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Civilization manual

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Advanced Flight
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Astronomy
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Atomic Theory
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Automobile
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Banking
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Bridge Building
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Chemistry
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Chivalry
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Combustion
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Communism
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Computers
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Conscription
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Construction
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Superconductor
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Theory of Gravity
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University
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-                         Civilization - Manual                         -
-------------------------------------------------------------------------


          Civilizations appeared as agriculture and technology developed
  to the point where humankind could gather and live in cities. With only
  part of the population needed to provide food for all, the rest could
  afford to specialize in the tool making, trading, engineering, and
  managing that urbanization made possible. Specialization improved
  efficiency and production. Cities also encouraged a rapid exchange of
  ideas. A teacher could reach many students at once, not just a few.

          City residents cultivated the nearby fields, logged the forests,
  and gathered fish from the rivers, returning each night with the result
  of their labors. This produce and raw material was bartered in the city
  markets for the goods and services of others. Charcoal from one area and
  iron ore from another might be taken to the town smelter who made the
  iron that the blacksmith turned into tools.

          But cities developed unique problems. As they grew in size it
  became more difficult to provide sufficient food from nearby farmland.
  Overcrowding, menial jobs, and living conditions often led to unrest
  among the poorer citizens. Prosperous cities became tempting targets for
  rival civilization and barbarians invaders. Cities and civilizations
  that developed better management and new solutions to these problems
  grew and prospered. Those that failed have left their ruins around the
  world as warnings.

          In CIVILIZATION, as in history, a key step and a fundamental
  concept is the founding and management of cities. The civilization that
  you are about to rule begins as a prehistoric wandering tribe that has
  just reached the critical point where it is capable of building cities.
  The first step is to build one city and from there expand. As your
  civilization grows, cities will spread over an entire continent, or
  part of a continent, or over several islands and continents.

          Each city acts as a giant processing plant for the food,
  resources, and trade of the adjacent lands. The people of a city go out
  and work the nearby farmland, mines, and forests, and the city converts
  the result of their labor into more people, armies, cash, luxury goods,
  temples, universities, etc. Raw materials are transformed by cities into
  the power and the ideas your civilization needs to prosper.

          FOOD that is collected feeds the local population. When there is
  a food surplus the population grows. Your first city has a small
  population that can only work part of the lands the city controls. As
  the city population grows, more lands can be worked, increasing
  production. Before long you can afford to send off settlers from the
  first city to build another nearby, and then another.

          RESOURCES are the lumber, metals, energy sources, and other raw
  materials that are used in industry. Through the craftsmen and shops of
  the city these resources are made into items useful at home or elsewhere
  in your civilization. Larger cities normally generate more resources and
  thus build things faster. Each city can build only one item at a time.
  This could be a military unit such as a Phalanx or Battleship, a city
  improvement such as a Temple or University, or perhaps a Wonder of the
  World.

          TRADE is generated by the highways of commerce: roads, rivers,
  oceans. All nearby trade passes through the city bringing in luxury
  goods, cash, and new ideas. Your policies can adjust how trade is
  divided among luxury goods, cash, or research. There may be times when a
  city requires more luxury goods to make more people happy, or times when
  more tax revenues are needed in the treasury. Higher taxes mean more
  revenue but may result in more people becoming unhappy.

          As your cities grow they may require more care in keeping them
  productive. Large cities are desirable for production, but have inherent
  problems. A critical one you must deal with is the happiness of the
  population. The people can range from happy, to content, to unhappy.
  Having too many unhappy people may lead to revolt.

          Luxury goods make people happy but mean fewer tax revenues or a
  reduced flow of technology. By adjusting the flow of luxuries, changing
  types of government, building city improvements, instituting martial
  law, and other means, it is possible to keep even the largest city
  content and productive.

          TECHNOLOGY is a second concept fundamental to CIVILIZATION. To
  make the transition from wandering hunter-gatherers to city dwellers,
  humankind had to possess some essential knowledge and skills. To advance
  beyond the first stages of city dwelling requires a corresponding
  advance in knowledge.

          At the start of CIVILIZATION, with your tribe poised on the
  threshold of history, they already possess some basic knowledge. The
  people understand agriculture, irrigation, construction of roads, and
  the construction of homes and other buildings. But this isn't enough
  knowledge to survive through the coming ages. Learning new technologies
  opens the door to new abilities. A small island-bound civilization that
  learns Map Making can now build ships and expand overseas.

          The time it takes to acquire new technology depends on how much
  your trade is allotted to new ideas. You must choose between luxuries
  that make the people happy, cash for the treasury, and technology
  research. The more trade allocated to this research, the faster the next
  step is acquired. When enough research has been done, your civilization
  acquires the new technology and can begin working on something new.

          The world where your civilization exists is mostly unknown to
  you, a mystery except in the immediate vicinity. To find out more about
  it you must explore. Not only is the world hidden, but also unknown are
  the locations of other civilizations.

          Other civilizations, especially those nearby, complicate your
  task as ruler. Each is ruled by one of your peers, and they are
  competing for the same resources and opportunities as you. They also are
  looking to expand and grow; at your expense if given the chance. Once
  contact is made, you can no longer concentrate solely on the growth and
  expansion of your civilization. Now you must assess the strength of
  rivals, adequately provide for the defense of your cities in case of
  war, or consider making war yourself.

          Successful wars can be very useful. Capturing cities is much
  easier than building them up from nothing, and may provide loot in
  stolen technology and cash. Weakening rivals reduces the threat they
  pose. However, long, costly wars may allow unengaged rivals to expand
  and grow in strength while you spend resources on arms.

          To explore the unknown and contend with your rivals for the
  world, you can build armies, navies, and other special units in your
  cities. Once an army or naval unit has been built, it is available for
  movement and combat. These units extend the power of your civilization
  around the world. When they enter hidden areas of the world, the shroud
  of mystery is removed and that area becomes known. In this way you
  uncover the world, finding suitable areas for new cities and eventually
  making contact with other civilizations.

          Three special units are available that can be useful to you as a
  ruler. SETTLERS are groups of your citizens that are your pioneers. They
  may found new cities and also build terrain improvements such as roads,
  irrigation, and mines that increase the productivity of your cities.
  DIPLOMATS are your emissaries and spies. They can establish embassies
  with rivals and also perform a number of cloak and dagger tasks.
  CARAVANS are bands of merchants that transport the produce of you cities
  around the world to other cities, bringing in cash and establishing
  trade routes. Trade routes increase the trade of the home city,
  resulting in more cash, luxuries, and technology.

          Wonders of the World are unique city improvements, usually
  structures, that can only be built once in the entire world. Once a
  particular Wonder is built by a city, no other city can build one. Each
  Wonder brings glory to the civilization owning it, and some unique
  tangible benefit as well. For example, if one of your cities builds the
  Oracle, then all of the Temples throughout your civilization become
  twice as effective in making the people content.

          The fundamental concepts for a successful civilization are the
  expansion and growth of your cities, and acquiring new technology. In a
  word, you must grow. In this dynamic world environment, surrounded by
  rivals in unknown corners, there is no future in complacency and
  stagnation. You must press forward on all three fronts: spread your
  cities out to claim a significant share of the world, increase the size
  and production of each city, and strive to acquire the latest
  technology.

          Your civilization cannot afford to lag too far behind your
  rivals in any one of these three spheres. A sufficient number if
  powerful cities can maintain the quantity of your military in any arms
  race. Keeping abreast of technology assures the quality.

          Do what you can to keep your civilization growing in every area.
  More and larger cities, better technology, and better armies mean
  survival. Each city must be planned, managed, and protected so that is
  contributes to the power and glory of your civilization.


                             DIFFICULTY LEVELS
                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          CHIEFTAIN: This is the easiest level and is recommended for first
  time players. The program provides advice when the player must make
  decisions.

          WARLORD: Your rivals are somewhat tougher and technology takes
  longer to acquire. This is for the occasional player who doesn't want
  too difficult a test.

          PRINCE: Your rivals are substantially tougher and technology
  comes much slower. You will need some experience and skill to win at
  this level.

          KING: Your rivals are most evenly matched with you in
  capability. Experienced and skilled players will play most of their
  games at this level as it is a strong challenge with victory far from
  foregone.

          EMPEROR: This is the most difficult level and only for those who
  feel the need to be humbled. This level can be won, but not
  consistently.


                             LEVEL OF COMPETITION
                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Choose between 3 and 7 civilizations in the world. More
  opponents is not necessarily more dangerous. The fewer your opponents,
  the more time you have to peaceably expand and develop before
  encountering rivals. More opponents means earlier contact and the risk
  of war. But contact with other civilizations offers the opportunities of
  trade, alliances, and the spoils of war.


                                THE GAME TURN
                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          CIVILIZATION is played in a series of turns, each following a
  sequence of play options. As each turn proceeds through the sequence,
  you direct the activities of your civilization, including the management
  of your cities, the production of new units, the building of city
  improvements, the movements and battles of your armies, and negotiations
  with other civilizations.

          Each turn proceeds through the following sequence of play.

  DATE              A new turn begins with the advancing of the date.
  ~~~~         Depending on the current year, the date advances from
               twenty years to one year. The current date is found in the
               date window of the map display.

  DISASTERS         At the beginning of a new turn there is a possibility
  ~~~~~~~~~    of a natural disaster striking a city in the world. Any
               disaster that occurs is reported and take effect
               immediately. Disasters can result in a loss of population
               or the destruction of a city improvement. Most disasters
               can be prevented by a specific city improvement or
               technology. If the target city is prepared for the
               disaster, then the disaster does not occur.

  CITY CHECK        Each city in your civilization is check individually
  ~~~~~~~~~~   for production, growth, unrest, maintenance, and scientific
               research. All steps are carried out for one city before
               the next is checked.

               PRODUCTION: If the city produces sufficient surplus
               resources to complete the item the city is producing, that
               item is added to the city. If your city does not produce
               sufficient resources to support all of the existing units
               for which it is the home city, units are destroyed until
               enough support is available. Units farthest away from the
               city are destroyed first.

               GROWTH: If the city produces sufficient surplus food, it
               grows buy one population point. This added population is
               put to work on the city map.

               DISORDER: If the number of unhappy citizens exceeds the
               number of happy citizens due to population growth or the
               destruction of a city improvement by disaster, your city
               goes into civil disorder. You receive a message reporting
               this condition. If this is the first turn of disorder, you
               jump to the affected city's display so that adjustments
               can be made to return the city to order. If the situation
               is not corrected, in following turns you are notified that
               disorder continues.

               MAINTENANCE: Taxes collected from the city are added to
               your treasury and then the maintenance costs for
               improvements in this city are deducted. If you don't have
               sufficient funds in your treasury to pay the maintenance
               costs, one improvement in this city, chosen by local
               leaders, is sold. Note that while your civilization as a
               whole may have a revenue surplus for the turn, you can
               still lose and improvement when your treasury is low. High
               maintenance costs for the first cities checked may
               deplete the treasury and force a sale before later cities
               contribute their cash surpluses.

               SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The research contributed by this
               city, measured by the number of light bulbs it produces,
               is added to the total so far accumulated by your
               civilization. If this total is sufficient to acquire the
               technology that you have instructed your scientists to
               study, then you receive a message informing you that you
               have obtained this new technology.

  MOVEMENT &        After each city has been checked, you have the
    COMBAT     opportunity to move your active units. While a unit is
               moving in may engage in combat.

                    Each active unit is designated for movement, one
               after another. Each unit has the option of moving, not
               moving, or delaying its move until later in the turn.

                    Combat occurs when a unit attempts to enter a map
               square occupied by a unit or city of another civilization.
               Normally, either the attacking unit or all defending units
               are destroyed when the combat is resolved. A victorious
               unit with movement points remaining may continue moving
               and even attack again.

                    During this movement phase you may pause to perform
               all other management tasks for your civilization. You may
               wish to consult with your advisors concerning the state of
               your civilization's trade, or science, to check the
               attitude of your population. You can examine any or all of
               your cities to adjust their work force placements or
               production. This is the time to change tax rates,
               governments, or examine the state of international
               affairs.

                    When all active units have been moved, your game turn
               is over and the next civilization moves.

  END OF TURN       Once all active units have been moved, your game turn
  ~~~~~~~~~~~  may end. At this point a blinking "End of Turn" message
               appears in the unit identification window. So long as this
               message remains visible you may still examine cities,
               consult advisors, etc. To end your turn, follow the prompt
               to continue the game. Once you choose to continue, you
               cannot examine cities, etc., until the next turn.

                    The End of Turn message may be toggled on or off from
               the Game menu. Open this menu and choose "Options." One of
               the options on this menu is "End of Turn." There is a check
               mark next to the option indicating that it is on and is to
               appear at the end of each turn. To turn off the message,
               choose the "End of Turn" option and the check mark
               disappears.

                     Even when the End of Turn message is turned off, it
               still appears during any turn in which you have no active
               units.

                     When the End of Turn message is off, you receive no
               warning that the turn is about to end. At the moment you
               move your last unit, your turn is over and the next
               civilization begins to move.

  ADULATION          After all of the civilizations have taken their
  ~~~~~~~~~    turns, there is a brief pause while the record keepers and
               historians examine your accomplishments to date. The people
               of your civilization may reward the outstanding success of
               your policies by expanding and improving your palace. In
               addition, independent historians and chroniclers may report
               on where you or your civilization stands compared to your
               rivals.

               PALACE: As your population grows, the people spontaneously
               expand and improve your palace to reflect the glory that
               your rulership has achieved. When the total population of
               your civilization reaches certain milestones, you may
               increase the size or improve the quality of your palace.
               Clear the screen after the people offer to improve your
               palace. When a picture of the current palace appears,
               select whether you want an existing part improved or a new
               part added. Click on a button below a part of the palace to
               improve it, or click on a button just off the edge of the
               palace to add on it. From the available parts then
               displayed, select the one you wish to have built. Palaces
               can be built in three styles: classical, medieval, or
               Middle Eastern. A miniature rendition of your palace is
               shown in the palace window of the map display.

               HISTORIANS: There are four historians who occasionally
               report on the progress of the civilizations in your world.
               These reports are an opportunity for you to judge how you
               are doing. The historians are Herodotus, Pliny, Gibbon, and
               Toynbee. Civilizations may be judged in any one of five
               categories, listed below. The published list includes only
               the known civilizations, those with whom you have
               established an embassy. However, all civilizations, known
               and unknown, are considered in rankings. For example, if
               your civilization has the third highest population but the
               larger civilizations are not known, you would appear at the
               top of the list, but shown as number three in the world.
               The five categories and how they are ranked follow.

                  ADVANCEMENT: The # of technology advancements each
                               civilization has acquired.

                  HAPPINESS: The # of happy people in each civilization's
                             cities.

                  POWER: The total of the attack and defense factors of
                         each civilization's military units.

                  SIZE: The population of each civilization.

                  WEALTH: The size of each civilization's treasury.


                        ENDING THE GAME AND WINNING
                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          CIVILIZATION may be ended in five ways. You may quit at any
  time, retire at any time, be destroyed by a rival, continue on until the
  game and the history of your civilization both automatically end, or
  conquer the world by eliminating all other civilizations. If you retire
  or let the game run its course the performance of your civilization is
  judged and compared against your peers. If you have been a good manager
  and leader, your name may be added to the CIVILIZATION Hall of Fame.

          Although the game ends for scoring purposes after you win, you
  may continue playing if you choose. After winning, you are offered the
  opportunity to keep playing if you wish to see what more you can
  accomplish. No additional score is kept for this extra play.


  ENDING PLAY
  ~~~~~~~~~~~
          QUITTING: You may quit during your civilization's turn by
          pressing the Quit key. You must be at the map display and one of
          your units must be waiting for orders. You may not quit when
          another civilization is taking its turn or from any other
          display. When you quit, you are given the one chance to change
          your mind before the decision is irrevocable. You are not shown
          your civilization score or entered into the Hall of Fame.

