their wealth,
  and disposition. These are the Choices.

  A) Friendly  --> They usually  do not go  for this one.  Rome is known for
     it's over bearing  armys, so this is not  a good one to use  RIGHT OFF THE

  B) Diplomatic  -->  This  is  one  to  use  on  Provinces that seem to be
     co-operative. It usually flatters the Leader, and making Allies usually
     prevails, but  the right combination of  being Diplomatic, and friendly
     must be used.

  C) Aggresive --> This is if you want to scare some wimpy Army.

  D) Utimatum --> Telling the other army to "Lay down your arms or Die"

  E) WithDraw --> Retreat, and leave the enemy in peace before a war starts.

  F) Go to War --> Just what it says.

  If you happen to make friends with a Province, they will ask you what type
  of tribute you expect from them
  Of course you would pick LOW, you can always change it later.

                               GOING TO WAR

  When  you pick  the Choice  of Going   to war  you will  have quite  a few
  formations to Choose from.

  A) Balanced Army

                        X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
                        X X         X X         X X

  B) Wedge
                                    X X
                                 X X   X X
                              X X         X X
                        X X                     X X
                        C C           O         C C

  C) Strong Right

                        X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
                                          X X X X X
                                          X X X C C

  D) Strong Left

                        X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
                        X X X X X
                        C C X X X

  X= Regular INFANTRY Men
  O= COMMANDER of Legion

                        AFTER SELECTING A FORMATION
                        YOU NEED TO SELECT A TACTIC

  1...FRONTAL ASSAULT -> Attack Head on
  2...FORM A LINE -> Move troops to form a perfect assult line
  3...STAND FAST -> to stand in place and wait for the enemy.
  4...DRIVE A WEDGE -> to drive in a wedge formation.
  5...SWEEP RIGHT -> To move your legion to the right
  6...SWEEP LEFT -> To move your legion to the left.
  7...MASS  TROOPS ->  to move  your legion  in a  tight formation and await
  8...OUT FLANK -> to move your legions in a scattered formation.
  9..SCIPIO'S DEFENCE -> The front of the legion stands still while the rear
                         of the legion moves to the right.
  10..CANNAE TACTIC -> this draws the enemy  into a pocket so you can attack
                       them  in  full  force.   Best  used  with  the  Wedge


  The Formations are by their Letters, and the Tactic are by their number

  A) Balanced Army ******* Tactics -> 1,3,4,8,9
  B) Wedge *************** Tactics -> 1,2,3,4,10
  C) Strong Right ******** Tactics -> 1,3,5,6,7
  D) Strong Left  ******** Tactics -> 1,3,5,6,7

  During Comabat you  may move a portion of your  legion to a specific point
  by pressing  your right button  on the  mouse  when the arrow  is over the
  portion of your choice. It will show you the current direction, then press
  the button once more and hold it,  then move the arrow in the directin you
  want that portion to goto. ** IN  some cases, and tactics you can not move
  portions around  in this manner **  If you get a  responce that shows that
  you  can not  move that  portion of   the Legion,  you need  to move  your
  commanding  Officer closer  to that  portion (The  Commander is the Single
  calvery  man) You  may also  Realease  your  Legion or  a portion  of your
  legion. To  release your entire  legion you click  the right mouse  button
  once, the battle scene will freeze,  select the 'MELEE' Icon. to Release a
  portion  of  your  legion  click  your  arrow  on  the portion you want to
  release,  it  will  show  you  the  current  path  of movement, then go to
  'MELEE',  it  will  then  say  "Releasing  XXXXXXX,"  where  XXXXXX is the
  Portion's Legion number.

  You can retreat,  then release your troops as many  times as you want, but
  be careful,  if a portion  of your legion  moves off of  the screen, they
  will not come  back. To release your legion (let  them fight as they will)
  click your mouse/keyboard on the MELEE icon.


  You can move a legion to a Fleet if that fleet is in the Boundaries of the
  province your legion is in. You must  have around 40-50 ships in the Fleet
  to hold all of your legion, otherwise  you will have to leave some of them
  behind. After you have moved you legion  to the fleet, and you reached the
  destiny  of your  choice, you  can move  your legion  OFF of  the ship  by
  pressing you  RIGHT button on your  Mouse (on the Keyboard  you press your

                           TIPS AND SUGGESTIONS

  While in  battle, it is  smart to get  your troops in  a straight line and
  WAIT for your enemy  troops to come to you. This way  you are prepared and
  start swinging your weapons before they can get into position.

  It is  not a good idea  to Make a fleet  of ships until you  get somewhere
  around  500-1000 Talents.  This way  you can  form somewhere  around 40-50
  ships. Most of the Enemy Fleets consist  of about 100 ships. If you master
  the  art of  Sea Battle,  you can  easily defeat  a Fleet  twice as big as

  In the begining stick to just a few Legions (Around Two), until you get up
  to the Ranking of Legatus. this way  you can Form Calverys instead of just
  a small infantry. If you can make it,  stick with just a few legions until
  you reach the  Ranking of General. This way you  can skip Upgrading and go
  straight to a Consular Army (The Best army to have)....