COPY PROTECTION ANSWERS Advanced Flight (Flight & Electricity) Astronomy (Mysticism & Mathematics) Atomic Theory (Theory of Gravity & Physics) Automobile (Combustion & Steel) Banking (Trade & The Republic) Bridge Building (Construction & Iron Working) Chemistry (University & Medicine) Chivalry (Horseback Riding & Feudalism) Combustion (Refining & Explosives) Communism (Philosophy & Industrialization) Computers (Mathematics & Electronics) Conscription (The Republic & Explosives) Construction (Masonry & Currency) Democracy (Philosophy & Literacy) Electricity (Metallurgy & Magnetism) Electronics (Engineering & Electricity) Engineering (The Wheel & Construction) Explosives (Gunpowder & Chemistry) Feudalism (Masonry & Monarchy) Flight (Combustion & Physics) Fusion Power (Nuclear Power & Superconductor) Genetic Engineering (Medicine & The Corporation) Gunpowder (Invention & Iron Working) Industrialization (Railroad & Banking) Invention (Engineering & Literacy) Labor Union (Mass Production & Communism) Literacy (Writing & Code of Laws) Magnetism (Navigation & Physics) Mass Production (Automobile & The Corporation) Mathematics (Alphabet & Masonry) Medicine (Philosophy & Trade) Metallurgy (Gunpowder & University) Monarchy (Ceremonial Burial & Code of Laws) Navigation (Map Making & Astronomy) Nuclear Fission (Atomic Theory & Mass Production) Nuclear Power (Electronics & Nuclear Fission) Philosophy (Mysticism & Literacy) Physics (Mathematics & Navigation) Plastics (Refining & Space Flight) Railroad (Steam Engine & Bridge Building) Recycling (Mass Production & Democracy) Refining (Chemistry & The Corporation) Religion (Philosophy & Writing) Robotics (Plastics & Computers) Rocketry (Advanced Flight & Electronics) Space Flight (Computers & Rocketry) Steam Engine (Physics & Invention) Steel (Metallurgy & Industrialization) Superconductor (Plastics & Mass Production) The Corporation (Banking & Industrialization) The Republic (Code of Laws & Literacy) Theory of Gravity (Astronomy & University) Trade (Currency & Code of Laws) University (Mathematics & Philosophy) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Civilization - Manual - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Civilizations appeared as agriculture and technology developed to the point where humankind could gather and live in cities. With only part of the population needed to provide food for all, the rest could afford to specialize in the tool making, trading, engineering, and managing that urbanization made possible. Specialization improved efficiency and production. Cities also encouraged a rapid exchange of ideas. A teacher could reach many students at once, not just a few. City residents cultivated the nearby fields, logged the forests, and gathered fish from the rivers, returning each night with the result of their labors. This produce and raw material was bartered in the city markets for the goods and services of others. Charcoal from one area and iron ore from another might be taken to the town smelter who made the iron that the blacksmith turned into tools. But cities developed unique problems. As they grew in size it became more difficult to provide sufficient food from nearby farmland. Overcrowding, menial jobs, and living conditions often led to unrest among the poorer citizens. Prosperous cities became tempting targets for rival civilization and barbarians invaders. Cities and civilizations that developed better management and new solutions to these problems grew and prospered. Those that failed have left their ruins around the world as warnings. In CIVILIZATION, as in history, a key step and a fundamental concept is the founding and management of cities. The civilization that you are about to rule begins as a prehistoric wandering tribe that has just reached the critical point where it is capable of building cities. The first step is to build one city and from there expand. As your civilization grows, cities will spread over an entire continent, or part of a continent, or over several islands and continents. Each city acts as a giant processing plant for the food, resources, and trade of the adjacent lands. The people of a city go out and work the nearby farmland, mines, and forests, and the city converts the result of their labor into more people, armies, cash, luxury goods, temples, universities, etc. Raw materials are transformed by cities into the power and the ideas your civilization needs to prosper. FOOD that is collected feeds the local population. When there is a food surplus the population grows. Your first city has a small population that can only work part of the lands the city controls. As the city population grows, more lands can be worked, increasing production. Before long you can afford to send off settlers from the first city to build another nearby, and then another. RESOURCES are the lumber, metals, energy sources, and other raw materials that are used in industry. Through the craftsmen and shops of the city these resources are made into items useful at home or elsewhere in your civilization. Larger cities normally generate more resources and thus build things faster. Each city can build only one item at a time. This could be a military unit such as a Phalanx or Battleship, a city improvement such as a Temple or University, or perhaps a Wonder of the World. TRADE is generated by the highways of commerce: roads, rivers, oceans. All nearby trade passes through the city bringing in luxury goods, cash, and new ideas. Your policies can adjust how trade is divided among luxury goods, cash, or research. There may be times when a city requires more luxury goods to make more people happy, or times when more tax revenues are needed in the treasury. Higher taxes mean more revenue but may result in more people becoming unhappy. As your cities grow they may require more care in keeping them productive. Large cities are desirable for production, but have inherent problems. A critical one you must deal with is the happiness of the population. The people can range from happy, to content, to unhappy. Having too many unhappy people may lead to revolt. Luxury goods make people happy but mean fewer tax revenues or a reduced flow of technology. By adjusting the flow of luxuries, changing types of government, building city improvements, instituting martial law, and other means, it is possible to keep even the largest city content and productive. TECHNOLOGY is a second concept fundamental to CIVILIZATION. To make the transition from wandering hunter-gatherers to city dwellers, humankind had to possess some essential knowledge and skills. To advance beyond the first stages of city dwelling requires a corresponding advance in knowledge. At the start of CIVILIZATION, with your tribe poised on the threshold of history, they already possess some basic knowledge. The people understand agriculture, irrigation, construction of roads, and the construction of homes and other buildings. But this isn't enough knowledge to survive through the coming ages. Learning new technologies opens the door to new abilities. A small island-bound civilization that learns Map Making can now build ships and expand overseas. The time it takes to acquire new technology depends on how much your trade is allotted to new ideas. You must choose between luxuries that make the people happy, cash for the treasury, and technology research. The more trade allocated to this research, the faster the next step is acquired. When enough research has been done, your civilization acquires the new technology and can begin working on something new. The world where your civilization exists is mostly unknown to you, a mystery except in the immediate vicinity. To find out more about it you must explore. Not only is the world hidden, but also unknown are the locations of other civilizations. Other civilizations, especially those nearby, complicate your task as ruler. Each is ruled by one of your peers, and they are competing for the same resources and opportunities as you. They also are looking to expand and grow; at your expense if given the chance. Once contact is made, you can no longer concentrate solely on the growth and expansion of your civilization. Now you must assess the strength of rivals, adequately provide for the defense of your cities in case of war, or consider making war yourself. Successful wars can be very useful. Capturing cities is much easier than building them up from nothing, and may provide loot in stolen technology and cash. Weakening rivals reduces the threat they pose. However, long, costly wars may allow unengaged rivals to expand and grow in strength while you spend resources on arms. To explore the unknown and contend with your rivals for the world, you can build armies, navies, and other special units in your cities. Once an army or naval unit has been built, it is available for movement and combat. These units extend the power of your civilization around the world. When they enter hidden areas of the world, the shroud of mystery is removed and that area becomes known. In this way you uncover the world, finding suitable areas for new cities and eventually making contact with other civilizations. Three special units are available that can be useful to you as a ruler. SETTLERS are groups of your citizens that are your pioneers. They may found new cities and also build terrain improvements such as roads, irrigation, and mines that increase the productivity of your cities. DIPLOMATS are your emissaries and spies. They can establish embassies with rivals and also perform a number of cloak and dagger tasks. CARAVANS are bands of merchants that transport the produce of you cities around the world to other cities, bringing in cash and establishing trade routes. Trade routes increase the trade of the home city, resulting in more cash, luxuries, and technology. Wonders of the World are unique city improvements, usually structures, that can only be built once in the entire world. Once a particular Wonder is built by a city, no other city can build one. Each Wonder brings glory to the civilization owning it, and some unique tangible benefit as well. For example, if one of your cities builds the Oracle, then all of the Temples throughout your civilization become twice as effective in making the people content. The fundamental concepts for a successful civilization are the expansion and growth of your cities, and acquiring new technology. In a word, you must grow. In this dynamic world environment, surrounded by rivals in unknown corners, there is no future in complacency and stagnation. You must press forward on all three fronts: spread your cities out to claim a significant share of the world, increase the size and production of each city, and strive to acquire the latest technology. Your civilization cannot afford to lag too far behind your rivals in any one of these three spheres. A sufficient number if powerful cities can maintain the quantity of your military in any arms race. Keeping abreast of technology assures the quality. Do what you can to keep your civilization growing in every area. More and larger cities, better technology, and better