          RETIRING: To retire, open the Game menu and choose the option
          "Retire." You are given once change to change your mind. If you
          proceed to retire, you are shown your civilization score and
          entered into the Hall of Fame if you qualify.

          DESTRUCTION: If your civilization is destroyed by one of your
          rivals, then the game automatically ends. You are not given a
          chance to start over in this world. Since you can have no score,
          you can not qualify for the Hall of Fame. You may review a
          replay of the world's history. If you want to play again, you
          must start over with a new world.

          AUTOMATIC ENDING: A game of CIVILIZATION ends when a spaceship
          containing colonists from any civilization reaches the nearby
          Alpha Centauri star system. All play temporarily ceases. Your
          final civilization score is reported and you are entered into
          the Hall of Fame if you qualify. However, you do not necessarily
          have to quit playing. Although your score is not recorded
          hereafter, if you wish, you may continue playing to see what the
          future holds. From this point on you must quit to stop playing.

          CONQUER THE WORLD: If you succeed in eliminating all other
          civilizations in the world, the game automatically ends. This is
          the ultimate achievement possible by a civilization. You are
          shown your civilization score and may be entered into the Hall
          of Fame. You may review a replay of the world's history.


  WINNING
  ~~~~~~~
          You win a game of CIVILIZATION in either of two ways: by
  eliminating all rival civilizations or by surviving until the
  colonization of space begins.

          The elimination of all other civilizations in the world is very
  hard to accomplish. You are much more likely to win by being in
  existence when colonists reach Alpha Centauri. Even if the colonists are
  not yours, the successful direction of your civilization through the
  centuries is an achievement. You have survived countless wars, the
  pollution of the industrial age, and the risks of nuclear weapons.

          When the game is won by either method, your skill as ruler is
  measured by a final civilization score.

          CIVILIZATION SCORE: This is the sum of the following factors,
  plus any bonus for space colonists or conquering the world.

          2 points: each happy citizen
          1 point: each content citizen
          20 points: each Wonder of the World
          3 points: each turn of peace (no war anywhere)
          10 points: each futuristic advance you civilization acquires
          -10 points: each map square currently polluted

          SPACE COLONISTS BONUS: In addition to the above points, if your
          spaceship is the first to reach Alpha Centauri you can receive a
          bonus score. This is 50 points per 10,000 colonists sent,
          multiplied by the success percentage of your mission.

          CONQUERING THE WORLD BONUS: If you succeed in conquering the
          world, you receive up to 1000 civilization points, plus a bonus
          for the date. The faster you conquer the world, the higher that
          bonus.


  THE HALL OF FAME
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          The Hall of Fame records the best five civilizations that you
  have built, listed in order of their civilization ranking. This ranking
  is determined from the basic civilization score multiplied by a
  difficulty factor and a competition factor. The higher the civilization
  ranking, the higher the position in the Hall of Fame.

          You can examine the Hall of Fame when starting a new game from
  the pre-game options menu. When you retire or reach the automatic end of
  a game, you go to the Hall of Fame, even if you don't qualify to enter.

          While at the Hall of Fame you may clear all of the current
  entries if you wish.


                                WORLD GEOGRAPHY
                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          The world is divided into small independent parts known as
  squares. Each square consists of a unique type of terrain. Each type of
  terrain has its own economic usefulness, effect on movement, and
  effect on combat. Download the CIVQKREF.ZIP to gain more information on
  terrain types.

          The economic USEFULNESS of the various terrains is important
  selecting city sites. The terrain that is close to a city the food,
  resources, and trade the city needs to grow and be productive. Some
  terrain types are more valuable than others. Some may be irrigated or
  mined for increased economic value, and others may be converted into
  another type of terrain.

          When selecting sites for new cities, consider the terrain
  types that are within the radius of the prospective city. The best city
  sites offer immediate food, resource, and trade production, plus the
  potential for long term development.

          A brief description of the terrain types follows.

          ARCTIC: Frozen glaciers of ice and snow found near the north and
          south poles. No food, resources, or trade can be obtained here.

          DESERT: Very dry region that can be developed to be marginally
          productive. There are some resources present that can be mined,
          food can be produced if the desert is irrigated, and roads
          generate some trade.

          GRASSLAND: These open lands have especially thick topsoils
          making them excellent food producing areas. Food production can
          be increased by irrigation. Roughly half of the Grasslands also
          have some resources, making them excellent city sites.
          Grasslands may be converted into Forests for increased resource
          production.

          HILLS: An area of rolling hills that offers very easy access to
          minerals, sources of water, pastures, and some possibility for
          agriculture. When mined, Hills produce excellent resources. They
          also produce some food and can be irrigated if necessary.
          Irrigating Hills allows the irrigation to pass on to further
          squares that may be otherwise cut off from water.

          JUNGLE: These areas of rain forest and dense jungle produce
          relatively poor amounts of food and no resources. However, they
          can be made much more valuable by conversion into either
          Grasslands or Forest. For this reason, the long-term potential
          of a city site containing several Jungles is good.

          MOUNTAINS: This very rugged terrain can only produce a small
          amount of resources but this can be increased by mining.
          Mountains make the best defense terrain, but the production is
          so low that they make a poor economic choice for the site of a
          city.

          OCEAN: Oceans produce small amounts of food, but a substantial
          trade. Only ships or aircraft can enter Oceans. Landlocked
          Oceans are really lakes but are treated like other Oceans in all
          respects.

          PLAINS: These open areas differ from Grasslands in having poorer
          soil but better resources of timber and minerals. They are poor
          food producers unless irrigated. Due to the presence of
          resources, they make good choices for city sites. Plains may be
          converted into Forests.

          RIVERS: Rivers are great sites for starting cities and
          civilizations due to the richness of riverbank soils and natural
          trade routes for boats. Rivers are as good as Grasslands for
          producing food and always generate trade. River terrain may be
          irrigated to increase food production. It was no accident that
          the first civilizations sprang up along rivers.

          SWAMP: The coastal wetlands and flooded interior lands produce
          only a small quantity of food. Like Jungles, however, they can
          be converted into Grasslands and Forest.

          TUNDRA: These sparse lands of permafrost produce only a small
          amount of food from grazing animals. There is no agriculture or
          use for irrigation. These areas cannot be converted to other
          terrain and make very poor city sites.

          FOREST: These woodlands produce a modest mixture of food and
          resources. If more food production is needed in the area, they
          can be converted into Plains.


                             SPECIAL RESOURCES
                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Special resources can occur in many terrains and add
  significantly to their economic value. The location of these resources
  is marked by distinct symbols that are uncovered as the map is explored.
  More info can be found in the CIVQKREF.ZIP file which can be found on
  most quality BBSs. A brief description of the special resources follows.

          COAL(HILLS): Coal deposits represent rich locations of coal or
          metal ores. These areas produce greatly increased resources,
          especially when mined.

          FISH(OCEAN): Fish represent the location of underwater banks and
          reefs where currents and nutrients create excellent fishing
          grounds. Fishing banks produce increased amounts of food.

          GAME(FOREST & TUNDRA): The presence of game indicates excellent
          food sources available or the potential for good grazing. Game
          areas produce additional food, but cannot be improved.

          GEMS(JUNGLE): Gems indicate the presence of precious stones,
          ivory, spices, salt, or other valuable commodities. These are
          good trade items and therefore generate substantial trade from
          the area.

          GOLD(MOUNTAIN): Gold represents a bonanza of gold or silver. The
          value of these deposits produces tremendous trade.

          HORSES(PLAINS): Horses represent an increase in resources from
          this area due to the benefits of using domesticated animals such
          as the horse or oxen to do work. For all but the most recent
          periods of history, animals were an important source of lifting
          and pulling power.

          OASIS(DESERT): The oasis is a very fertile island in the desert
          that takes advantage of the presence of some water and rich
          local nutrients. The result is an area that produces substantial
          quantities of food.

          OIL(SWAMP): Oil represents the presence of mineral wealth,
          especially petroleum. The result is a substantial quantity of
          resources. Oil resources cannot be improved by mining.

          NOTE: If you convert terrain containing a special resource into
                another terrain type, the original special resource is
                lost. In some cases a special resource that can be found
                in the new terrain may appear.


                                 MINOR TRIBES
                                 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
          During exploration, minor tribes may also be discovered in the
  world. These are small tribes that have not yet advanced to be
  civilizations. If you enter a minor tribe's village by moving onto it, a
  number of things may happen. You may discover valuable metals, the tribe
  may become a mercenary unit in your army, you may discover a scroll of
  ancient wisdom that advances your civilization, your magnificence may
  inspire them to become civilized and found a new city in your empire, or
  they may prove to be extremely violent barbarians.


                              MAP DISPLAY
                              ~~~~~~~~~~~
       The options available from the Game menu are the following.

       REVOLUTION!: In order to change your civilization's type of
       government, you must have a revolution. The government goes into
       Anarchy for a period or turns and a new type of government may
       be chosen. You must have acquired specific technologies to
       choose a new type of government other than Despotism.

       TAX RATE: The trade that cities generate arrives as luxury
       goods, tax revenue, and new ideas (technology research). Here
       you can change the percentage that becomes tax revenue.

       LUXURY RATE: Change the percentage of trade brought in as luxury
       goods.

       FIND CITY: Choose this option to locate a city in the world.
       Type in the name of the city you wish to find. The map window
       centers on the city.

       OPTIONS: Choose this menu option to turn on or off some game
       features. Features available are instant advice, Autosave, End
       of Turn, and Animations. A check mark next to the feature
       indicate that it is on. Choosing an option that is on turns it
       off and vice versa. INSTANT ADVICE provides some helpful hints
       for new players. The AUTOSAVE feature automatically saves your
       game every 50 turns. When END OF TURN is on, a message reports
       the end of each turn and must be cleared for the game to
       continue. If you have no active units, this message appears
       whether toggled on or off. ANIMATIONS may be on or off.

       SAVE GAME: Um.....gee whiz.

       RETIRE: Ends the history of the civilization you now rule,
       calculating your score. If the score is high enough, you may
       enter the Hall of Fame. Note that your civilization is lost if
       not saved first.

       QUIT: Ends the history of the civilization you rule. No score is
       calculated and your civilization is lost if not saved first.


  PALACE WINDOW
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          This window represents a miniature rendition of your palace. Its
  breadth and grandeur is a depiction of how well your civilization is
  progressing. If your civilization prospers and grows, the people
  recognize the glory of your rulership by periodically improving and
  expanding your palace. The relative magnificence or shoddiness of your
  palace is displayed for you, your advisors, and international emissaries
  to see.


  THE STATUS REPORT
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          The entries and symbols here report the current date and several
  facts concerning the status of your civilization.

          DATE: The date is reported in years plus the notation BC or AD.
  The normal game begins in 4000 BC. Each turn represents the passing of
  so many years, depending on the current date.

          TREASURY: The amount of cash in your treasury.

          POPULATION: The size of your civilization's population.

          TRADE RATES: The three numbers separated by periods are your
          trade rates. The first number is the percentage of your trade
          that provides luxuries. The second rate is the percentage that
          becomes tax revenue added to the treasury. The third rate is the
          percentage put towards new ideas to help learn technology.
          Luxury goods are the cultural pleasures like music, art, sports,
          and the theater that people come to enjoy when they have leisure
          time. The more luxuries that can be provided, the more happy
          citizens in your cities. Tax revenue goes into the treasury and
          is needed to maintain existing city improvements. Excess taxes
          over maintenance needs accumulate in the treasury and can be
          spent later. Taxes, especially high ones, tend to make the
          people unhappy. The more new ideas and scientific research
          accomplished, the faster the new technology is acquired. Each of
          the three by-products of trade has its benefits. As time passes
          and cities grow, you may have to adjust the rates often to
          provide a minimum amount of taxes and science research while
          keeping the population content as a whole. To adjust rates, pull
          down the game menu and choose either Tax Rate or Luxury Rate
          option. By setting these two rates, the science rate is set by
          default.

          NEW IDEAS: The scientific research indicator, shaped like a light
          bulb, shows how near you are to making a civilization advance.
          The nearer you get, the more the light bulb fills in (yellow).
          When the bulb is full (bright yellow), it is on, indicating that
          you have acquired a new technology. Once the new idea is
          reported and your scientists progress, it gradually turns on
          again.

          ENVIRONMENT: The environment indicator is the sun, and its color
          shows how great is the risk of global warming. When there is no
          risk of global warming, the sun indicator is not present. With
          the first case of pollution, the sun indicator appears dark red.
          If pollution continues, the color gradually changes to light
          red, yellow and then white. If pollution is not brought under
          control when the indicator is brightest, the planet suffers a
          bout of global warming and then the indicator reverts to a
          cooler color reflecting the new equilibrium. Pollution and
          environmental problems can also be caused by nuclear reactor
          meltdowns and fallout from nuclear weapons.


                                 MOVEMENT
                                 ~~~~~~~~
          Each turn you may give order to your units, one at a time. The
  unit waiting for orders blinks on the map. There are several order
  options available: move the unit across the map up to the limit of its
  movement factor, skip the unit if you prefer to move it later in the
  turn, or have it do nothing this turn.

          In addition you may order most units to fortify or go on sentry
  duty. Fortified or sentry units no longer require orders. In future
  turns they carry on and do not blink, waiting for orders. If you wish to
  move these units later, they must be activated individually.

       MOVING UNITS: Units may be moved up to the limit of their
       movement factor. The cost to enter a map square depends on the
       terrain. Roads and Railroads speed the movement of ground units.
       When an unit is unable to complete a movement order because it
       doesn't have enough movement points to proceed, its movement is
       finished for the turn. The map then centers on the next unit
       waiting for orders.

       SKIPPING UNITS: To skip a unit temporarily, press the Wait key.
       (W key). This passes you on to the other units waiting for orders
       and returns you to the skipped unit after all others have had a
       chance to move.

       NO MOVEMENT: To order a unit not to move, press the No Movement
       key (the space bar).

       ACTIVATING UNITS: Fortified units and those on sentry duty must
       be activated to receive movement orders. Place the mouse pointer
       on the square and click the left mouse button. This opens a menu
       displaying all units in the square. Click again on the icon of
       any unit you wish to activate. Fortified or sentry units within
       a city must be activated from the city display. Sentry units are
       also activated when enemy units move adjacent to them.

       MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS: Ground units normally move only on land.
       They may move over sea squares, but only by naval transport.
       Ships may not enter squares entirely made up of land except
       cities that are on the coast. Air units may move over land and
       sea squares, but must land on a friendly city square or Aircraft
       Carrier unit to refuel. Ground units may not move from one
       square adjacent to an enemy army or city directly to another
       such square. The prohibited square may be adjacent to the first
       enemy army, another army, or any enemy city. Ground units may
       move into such a controlled square if a friendly unit is already
       there. Air units, ship units, Diplomats and Caravans ignore
       these restrictions.

       NAVAL TRANSPORT: Ground units may be carried over sea squares
       only by Triremes, Sails, Frigates, or Transports. Units may
       load onto a ship by moving onto it from an adjacent land square.
       Also, units on sentry duty in a city with a ship automatically
       load when the ship leaves. Units aboard ships are on sentry
       duty. Units may unload when activated from sentry duty and
       adjacent to land. They can be activated by the normal method of
       activation or by pressing the Unload key when the transporting
       ship is blinking. (U Key)


                                    COMBAT
                                    ~~~~~~
          Combat occurs when a unit from one civilization attempts to
  a square occupied by a unit of another civilization. When this happens
  a battle is immediately resolved, resulting in the destruction of one
  army or the other. When more than one unit is in the defender's square,
  the unit with the highest defensive strength defends. If it loses, then
  all other armies stacked with it are destroyed as well. Successful
  attackers that have a full movement point remaining after combat advance
  into the defender's square.

          The important factors in combat are the attack and defense
  strengths of the combatants, the presence of veterans, the terrain
  occupied by the defender, and any defensive improvements in the square.
  After all of these factors are considered, the combat is resolved as a
  simple calculation.

          Shore bombardments, city attacks, nuclear attacks, and bribing
  enemy armies are special types of combat.

       ATTACK STRENGTH: The basic attack strength of all armies. This
       full strength is brought to bear so long as the army has at
       least one movement factor remaining from movement. Armies with
       less movement available may still attack but are penalized.
       Armies with high movement rates may makes several attacks each
       turn at full strength.

       DEFENSE STRENGTH: The basic defense strength of all armies.

       VETERAN STATUS: Veteran armies have their attack and defense
       strengths increased by 50% before any other modification. Armies
       become veterans when built at cities containing the Barracks
       improvement, or they may become veterans after winning a battle.

       TERRAIN: Many of the world terrain types increase the strength
       of defenders. See the Terrain entries in the Civilopedia or the
       Terrain chart in the file CIVQKREF.ZIP.

       FORTIFIED ARMIES: Ground armies may fortify themselves,
       increasing their defense strength 50%. An army that has any
       movement points remaining may be ordered to fortify on any land
       square by pressing the Fortify key (F Key).

       IMPROVEMENTS: Armies within a Fortress have their strength
       doubled after all other modifications. Armies inside a city
       containing City Walls are tripled in strength. Cities protected
       by City Walls do not suffer population losses.

       ATTACKING CITIES: When a defender in a city is destroyed by
       ground attack, other defending units present are not destroyed.
       However, the population of the city is reduced by one point
       unless the city is protected by City Walls. Population loss does
       not occur due to naval or air attack, but is affected by nuclear
       attack.

       SHORE BOMBARDMENTS: Naval units with attack factors, other than
       Submarines, may attack enemy armies on adjacent land squares,
       including cities. Naval units in cities may defend against
       attack.

       NUCLEAR ATTACKS: Nuclear attacks occur when a Nuclear unit
       attempts to enter a square occupied by enemy units or an enemy
       city. In either case, all units, regardless of civilization, in
       the target square and adjacent squares are destroyed. In
       addition, a city loses half of its population. Nuclear attack
       can only be stopped by the presence of an SDI Defense
       improvement in a city.


  ADDITIONAL ORDERS
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Units may be given a number of other orders besides movement
  (and combat caused by movement). Settlers and Diplomats may be given
  unique orders explained later.

       GO TO: Orders an army to proceed to a destination SQUARE as fast
       as it can. The army continues moving turn after turn until it
       arrives. Press the Go To key (G key), and then designate the
       destination square.

       HOME CITY: Orders a unit to change its home city. Move the unit
       to the desired new home and press the Home key (H Key). Air
       units in flight may use this key to move to the nearest friendly
       city. Press the H key while the air unit is in flight and it
       immediately moves to the nearest friendly city or Aircraft
       Carrier. If the air unit does not have enough movement remaining
       to reach the nearest base, it crashes instead.

       SENTRY DUTY: A unit on sentry duty is marked by a faded icon on
       the map. It no longer blinks each turn waiting for new orders.
       Sentry units are activated as explained above. Sentry units
       automatically board any transporting ship that leaves a city
       they occupy. To put an army on sentry duty, press the S Key.

       DISBAND: This order disbands the unit receiving it, removing the
       unit from the map and city records. To disband a unit, press the
       Disband key.

       PILLAGE: This order destroys any terrain improvements
       (irrigation or mines) present in the square the army occupies.
       Roads and railroad are unaffected. To pillage, press the Pillage
       key (Shift and P keys).


  SETTLERS
  ~~~~~~~~
          Settlers are groups of your most resourceful and adventurous
  citizens. As independent pioneers they perform two critical functions
  for your civilization: they found new cities and serve as engineers.

       NEW CITIES: To found a new city, move a Settler to the desired
       location and press the Build key (B key). The Settler
       disappears, because the people it represents have become the
       population of the new city. However, in the future the new city
       can be ordered to produce more Settlers that can be used to
       found additional cities. The Build order can also be used to
       grow an existing city. Move a Settler into an existing city and
       press the Build key. The Settler is absorbed into the city,
       adding one point to its population. This may be useful when one
       city is limited in its ability to expand. This city can be used
       to produce Settlers who migrate to a larger more useful city
       where the Settlers can be put to work. However, Settlers may not
       be added to cities that already contain ten population points or
       more.

       SETTLER ENGINEERS: Settlers can make a number of agricultural
       and industrial improvements for your civilization, acting as
       engineers. Place the Settler in the square where the work is to
       be done and press the correct key. Note that your civilization
       must posses certain technologies before some improvements can be
       built.


  DIPLOMATS
  ~~~~~~~~~
          Diplomats are unique units that can be very useful to your
  civilization. They may act as trade missions, ambassadors, envoys,
  secret agents, and saboteurs. They can open contacts with other
  civilizations and establish embassies to gather info or otherwise
  disrupting your rivals. They can bribe enemy armies. When your
  civilization obtains the technology of Writing you can build Diplomats.
  Be aware that enemy Diplomats can be used against your civilization.

       DIPLOMAT MOVEMENT: Diplomats may move past enemy armies without
       stopping. However, if an enemy military army enters the square
       occupied by the Diplomat, the Diplomat is almost always
       destroyed. Diplomats may travel overseas in ships as other other
       armies do. Diplomats (and Caravans) are the only units that can
       enter defended enemy cities. When a Diplomat enters and enemy
       city a menu appears listing tasks that can be performed:

               Spy on City
               Establish Embassy
               Steal Technology
               Industrial Sabotage
               Incite A Revolt
               Meet With King

       SPY ON CITY: This opens the enemy's city display. You can
       examine what armies are defending it and what improvements have
       been made. When you clear the city screen, you return to the map
       display but your diplomat has been eliminated.

       ESTABLISH EMBASSY: The Diplomat establishes official contact
       with the other civilization and continually reports thereafter
       its type of government, treasury, the name of its capital city,
       treaties with other civilizations, states of war, and technology
       advances the Diplomat uncovers. Lists by historians of
       outstanding civilizations only include those with whom you have
       established embassies. It is only necessary to establish an
       embassy once with any civilization.

       STEAL TECHNOLOGY: Your Diplomat steals one technology advance
       from the other civilization. This can only be done once per city
       and your Diplomat disappears is the process (his cover is
       blown). If you have already stolen from this city, the Diplomat
       loses its turn. If the enemy civilization has nothing new then
       the Diplomat loses its turn..

       INDUSTRIAL SABOTAGE: Your Diplomat destroys either the item
       currently under production by the city or one of the city's
       improvements. You cannot control what is destroyed. The
       Diplomat is lost in the effort. Destroying a critical
       improvement may throw the city into unrest (Temple, Cathedral),
       weaken its defenses (City Walls), or cut its production
       (Factory). Diplomats never destroy Wonders of the World.

       INCITE A REVOLT: Your Diplomat contacts dissidents within a city
       and for a suitable payment the city revolts and joins your
       civilization. The payment to revolt depends on the size of the
       city and its proximity to the civilization's capital. Also, a
       city in civil disorder revolts for less. Your Diplomat is lost
       is a successful revolt but escapes outside the city if you
       refuse to pay the cost. The revolt also fails and your Diplomat
       survives if you don't have enough cash. Enemy capitals do not
       revolt.

       MEET WITH KING: Your Diplomat opens negotiations with the enemy
       ruler. This may lead to offers for trading technologies or for
       making treaties. Your Diplomat is not lost.

       BRIBING ENEMY UNITS: You may convince an enemy to defect and
       join your civilization by moving a Diplomat into its SQUARE. A
       menu appears showing how much the army demands to defect. If you
       accept, the cash is deducted from your treasury, the army
       switches over, and the Diplomat survives. If you fail to make
       the payment, the Diplomat left on deposit is lost. When more
       than one enemy unit is in a square, bribery is not possible. The
       nearest friendly city becomes the home city for a newly bribed
       unit.


  CARAVANS
  ~~~~~~~~
          Caravans are shipments of trade goods and materials. Over time
  they represent camel caravans, wagon trains, truck convoys, and cargo
  containers. They may be used to establish trade routes between cities or
  to transfer resources for the construction of Wonders Of The World. They
  become available once you have achieved the technology of Trade.

          TRADE ROUTES: A Caravan that enters any city of another
          civilization or a friendly city ten or more squares away from
          its home city may establish a trade route. This results in an
          immediate cash payment for delivery plus an increase in the
          trade generated each turn. This increased trade means more
          luxuries, taxes, and science for the home city. Each city may
          have up to three functioning trade routes. If more than three
          are established only the best three function. The amount of
          trade generated depends on the size of the two cities. Bigger
          cities generate more trade. Trade is best with a city in another
          civilization. Next best are friendly cities. The farther apart
          the two cities are, the greater the value of the trade. The
          value is also increased when the cities are on different
          continents. Caravans can move into any city they can reach. When
          at war it may be difficult to smuggle goods into an enemy city
          without being destroyed. Caravans may be transported overseas
          in ships as other units are, but cannot be landed into a city
          directly from a ship.

          BUILDING WONDERS: A Caravan may contribute its construction cost
          in resources to the cost of building any Wonder of the World by
          moving the Caravan into the city where the Wonder is being
          built. When the Caravan enters, a menu offers the choice of
          contributing to the construction or not. If you decide to help
          build the Wonder, the Caravan disappears and the resources used
          to build the Caravan are added to the production of the Wonder,
          speeding its completion.


  MILITARY UNITS
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          The following are the military units that can be built by your
  civilization. There is a brief description of each unit, including any
  special abilities. The three numbers shown after the unit's name are its
  attack, defense, and movement factors. In parentheses after the name is
  shown the advance required before each unit can be built. In brackets is
  shown the number of resources it takes to build each unit.

       ARMOR 10-5-3 (the Automobile) [80]: a group of tanks, or other
       armored fighting vehicles. Due to its high attack factor and
       speed, Armor is one of the best units for conducting ground
       campaigns.

       ARTILLERY 12-2-2 (Robotics) [60]: a group of self-propelled,
       heavy caliber artillery pieces. Defenders are not tripled behind
       City Walls when attacked by Artillery because the guns fire over
       the walls.

       BATTLESHIP 18-12-4 (Steel) [160]: a heavily armored and gunned
       warship. Battleships have a visibility range of two sea squares
       and may conduct shore bombardments. They may not carry ground
       units.

       BOMBER 12-1-8 (Advanced Flight) [120]: a group of long-range
       aircraft designed to carry and drop bombs. Bombers may stay
       airborne for one turn but must return to a base (a friendly city
       or Carrier) by the end of the second turn. They have a
       visibility of two squares over any terrain. Bombers ignore City
       Walls in the same manner as Artillery. They may only be attacked
       by Fighters. Other units may not enter a square occupied by a
       Bomber, so they are useful for interdicting enemy movement.

       CANNON 8-1-1 (Metallurgy) [40]: a group of carriage-mounted,
       smoothbore cannons. Cannons are excellent units on the attack
       and their arrival often opens a new round of offensive wars,
       especially when accompanied by Rifleman who can stack with them
       for defense.

       CARRIER 1-12-5 (Advanced Flight) [160]: an aircraft carrier is
       capable of acting as a base for Bombers, Fighters, and Nuclear
       units. Carriers may carry up to eight air units and have a
       visibility of two sea squares.

       CATAPULT 6-1-1 (Mathematics) [40]: a group of siege weapons
       designed to throw rocks and other materials with great force.
       Catapults are useful in the defense and attack of cities, but
       are weak when left alone on defense.

       CAVALRY 2-1-2 (Horseback Riding) [20]: a unit of mounted
       soldiers. Cavalry are useful as scouts and raiders because of
       their speed.