armies mean survival. Each city must be planned, managed, and protected so that is contributes to the power and glory of your civilization. DIFFICULTY LEVELS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CHIEFTAIN: This is the easiest level and is recommended for first time players. The program provides advice when the player must make decisions. WARLORD: Your rivals are somewhat tougher and technology takes longer to acquire. This is for the occasional player who doesn't want too difficult a test. PRINCE: Your rivals are substantially tougher and technology comes much slower. You will need some experience and skill to win at this level. KING: Your rivals are most evenly matched with you in capability. Experienced and skilled players will play most of their games at this level as it is a strong challenge with victory far from foregone. EMPEROR: This is the most difficult level and only for those who feel the need to be humbled. This level can be won, but not consistently. LEVEL OF COMPETITION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Choose between 3 and 7 civilizations in the world. More opponents is not necessarily more dangerous. The fewer your opponents, the more time you have to peaceably expand and develop before encountering rivals. More opponents means earlier contact and the risk of war. But contact with other civilizations offers the opportunities of trade, alliances, and the spoils of war. THE GAME TURN ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CIVILIZATION is played in a series of turns, each following a sequence of play options. As each turn proceeds through the sequence, you direct the activities of your civilization, including the management of your cities, the production of new units, the building of city improvements, the movements and battles of your armies, and negotiations with other civilizations. Each turn proceeds through the following sequence of play. DATE A new turn begins with the advancing of the date. ~~~~ Depending on the current year, the date advances from twenty years to one year. The current date is found in the date window of the map display. DISASTERS At the beginning of a new turn there is a possibility ~~~~~~~~~ of a natural disaster striking a city in the world. Any disaster that occurs is reported and take effect immediately. Disasters can result in a loss of population or the destruction of a city improvement. Most disasters can be prevented by a specific city improvement or technology. If the target city is prepared for the disaster, then the disaster does not occur. CITY CHECK Each city in your civilization is check individually ~~~~~~~~~~ for production, growth, unrest, maintenance, and scientific research. All steps are carried out for one city before the next is checked. PRODUCTION: If the city produces sufficient surplus resources to complete the item the city is producing, that item is added to the city. If your city does not produce sufficient resources to support all of the existing units for which it is the home city, units are destroyed until enough support is available. Units farthest away from the city are destroyed first. GROWTH: If the city produces sufficient surplus food, it grows buy one population point. This added population is put to work on the city map. DISORDER: If the number of unhappy citizens exceeds the number of happy citizens due to population growth or the destruction of a city improvement by disaster, your city goes into civil disorder. You receive a message reporting this condition. If this is the first turn of disorder, you jump to the affected city's display so that adjustments can be made to return the city to order. If the situation is not corrected, in following turns you are notified that disorder continues. MAINTENANCE: Taxes collected from the city are added to your treasury and then the maintenance costs for improvements in this city are deducted. If you don't have sufficient funds in your treasury to pay the maintenance costs, one improvement in this city, chosen by local leaders, is sold. Note that while your civilization as a whole may have a revenue surplus for the turn, you can still lose and improvement when your treasury is low. High maintenance costs for the first cities checked may deplete the treasury and force a sale before later cities contribute their cash surpluses. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The research contributed by this city, measured by the number of light bulbs it produces, is added to the total so far accumulated by your civilization. If this total is sufficient to acquire the technology that you have instructed your scientists to study, then you receive a message informing you that you have obtained this new technology. MOVEMENT & After each city has been checked, you have the COMBAT opportunity to move your active units. While a unit is moving in may engage in combat. Each active unit is designated for movement, one after another. Each unit has the option of moving, not moving, or delaying its move until later in the turn. Combat occurs when a unit attempts to enter a map square occupied by a unit or city of another civilization. Normally, either the attacking unit or all defending units are destroyed when the combat is resolved. A victorious unit with movement points remaining may continue moving and even attack again. During this movement phase you may pause to perform all other management tasks for your civilization. You may wish to consult with your advisors concerning the state of your civilization's trade, or science, to check the attitude of your population. You can examine any or all of your cities to adjust their work force placements or production. This is the time to change tax rates, governments, or examine the state of international affairs. When all active units have been moved, your game turn is over and the next civilization moves. END OF TURN Once all active units have been moved, your game turn ~~~~~~~~~~~ may end. At this point a blinking "End of Turn" message appears in the unit identification window. So long as this message remains visible you may still examine cities, consult advisors, etc. To end your turn, follow the prompt to continue the game. Once you choose to continue, you cannot examine cities, etc., until the next turn. The End of Turn message may be toggled on or off from the Game menu. Open this menu and choose "Options." One of the options on this menu is "End of Turn." There is a check mark next to the option indicating that it is on and is to appear at the end of each turn. To turn off the message, choose the "End of Turn" option and the check mark disappears. Even when the End of Turn message is turned off, it still appears during any turn in which you have no active units. When the End of Turn message is off, you receive no warning that the turn is about to end. At the moment you move your last unit, your turn is over and the next civilization begins to move. ADULATION After all of the civilizations have taken their ~~~~~~~~~ turns, there is a brief pause while the record keepers and historians examine your accomplishments to date. The people of your civilization may reward the outstanding success of your policies by expanding and improving your palace. In addition, independent historians and chroniclers may report on where you or your civilization stands compared to your rivals. PALACE: As your population grows, the people spontaneously expand and improve your palace to reflect the glory that your rulership has achieved. When the total population of your civilization reaches certain milestones, you may increase the size or improve the quality of your palace. Clear the screen after the people offer to improve your palace. When a picture of the current palace appears, select whether you want an existing part improved or a new part added. Click on a button below a part of the palace to improve it, or click on a button just off the edge of the palace to add on it. From the available parts then displayed, select the one you wish to have built. Palaces can be built in three styles: classical, medieval, or Middle Eastern. A miniature rendition of your palace is shown in the palace window of the map display. HISTORIANS: There are four historians who occasionally report on the progress of the civilizations in your world. These reports are an opportunity for you to judge how you are doing. The historians are Herodotus, Pliny, Gibbon, and Toynbee. Civilizations may be judged in any one of five categories, listed below. The published list includes only the known civilizations, those with whom you have established an embassy. However, all civilizations, known and unknown, are considered in rankings. For example, if your civilization has the third highest population but the larger civilizations are not known, you would appear at the top of the list, but shown as number three in the world. The five categories and how they are ranked follow. ADVANCEMENT: The # of technology advancements each civilization has acquired. HAPPINESS: The # of happy people in each civilization's cities. POWER: The total of the attack and defense factors of each civilization's military units. SIZE: The population of each civilization. WEALTH: The size of each civilization's treasury. ENDING THE GAME AND WINNING ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CIVILIZATION may be ended in five ways. You may quit at any time, retire at any time, be destroyed by a rival, continue on until the game and the history of your civilization both automatically end, or conquer the world by eliminating all other civilizations. If you retire or let the game run its course the performance of your civilization is judged and compared against your peers. If you have been a good manager and leader, your name may be added to the CIVILIZATION Hall of Fame. Although the game ends for scoring purposes after you win, you may continue playing if you choose. After winning, you are offered the opportunity to keep playing if you wish to see what more you can accomplish. No additional score is kept for this extra play. ENDING PLAY ~~~~~~~~~~~ QUITTING: You may quit during your civilization's turn by pressing the Quit key. You must be at the map display and one of your units must be waiting for orders. You may not quit when another civilization is taking its turn or from any other display. When you quit, you are given the one chance to change your mind before the decision is irrevocable. You are not shown your civilization score or entered into the Hall of Fame. RETIRING: To retire, open the Game menu and choose the option "Retire." You are given once change to change your mind. If you proceed to retire, you are shown your civilization score and entered into the Hall of Fame if you qualify. DESTRUCTION: If your civilization is destroyed by one of your rivals, then the game automatically ends. You are not given a chance to start over in this world. Since you can have no score, you can not qualify for the Hall of Fame. You may review a replay of the world's history. If you want to play again, you must start over with a new world. AUTOMATIC ENDING: A game of CIVILIZATION ends when a spaceship containing colonists from any civilization reaches the nearby Alpha Centauri star system. All play temporarily ceases. Your final civilization score is reported and you are entered into the Hall of Fame if you qualify. However, you do not necessarily have to quit playing. Although your score is not recorded hereafter, if you wish, you may continue playing to see what the future holds. From this point on you must quit to stop playing. CONQUER THE WORLD: If you succeed in eliminating all other civilizations in the world, the game automatically ends. This is the ultimate achievement possible by a civilization. You are shown your civilization score and may be entered into the Hall of Fame. You may review a replay of the world's history. WINNING ~~~~~~~ You win a game of CIVILIZATION in either of two ways: by eliminating all rival civilizations or by surviving until the colonization of space begins. The elimination of all other civilizations in the world is very hard to accomplish. You are much more likely to win by being in existence when colonists reach Alpha Centauri. Even if the colonists are not yours, the successful direction of your civilization through the centuries is an achievement. You have survived countless wars, the pollution of the industrial age, and the risks of nuclear weapons. When the game is won by either method, your skill as ruler is measured by a final civilization score. CIVILIZATION SCORE: This is the sum of the following factors, plus any bonus for space colonists or conquering the world. 