       CHARIOT 4-1-2 (the Wheel) [40]: a group of light carriages,
       normally mounted on two wheels and each carrying a driver and a
       warrior. Chariots are a powerful weapon on the attack but very
       weak on defense. They are also useful as scouts because of their
       speed.

       CRUISER 6-6-6 (Combustion) [80]: a very fast and moderately
       powerful warship. Cruisers have a visibility of two seas squares
       and may conduct shore bombardment. They may not carry ground
       units.

       FIGHTER 3-3-10 (Flight) [60]: a squadron of fighter aircraft.
       Fighters are useful as scouts and for attacking enemy Bombers.
       Fighters must return to a friendly base by the end of each turn.

       FRIGATE 2-2-3 (Magnetism) [40]: a fast sailing warship armed
       with a substantial number of guns. Frigates may carry up to four
       ground units.

       IRONCLAD 4-4-4 (Steam Engine) [60]: a fast, steam-powered ship
       armored with iron plating. Ironclads may not carry other units.
       Ironclads are most useful for attacking enemy ships and less so
       for conducting shore bombardments.

       KNIGHTS 4-2-2 (Chivalry) [40]: a group of armored warriors
       mounted on large powerful horses. Knights are often a useful
       combination of speed, defensive strength, and offensive
       strength.

       LEGION 3-1-1 (Iron Working) [20]: a well-trained force of
       infantry armed with shields, short swords, and throwing spears.
       Legions are good offensive units that are relatively
       inexpensive.

       MECHANIZED INFANTRY 6-6-3 (Labor Union) [50]: a group of modern
       infantry mounted on armored vehicles like the Bradley.
       Mechanized infantry is the best defensive ground unit in the
       game, useful for defending cities or other important points. It
       also has a good attack factor and excellent speed.

       MILITIA 1-1-1 (-) [10]: a band of citizens armed with crude
       weapons, mostly tools and farm implements. Militia are normally
       the only military unit that you can build when starting a new
       civilization and are only a stopgap until better units become
       available.

       MUSKETEERS 2-3-1 (Gunpowder) [30]: a company of infantry armed
       with muskets. Due to their higher defense factor, Musketeers are
       useful for replacing Phalanxes in positions that need to be
       defended.

       NUCLEAR 99-0-16 (Rocketry & Nuclear Fission) [160]: a missile
       weapon armed with a nuclear warhead. A Nuclear unit can only be
       built after the Manhattan Project Wonder has been built
       somewhere in the world. A Nuclear unit may move between cities
       and Carriers. It is lost if it does not end its turn in a city
       or on a Carrier, and does not attack. It explodes when it
       attacks an enemy unit or city. A Nuclear attack destroys all
       military units in the target square and adjacent squares,
       regardless of who they belong to. Nuclear attacks may also
       destroy city populations and cause pollution.

       PHALANX 1-2-1 (Bronze Working) [20]: a company of infantry armed
       with long pikes and very strong on the defensive. Phalanxes are
       very good for defending cities and other important points early
       on. No other type of unit is as cost effective for defense until
       Musketeers become available.

       RIFLEMAN 3-5-1 (Conscription) [30]: a company of infantry armed
       with rifles. Riflemen are excellent defenders or cities and
       other points, and useful for replacing PHALANXES and Musketeers.

       SAIL 1-1-3 (Navigation) [40]: a small ship powered by sails and
       lightly armed. Sailing Ships may carry up to three other units
       by naval transport. They are very useful for exploring the
       oceans because they are not restricted to staying near the
       coasts.

       SUBMARINE 8-2-3 (Mass Production) [50]: a warship designed to
       attack from underwater by firing torpedoes at enemy ships on the
       surface. Submarines have a visibility of two sea squares and can
       only be spotted by enemy ships when adjacent. They may not carry
       ground units or conduct shore bombardment.

       TRANSPORT 0-3-4 (Industrialization) [50]: a large, modern
       transport ship. Transports may carry up to eight other units and
       are very useful when carrying a large force to conduct an
       invasion.

       TRIREME 1-0-3 (Map Making) [40]: a small ocean-going ship
       powered by oars. Triremes are lost at sea approximately half of
       the time they are not adjacent to land at the end of a turn.
       They are normally the first ship that becomes available, and are
       thus very useful for exploring the sea and transporting
       Diplomats, Caravans, and other units to nearby continents.


  BARBARIANS
  ~~~~~~~~~~
          Barbarians are small tribes of raiders that are not part of any
  opposing civilization. You may encounter them periodically as your
  civilization begins to expand and grow. They may invade from the sea or
  arise suddenly in unsettled parts of any continent. Barbarians may
  attempt to capture or destroy your cities, and pillage your fields and
  mines. Because barbarians may appear along any coast or in any unsettled
  area, it is important to defend cities. It may also be useful to screen
  your cities from unsettled areas so that any barbarians that appear may
  be intercepted before they reach your cities. Most barbarian tribes are
  accompanied by a leader who may be ransomed if captured. Barbarian
  leaders look like Diplomats.

       SEA RAIDERS: Barbarians that invade from the sea are looking for
       a place to settle. They search for cities and attempt to capture
       them. They do not pillage mines and irrigation because or their
       interest in making a permanent settlement. If they capture a
       city, they take is over and begin producing more units to make
       new assaults. Sea raiders can be fought on land or engaged at
       sea in their ships.

       LAND BARBARIANS: These raiders are interested only in loot, not
       permanent settlements. This makes them very harmful as they
       pillage any mines or irrigation they encounter. If they capture
       one of your cities, they utterly destroy it. For these reasons,
       land barbarians are best engaged as far from your cities as
       possible. Land barbarians arise in areas that are not within the
       radius of a city. As time passes they appear at even farther
       distances from civilization. Thus, expanding your cities over a
       continent eventually removes the threat of barbarians appearing
       because the entire area has become more or less civilized by the
       presence of your cities.

       RANSOMING THE BARBARIANS LEADERS: If a barbarian leader is alone
       in a square and you attack him and win, he is captured and
       immediately ransomed for 100 coins. The money is added to your
       treasury. When barbarians units are attacked and destroyed,
       leader units stacked with them are destroyed also. Barbarian
       leaders who have lost their armies attempt to escape and
       disappear if not captured in a few turns.


                               GOVERNMENTS
                               ~~~~~~~~~~~
          To assist in the management of your civilization there is a
  system of government. There are six types of government possible but the
  ones available to you at any moment depends on the technology that your
  civilization has ACHIEVED. One type of government, Anarchy, only occurs
  under a special circumstance.

          When beginning a new game your civilization is automatically
  governed by Despotism. The additional types become available when the
  specific civilization advance bearing their name is made.

          The different types of government each have their own unique
  effects. Some allow greater personal and economic freedom resulting in
  fast growing trade, science, and economies, while others are better
  suited to building and employing large armies.

          Governments are changed by REVOLUTIONS.


  TYPES
  ~~~~~
       The 6 governments available for a civilization are:

               Despotism
               Anarchy
               Monarchy
               Communism
               The Republic
               Democracy

       DESPOTISM: You rule by absolute power. The people just have to
       live with it because your will is enforced by the army. Due to
       the minimal amount of economic and personal freedom, production
       is at a minimum. But your total control makes conducting war
       relatively easy. Military units do not require resource support
       until the number of units making this their home city exceeds
       the number of people in the city. Each home military unit in
       excess of the number of people in the city requires one unit of
       resources for industrial support. Diplomats and Caravans do not
       require support. In addition, any map square that produces three
       or more food, resources, or trade has this production reduced
       by one. Settlers require one food for support.

       ANARCHY: You have temporarily lost control of government. Cities
       continue to operate on their own but some important operations
       of you civilizations come to a halt until control is restored.
       You are able to continue controlling the movements of your
       units. Anarchy has the same effect as Despotism with several
       exceptions- no tax revenue is collected, no maintenance is
       charged for city improvements, and no scientific research is
       done while Anarchy continues. Anarchy only occurs during
       revolutions.

       MONARCHY: Your rule is less absolute, and more with the
       acceptance of the people, especially an aristocracy of upper
       class citizens. The aristocratic classes at least have a certain
       amount of economic freedom and this results in the potential for
       greater production of resources, food, and trade. However, the
       upper classes deduct a share of your civilization's production
       as maintenance for military units and luxuries in the larger
       cities. Under a Monarchy, there is no reduction of production in
       squares that produce three or more units or food, resources, or
       trade. Irrigation of Grasslands and Rivers, plus mining of Hills
       can now pay off with increased production. All military units
       must be supported by one unit of resources. Settlers require two
       food for support.

       COMMUNISM: You are the head of a communistic government, and
       rule with the support of the controlling party. Although this
       form of government allows more production than despotism, the
       orthodoxy of the party restricts personal and economic freedom,
       limiting trade. On the plus side, corruption is kept to a
       minimum by the action of the local party apparatus. Communism has
       the same effect as Monarchy except the corruption is flat.
       Instead of increasing the farther a city is located from the
       Palace, all of your cities suffer the same rate of corruption.

       THE REPUBLIC: You rule over the assembly of city-states formed
       from the cities that your civilization has established. Each
       city is an autonomous state, yet also is part of the republic
       that you rule. The people feel that you rule at their request.
       They have a great deal of personal and economic freedom, and
       this results is greatly increase trade. Your diplomacy is
       reviewed by the Senate and they can override you decisions.
       Grasslands, Rivers, and Hills are as productive as they are
       under Monarchy. Also, an additional trade unit is generated
       wherever at least one trade unit already exists. Military units
       each require one resource for industrial support. Settlers
       require two food. Each military unit not in its home city makes
       one citizen unhappy. In addition, the Senate of your government
       accepts any peace offer made by another civilization, overriding
       even a desire for war by you.

       DEMOCRACY: You rule as the elected executive of a democracy. The
       people feel that you rule because they want you to. The degree
       of freedom allowed under this government results in maximum
       opportunity for economic production and trade. However, the
       people also have a very strong voice in determining how much
       economic production is devoted to improving the standard of
       living. As in a republic, some diplomatic decisions are subject
       to review by your Senate. Democracy is very similar to The
       Republic. One difference is that under Democracy there is no
       corruption. Also, if one or more of your cities are in civil
       disorder for two turns, there is a chance each turn thereafter
       that a revolution may occur. Each military unit not in its home
       city makes two citizens unhappy.


  REVOLUTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~
          Governments are changed through a process of revolution. This
  normally occurs at your command because you wish to change to a type of
  government more suitable to your plans. You may change your
  civilization's government type to any for which you have made the
  correct advance.

          To cause a revolution, pull down the Game menu and choose the
  option "REVOLUTION." After a few turns of Anarchy, a menu appears that
  lists the government options available to your civilization. The new
  government goes into effect immediately after you make your choice.

          If your civilization possesses the Pyramids, a Wonder of the
  World, you may change governments without passing through Anarchy. This
  ability is lost after the Pyramids become obsolete.


                        ADVISORS AND WORLD REPORTS
                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          You always have a staff of advisors available who can provide
  detailed information concerning the affairs of you civilization. By
  consulting with these advisors you can make informed decisions about the
  management of your cities and relations with other civilizations. The
  reports of these advisors can be obtained from the Advisors menu found
  on the menu bar at the map display.

          In addition, there are a number of other reports that can be
  consulted. These are available from the World menu on the menu bar.

       The following advisors and world reports can be consulted:

       ADVISORS:
                City Status
                Military Advisor
                Intelligence Advisor
                Attitude Advisor
                Trade Advisor
                Science Advisor

       WORLD REPORTS:
                Wonders of the World
                Top 5 Cities
                Civilization Score
                World Map
                Spaceships
                Demographics

       CITY STATUS: This report lists the cities in your civilization
       and shows what they are producing. For each city you can read
       the population size, the amount of food, resources, and trade
       generated, what item is currently being produced, and how near
       it is to being completed. It is useful to consult this advisor
       at the beginning of your turn to refresh your memory about what
       your are producing and how close it is to completion. You can
       see at a glance whether some critical military unit or Wonder of
       the World is nearly completed.

       MILITARY ADVISOR: The first military report shows how many units
       of each type your civilization currently has in existence and is
       producing. Clear the screen to see the second part of the
       report. This part of the report shows the casualties that you
       have taken and inflicted in combat with other civilizations. The
       casualties are shown by type and civilization. Civilizations are
       differentiated by their color.

       INTELLIGENCE ADVISOR: This report is a summary of information
       gathered by your embassies. For each civilization with whom you
       have established diplomatic relations, this report presents
       accurate data on the name of their capital, their type of
       government, the size of their treasury, and their diplomatic
       status with other civilizations. No information appears for
       civilizations with whom you have not established an embassy. You
       can learn here which civilizations are at war and which are at
       peace, and with whom. You may find it useful to consult this
       report before attacking another civilization. A second page of
       info may be called up by pressing the Info button. This page
       reports some additional information regarding the apparent goals
       of the civilization's leader and the technological advances they
       have made most recently.

       ATTITUDE ADVISOR: The advisor reports the relative happiness of
       your citizens. From his survey you can see at a glance the
       number or happy, content, and unhappy citizens in each of your
       cities. This information can be useful after changing your
       luxury rate or type of government because those changes can have
       a significant effect on the happiness of your citizens. By
       reviewing this survey you can quickly see where you may have to
       make adjustments in city management to avoid disorder. For each
       of your cities, you see the current population and icons of any
       city improvements that help increase the happiness of the
       people. At the bottom of the page are totals for the size of the
       population of your entire civilization and percentages of the
       total that are happy, content, and unhappy. By examining the
       roster of improvements for each city, you may see where a city
       is missing a helpful improvement.

       TRADE ADVISOR: Your trade advisor reports for each of your
       cities how much of its trade is directed toward bringing in
       luxuries, tax revenue, and new ideas. The amount of luxuries,
       taxes, and science a city is producing is shown to the right of
       its name. Below the list of cities is a total for tax
       collections per turn. On the right side of the report is a list
       of city improvements that exist throughout your civilization.
       Only those improvements that cost money for maintenance are
       listed. The report shows how many of each improvement exist and
       the cost of maintaining them. At the bottom of this list is the
       total of your improvement maintenance costs for this turn. By
       comparing the tax revenue number with the maintenance cost
       number, you can see whether the treasury of your civilization is
       increasing each turn, shrinking, or remaining the same. If your
       treasury is shrinking, this may be a good time to increase taxes
       or adjust individual cities to produce higher revenue. In an
       emergency, you may wish to sell an improvement to raise cash.
       The final item is the report is labelled "Discoveries" and shows
       the number of turns needed for your scientists to acquire the
       technology advance that you have directed them to seek. The more
       scientific research done by your cities, the fewer turns
       required. Note that as technology increases, it takes more and
       more research to make the next breakthrough.

       SCIENCE ADVISOR: Your science advisor keeps track of the
       technologies that your civilization has already achieved and the
       progress of you scientists toward their next advance.  A chart
       shows progress toward the next advance. The light bulbs indicate
       how much research has been done. When the box is full of light
       bulbs, the advance being researched is achieved. It is possible
       to continue making advances beyond the basic list that defines
       civilization up to the end of the 20th century. These continuing
       advances are called FUTURISTIC ADVANCES and each one your
       acquire adds ten points to your civilization score.

       WONDERS OF THE WORLD: Your geographers maintain a listing of the
       location of the Wonders of the World. When they hear of the
       construction of a new one they add it to the list. By the end of
       your civilization's history there may be as many as 21 Wonders:
       7 ancient, 7 medieval, and 7 modern. Knowing where they are may
       be useful because capturing the city where a Wonder is located
       adds to the glory of your civilization. The geographer's list
       shows the Wonder's icon, its name, the city in which it is
       located, and the civilization that built it. Clear the page of
       ancient Wonders to see the medieval Wonders, and clear again to
       see the modern Wonders. Note that only existing Wonders appear
       on the list.

       TOP FIVE CITIES: This report graphically shows the five highest
       rated cities in the world. The five cities are named and their
       parent civilizations are also listed. Below the names are the
       population rosters of the cities and the icons of any Wonders
       that have been built there. All cities in the world are rated
       and the five with the highest scores are put on the list. Cities
       score points as follows:

               2 points: For each happy citizen.
               1 point: For each content citizen.
               10 points: For each Wonder of the World built there.

       Note that cities that you have never discovered can be revealed
       to you in this list. The magnificence of these cities has passed
       by word of mouth to the corners of the world. Your geographers
       and other advisors constantly sift the rumors of travelers and
       traders for info regarding other civilizations. Even though some
       civilizations are not known to you, the splendor of their cities
       has reached the ears of your advisors.

       CIVILIZATION SCORE: This is a relative measure of how your
       civilization is doing. It is also totalled one last time when
       the game ends to give you a final score for your civilization.
       You can check with your advisor throughout the game to see how
       you stand. Your ultimate but difficult goal is to score over
       1,000. Points are scored for the following conditions.

               2 points: For each happy citizen
               1 point: For each content citizen
               20 points: For each Wonder of the World that you possess
               3 points: For each turn of world peace (no wars)
               10 points: For each Futuristic Advance.
               -10 points: For each map square currently polluted.

       At the bottom of the report is a bar graph indicating how far
       you have advanced towards a civilization score of 1000.

       WORLD MAP: Also the work of your geography department, this is
       the map of the entire known world. Parts of the world that you
       have not discovered cannot be seen. In addition, this map is
       centered horizontally on your capital. Thus you cannot tell
       exactly where you are located relative to the north or south
       polar boundaries until you discover them.

       SPACESHIPS: When you contact your space advisor, they can report
       the progress of any spaceship under construction. Select from
       the menu the civilization whose spaceship you wish to examine.
       Your advisors present a picture of the construction accomplished
       to date and their assessment of what it can carry, its estimated
       flight time, and its success probability. The space race begins
       once the Apollo Program Wonder of the World has been
       constructed. Thereafter any civilization that has the required
       technologies may begin building parts of a spaceship. Once the
       space race begins, it is important to maintain a watch on the
       spaceships of your rivals. You need to assess when they are
       likely to launch so that so can plan the size of your own ship
       and its launch date. If you conclude that your ship construction
       is too far behind to catch up, it may be necessary to mount a
       military campaign to capture the enemy capital. Capturing the
       enemy capital cancels the enemy spaceship under construction.

       DEMOGRAPHICS: Your advisors keep track of demographic info
       regarding civilization in comparison to the others in the
       world. This information is available in the report. It details
       your civilization's status in a number of areas and where it
       ranks in the world. Examining this report may offer clues about
       which civilizations are your biggest threats.

       The following statistics are shown in the report.

        APPROVAL RATING: The % of the people who think you are
        doing a good job as a ruler.

        POPULATION: The # of people within your civilization.

        GNP: The total of luxuries and taxes generated by your
        cities.

        MANUFACTURED GOODS: The total of resources generated by
        your cities.

        LAND AREA: The land squares that your units were last to
        pass through, representing the part of the world that is
        under your influence and control.

        LITERACY: The % of your population that can read. This
        depends on acquiring the advances of the Alphabet,
        Writing, and Literacy, plus the number of Libraries and
        Universities that your civilization possesses.

        DISEASE: A relative standing based on whether your
        civilization has acquired the advance of Medicine, and
        the number of Granaries and Aqueducts in your cities.

        POLLUTION: A comparison of the amount of pollution you
        are creating versus your rivals, measured buy the number
        of smokestacks generated by your city.

        LIFE EXPECTANCY: A relative standing determined by the
        extent of disease and pollution in your civilization.

        FAMILY SIZE: A number determined from the amount of
        excess food generated by your cities. Large family
        size means rapid population growth.

        MILITARY SERVICE: A relative standing determined from
        the # of military units you possess versus the size of
        your population, indicating the length of time of
        military service.

        ANNUAL INCOME: The amount of luxuries and tax revenues
        your cities generate, divided by your population.

        PRODUCTIVITY: The total is resources, food, and trade
        generated by your cities, divided by your population.


                           PLANETARY CARETAKING
                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          One cost of heedless industrial growth is a gradual polluting
  and poisoning of the environment. Of the many dangers posed by
  pollution, the greatest may be global warming. An unchecked rise in the
  planet's atmospheric temperature threatens catastrophic geographic
  changes including melting polar ice caps, rising sea levels, are parched
  farmlands. As you steer your civilization in the industrial age, you
  must manage your cities to minimize pollution and prevent global
  warming.

          Different kinds of poisoning may occur when nuclear weapons are
  used or a nuclear reactor melts down.


  INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Every game turn there is a probability of pollution occurring
  within the economic radius of each of your cities. The probability of
  pollution OCCURRING depends on two factors: resources and population. The
  most important factor is the number of resources the city generates. The
  more that are generated, the higher the probability. Below a certain
  level, there is no chance of pollution.

          The city's population has no effect on pollution until you
  acquire the advance of the Automobile. Thereafter, the population may
  become a significant factor in the probability of pollution OCCURRING.

          When there is a probability of pollution OCCURRING at a city,
  smokestacks begin appearing on the city display. The number of stacks
  indicates the probability.


  CLEANUP
  ~~~~~~~
          Pollution can be cleaned up by Settler units. Move the Settler
  onto the polluted square and press the P key. The settler is marked with
  a "P" to note that it has been ordered to clean up pollution.

          After four turns of work, the pollution disappears. Adding more
  settlers to a polluted square does not speed up the cleanup.


  EFFECTS
  ~~~~~~~
          Pollution reduces the production of food, industry, and trade in
  any map square where it appears. Production is halved and then rounded
  up. When cleaned up, the map square returns to pre-pollution levels of
  production.


  MONITORING POLLUTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Your environmental advisors immediately inform you when any map
  area becomes polluted. The area on the map is marked with smudges to
  indicate pollution.

          The extent of pollution throughout you civilization can be
  monitored by watching the pollution indicator, a small sun in the date
  window of the display. The color of the sun indicates the extent of the
  risk of global warming. The colors in the IBM version range from dark
  red, to light red, to yellow, to white. Dark red indicates a low risk
  and white indicates a very high risk.

          The colors of the sun depend on the number of squares currently
  polluted and a lag of time. The more squares polluted, the higher the
  risk. The lag reflects the time required for the pollution to take
  effect.


  GLOBAL WARMING
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          EFFECTS: Global warming causes geographic changes throughout the
          world. Deserts, Plains, and Grasslands on coasts may become
          Swamps, and coastal Forests may become Jungles. Plains,
          Grasslands, and Forests in the interior may become Deserts. The
          result is much lower food, industry, and trade for your
          civilization. Your environment advisors report immediately if
          global warming has occurred. The effect is always bad, but in
          the case of flooded coastal areas you may improve Jungles and
          Swamps over time.

          CAUSES: Global warming may occur if at least nine map squares,
          anywhere is the world, are currently polluted. If they are left
          unattended for too long, environmental damage occurs. Once an
          environmental disaster has OCCURRED, the cycle starts over again.
          The planet has achieved equilibrium at the new higher
          temperatures. If pollution continues or increases once more to
          high levels, another bout of environmental problems may occur.
          This cycle may repeat endlessly if pollution is not controlled.


  NUCLEAR POLLUTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Pollution may also be caused by nuclear weapons or the meltdown
  of a nuclear power plant. Pollution caused by either of these events has
  the same effect as industrial pollution.

          NUCLEAR WEAPONS: When a nuclear unit is used in an attack, an
          additional effect of the attack is the pollution of a number of
          map squares around the impact square. Remember this when you are
          tempted to use nuclear weapons. You may create pollution you
          cannot readily reach with Settlers to clean up, significantly
          raising the risk of global warming.

          NUCLEAR MELTDOWN: If a Nuclear Power Plant melts down, half of
          the city's population is destroyed and a random number of
          squares near the city becomes polluted. There is risk of
          meltdown when a city that has a Nuclear Power Plant goes into
          civil disorder. The civilian unrest may result in safety
          procedures becoming so lax that a catastrophic accident occurs.
          If you build Nuclear Power Plants in any of your cities, take
          special care not to allow those cities to go into disorder. When
          your civilization achieves the technology of Fusion Power, the
          risk of meltdown disappears. Your Nuclear Plants automatically
          convert to the technology of fusion power which is free of the
          risk of meltdown.


                                DIPLOMACY
                                ~~~~~~~~~
          Diplomacy is conducted by negotiations between yourself and a
  ruler of a rival civilization. Negotiations may occur when a rival sends
  and envoy to talk or may result from overtures of your own. Diplomacy is
  conducted face-to-face with one rival ruler at a time and can lead to
  exchanges of technology, offers of peace, international extortion, or
  declarations of war.

          A rival may contact you when units from each of your
  civilizations are adjacent to each other. A rival envoy may also arrive
  at any time. You may start negotiations by sending a Diplomat into a
  rival city and selecting the option "Meet With the King."

          The tone and result of any negotiations are greatly influenced
  by the mood or your rival. The opposing leader may be antagonistic,
  supplicating, or somewhere in between. This mood depends on the leader's
  personality and how your two civilizations compare to each other and the
  rest of the world. You may be able to pick up cues on a rival's mood
  from facial expressions or background music.

          A rival leader's personality may be aggressive, friendly, or
  neutral. Aggressive leaders are more likely to lean toward war or demand
  high payments for peace. Friendly leaders are more likely to offer peace
  and may only be bluffing when asking for payment. If you have broken
  previous peace agreements with this civilization, that is remembered and
  also influences the degree of antagonism.

          If you are the largest, most powerful, and richest civilization
  in the world, all rivals are likely to be very jealous or antagonistic.
  However, if the opponent is puny in comparison, the natural tendency
  toward being belligerent may be overridden. A civilization threatened
  with extinction is more interested in survival.

          All negotiations end with either and agreement of peace between
  your two civilizations or a declaration of war. Even the most
  antagonistic rival may concede peace for a suitable payment of cash or
  technology. This may purchase peace only temporarily, however.

          Establishing embassies with other civilizations can be very
  useful in preparation for negotiations. You Intelligence Advisor
  collects information from all of your embassies and from him you can
  learn important facts about your opponents, including their size and the
  personality of their leader. This information is not available for
  civilizations with which you have not established an embassy.

      TRADING TECHNOLOGY: Civilizations that are not extremely
      antagonistic may offer to trade technology. They begin by
      offering one that you don't possess. They may actually gave
      several you lack. If you agree, a menu of technologies they can
      trade appears. Select the one that you want and then they take
      one from you. You have no choice regarding what they take and
      cannot veto the trade. If after trading another exchange is
      possible, more trading may take place.

      BUYING PEACE: A rival may demand a cash payment or a
      civilization advance during negotiation. If you meet this
      demand, the rival almost certainly agrees to peace. If you
      reject the demand, an antagonistic rival generally declares war.
      The demand or a more peaceful threatened rival may only be a
      bluff, and peace may be offered anyway after demands are
      rejected. In some cases, a rival offers a reward for your making
      peace or declaring war on another civilization.

      POST-TREATY NEGOTIATIONS: Once you agree to a peace treaty you
      have an opportunity for further negotiations. A menu opens
      offering three choices: a declaration of harmony, a military
      proposal, or a demand for tribute. The declaration of harmony
      has no real effect. A military proposal is a suggestion by you
      for your new friends to attack a third party. This generally
      generally costs you a cash payment which you can pay or turn
      down. The third option is a demand for tribute to cement the new
      treaty you have signed. If your opponent is weak or in awe of
      your power, he may pay. Alternatively, he may refuse to pay, or
      go as far as to declare war on you.