2 points: each happy citizen 1 point: each content citizen 20 points: each Wonder of the World 3 points: each turn of peace (no war anywhere) 10 points: each futuristic advance you civilization acquires -10 points: each map square currently polluted SPACE COLONISTS BONUS: In addition to the above points, if your spaceship is the first to reach Alpha Centauri you can receive a bonus score. This is 50 points per 10,000 colonists sent, multiplied by the success percentage of your mission. CONQUERING THE WORLD BONUS: If you succeed in conquering the world, you receive up to 1000 civilization points, plus a bonus for the date. The faster you conquer the world, the higher that bonus. THE HALL OF FAME ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Hall of Fame records the best five civilizations that you have built, listed in order of their civilization ranking. This ranking is determined from the basic civilization score multiplied by a difficulty factor and a competition factor. The higher the civilization ranking, the higher the position in the Hall of Fame. You can examine the Hall of Fame when starting a new game from the pre-game options menu. When you retire or reach the automatic end of a game, you go to the Hall of Fame, even if you don't qualify to enter. While at the Hall of Fame you may clear all of the current entries if you wish. WORLD GEOGRAPHY ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The world is divided into small independent parts known as squares. Each square consists of a unique type of terrain. Each type of terrain has its own economic usefulness, effect on movement, and effect on combat. Download the CIVQKREF.ZIP to gain more information on terrain types. The economic USEFULNESS of the various terrains is important selecting city sites. The terrain that is close to a city the food, resources, and trade the city needs to grow and be productive. Some terrain types are more valuable than others. Some may be irrigated or mined for increased economic value, and others may be converted into another type of terrain. When selecting sites for new cities, consider the terrain types that are within the radius of the prospective city. The best city sites offer immediate food, resource, and trade production, plus the potential for long term development. A brief description of the terrain types follows. ARCTIC: Frozen glaciers of ice and snow found near the north and south poles. No food, resources, or trade can be obtained here. DESERT: Very dry region that can be developed to be marginally productive. There are some resources present that can be mined, food can be produced if the desert is irrigated, and roads generate some trade. GRASSLAND: These open lands have especially thick topsoils making them excellent food producing areas. Food production can be increased by irrigation. Roughly half of the Grasslands also have some resources, making them excellent city sites. Grasslands may be converted into Forests for increased resource production. HILLS: An area of rolling hills that offers very easy access to minerals, sources of water, pastures, and some possibility for agriculture. When mined, Hills produce excellent resources. They also produce some food and can be irrigated if necessary. Irrigating Hills allows the irrigation to pass on to further squares that may be otherwise cut off from water. JUNGLE: These areas of rain forest and dense jungle produce relatively poor amounts of food and no resources. However, they can be made much more valuable by conversion into either Grasslands or Forest. For this reason, the long-term potential of a city site containing several Jungles is good. MOUNTAINS: This very rugged terrain can only produce a small amount of resources but this can be increased by mining. Mountains make the best defense terrain, but the production is so low that they make a poor economic choice for the site of a city. OCEAN: Oceans produce small amounts of food, but a substantial trade. Only ships or aircraft can enter Oceans. Landlocked Oceans are really lakes but are treated like other Oceans in all respects. PLAINS: These open areas differ from Grasslands in having poorer soil but better resources of timber and minerals. They are poor food producers unless irrigated. Due to the presence of resources, they make good choices for city sites. Plains may be converted into Forests. RIVERS: Rivers are great sites for starting cities and civilizations due to the richness of riverbank soils and natural trade routes for boats. Rivers are as good as Grasslands for producing food and always generate trade. River terrain may be irrigated to increase food production. It was no accident that the first civilizations sprang up along rivers. SWAMP: The coastal wetlands and flooded interior lands produce only a small quantity of food. Like Jungles, however, they can be converted into Grasslands and Forest. TUNDRA: These sparse lands of permafrost produce only a small amount of food from grazing animals. There is no agriculture or use for irrigation. These areas cannot be converted to other terrain and make very poor city sites. FOREST: These woodlands produce a modest mixture of food and resources. If more food production is needed in the area, they can be converted into Plains. SPECIAL RESOURCES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Special resources can occur in many terrains and add significantly to their economic value. The location of these resources is marked by distinct symbols that are uncovered as the map is explored. More info can be found in the CIVQKREF.ZIP file which can be found on most quality BBSs. A brief description of the special resources follows. COAL(HILLS): Coal deposits represent rich locations of coal or metal ores. These areas produce greatly increased resources, especially when mined. FISH(OCEAN): Fish represent the location of underwater banks and reefs where currents and nutrients create excellent fishing grounds. Fishing banks produce increased amounts of food. GAME(FOREST & TUNDRA): The presence of game indicates excellent food sources available or the potential for good grazing. Game areas produce additional food, but cannot be improved. GEMS(JUNGLE): Gems indicate the presence of precious stones, ivory, spices, salt, or other valuable commodities. These are good trade items and therefore generate substantial trade from the area. GOLD(MOUNTAIN): Gold represents a bonanza of gold or silver. The value of these deposits produces tremendous trade. HORSES(PLAINS): Horses represent an increase in resources from this area due to the benefits of using domesticated animals such as the horse or oxen to do work. For all but the most recent periods of history, animals were an important source of lifting and pulling power. OASIS(DESERT): The oasis is a very fertile island in the desert that takes advantage of the presence of some water and rich local nutrients. The result is an area that produces substantial quantities of food. OIL(SWAMP): Oil represents the presence of mineral wealth, especially petroleum. The result is a substantial quantity of resources. Oil resources cannot be improved by mining. NOTE: If you convert terrain containing a special resource into another terrain type, the original special resource is lost. In some cases a special resource that can be found in the new terrain may appear. MINOR TRIBES ~~~~~~~~~~~~ During exploration, minor tribes may also be discovered in the world. These are small tribes that have not yet advanced to be civilizations. If you enter a minor tribe's village by moving onto it, a number of things may happen. You may discover valuable metals, the tribe may become a mercenary unit in your army, you may discover a scroll of ancient wisdom that advances your civilization, your magnificence may inspire them to become civilized and found a new city in your empire, or they may prove to be extremely violent barbarians. MAP DISPLAY ~~~~~~~~~~~ The options available from the Game menu are the following. REVOLUTION!: In order to change your civilization's type of government, you must have a revolution. The government goes into Anarchy for a period or turns and a new type of government may be chosen. You must have acquired specific technologies to choose a new type of government other than Despotism. TAX RATE: The trade that cities generate arrives as luxury goods, tax revenue, and new ideas (technology research). Here you can change the percentage that becomes tax revenue. LUXURY RATE: Change the percentage of trade brought in as luxury goods. FIND CITY: Choose this option to locate a city in the world. Type in the name of the city you wish to find. The map window centers on the city. OPTIONS: Choose this menu option to turn on or off some game features. Features available are instant advice, Autosave, End of Turn, and Animations. A check mark next to the feature indicate that it is on. Choosing an option that is on turns it off and vice versa. INSTANT ADVICE provides some helpful hints for new players. The AUTOSAVE feature automatically saves your game every 50 turns. When END OF TURN is on, a message reports the end of each turn and must be cleared for the game to continue. If you have no active units, this message appears whether toggled on or off. ANIMATIONS may be on or off. SAVE GAME: Um.....gee whiz. RETIRE: Ends the history of the civilization you now rule, calculating your score. If the score is high enough, you may enter the Hall of Fame. Note that your civilization is lost if not saved first. QUIT: Ends the history of the civilization you rule. No score is calculated and your civilization is lost if not saved first. PALACE WINDOW ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This window represents a miniature rendition of your palace. Its breadth and grandeur is a depiction of how well your civilization is progressing. If your civilization prospers and grows, the people recognize the glory of your rulership by periodically improving and expanding your palace. The relative magnificence or shoddiness of your palace is displayed for you, your advisors, and international emissaries to see. THE STATUS REPORT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The entries and symbols here report the current date and several facts concerning the status of your civilization. DATE: The date is reported in years plus the notation BC or AD. The normal game begins in 4000 BC. Each turn represents the passing of so many years, depending on the current date. TREASURY: The amount of cash in your treasury. POPULATION: The size of your civilization's population. TRADE RATES: The three numbers separated by periods are your trade rates. The first number is the percentage of your trade that provides luxuries. The second rate is the percentage that becomes tax revenue added to the treasury. The third rate is the percentage put towards new ideas to help learn technology. Luxury goods are the cultural pleasures like music, art, sports, and the theater that people come to enjoy when they have leisure time. The more luxuries that can be provided, the more happy citizens in your cities. Tax revenue goes into the treasury and is needed to maintain existing city improvements. Excess taxes over maintenance needs accumulate in the treasury and can be spent later. Taxes, especially high ones, tend to make the people unhappy. The more new ideas and scientific research accomplished, the faster the new technology is acquired. Each of the three by-products of trade has its benefits. As time passes and cities grow, you may have to adjust the rates often to provide a minimum amount of taxes and science research while keeping the population content as a whole. To adjust rates, pull down the game menu and choose either Tax Rate or Luxury Rate option. By setting these two rates, the science rate is set by default. NEW IDEAS: The scientific research indicator, shaped like a light bulb, shows how near you are to making a civilization advance. The nearer you get, the more the light bulb fills in (yellow). When the bulb is full (bright yellow), it is on, indicating that you have acquired a new technology. Once the new idea is reported and your scientists progress, it gradually turns on again. ENVIRONMENT: The environment indicator is the sun, and its color shows how great is the risk of global warming. When there is no risk of global warming, the sun indicator is not present. With the first case of pollution, the sun indicator appears dark red. If pollution continues, the color gradually changes to light red, yellow and then white. If pollution is not brought under control when the indicator is brightest, the planet suffers a bout of global warming and then the indicator reverts to a cooler color reflecting the new equilibrium. Pollution and environmental problems can also be caused by nuclear reactor meltdowns and fallout from nuclear weapons. MOVEMENT ~~~~~~~~ Each turn you may give order to your units, one at a time. The unit waiting for orders blinks on the map. There are several order options available: move the unit across the map up to the limit of its movement factor, skip the unit if you prefer to move it later in the turn, or have it do nothing this turn. In addition you may order most units to fortify or go on sentry duty. Fortified or sentry units no longer require orders. In future turns they carry on and do not blink, waiting for orders. If you wish to move these units later, they must be activated individually. MOVING UNITS: Units may be moved up to the limit of their movement factor. The cost to enter a map square depends on the terrain. Roads and Railroads speed the movement of ground units. When an unit is unable to complete a movement order because it doesn't have enough movement points to proceed, its movement is finished for the turn. The map then centers on the next unit waiting for orders. SKIPPING UNITS: To skip a unit temporarily, press the Wait key. (W key). This passes you on to the other units waiting for orders and returns you to the skipped unit after all others have had a chance to move. NO MOVEMENT: To order a unit not to move, press the No Movement key (the space bar). ACTIVATING UNITS: Fortified units and those on sentry duty must be activated to receive movement orders. Place the mouse pointer on the square and click the left mouse button. This opens a menu displaying all units in the square. Click again on the icon of any unit you wish to activate. Fortified or sentry units within a city must be activated from the city display. Sentry units are also activated when enemy units move adjacent to them. MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS: Ground units normally move only on land. They may move over sea squares, but only by naval transport. Ships may not enter squares entirely made up of land except cities that are on the coast. Air units may move over land and sea squares, but must land on a friendly city square or Aircraft Carrier unit to refuel. Ground units may not move from one square adjacent to an enemy army or city directly to another such square. The prohibited square may be adjacent to the first enemy army, another army, or any enemy city. Ground units may move into such a controlled square if a friendly unit is already there. Air units, ship units, Diplomats and Caravans ignore these restrictions. NAVAL TRANSPORT: Ground units may be carried over sea squares only by Triremes, Sails, Frigates, or Transports. Units may load onto a ship by moving onto it from an adjacent land square. Also, units on sentry duty in a city with a ship automatically load when the ship leaves. Units aboard ships are on sentry duty. Units may unload when activated from sentry duty and adjacent to land. They can be activated by the normal method of activation or by pressing the Unload key when the transporting ship is blinking. (U Key) COMBAT ~~~~~~ Combat occurs when a unit from one civilization attempts to a square occupied by a unit of another civilization. When this happens a battle is immediately resolved, resulting in the destruction of one army or the other. When more than one unit is in the defender's square, the unit with the highest defensive strength defends. If it loses, then all other armies stacked with it are destroyed as well. Successful attackers that have a full movement point remaining after combat advance into the defender's square. The important factors in combat are the attack and defense strengths of the combatants, the presence of veterans, the terrain occupied by the defender, and any defensive improvements in the square. After all of these factors are considered, the combat is resolved as a simple calculation. Shore bombardments, city attacks, nuclear attacks, and bribing enemy armies are special types of combat. ATTACK STRENGTH: The basic attack strength of all armies. This full strength is brought to bear so long as the army has at least one movement factor remaining from movement. Armies with less movement available may still attack but are penalized. Armies with high movement rates may makes several attacks each turn at full strength. DEFENSE STRENGTH: The basic defense strength of all armies. VETERAN STATUS: Veteran armies have their attack and defense strengths increased by 50% before any other modification. Armies become veterans when built at cities containing the Barracks improvement, or they may become veterans after winning a battle. TERRAIN: Many of the world terrain types increase the strength of defenders. See the Terrain entries in the Civilopedia or the Terrain chart in the file CIVQKREF.ZIP. FORTIFIED ARMIES: Ground armies may fortify themselves, increasing their defense strength 50%. An army that has any movement points remaining may be ordered to fortify on any land square by pressing the Fortify key (F Key). IMPROVEMENTS: Armies within a Fortress have their strength doubled after all other modifications. Armies inside a city containing City Walls are tripled in strength. Cities protected by City Walls do not suffer population losses. ATTACKING CITIES: When a defender in a city is destroyed by ground attack, other defending units present are not destroyed. However, the population of the city is reduced by one point unless the city is protected by City Walls. Population loss does not occur due to naval or air attack, but is affected by nuclear attack. SHORE BOMBARDMENTS: Naval units with attack factors, other than Submarines, may attack enemy armies on adjacent land squares, including cities. Naval units in cities may defend against attack. NUCLEAR ATTACKS: Nuclear attacks occur when a Nuclear unit attempts to enter a square occupied by enemy units or an enemy city. In either case, all units, regardless of civilization, in the target square and adjacent squares are destroyed. In addition, a city loses half of its population. Nuclear attack can only be stopped by the presence of an SDI Defense improvement in a city. ADDITIONAL ORDERS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Units may be given a number of other orders besides movement (and combat caused by movement). Settlers and Diplomats may be given unique orders explained later. GO TO: Orders an army to proceed to a destination SQUARE as fast as it can. The army continues moving turn after turn until it arrives. Press the Go To key (G key), and then designate the destination square. HOME CITY: Orders a unit to change its home city. Move the unit to the desired new home and press the Home key (H Key). Air units in flight may use this key to move to the nearest friendly city. Press the H key while the air unit is in flight and it immediately moves to the nearest friendly city or Aircraft Carrier. If the air unit does not have enough movement remaining to reach the nearest base, it crashes instead. SENTRY DUTY: A unit on sentry duty is marked by a faded icon on the map. It no longer blinks each turn waiting for new orders. Sentry units are activated as explained above. Sentry units automatically board any transporting ship that leaves a city they occupy. To put an army on sentry duty, press the S Key. DISBAND: This order disbands the unit receiving it, removing the unit from the map and city records. To disband a unit, press the Disband key. PILLAGE: This order destroys any terrain improvements (irrigation or mines) present in the square the army occupies. Roads and railroad are unaffected. To pillage, press the Pillage key (Shift and P keys). SETTLERS ~~~~~~~~ Settlers are groups of your most resourceful and adventurous citizens. As independent pioneers they perform two critical functions for your civilization: they found new cities and serve as engineers. NEW CITIES: To found a new city, move a Settler to the desired location