  PEACE
  ~~~~~
          Peace between your civilization and another can only result from
  diplomacy. If you and your rival agree, then a state of peace can occur.
  Choosing peace is voluntary unless your government is a Republic or
  Democracy. In those cases the Senate of the government overrules any
  decision for war and accepts peace.

          Peace agreements can normally be broken at any time by either
  party, but so long as it holds, both parties must adhere to the
  following rules: units of the other civilization, even Diplomats, may
  not be attacked; no units except Diplomats and Caravans may enter
  squares that have been improved by the other party within the radius of
  a city (irrigated, mined, or penetrated by roads); squares that other
  party has under development may not be pillaged; and technology may not
  be stolen from the other party. Any of these events ends the peace and
  triggers war. You are warned that you are about to break a peace and have
  a change to check your action.

          If your government is a Republic or Democracy, you may not
  voluntarily violate a peace agreement. The Senate forbids any action
  that starts war. If you consider war necessary, you must have a
  Revolution to overthrow the government and put in one more receptive to
  your wishes. Alternatively, you may wait for your opponent to break the
  peace himself or declare war on you.

          When you are at peace it is much easier for trade Caravans to
  reach the cities or the other party and establish trade routes. If the
  entire world is at peace, your civilization score is increased. The
  major benefit or peace is that you are not at war. During war, all of
  the proscribed activities are possible, and can cause great damage and
  waste of resources.


                              THE SPACE RACE
                              ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          The environmental pressures of growing populations in the modern
  world are forcing humans to look in to space for resourceful and living
  room. The question is not whether humans are to travel to the stars, but
  when. The final act of stewardship you can perform for your civilization
  is to insure that they lead this exodus.

          As noted earlier, the history of your civilization ends when
  either you or one of your rivals reaches a nearby star system with
  colonists. If your spaceship is the first to arrive, you receive a bonus
  to your civilization score in recognition of this final accomplishment.
  Regardless of how many colonists your spaceship is carrying, or how
  fast it is, if a rival makes planetfall first, you receive no bonus.

          The construction of spaceships may not begin until one
  civilization has built the Apollo Program Wonder. Thereafter, the race
  is one and any civilization that has acquired the necessary advances may
  begin building the parts of a spaceship.

          Each civilization, including yours, may build only one spaceship
  at a time. Once it is launched, another one cannot be built and sent off.
  Ships that have been launched may not be recalled or turned around.
  Spaceships are destroyed if the owning civilization's capital is
  captured. In this case, a new ship may be constructed.


  SPACESHIPS
  ~~~~~~~~~~
          The purpose of your spaceship is to carry as many colonists as
  possible to another star system. To have any chance of success it must
  provide at least a minimum of the following: living space for colonists,
  food sources, energy sources, propulsion power, and fuel for the
  engines. The better prepared the spaceship, the higher the number of
  colonists that arrive safely and the faster the voyage

          Your goal is to build a spaceship that can hold as many
  colonists as possible, yet travel at a reasonable speed and with
  reasonable probability of success. As construction of your ship
  proceeds, keep an eye on its characteristics, displayed to the right of
  the spaceship window. All spaceships have the same characteristics:
  population, food, energy, mass, fuel, flight time, and probability of
  success.

          Once you have built a spaceship that meets the minimum
  requirements for carrying colonists, you may launch or proceed with
  further construction to increase the capacity of the ship.

      POPULATION: The number of people the spaceship is outfitted to
      carry. The more people it carries to the new planet, the higher
      your bonus.

      SUPPORT: The percentage of the people that the ship is prepared
      to carry that can currently be supported. People that are not
      provided with life support cannot be expected to survive the
      voyage.

      ENERGY: The % of the energy required by the habitation and life
      support modules that is currently being provided. If sufficient
      energy is not provided for life support and habitation, the
      probability of success will be very low.

      MASS: All of the components, modules, and structures add to the
      mass of your spaceship. The greater the mass, the more power
      required from propulsion parts to move it.

      FUEL: The % of the fuel your propulsion units require that is
      currently aboard. If insufficient fuel is provided, the
      propulsion components aboard cannot work to their maximum power
      and the best possible speed cannot be attained.

      FLIGHT TIME: A calculation of the number of years required for
      your spaceship to reach the nearest star based on the ship's
      mass and engine power. Adding more engines and fuel reduces
      flight time.

      PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS: The approximate % of the people that can
      be carried that are expected to survive the voyage based on the
      amount of food and energy provided, plus the flight time. The
      faster the flight, the higher the expected survival rate.

      SPACE SHIP LAUNCHING: To send your spaceship on its voyage,
      press the Launch key (L Key) or the launch button, found at the
      bottom right of the spaceship display.


  CONSTRUCTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Your spaceship is constructed of parts. Each part is built like
  any other improvement, except that when a part is completed, it is
  automatically added to your ship. The parts of the spaceship come in
  three types: components, modules, and structures. Each type is available
  for construction when you have achieved a specific technology advance.

          All modules and components must be connected to a sufficient
  structure. If a module or component is not connected, it is marked to
  signal the part is not working. Once sufficient structural parts have
  been added, the outline disappears.

          To build spaceship components you must have achieved the
  technology advance of Plastics. You can then build components at a cost
  of 160 resources. There are two kinds of components, propulsion and
  fuel. When a component has been completed, you choose which type has
  been built.

          PROPULSION COMPONENTS: These are the engines that provide the
          power for space flight. The more engines you add, the faster the
          ship travels, the sooner it reaches its destination, and the
          higher the probability of success of the mission.

          FUEL COMPONENTS: These provide fuel for the propulsion units. In
          order for the propulsion units to perform to their maximum, one
          fuel component must be provided for each propulsion component.


  MODULES
  ~~~~~~~
          Spaceship modules require the technology of Robotics and cost
  resources each to build. They exist in three types: habitation, life
  support, and solar panels. When a module is completed, you choose which
  type to add to your ship.

          HABITATION MODULE: Each habitation module provides living space,
          community services, the recreational facilities for ten thousand
          colonists.

          LIFE SUPPORT MODULE: Each life support module provides the food
          and other requirements for the ten thousands colonists carried
          in one habitation module. People carried in a habitation module
          that doesn't receive life support have a very low probability of
          surviving.

          SOLAR PANEL MODULE: Each solar panel module provides enough
          energy to power two of the other types of modules. Modules that
          don't receive power cannot function properly.


  STRUCTURES
  ~~~~~~~~~~
          Spaceship structure require the technology of Space Flight and
  cost 80 resources each to build. You must build sufficient structure
  parts to connect the components and modules together. Parts that are not
  connected do not work and provide no benefit to the ship.


                                CITIES
                                ~~~~~~
          The economic and industrial centers of your civilizations are it
  cities. They are the residence of the population, the source of tax
  dollars, the home of your scientists, and the sites of your industrial
  production. Each city organizes the development of the area surrounding
  it, converting the nearby agricultural land, natural resources, and
  potential trade into food, industrial production, technology, and cash.

          One measure of the success of you civilization is the number of
  cities it encompasses and the size of each. Larger cities collect more
  taxes, conduct more technology research, and risk being overrun by
  larger and more powerful neighbors. Falling too far behind in the arms
  race, both in quality and quantity, may result in an early exit from
  history.

          The management of your civilization involves the founding of
  cities, their management, and their protection. New cities can be built
  from scratch or captured from rivals. Managing a city requires
  maintaining a balance of food, industry, taxes, luxuries, and
  improvements that keeps the citizens content and productive.

          Rival civilizations are a constant threat to the security of
  your cities. After taking steps to protect them, consider conquering
  cities of your rivals. This reduces the threat they pose and is often an
  inexpensive way to expand.


  NEW CITIES
  ~~~~~~~~~~
          New cities can be acquired in three ways. They can be started
  from scratch, a minor tribe discovered by your armies may elect to join
  you as a new city, or your armies can conquer the cities of your
  neighbors.

          FOUNDING NEW CITIES: When a Settler unit is on a map square
          where you wish to build a new city press B. After establishing
          the city name your Settler unit will now become a member of
          cities population.

          MINOR TRIBES: Occasionally a minor tribe may be awed by your
          emissaries to immediately become part of your civilization. In
          this case the minor tribe forms a new city.

          CAPTURING CITIES: Cities of other civilizations are normally
          defended. If the defenders can be defeated you will earn the
          city. Capturing a city may result in the discovery of a new
          technology advance and plundered cash. Occupying an enemy city
          may destroy some improvements the city has built, and it
          eliminates one point of population. Therefore, a city that has
          only one point of population remaining is destroyed instead of
          captured.


  PLACING NEW CITIES
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          When building a new city, plan carefully where it is placed. The
  map square in which it is built and the squares surrounding it determine
  how valuable the city can become. Factors to be considered include the
  economic value of the square the city is placed in, the economic
  potential with the city's radius, the proximity of other cities, and the
  strategic value of the location. Ideally, locate cities it areas offer a
  combination of food for population growth, resources for production, and
  trade. Where possible, take advantage of the presence of special
  resource squares.

          THE CITY SQUARE: The terrain the city occupies is especially
          important because it is always under development. You cannot
          take workers off this square when adjusting development on the
          city map. If this area is not useful, especially for producing
          food, then population growth is a new city is handicapped. For
          this reason, new cities are generally best built in Plains,
          Grasslands, or Rivers. These provide the best food production
          and, this, faster population growth.

          THE CITY RADIUS: The potential area of development extends out
          two city squares on the map in every direction except
          diagonally. If the new city grows large enough, its population
          can bring all of this area into development. When planning a new
          city, consider this radius and the long-term benefits of any
          potential site. To grow, the city must encompass sufficient
          food-growing areas. Any city that can grow has value, but your
          most important cities are those that also have resources
          available. These cities can quickly build and support military
          units and Wonders. Hills and Forests are important sources of
          resources, as are squares containing special resources symbols
          for game, horses, coal, and oil. The importance of trade in
          generating taxes and technology makes River squares especially
          goof sites for cities when just beginning. Without Rivers, you
          must quickly build roads in Plains or Grasslands to generate
          trade.

          LANDSCAPING: When surveying sites for a new city, keep in mind
          the potential for some squares to be improved. Hills and
          Mountains can be mined and then produce increased resources.
          Plains, Rivers, and Grasslands can be irrigated and then produce
          more food. Swamps and Jungles can be cleared into Grasslands or
          converted to Forests. Forests may be cleared into Plains. Plains
          and Grasslands may be turned into Forests if you need resources.
          An area of Jungles and Swamps looks barren at first, but has the
          potential to be a very rich city site. Plains, Grasslands, and
          Deserts produce trade once penetrated by Roads, and all land
          squares improve in production when Railroads come through.

          PROXIMITY OF CITIES: Another consideration when planning new
          cities is the current or potential location of other cities.
          Minimize the economic radius overlap restricts the potential
          growth of one or both cities. When just beginning, explore
          nearby lands as soon as possible to begin planning the placement
          of future cities to best take advantage of the terrain. A few
          large and powerful cities are more useful than several smaller,
          weaker ones.

          STRATEGIC VALUE: The strategic value of a city's site is a
          final consideration. Because the underlying terrain can increase
          the defender's strength when under attack, in some circumstances
          the defensive value of the terrain may be more important than
          economic value. But good defensive terrain is generally poor for
          production and inhibits the early growth of a city.
          However, defending a city is generally is easier than defending
          normal terrain. In a city you can build the City Walls
          improvement which triples the strength of defenders. Also, in
          cities only one army at a time is destroyed in combat. Outside
          of cities, all armies stacked together are destroyed when any
          army in the stack is defeated. So, in certain cases where a
          continent bottlenecks and a rival is on the other side, the
          defensive value of a city site may be more critical than
          economic value. Placing at least a few cities on the seacoast
          gives you access to the ocean. This allows the launching of ship
          units to explore the world and transport your units overseas.
          With few coastal cities, your sea power is constrained.


  CITY MANAGEMENT
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          STABILITY: Cities that don't maintain a favorable balance of
          happy people over unhappy people people go into civil disorder.
          Cities in civil disorder produce no tax revenue, no technology
          research, and no food surpluses, and suspend production. A
          nuclear reactor in a city suffering civil disorder may
          experience a meltdown due to lax safety controls. Keeping a city
          stable is a very high priority!

          POPULATION GROWTH: Keeping the population growing is important
          because each additional person contributes something to your
          civilization. Each new worker brings a new map square under
          production. Population growth increases economic power, and
          thus, the strength of your civilization. The size of your
          population is a major factor in determining your civilization
          score, a measure of how well you have ruled.

          RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: The people of your city that work in the
          surrounding countryside harness the economic resources of the
          area. Those resources are converted by the city into more
          people, industrial production, money, and technology research.
          When managing a city, you must allocate the people so as to
          maximize this development, or match it up to your needs. There
          may be times when increased industrial output is preferred over
          population growth. There may be times when increased trade is
          needed. You can give orders to your advisors to shift a city's
          work force around to change the mix of economic development as
          desired.

          TAX REVENUE: Most of the improvements that can be built within
          cities require money for maintenance. Money is also useful for
          speeding industrial production, bribing enemy armies, inciting
          revolts in enemy cites, and for negotiating peace with your
          neighbors. The combined tax revenues of your cities must exceed
          their maintenance requirements before cash can accumulate for
          other uses. Although it is not necessary for each city to
          produce surplus revenue, enough cities must do so to cover
          expenses. Some cities may not be especially suited for industrial
          production, but some may still be good trading centers. Manage
          these cities to produce extra revenue.

          TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: The greater the contribution of research
          each city makes toward new technology, the faster the new
          civilization advance is reached. The amount of research is
          devoted to bringing in new ideas and otherwise discovering
          technology advances. A city's research contribution can also be
          influenced by adjusting trade, creating Scientists, and certain
          improvements. Improvements that can help are the Library and
          University, which improve research, and several Wonders.

          INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION: Each city has more or less capacity to
          produce new units and improvements. The most valuable cities
          have the greatest industrial capacity. They can quickly produce
          expensive military units that extend power of you civilization.
          They are also best at producing the Wonders of the World. You
          must regularly monitor the production of you cities to insure
          that the most needed items are being built. There are four main
          tools available to reach and maintain these goals of city
          management: shifting workers around, converting some workers to
          SPECIALISTS, building improvements, and building Wonders of the
          World. Workers can be shifted around the city map display to
          adjust economic developments. Specialists can be created to
          increase production of luxuries, taxes, or technology. Within
          each city you can order the construction of improvements such as
          a Temple to make some unhappy people content, a Granary to speed
          population growth, or a Library to increase research. The most
          costly tools available are the Wonders of the World. These are
          magnificent improvements that bring lasting glory to your
          civilization in addition to some special effect. Although
          Wonders are built in a city like an improvement, their special
          effect often extends through all or part of your civilization.
          However, only one of each Wonder may be built in the entire
          world and your rivals may construct them first.


  CITY PROTECTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Great economic management of a city is worthless if the city is
  captured by rivals or barbarians. Part of the management plan must
  concern the defense of the city. A large part of the defense is not
  handled locally, but on your borders and coasts. A defensive line of
  units, both at sea and on land, that can intercept enemies before
  they close with your cities can be helpful. Even the best defensive
  lines can be penetrated, so the defense of the city itself cannot be
  neglected. The minimum city defense is one army, preferably one with a
  good defense factor. Fortify any armies that you expect to defend a city
  because Fortified units increase their defense strength. A second
  defender is often a good idea. Adding an army with a strong attack
  factor is also useful. This army can attack enemies that move adjacent
  to the city, perhaps destroying them before they test the defenders. The
  defense of the city can be substantially improved by building City
  Walls, an improvement that triples the defender's strength versus most
  attackers, but not Bombers or Artillery. This tripling takes effect
  after the effects of veteran status is considered. Being fortified
  behind City Walls has no effect unless the attacking unit is a Bomber or
  Artillery unit. City Walls also prevent population loss when defending
  units are destroyed. When civilization advances make available new army
  types with better defense factors, take the first opportunity to replace
  old defenders with better units. Since the offensive capability of your
  enemies improves as they acquire new technology, your defenses must
  improve to keep up. Linking cities with Roads and Railroads can be very
  helpful in speeding the movement of units from one end of your empire to
  trouble spots elsewhere. This puts your defensive armies on "interior
  lines," allowing them to rapidly move to where they are needed.


  CITY DISORDER
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          A city suffers civil disorder when unhappy people outnumber
  happy people, content people being ignored in the calculation. Cities in
  disorder provide no tax revenue, contribute no technology research, and
  suspend production of new units or improvements. When order is restored,
  the city returns to normal operation next turn. You can restore order in
  several ways. To restore order you may pay to complete an improvement,
  such as a Temple, that can covert sufficient unhappy people to
  contentment to restore balance. You may also change the luxury and tax
  rates of you civilization to attempt to restore order. Increasing luxury
  convert some content people to happy. You may take one or more people
  out of the work force, making them Specialists. This increases the
  number if happy people. When creating Specialists, be careful not to
  also cause shortages of food or resources that cause starvation of
  population or scrapping of armies. Under the government types Despotism,
  Monarchy, or Communism, it is possible to restore order to a city using
  martial law. Each military unit in a city makes one unhappy citizen
  content. Only those units possessing an attack factor of one or more can
  impose martial law. By moving enough units into a city suffering
  disorder, order may be restored. Under Republican or Democratic
  government, each military unit not in its home city creates one or more
  unhappy citizen. When a city is in disorder, destroying distant military
  units, returning them to the home city, or changing their home city,
  makes some unhappy people content and may restore the city to order. All
  of these methods are useful in restoring the balance of your cities or
  enemy cities that you have just captured.


  WE LOVE THE (KING) DAY
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          When a city becomes sufficiently happy, it may hold a
  celebration in honor of your rule. The people declare a "We Love the
  King Day" in thanks for the prosperity you have made possible. While the
  circumstances that trigger this celebratory mood continue, the city
  enjoys certain benefits, depending on your civilization's type of
  government. In order for the "We Love the King Day" celebration to
  occur, there must be no unhappy people in the city, at least as many
  happy people as content people, and the city must have population of at
  least three. Specialists are considered content citizens for this
  calculation.

          ANARCHY: The celebration has no effect when the government is in
          anarchy.

          DESPOTISM: The celebrating city is operated as if the government
          is a Monarchy. This can increase the amount of food and
          resources generated when some terrains are irrigated and mined.

          MONARCHY/COMMUNISM: A celebrating city currently ruled by either
          of these governments is operated as if the government is a
          Democracy instead. This increases the amount of trade generated.

          REPUBLIC/DEMOCRACY: A celebrating city currently ruled by either
          of these governments increases in population by one point each
          turn so long as sufficient food is available. This can result in
          dramatic growth of the city.


  CITY RESOURCES WINDOW
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          FOOD: A population unit in your city requires two units of food
          each turn. If you city is currently producing more food than
          that, the surplus is shown after a break in the food line. The
          excess goes into the food storage box shown elsewhere on the
          city display.

          RESOURCES: The shield symbol indicates the resources of raw
          materials and industrial capacity of the city. Surplus capacity
          is shown to the right of a break in the industry line and is
          available to be used to build new units or city improvements.
          Diplomats and Caravans don't require maintenance.

          TRADE: Trade is produced by Roads through Plains and Grasslands,
          by Rivers, by Oceans/Lakes, by squares containing Gold Mines or
          Gems, and by Caravans trade routes.

          LUXURIES: These are shown as diamonds. For every two diamonds of
          luxuries produced, one content citizen becomes happy. The amount
          of luxuries may be increased quickly by creating Entertainers.

          TAX REVENUES: These are shown as gold coins and are used to pay
          maintenance costs for city improvements.

          SCIENCE: The knowledge that results from science research is
          shown as light bulbs.

          CORRUPTION: Depending on your type of government and the city's
          distance from your palace, some trade may be lost as corruption.


  SPECIALISTS
  ~~~~~~~~~~~
          ENTERTAINERS: People removed from the work force immediately
          become Entertainers. Each Entertainer is the equivalent of two
          additional trade symbols added to that part of the city's trade
          brought in as luxuries. Creating Entertainers has the result of
          creating more luxuries and making more people happy.