and press the Build key (B key). The Settler disappears, because the people it represents have become the population of the new city. However, in the future the new city can be ordered to produce more Settlers that can be used to found additional cities. The Build order can also be used to grow an existing city. Move a Settler into an existing city and press the Build key. The Settler is absorbed into the city, adding one point to its population. This may be useful when one city is limited in its ability to expand. This city can be used to produce Settlers who migrate to a larger more useful city where the Settlers can be put to work. However, Settlers may not be added to cities that already contain ten population points or more. SETTLER ENGINEERS: Settlers can make a number of agricultural and industrial improvements for your civilization, acting as engineers. Place the Settler in the square where the work is to be done and press the correct key. Note that your civilization must posses certain technologies before some improvements can be built. DIPLOMATS ~~~~~~~~~ Diplomats are unique units that can be very useful to your civilization. They may act as trade missions, ambassadors, envoys, secret agents, and saboteurs. They can open contacts with other civilizations and establish embassies to gather info or otherwise disrupting your rivals. They can bribe enemy armies. When your civilization obtains the technology of Writing you can build Diplomats. Be aware that enemy Diplomats can be used against your civilization. DIPLOMAT MOVEMENT: Diplomats may move past enemy armies without stopping. However, if an enemy military army enters the square occupied by the Diplomat, the Diplomat is almost always destroyed. Diplomats may travel overseas in ships as other other armies do. Diplomats (and Caravans) are the only units that can enter defended enemy cities. When a Diplomat enters and enemy city a menu appears listing tasks that can be performed: Spy on City Establish Embassy Steal Technology Industrial Sabotage Incite A Revolt Meet With King SPY ON CITY: This opens the enemy's city display. You can examine what armies are defending it and what improvements have been made. When you clear the city screen, you return to the map display but your diplomat has been eliminated. ESTABLISH EMBASSY: The Diplomat establishes official contact with the other civilization and continually reports thereafter its type of government, treasury, the name of its capital city, treaties with other civilizations, states of war, and technology advances the Diplomat uncovers. Lists by historians of outstanding civilizations only include those with whom you have established embassies. It is only necessary to establish an embassy once with any civilization. STEAL TECHNOLOGY: Your Diplomat steals one technology advance from the other civilization. This can only be done once per city and your Diplomat disappears is the process (his cover is blown). If you have already stolen from this city, the Diplomat loses its turn. If the enemy civilization has nothing new then the Diplomat loses its turn.. INDUSTRIAL SABOTAGE: Your Diplomat destroys either the item currently under production by the city or one of the city's improvements. You cannot control what is destroyed. The Diplomat is lost in the effort. Destroying a critical improvement may throw the city into unrest (Temple, Cathedral), weaken its defenses (City Walls), or cut its production (Factory). Diplomats never destroy Wonders of the World. INCITE A REVOLT: Your Diplomat contacts dissidents within a city and for a suitable payment the city revolts and joins your civilization. The payment to revolt depends on the size of the city and its proximity to the civilization's capital. Also, a city in civil disorder revolts for less. Your Diplomat is lost is a successful revolt but escapes outside the city if you refuse to pay the cost. The revolt also fails and your Diplomat survives if you don't have enough cash. Enemy capitals do not revolt. MEET WITH KING: Your Diplomat opens negotiations with the enemy ruler. This may lead to offers for trading technologies or for making treaties. Your Diplomat is not lost. BRIBING ENEMY UNITS: You may convince an enemy to defect and join your civilization by moving a Diplomat into its SQUARE. A menu appears showing how much the army demands to defect. If you accept, the cash is deducted from your treasury, the army switches over, and the Diplomat survives. If you fail to make the payment, the Diplomat left on deposit is lost. When more than one enemy unit is in a square, bribery is not possible. The nearest friendly city becomes the home city for a newly bribed unit. CARAVANS ~~~~~~~~ Caravans are shipments of trade goods and materials. Over time they represent camel caravans, wagon trains, truck convoys, and cargo containers. They may be used to establish trade routes between cities or to transfer resources for the construction of Wonders Of The World. They become available once you have achieved the technology of Trade. TRADE ROUTES: A Caravan that enters any city of another civilization or a friendly city ten or more squares away from its home city may establish a trade route. This results in an immediate cash payment for delivery plus an increase in the trade generated each turn. This increased trade means more luxuries, taxes, and science for the home city. Each city may have up to three functioning trade routes. If more than three are established only the best three function. The amount of trade generated depends on the size of the two cities. Bigger cities generate more trade. Trade is best with a city in another civilization. Next best are friendly cities. The farther apart the two cities are, the greater the value of the trade. The value is also increased when the cities are on different continents. Caravans can move into any city they can reach. When at war it may be difficult to smuggle goods into an enemy city without being destroyed. Caravans may be transported overseas in ships as other units are, but cannot be landed into a city directly from a ship. BUILDING WONDERS: A Caravan may contribute its construction cost in resources to the cost of building any Wonder of the World by moving the Caravan into the city where the Wonder is being built. When the Caravan enters, a menu offers the choice of contributing to the construction or not. If you decide to help build the Wonder, the Caravan disappears and the resources used to build the Caravan are added to the production of the Wonder, speeding its completion. MILITARY UNITS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The following are the military units that can be built by your civilization. There is a brief description of each unit, including any special abilities. The three numbers shown after the unit's name are its attack, defense, and movement factors. In parentheses after the name is shown the advance required before each unit can be built. In brackets is shown the number of resources it takes to build each unit. ARMOR 10-5-3 (the Automobile) : a group of tanks, or other armored fighting vehicles. Due to its high attack factor and speed, Armor is one of the best units for conducting ground campaigns. ARTILLERY 12-2-2 (Robotics) : a group of self-propelled, heavy caliber artillery pieces. Defenders are not tripled behind City Walls when attacked by Artillery because the guns fire over the walls. BATTLESHIP 18-12-4 (Steel) : a heavily armored and gunned warship. Battleships have a visibility range of two sea squares and may conduct shore bombardments. They may not carry ground units. BOMBER 12-1-8 (Advanced Flight) : a group of long-range aircraft designed to carry and drop bombs. Bombers may stay airborne for one turn but must return to a base (a friendly city or Carrier) by the end of the second turn. They have a visibility of two squares over any terrain. Bombers ignore City Walls in the same manner as Artillery. They may only be attacked by Fighters. Other units may not enter a square occupied by a Bomber, so they are useful for interdicting enemy movement. CANNON 8-1-1 (Metallurgy) : a group of carriage-mounted, smoothbore cannons. Cannons are excellent units on the attack and their arrival often opens a new round of offensive wars, especially when accompanied by Rifleman who can stack with them for defense. CARRIER 1-12-5 (Advanced Flight) : an aircraft carrier is capable of acting as a base for Bombers, Fighters, and Nuclear units. Carriers may carry up to eight air units and have a visibility of two sea squares. CATAPULT 6-1-1 (Mathematics) : a group of siege weapons designed to throw rocks and other materials with great force. Catapults are useful in the defense and attack of cities, but are weak when left alone on defense. CAVALRY 2-1-2 (Horseback Riding) : a unit of mounted soldiers. Cavalry are useful as scouts and raiders because of their speed. CHARIOT 4-1-2 (the Wheel) : a group of light carriages, normally mounted on two wheels and each carrying a driver and a warrior. Chariots are a powerful weapon on the attack but very weak on defense. They are also useful as scouts because of their speed. CRUISER 6-6-6 (Combustion) : a very fast and moderately powerful warship. Cruisers have a visibility of two seas squares and may conduct shore bombardment. They may not carry ground units. FIGHTER 3-3-10 (Flight) : a squadron of fighter aircraft. Fighters are useful as scouts and for attacking enemy Bombers. Fighters must return to a friendly base by the end of each turn. FRIGATE 2-2-3 (Magnetism) : a fast sailing warship armed with a substantial number of guns. Frigates may carry up to four ground units. IRONCLAD 4-4-4 (Steam Engine) : a fast, steam-powered ship armored with iron plating. Ironclads may not carry other units. Ironclads are most useful for attacking enemy ships and less so for conducting shore bombardments. KNIGHTS 4-2-2 (Chivalry) : a group of armored warriors mounted on large powerful horses. Knights are often a useful combination of speed, defensive strength, and offensive strength. LEGION 3-1-1 (Iron Working) : a well-trained force of infantry armed with shields, short swords, and throwing spears. Legions are good offensive units that are relatively inexpensive. MECHANIZED INFANTRY 6-6-3 (Labor Union) : a group of modern infantry mounted on armored vehicles like the Bradley. Mechanized infantry is the best defensive ground unit in the game, useful for defending cities or other important points. It also has a good attack factor and excellent speed. MILITIA 1-1-1 (-) : a band of citizens armed with crude weapons, mostly tools and farm implements. Militia are normally the only military unit that you can build when starting a new civilization and are only a stopgap until better units become available. MUSKETEERS 2-3-1 (Gunpowder) : a company of infantry armed with muskets. Due to their higher defense factor, Musketeers are useful for replacing Phalanxes in positions that need to be defended. NUCLEAR 99-0-16 (Rocketry & Nuclear Fission) : a missile weapon armed with a nuclear warhead. A Nuclear unit can only be built after the Manhattan Project Wonder has been built somewhere in the world. A Nuclear unit may move between cities and Carriers. It is lost if it does not end its turn in a city or on a Carrier, and does not attack. It explodes when it attacks an enemy unit or city. A Nuclear attack destroys all military units in the target square and adjacent squares, regardless of who they belong to. Nuclear attacks may also destroy city populations and cause pollution. PHALANX 1-2-1 (Bronze Working) : a company of infantry armed with long pikes and very strong on the defensive. Phalanxes are very good for defending cities and other important points early on. No other type of unit is as cost effective for defense until Musketeers become available. RIFLEMAN 3-5-1 (Conscription) : a company of infantry armed with rifles. Riflemen are excellent defenders or cities and other points, and useful for replacing PHALANXES and Musketeers. SAIL 1-1-3 (Navigation) : a small ship powered by sails and lightly armed. Sailing Ships may carry up to three other units by naval transport. They are very useful for exploring the oceans because they are not restricted to staying near the coasts. SUBMARINE 8-2-3 (Mass Production) : a warship designed to attack from underwater by firing torpedoes at enemy ships on the surface. Submarines have a visibility of two sea squares and can only be spotted by enemy ships when adjacent. They may not carry ground units or conduct shore bombardment. TRANSPORT 0-3-4 (Industrialization) : a large, modern transport ship. Transports may carry up to eight other units and are very useful when carrying a large force to conduct an invasion. TRIREME 1-0-3 (Map Making) : a small ocean-going ship powered by oars. Triremes are lost at sea approximately half of the time they are not adjacent to land at the end of a turn. They are normally the first ship that becomes available, and are thus very useful for exploring the sea and transporting Diplomats, Caravans, and other units to nearby continents. BARBARIANS ~~~~~~~~~~ Barbarians are small tribes of raiders that are not part of any opposing civilization. You may encounter them periodically as your civilization begins to expand and grow. They may invade from the sea or arise suddenly in unsettled parts of any continent. Barbarians may attempt to capture or destroy your cities, and pillage your fields and mines. Because barbarians may appear along any coast or in any unsettled area, it is important to defend cities. It may also be useful to screen your cities from unsettled areas so that any barbarians that appear may be intercepted before they reach your cities. Most barbarian tribes are accompanied by a leader who may be ransomed if captured. Barbarian leaders look like Diplomats. SEA RAIDERS: Barbarians that invade from the sea are looking for a place to settle. They search for cities and attempt to capture them. They do not pillage mines and irrigation because or their interest in making a permanent settlement. If they capture a city, they take is over and begin producing more units to make new assaults. Sea raiders can be fought on land or engaged at sea in their ships. LAND BARBARIANS: These raiders are interested only in loot, not permanent settlements. This makes them very harmful as they pillage any mines or irrigation they encounter. If they capture one of your cities, they utterly destroy it. For these reasons, land barbarians are best engaged as far from your cities as possible. Land barbarians arise in areas that are not within the radius of a city. As time passes they appear at even farther distances from civilization. Thus, expanding your cities over a continent eventually removes the threat of barbarians appearing because the entire area has become more or less civilized by the presence of your cities. RANSOMING THE BARBARIANS LEADERS: If a barbarian leader is alone in a square and you attack him and win, he is captured and immediately ransomed for 100 coins. The money is added to your treasury. When barbarians units are attacked and destroyed, leader units stacked with them are destroyed also. Barbarian leaders who have lost their armies attempt to escape and disappear if not captured in a few turns. GOVERNMENTS ~~~~~~~~~~~ To assist in the management of your civilization there is a system of government. There are six types of government possible but the ones available to you at any moment depends on the technology that your civilization has ACHIEVED. One type of government, Anarchy, only occurs under a special circumstance. When beginning a new game your civilization is automatically governed by Despotism. The additional types become available when the specific civilization advance bearing their name is made. The different types of government each have their own unique effects. Some allow greater personal and economic freedom resulting in fast growing trade, science, and economies, while others are better suited to building and employing large armies. Governments are changed by REVOLUTIONS. TYPES ~~~~~ The 6 governments available for a civilization are: Despotism Anarchy Monarchy Communism The Republic Democracy DESPOTISM: You rule by absolute power. The people just have to live with it because your will is enforced by the army. Due to the minimal amount of economic and personal freedom, production is at a minimum. But your total control makes conducting war relatively easy. Military units do not require resource support until the number of units making this their home city exceeds the number of people in the city. Each home military unit in excess of the number of people in the city requires one unit of resources for industrial support. Diplomats and Caravans do not require support. In addition, any map square that produces three or more food, resources, or trade has this production reduced by one. Settlers require one food for support. ANARCHY: You have temporarily lost control of government. Cities continue to operate on their own but some important operations of you civilizations come to a halt until control is restored. You are able to continue controlling the movements of your units. Anarchy has the same effect as Despotism with several exceptions- no tax revenue is collected, no maintenance is charged for city improvements, and no scientific research is done while Anarchy continues. Anarchy only occurs during revolutions. MONARCHY: Your rule is less absolute, and more with the acceptance of the people, especially an aristocracy of upper class citizens. The aristocratic classes at least have a certain amount of economic freedom and this results in the potential for greater production of resources, food, and trade. However, the upper classes deduct a share of your civilization's production as maintenance for military units and luxuries in the larger cities. Under a Monarchy, there is no reduction of production in squares that produce three or more units or food, resources, or trade. Irrigation of Grasslands and Rivers, plus mining of Hills can now pay off with increased production. All military units must be supported by one unit of resources. Settlers require two food for support. COMMUNISM: You are the head of a communistic government, and rule with the support of the controlling party. Although this form of government allows more production than despotism, the orthodoxy of the party restricts personal and economic freedom, limiting trade. On the plus side, corruption is kept to a minimum by the action of the local party apparatus. Communism has the same effect as Monarchy except the corruption is flat. Instead of increasing the farther a city is located from the Palace, all of your cities suffer the same rate of corruption. THE REPUBLIC: You rule over the assembly of city-states formed from the cities that your civilization has established. Each city is an autonomous state, yet also is part of the republic that you rule. The people feel that you rule at their request. They have a great deal of personal and economic freedom, and this results is greatly increase trade. Your diplomacy is reviewed by the Senate and they can override you decisions. Grasslands, Rivers, and Hills are as productive as they are under Monarchy. Also, an additional trade unit is generated wherever at least one trade unit already exists. Military units each require one resource for industrial support. Settlers require two food. Each military unit not in its home city makes one citizen unhappy. In addition, the Senate of your government accepts any peace offer made by another civilization, overriding even a desire for war by you. DEMOCRACY: You rule as the elected executive of a democracy. The people feel that you rule because they want you to. The degree of freedom allowed under this government results in maximum opportunity for economic production and trade. However, the people also have a very strong voice in determining how much economic production is devoted to improving the standard of living. As in a republic, some diplomatic decisions are subject to review by your Senate. Democracy is very similar to The Republic. One difference is that under Democracy there is no corruption. Also, if one or more of your cities are in civil disorder for two turns, there is a chance each turn thereafter that a revolution may occur. Each military unit not in its home city makes two citizens unhappy. REVOLUTION ~~~~~~~~~~ Governments are changed through a process of revolution. This normally occurs at your command because you wish to change to a type of government more suitable to your plans. You may change your civilization's government type to any for which you have made the correct advance. To cause a revolution, pull down the Game menu and choose the option "REVOLUTION." After a few turns of Anarchy, a menu appears that lists the government options available to your civilization. The new government goes into effect immediately after you make your choice. If your civilization possesses the Pyramids, a Wonder of the World, you may change governments without passing through Anarchy. This ability is lost after the Pyramids become obsolete. ADVISORS AND WORLD REPORTS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ You always have a staff of advisors available who can provide detailed information concerning the affairs of you civilization. By consulting with these advisors you can make informed decisions about the management of your cities and relations with other civilizations. The reports of these advisors can be obtained from the Advisors menu found on the menu bar at the map display. In addition, there are a number of other reports that can be consulted. These are available from the World menu on the menu bar. The following advisors and world reports can be consulted: ADVISORS: City Status Military Advisor Intelligence Advisor Attitude Advisor Trade Advisor Science Advisor WORLD REPORTS: Wonders of the World Top 5 Cities Civilization Score World Map Spaceships Demographics CITY STATUS: This report lists the cities in your civilization and shows what they are producing. For each city you can read the population size, the amount of food, resources, and trade generated, what item is currently