          TAXMEN: You can change an Entertainer to a Taxman. Click on the
          Entertainer to convert him. Taxmen increase tax revenue.

          SCIENTISTS: You can change a Taxman into a Scientist. Click on
          the Taxman to convert him. The Scientist is a researcher who
          increases the amount of knowledge your city is producing.


  PRODUCTION BOX
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          CHANGE PRODUCTION: Use the change button to open the menu of
          items that you can produce. (All of you have probably figured
          this out!)

          RUSH JOBS: If you have the cash buy the item instead of waiting
          for it! The cost is $2 per missing resource shield. You may want
          to consult your City Status advisor for remaining resource cost
          on big purchases.

          SABOTAGE: Enemy diplomats may slip into your cities and destroy
          items partially completed. All resources currently invested in
          an item are destroyed and production starts over. Your only
          protection from this is to destroy enemy diplomats before they
          can enter.

          DISASTER: Pirate raids also destroy the partially completed
          item in the production box. The only defense against them is
          building the Barracks improvement.


  IMPROVEMENTS ROSTER
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          This part of the city display is in the upper right hand corner.
  The only thing you need to know here is that the buttons to the right of
  the improvements are their sell buttons. If you want to sell an
  improvement click on the corresponding button.


  INFORMATION WINDOW
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Within this window various types of information can be reviewed
  or accessed. Here you can quickly see what military units are defending
  the city, what trade routes the city has established, whether the city
  is causing pollution, a small version of the world map, or a bird's-eye
  view of the city.

          Across the top of the window are several buttons: Info, Happy,
  View, Map. Using these buttons you can call up the information you wish
  to see.

          MAP: Pressing this button calls up a small version of the world
          map. The city you are in is marked for reference. Also marked on
          the map are the location of any cities which you have
          established trade routes and the location of units that make
          this their home city. The map may be useful for planning
          additional trade routes, assessing the danger of enemies,
          locating units you wish to disband, or deciding a sailing
          direction for newly launched ships.

          VIEW: This button opens the bird's-eye view of the city that is
          seen when a new improvement or Wonder is built. As time passes,
          note that the architecture of the various dwellings improves.

          INFO: This button calls up the most useful info. When you first
          open any city display, this button is automatically on. Just
          below the row of buttons are shown the icons for all units
          currently in the city. Fortified units have a border around them
          and units on sentry duty are shown as faded icons. Fortified
          units or those on sentry duty may only be activated from this
          window. When you return to the map display, these units can now
          be given orders. At the bottom of the window is a list of any
          trade routes the city has established. Each trade route is noted
          by the name of the city with which you are trading and the
          amount of trade generated. This trade is automatically included
          in the trade your city is generating, shown in the city
          resources window of the display. As your civilization moves into
          the Industrial Age, pollution may become a problem. In the
          middle of this window, pollution indicators appear when the
          city's industry get sufficiently large. The indicators are
          smokestack icons. The presence of several smokestacks is a cue
          that you need to reduce pollution or be prepared to clean it up.
          The alternative is eventual environmental disaster. There can be
          up to one hundred smokestacks present indicating a 100%
          probability of pollution each turn.

          HAPPY: This button opens the Population Happiness Chart, which
          shows what factors are affecting the happiness of the city's
          population. All people in a city beyond a certain number are
          unhappy before any modifying influences are taken into account.
          At the Emperor level of difficulty, only the first two PEOPLE
          are content; at King level, the first three; and so on down to
          Chieftain level, where the first six people are content. When
          the city's population increases beyond these minimums, the new
          people are unhappy unless their condition is improved by a
          culture and a standard of living that provides luxuries,
          religion, and entertainment; they are coerced into contentment
          by martial law; or the presence of Wonders of the World lifts
          their pride and spirits. The top row of the chart shows the
          happiness of the population before taking into account any of
          the factors that improve happiness. The second row shows the
          effects of the luxuries that are provided to the city, if any.
          Two units of luxuries make on content person happy or one
          unhappy person content. A contented person is made happy before
          another unhappy person is made content. The third row shows the
          effects of Temples, Cathedrals, and Colosseums. These
          improvements have the effect of making unhappy people content.
          The fourth row shows the effects or martial law and military
          service. Under all governments except the Republic and
          Democracy, each military unit in a city coerces one unhappy
          person into contentment. Any units imposing martial law are
          shown is this row. Under the Republic or Democracy, martial law
          does not work. Instead, each military not in its home city make
          one person unhappy. This is shown by "SAD FACE" symbols in this
          row and under the units in the home city roster. The fifth row
          shows the effects of any Wonders of the World, either in this
          city or elsewhere, that are influencing the population's
          happiness. Specialists are content people, and are taken from
          the ranks of the content or happy population when created. The
          effect of the increased luxuries created by Entertainers is
          shown in row two. The bottom row of the chart shows the
          cumulative effect of all factors on the happiness of the
          population roster at the top of the display. Examining this
          chart is useful for understanding what is affecting the
          happiness of the city and perhaps indicating what else could be
          done if the city is out of balance. You may see where creating
          Entertainers, disbanding out of town units, bringing in more
          units, or building a new improvement can bring the city back
          into order.


                                CITY IMPROVEMENTS
                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          When beginning a new civilization, you normally may only build
  one type of improvement, the Barracks. As your civilization acquires new
  technologies, more improvements become possible. Each city may only
  build one of each improvement. The improvements that your city possesses
  are listed in the improvements roster on the city display. Once built,
  improvements may be destroyed by sabotage, disaster, and capture, and may
  even be sold for cash.

          SABOTAGE: Diplomats may enter a city and attempt industrial
          sabotage. This may result in the destruction of an existing
          improvement. The only defense against this type of attack is
          destroying the Diplomat before it can enter a city.

          DISASTER: Volcanos, Pirate Raids, Floods, Fires, and Earthquakes
          may destroy improvements in a city. There is no defense against
          Earthquakes, but Aqueducts prevent Fires, Temples prevent
          Volcanos, City Walls prevent Floods, and Barracks prevent Pirate
          Raids.

          CAPTURE: Some, all, or none of a city's improvements may be
          destroyed when it is captured by another civilization.

          SELLING IMPROVEMENTS: You may sell an existing improvement to
          raise cash by pressing the sell button next to its name in the
          improvements roster of the city display.

          AQUEDUCT: Cities without an Aqueduct may not grow beyond a size
          of 10 population points. In addition, Aqueducts prevent the
          disasters of Fire and Plague. Aqueducts require the advance of
          Construction, cost 120 resources to build, and cost $2 per turn
          to maintain.

          BANK: Banks increase the luxuries and taxes generated by a city
          by 50%. Banks cost 120 resources to build and $3 per turn to
          maintain.

          BARRACKS: New units built in this city are already veterans,
          increasing their attack and defense factors by 50%. Barracks
          prevent the disaster of pirates. They disappear when you acquire
          the advances of Gunpowder and Combustion. SECOND generation
          Barracks cost $1 per turn and third generation Barracks cost $2
          to maintain per turn.

          CATHEDRAL: A Cathedral makes four unhappy people content and is
          very useful for keeping a large city out of civil disorder. It
          costs 160 resources to build, and takes $3 to maintain per turn.

          CITY WALLS: City walls triple the strength of a defending unit,
          except when attacked by a Bomber or Artillery unit. This
          tripling occurs after considering the effect of terrain and
          veteran status. Cities defended by City Walls do not suffer
          population losses when a defending unit it destroyed. Walls also
          prevent the disaster of Flood. They cost 120 resources and
          requires $2 per turn to maintain.

          COLOSSEUM: Its presence makes 3 unhappy people content. It costs
          100 resources to build, and requires $4 per turn to maintain.

          COURTHOUSE: This improvement reduces corruption in a city by
          50%. It costs 80 resources and needs $1 per turn to maintain.

          FACTORY: A Factory increases the amount of resources generated
          by a city by 50%. They become obsolete and stop working if a
          Manufacturing Plant is built in the same city. It costs 200
          resources to build and requires $4 per turn to maintain. The
          effect of a Factory may be increased by the presence of a Hydro
          Plant, a Nuclear Plant, or a Power Plant. It may also be
          increased by the Hoover Dam, a modern Wonder of the World.

          GRANARY: Cities possessing a Granary use up only 50% of their
          stored food to create new population. The storage box only half
          empties. In addition, the Granary prevents a Famine disaster
          from destroying population. The Granary requires 60 resources to
          build and $1 per turn to maintain.

          HYDRO PLANT: The production bonus for a Factory or Manufacturing
          Plant is doubled of the city has a Hydro Plant. In addition, a
          Hydro Plant reduces the probability of pollution. A Hydro Plant
          may only be built by a city on or near a River, Hills, or
          Mountains. It costs 240 resources and requires $4 per turn to
          maintain.

          LIBRARY: A Library increases the knowledge production of a city
          by 50%. It costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1 per turn to
          maintain. The effect of all Libraries in your cities is
          increased if you possess Isaac Newton's College, a medieval
          Wonder of the World.

          MANUFACTURING PLANT: This improvement increases the resources
          generated by a city by 100%. It costs 320 resources to build,
          and costs $6 per turn to maintain. Its presence makes and
          already existing Factory obsolete and the Factory ceases to
          work. The effect of a Manufacturing Plant may be increased by
          the presence of the Hydro Plant, the Nuclear Plant, the Power
          Plant, or the Hoover Dam.

          MARKETPLACE: A marketplace increases tax revenue and luxuries by
          50%. The Marketplace costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1
          per turn to maintain.

          MASS TRANSIT: In cities with Mass Transit, the population has no
          effect on pollution. It costs 160 resources to build, and costs
          $2 per turn to maintain.

          NUCLEAR PLANT: Like other types of power plants, the Nuclear
          Plant increases the production of a Factory or Manufacturing
          Plant by another %50. A Nuclear Plant also reduces the
          day-to-day probability of pollution. However, a Nuclear Plant in
          a city suffering civil disorder risks a nuclear meltdown. The
          Nuclear Plant costs 160 resources to build, and costs $2 per
          turn to maintain.

          PALACE: This is the administrative and governmental center of
          your civilization. The farther any city is from the city
          containing the Palace, the more corruption is likely. You may
          build a new Palace in another city, but this causes the
          retirement of the first Palace and relocation of the government.
          If your Palace is destroyed, a new one may be built in any
          existing city. The Palace requires 200 resources to build and
          costs nothing to maintain.

          POWER PLANT: The source of industrial power increases the
          resources generated by Factories and Manufacturing Plants by an
          additional 50%. However, it increases the probability of
          pollution significantly. The Power Plant costs 160 resources,
          and needs $4 per turn to maintain.

          RECYCLING CENTER: The recycling center reduces the probability
          of pollution by 2/3. It costs 200 resources to build and costs
          $2 to maintain.

          SDI DEFENSE: The SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Defense
          protects the city from Nuclear units. Attacks by these weapons
          have no effect. This improvement costs 200 resources and needs
          $4 to maintain per turn.

          TEMPLE: The Temple's presence makes one unhappy citizens
          content. With the additional advance of Mysticism, another
          person is made content by a Temple, for a total of two. A Temple
          presents the Volcano disaster. Temples cost 40 resources to
          build and need $1 to maintain per turn. The effect of a Temple
          may be doubled if your civilization possesses the Oracle, an
          ancient Wonder of the World.

          UNIVERSITY: The presence of a University increases the knowledge
          generated by a city by 50%. A University bonus is added to the
          bonus from an existing Library. Together they double the
          knowledge generated. Universities cost 160 resources to build
          and $3 to maintain. The effect of all Universities in your
          cities is increased if you possess Isaac Newton's College, a
          medieval Wonder of the World.


                           WONDERS OF THE WORLD
                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          As your civilization progresses through the years, certain
  advances make possible the building of Wonders of the World. There are
  21 Wonders, 7 each for the three great epochs of civilization.
  Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Industrial Age. These Wonders are
  the extraordinary monuments of a civilization, bringing everlasting
  glory and other benefits to their owners.

          A Wonder is a dramatic, awe-inspiring accomplishment. It is
  typically a great achievement of engineering, science, or the arts,
  representing a milepost in the history of humankind. Each Wonder is
  unique, existing only in the city where it is constructed.

          In addition to the glory attached to owning a Wonder, each one
  has a specific, unique benefit. The people of your civilization are able
  to perform amazing feats, inspired by their pride in the possession of
  Wonders.

          The benefits of some Wonders apply only to the civilization that
  possesses them. If a Wonder you build is lost when one of your cities is
  captured, the powers of the Wonder then apply to the conquering
  civilization. The same holds true if you capture a Wonder.

          However, the benefits of the ancient Wonders and most of the
  Wonders of the Middle Ages may not stand for all time. Objects and
  accomplishments that awed the ancients may not similarly inspire the
  people of the Industrial Age. The achievement of later advances may end
  the benefits of older Wonders, regardless of whether your civilization
  or another makes the cancelling advance.


  CONSTRUCTION
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~
          Each Wonder may be built once your civilization achieves a
  specific technology. For example, when your civilization acquires Map
  Making, you may begin construction of the Lighthouse.

          You may only build a Wonder is it does not already exist
  somewhere else in the world. If it exists in another city, it does not
  appear as an option in your production menus. If you are building a
  Wonder in one of your cities and the same Wonder is completed elsewhere
  before you finish, you cannot complete your construction. You must
  convert your construction to something else.

          Wonders are not destroyed when an enemy occupies their city.
  However, if a city possessing a Wonder is destroyed, than that Wonder is
  lost forever and cannot be rebuilt.

          Wonders are built in the same manner as any other city
  improvement with one exception. You may move a Caravan into the city of
  construction and accept the option "help build Wonder." All of the
  resources that went into the Caravan are added to the construction of
  the Wonder.

          Wonders may be built in any city and more than one may be built
  in the same city.


  EFFECTS
  ~~~~~~~
          Each Wonder has a specific and general benefits. General
  benefits are the glory that accrues to your civilization for possessing
  the Wonder, even after new technology makes it obsolete. Each Wonder
  that your civilization possesses adds to your civilization score. The
  presence of Wonders are significant when the top 5 cities in the world
  are measured. The presence of Wonders also influences the historians,
  such as Gibbon, who periodically rate the world's civilizations.
  Finally, Wonders also influence the decision of the people to improve
  your palace.


  ANTIQUITY
  ~~~~~~~~~
          COLOSSUS: The Colossus is a great bronze statue bestriding the
          gates or harbor mouth of the city. This amazing statue draws
          tourists from around the world, greatly increasing the trade of
          the area. Trade is +1 in every city map square that is already
          generating some trade. The effect on tourism stops working after
          development of Electricity and the trade benefit is thereafter
          lost. The Colossus requires the advance of Bronze Working and
          takes 200 resources to build.

          GREAT LIBRARY: Begun as a hobby by a local ruler, the Great
          Library is an obsession for the city. Its agents scour the world
          for books and manuscripts, making the Great Library the largest
          known repository in existence. The Great Library gives you any
          technology that two other civilizations have acquired. However,
          it stops working after development of the University. It
          requires the advance of Literacy and takes 300 resources to
          build.

          GREAT WALL: The Great Wall was built not so much to keep
          invaders out, but to retard their escape with any loot. The
          effect is to deter the aggressiveness of neighbors. When you
          possess the Great Wall, other civilizations always offer peace
          during negotiations. However, the effect of the Great Wall
          ceases after development of Gunpowder. It requires the Masonry
          advance and takes 300 resources to build.

          HANGING GARDENS: The magnificent Hanging Gardens are a great
          marriage of engineering and beauty. Architecturally brilliant
          layered tiers of gardens and ingeniously supplied with water.
          Any visitor is overwhelmed by the grace of this man-made garden
          of paradise. Possessing this beautiful monument brings great
          pleasure to the people of your civilization and results in a +1
          happy citizen in each of your cities. This magical effect of the
          Hanging Gardens expires with the development of Invention
          because, thereafter, the gadgetry of the garden design becomes
          cheaply available to everyone. Knowledge of the Hanging Gardens
          is acquired with the advance of Pottery, and the Wonder takes
          300 resources to build.

          LIGHTHOUSE: The construction of this immense Lighthouse not only
          creates the greatest navigational aid of antiquity, but triggers
          a birth of seafaring skills and traditions. The result is great
          achievements by your ships and captains. Possession of the
          Lighthouse increases sea movement rates by 1 SQUARE for all of
          your ships. However, the effect of the Lighthouse ceases working
          after development of Magnetism, a new navigational aid that puts
          competent sailing within the grasp of anyone. The Lighthouse
          requires the advance of Map Making and it takes 200 resources to
          build.

          ORACLE: Building the Oracle gives the beliefs of your
          civilization a unifying central dogma that increases the effect
          on its people. The auguries of the Oracle are transmitted
          through the local Temples, exerting significant control over
          their lives. The Oracle becomes available with the advance of
          Mysticism and doubles the effect of your Temples in making
          unhappy people content. It stops working after the development
          of Religion, which appeals to more widely to the growing
          literate, intelligent citizenry. The Oracle takes 300 resources
          to build.

          PYRAMIDS: The Pyramids are the greatest and oldest of the
          ancient Wonders. Their construction requires great government
          control of the entire nation to make possible the effort of
          their construction. A civilization that possesses the Pyramids
          may change government type without going through a period of
          Anarchy. In addition, that civilization may select any type of
          new government, not just those for which it has made the correct
          advance. The Pyramids require the advancement of Masonry and
          take 300 resources to build. However, the effects of the
          Pyramids expire after the advance of Communism is achieved.


  THE MIDDLE AGES
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          COPERNICUS'S OBSERVATORY: Working alone on cold nights in the
          tower of his cathedral, this Polish priest re-established that
          the Sun was the center of the Solar System, not the Earth. This
          fact had been recognized by ancient astronomers but lost is the
          Dark Ages, buried under superstition and religious dogma.
          Copernicus's findings were controversial but proven true, and
          were an important step in the rebirth of Western science.
          Building Copernicus's Observatory doubles knowledge of
          production in the city, after all adjustments for Libraries,
          Universities, and Scientists. However, this benefit stops
          working after the development of the Automobile. The advance of
          Astronomy makes the Observatory possible. It costs 300 resources
          to build.

          DARWIN'S VOYAGE: Partially from the research accomplished on his
          scientific voyage aboard the Beagle to the Galapagos Islands,
          Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution that was
          published in his masterwork, The Origin of Species. Darwin's
          arguments, and those of his contemporary, Alfred Russell
          Wallace, were so convincing that they were only disputed on
          philosophical grounds, mainly by religious fundamentalists. The
          theory of organic evolution was the foundation of all following
          research in biology. The civilization that builds Darwin's Voyage
          immediately acquires two civilization advances. The advance of
          Railroads makes Darwin's Voyage possible. The Voyage costs 300
          resources.

          ISAAC NEWTON'S COLLEGE: Considered by many to be the greatest
          scientist of all time, Newton developed theories of universal
          gravitation that explained both the motion of heavenly bodies
          and the falling of bodies to Earth. He also wrote important
          works on calculus, optics, the spectrum of light, fluid
          mechanics, the motion of comets, and the motion tides, and built
          the first reflecting telescope. For 32 years he was a professor
          of mathematics at Cambridge University. Possessing Newton's
          College increases the knowledge benefit of all your Libraries and
          Universities. It may be built once you have acquired the Theory
          of Gravity, but stops working after development of Nuclear
          Fission. The College requires 400 resources to build.

          J.S. BACH'S CATHEDRAL: Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the
          great composers of the Western world. Born into a family of
          distinguished musicians, he was noted as a virtuoso performer
          during his life, but has become much more reversed since his
          passing for the genius of his music. The majority of his
          compositions were written while serving the church, and most
          pieces were written for the organ and dedicated to the glory of
          his God. Possessing Bach's Cathedral decreases unhappy citizens
          on the same continent by 2 per city. The Cathedral may be built
          following the advance of Religion and costs 400 resources. The
          power of Bach's music does not expire.

          MAGELLAN'S EXPEDITION: Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese
          navigator, led the first expedition that circumnavigated the
          globe. Sponsored by Charles I of Spain, he was searching for a
          westward route to the spice islands of the Moluccas. Along the
          way he discovered the straits at Cape Horn that bear his name.
          Unfortunately, he died in the Philippines fighting natives. Only
          one of his five original ships and few of his men reached home,
          but the expedition proved that the Earth was round. Possessing
          Magellan's Expedition increases sea movement rates by 1 square
          for all of your ships. The expedition becomes possible after the
          advance of Navigation and never expires. It costs 400 resources
          to build.

          MICHELANGELO'S CHAPEL: You may build the Chapel after achieving
          the advance of Religion. Possessing it increases the benefits of
          Cathedrals throughout your civilization until the advance of
          Communism diminishes the strength of Religion. The Chapel takes
          300 resources to build.

          SHAKESPEARE'S THEATRE: The Theatre may be built after achieving
          the advance of Medicine. Thereafter, all unhappy people in the
          city are content, until the advance of Electronics makes the
          Theatre obsolete. It costs 400 resources to build.


  INDUSTRIAL AGE
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
          APOLLO PROGRAM: The Apollo Program may be built after achieving
          the advance of Space Flight. It allows construction of space
          ships by any civilization having the technology to build parts.
          The Apollo Program costs 600 resources to build.

          CURE FOR CANCER: After the development of the advance of Genetic
          Engineering, you may work on the Cure for Cancer. Possessing the
          Cure creates a +1 happy citizen in all cities of your
          civilization. The Cure for Cancer costs 600 resources to build.

          HOOVER DAM: The Hoover Dam may be built after the advance of
          Electronics is acquired. The Dam provides electric power to all
          cities in the same continent, increasing the resources generated
          by the city by 50%. In addition, the Dam reduces the probability
          of pollution from these cities. The Hoover Dam costs 600
          resources to build.

          MANHATTAN PROJECT: Once any civilization completes the Manhattan
          Project, all civilizations in the world may begin building
          nuclear weapons, if they have the proper technology. The
          Manhattan Project itself may be built once the advance if
          Nuclear Fission has been achieved. The Project costs 600
          resources to build.

          SETI PROGRAM: The SETI Program may be built when your
          civilization acquires the advance of Computers. Thereafter, the
          knowledge generated by your cities increased by 50%, unless the
          Program is destroyed or captured by a rival. The SETI Program
          costs 600 resources to complete.

          WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE: Women's Suffrage becomes available after the
          advance of Mass Production. Under a Republic or Democracy, units
          away from their home city create one less unhappy citizen than
          normal for a civilization that possesses Women's Suffrage. It
          costs 600 resources to achieve.

          UNITED NATIONS: Building the United Nations is a great
          achievement by a civilization. It is only available after the
          advance of Communism. During negotiations with other
          civilizations, they always offer to make peace with you. This
          allows at least a temporary resolution to all wars you engaged
          in. The United Nations costs 600 resources to build.


                                  DISASTERS
                                  ~~~~~~~~~
          Each game turn there is a chance that a disaster of some sort
  may strike one of your cities. A disaster may result in loss of
  pop ulation, destruction of a city improvement, or disruption of
  production. Some disasters may be prevented if your civilization has
  acquired certain advances of if the city has built a certain improvement.
  In these cases, the disaster does not occur or has no effect.

          The possible disaster are described below. For each there is an
  explanation of why it occurs, the effect on your city when it strikes,
  and what measures can prevent it, if any.

          EARTHQUAKE: Earthquakes may strike any city that is built
          adjacent to Hills terrain. There is nothing that you can build
          or learn to prevent this disaster. An earthquake destroys one
          city improvement.

          FAMINE: Famine strikes randomly. It can be prevented by building
          a Granary improvement. If it strikes a city with no Granary, all
          food in the food storage box is lost and the city's population
          is reduced.

          FIRE: Fire can hit any city at any time. It can be prevented by
          building an Aqueduct improvement. Fire destroys one city
          improvement.

          FLOOD: Flood can strike any city built adjacent to an River
          square. It can be prevented by building a City Wall. Flood
          reduces city population.

          PIRACY (Yeah, our favorite topic): Pirate raids may strike any
          city built adjacent to an Ocean square. Pirates can be prevented
          by building a Barrack. Pirates remove all food from the food
          storage box and destroy whatever is being built in the
          production box. All resources spent so far in production are
          lost.

          PLAGUE: Plague may strike any city at any time. It can be
          prevented by acquiring the advance of Medicine or by building
          and Aqueduct improvement. Plague reduces the city's population.

          VOLCANO: A volcano may erupt and damage any city built adjacent
          to or on Mountain terrain. The effect is a volcano may be
          negated by building a Temple improvement in the city. Volcanic
          eruptions reduce the city's population unless negated.
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