being produced, and how near it is to being completed. It is useful to consult this advisor at the beginning of your turn to refresh your memory about what your are producing and how close it is to completion. You can see at a glance whether some critical military unit or Wonder of the World is nearly completed. MILITARY ADVISOR: The first military report shows how many units of each type your civilization currently has in existence and is producing. Clear the screen to see the second part of the report. This part of the report shows the casualties that you have taken and inflicted in combat with other civilizations. The casualties are shown by type and civilization. Civilizations are differentiated by their color. INTELLIGENCE ADVISOR: This report is a summary of information gathered by your embassies. For each civilization with whom you have established diplomatic relations, this report presents accurate data on the name of their capital, their type of government, the size of their treasury, and their diplomatic status with other civilizations. No information appears for civilizations with whom you have not established an embassy. You can learn here which civilizations are at war and which are at peace, and with whom. You may find it useful to consult this report before attacking another civilization. A second page of info may be called up by pressing the Info button. This page reports some additional information regarding the apparent goals of the civilization's leader and the technological advances they have made most recently. ATTITUDE ADVISOR: The advisor reports the relative happiness of your citizens. From his survey you can see at a glance the number or happy, content, and unhappy citizens in each of your cities. This information can be useful after changing your luxury rate or type of government because those changes can have a significant effect on the happiness of your citizens. By reviewing this survey you can quickly see where you may have to make adjustments in city management to avoid disorder. For each of your cities, you see the current population and icons of any city improvements that help increase the happiness of the people. At the bottom of the page are totals for the size of the population of your entire civilization and percentages of the total that are happy, content, and unhappy. By examining the roster of improvements for each city, you may see where a city is missing a helpful improvement. TRADE ADVISOR: Your trade advisor reports for each of your cities how much of its trade is directed toward bringing in luxuries, tax revenue, and new ideas. The amount of luxuries, taxes, and science a city is producing is shown to the right of its name. Below the list of cities is a total for tax collections per turn. On the right side of the report is a list of city improvements that exist throughout your civilization. Only those improvements that cost money for maintenance are listed. The report shows how many of each improvement exist and the cost of maintaining them. At the bottom of this list is the total of your improvement maintenance costs for this turn. By comparing the tax revenue number with the maintenance cost number, you can see whether the treasury of your civilization is increasing each turn, shrinking, or remaining the same. If your treasury is shrinking, this may be a good time to increase taxes or adjust individual cities to produce higher revenue. In an emergency, you may wish to sell an improvement to raise cash. The final item is the report is labelled "Discoveries" and shows the number of turns needed for your scientists to acquire the technology advance that you have directed them to seek. The more scientific research done by your cities, the fewer turns required. Note that as technology increases, it takes more and more research to make the next breakthrough. SCIENCE ADVISOR: Your science advisor keeps track of the technologies that your civilization has already achieved and the progress of you scientists toward their next advance. A chart shows progress toward the next advance. The light bulbs indicate how much research has been done. When the box is full of light bulbs, the advance being researched is achieved. It is possible to continue making advances beyond the basic list that defines civilization up to the end of the 20th century. These continuing advances are called FUTURISTIC ADVANCES and each one your acquire adds ten points to your civilization score. WONDERS OF THE WORLD: Your geographers maintain a listing of the location of the Wonders of the World. When they hear of the construction of a new one they add it to the list. By the end of your civilization's history there may be as many as 21 Wonders: 7 ancient, 7 medieval, and 7 modern. Knowing where they are may be useful because capturing the city where a Wonder is located adds to the glory of your civilization. The geographer's list shows the Wonder's icon, its name, the city in which it is located, and the civilization that built it. Clear the page of ancient Wonders to see the medieval Wonders, and clear again to see the modern Wonders. Note that only existing Wonders appear on the list. TOP FIVE CITIES: This report graphically shows the five highest rated cities in the world. The five cities are named and their parent civilizations are also listed. Below the names are the population rosters of the cities and the icons of any Wonders that have been built there. All cities in the world are rated and the five with the highest scores are put on the list. Cities score points as follows: 2 points: For each happy citizen. 1 point: For each content citizen. 10 points: For each Wonder of the World built there. Note that cities that you have never discovered can be revealed to you in this list. The magnificence of these cities has passed by word of mouth to the corners of the world. Your geographers and other advisors constantly sift the rumors of travelers and traders for info regarding other civilizations. Even though some civilizations are not known to you, the splendor of their cities has reached the ears of your advisors. CIVILIZATION SCORE: This is a relative measure of how your civilization is doing. It is also totalled one last time when the game ends to give you a final score for your civilization. You can check with your advisor throughout the game to see how you stand. Your ultimate but difficult goal is to score over 1,000. Points are scored for the following conditions. 2 points: For each happy citizen 1 point: For each content citizen 20 points: For each Wonder of the World that you possess 3 points: For each turn of world peace (no wars) 10 points: For each Futuristic Advance. -10 points: For each map square currently polluted. At the bottom of the report is a bar graph indicating how far you have advanced towards a civilization score of 1000. WORLD MAP: Also the work of your geography department, this is the map of the entire known world. Parts of the world that you have not discovered cannot be seen. In addition, this map is centered horizontally on your capital. Thus you cannot tell exactly where you are located relative to the north or south polar boundaries until you discover them. SPACESHIPS: When you contact your space advisor, they can report the progress of any spaceship under construction. Select from the menu the civilization whose spaceship you wish to examine. Your advisors present a picture of the construction accomplished to date and their assessment of what it can carry, its estimated flight time, and its success probability. The space race begins once the Apollo Program Wonder of the World has been constructed. Thereafter any civilization that has the required technologies may begin building parts of a spaceship. Once the space race begins, it is important to maintain a watch on the spaceships of your rivals. You need to assess when they are likely to launch so that so can plan the size of your own ship and its launch date. If you conclude that your ship construction is too far behind to catch up, it may be necessary to mount a military campaign to capture the enemy capital. Capturing the enemy capital cancels the enemy spaceship under construction. DEMOGRAPHICS: Your advisors keep track of demographic info regarding civilization in comparison to the others in the world. This information is available in the report. It details your civilization's status in a number of areas and where it ranks in the world. Examining this report may offer clues about which civilizations are your biggest threats. The following statistics are shown in the report. APPROVAL RATING: The % of the people who think you are doing a good job as a ruler. POPULATION: The # of people within your civilization. GNP: The total of luxuries and taxes generated by your cities. MANUFACTURED GOODS: The total of resources generated by your cities. LAND AREA: The land squares that your units were last to pass through, representing the part of the world that is under your influence and control. LITERACY: The % of your population that can read. This depends on acquiring the advances of the Alphabet, Writing, and Literacy, plus the number of Libraries and Universities that your civilization possesses. DISEASE: A relative standing based on whether your civilization has acquired the advance of Medicine, and the number of Granaries and Aqueducts in your cities. POLLUTION: A comparison of the amount of pollution you are creating versus your rivals, measured buy the number of smokestacks generated by your city. LIFE EXPECTANCY: A relative standing determined by the extent of disease and pollution in your civilization. FAMILY SIZE: A number determined from the amount of excess food generated by your cities. Large family size means rapid population growth. MILITARY SERVICE: A relative standing determined from the # of military units you possess versus the size of your population, indicating the length of time of military service. ANNUAL INCOME: The amount of luxuries and tax revenues your cities generate, divided by your population. PRODUCTIVITY: The total is resources, food, and trade generated by your cities, divided by your population. PLANETARY CARETAKING ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ One cost of heedless industrial growth is a gradual polluting and poisoning of the environment. Of the many dangers posed by pollution, the greatest may be global warming. An unchecked rise in the planet's atmospheric temperature threatens catastrophic geographic changes including melting polar ice caps, rising sea levels, are parched farmlands. As you steer your civilization in the industrial age, you must manage your cities to minimize pollution and prevent global warming. Different kinds of poisoning may occur when nuclear weapons are used or a nuclear reactor melts down. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Every game turn there is a probability of pollution occurring within the economic radius of each of your cities. The probability of pollution OCCURRING depends on two factors: resources and population. The most important factor is the number of resources the city generates. The more that are generated, the higher the probability. Below a certain level, there is no chance of pollution. The city's population has no effect on pollution until you acquire the advance of the Automobile. Thereafter, the population may become a significant factor in the probability of pollution OCCURRING. When there is a probability of pollution OCCURRING at a city, smokestacks begin appearing on the city display. The number of stacks indicates the probability. CLEANUP ~~~~~~~ Pollution can be cleaned up by Settler units. Move the Settler onto the polluted square and press the P key. The settler is marked with a "P" to note that it has been ordered to clean up pollution. After four turns of work, the pollution disappears. Adding more settlers to a polluted square does not speed up the cleanup. EFFECTS ~~~~~~~ Pollution reduces the production of food, industry, and trade in any map square where it appears. Production is halved and then rounded up. When cleaned up, the map square returns to pre-pollution levels of production. MONITORING POLLUTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Your environmental advisors immediately inform you when any map area becomes polluted. The area on the map is marked with smudges to indicate pollution. The extent of pollution throughout you civilization can be monitored by watching the pollution indicator, a small sun in the date window of the display. The color of the sun indicates the extent of the risk of global warming. The colors in the IBM version range from dark red, to light red, to yellow, to white. Dark red indicates a low risk and white indicates a very high risk. The colors of the sun depend on the number of squares currently polluted and a lag of time. The more squares polluted, the higher the risk. The lag reflects the time required for the pollution to take effect. GLOBAL WARMING ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ EFFECTS: Global warming causes geographic changes throughout the world. Deserts, Plains, and Grasslands on coasts may become Swamps, and coastal Forests may become Jungles. Plains, Grasslands, and Forests in the interior may become Deserts. The result is much lower food, industry, and trade for your civilization. Your environment advisors report immediately if global warming has occurred. The effect is always bad, but in the case of flooded coastal areas you may improve Jungles and Swamps over time. CAUSES: Global warming may occur if at least nine map squares, anywhere is the world, are currently polluted. If they are left unattended for too long, environmental damage occurs. Once an environmental disaster has OCCURRED, the cycle starts over again. The planet has achieved equilibrium at the new higher temperatures. If pollution continues or increases once more to high levels, another bout of environmental problems may occur. This cycle may repeat endlessly if pollution is not controlled. NUCLEAR POLLUTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Pollution may also be caused by nuclear weapons or the meltdown of a nuclear power plant. Pollution caused by either of these events has the same effect as industrial pollution. NUCLEAR WEAPONS: When a nuclear unit is used in an attack, an additional effect of the attack is the pollution of a number of map squares around the impact square. Remember this when you are tempted to use nuclear weapons. You may create pollution you cannot readily reach with Settlers to clean up, significantly raising the risk of global warming. NUCLEAR MELTDOWN: If a Nuclear Power Plant melts down, half of the city's population is destroyed and a random number of squares near the city becomes polluted. There is risk of meltdown when a city that has a Nuclear Power Plant goes into civil disorder. The civilian unrest may result in safety procedures becoming so lax that a catastrophic accident occurs. If you build Nuclear Power Plants in any of your cities, take special care not to allow those cities to go into disorder. When your civilization achieves the technology of Fusion Power, the risk of meltdown disappears. Your Nuclear Plants automatically convert to the technology of fusion power which is free of the risk of meltdown. DIPLOMACY ~~~~~~~~~ Diplomacy is conducted by negotiations between yourself and a ruler of a rival civilization. Negotiations may occur when a rival sends and envoy to talk or may result from overtures of your own. Diplomacy is conducted face-to-face with one rival ruler at a time and can lead to exchanges of technology, offers of peace, international extortion, or declarations of war. A rival may contact you when units from each of your civilizations are adjacent to each other. A rival envoy may also arrive at any time. You may start negotiations by sending a Diplomat into a rival city and selecting the option "Meet With the King." The tone and result of any negotiations are greatly influenced by the mood or your rival. The opposing leader may be antagonistic, supplicating, or somewhere in between. This mood depends on the leader's personality and how your two civilizations compare to each other and the rest of the world. You may be able to pick up cues on a rival's mood from facial expressions or background music. A rival leader's personality may be aggressive, friendly, or neutral. Aggressive leaders are more likely to lean toward war or demand high payments for peace. Friendly leaders are more likely to offer peace and may only be bluffing when asking for payment. If you have broken previous peace agreements with this civilization, that is remembered and also influences the degree of antagonism. If you are the largest, most powerful, and richest civilization in the world, all rivals are likely to be very jealous or antagonistic. However, if the opponent is puny in comparison, the natural tendency toward being belligerent may be overridden. A civilization threatened with extinction is more interested in survival. All negotiations end with either and agreement of peace between your two civilizations or a declaration of war. Even the most antagonistic rival may concede peace for a suitable payment of cash or technology. This may purchase peace only temporarily, however. Establishing embassies with other civilizations can be very useful in preparation for negotiations. You Intelligence Advisor collects information from all of your embassies and from him you can learn important facts about your opponents, including their size and the personality of their leader. This information is not available for civilizations with which you have not established an embassy. TRADING TECHNOLOGY: Civilizations that are not extremely antagonistic may offer to trade technology. They begin by offering one that you don't possess. They may actually gave several you lack. If you agree, a menu of technologies they can trade appears. Select the one that you want and then they take one from you. You have no choice regarding what they take and cannot veto the trade. If after trading another exchange is possible, more trading may take place. BUYING PEACE: A rival may demand a cash payment or a civilization advance during negotiation. If you meet this demand, the rival almost certainly agrees to peace. If you reject the demand, an antagonistic rival generally declares war. The demand or a more peaceful threatened rival may only be a bluff, and peace may be offered anyway after demands are rejected. In some cases, a rival offers a reward for your making peace or declaring war on another civilization. POST-TREATY NEGOTIATIONS: Once you agree to a peace treaty you have an opportunity for further negotiations. A menu opens offering three choices: a declaration of harmony, a military proposal, or a demand for tribute. The declaration of harmony has no real effect. A military proposal is a suggestion by you for your new friends to attack a third party. This generally generally costs you a cash payment which you can pay or turn down. The third option is a demand for tribute to cement the new treaty you have signed. If your opponent is weak or in awe of your power, he may pay. Alternatively, he may refuse to pay, or go as far as to declare war on you. PEACE ~~~~~ Peace between your civilization and another can only result from diplomacy. If you and your rival agree, then a state of peace can occur. Choosing peace is voluntary unless your government is a Republic or Democracy. In those cases the Senate of the government overrules any decision for war and accepts peace. Peace agreements can normally be broken at any time by either party, but so long as it holds, both parties must adhere to the following rules: units of the other civilization, even Diplomats, may not be attacked; no units except Diplomats and Caravans may enter squares that have been improved by the other party within the radius of a city (irrigated, mined, or penetrated by roads); squares that other party has under development may not be pillaged; and technology may not be stolen from the other party. Any of these events ends the peace and triggers war. You are warned that you are about to break a peace and have a change to check your action. If your government is a Republic or Democracy, you may not voluntarily violate a peace agreement. The Senate forbids any action that starts war. If you consider war necessary, you must have a Revolution to overthrow the government and put in one more receptive to your wishes. Alternatively, you may wait for your opponent to break the peace himself or declare war on you. When you are at peace it is much easier for trade Caravans to reach the cities or the other party and establish trade routes. If the entire world is at peace, your civilization score is increased. The major benefit or peace is that you are not at war. During war, all of the proscribed activities are possible, and can cause great damage and waste of resources. THE SPACE RACE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The environmental pressures of growing populations in the modern world are forcing humans to look in to space for resourceful and living room. The question is not whether humans are to travel to the stars, but when. The final act of stewardship you can perform for your civilization is to insure that they lead this exodus. As noted earlier, the history of your civilization ends when either you or one of your rivals reaches a nearby star system with colonists. If your spaceship is the first to arrive, you receive a bonus to your civilization score in recognition of this final accomplishment. Regardless of how many colonists your spaceship is carrying, or how fast it is, if a rival makes planetfall first, you receive no bonus. The construction of spaceships may not begin until one civilization has built the Apollo Program Wonder. Thereafter, the race is one and any civilization that has acquired the necessary advances may begin building the parts of a spaceship. Each civilization, including yours, may build only one spaceship at a time. Once it is launched, another one cannot be built and sent off. Ships that have been launched may not be recalled or turned around. Spaceships are destroyed if the owning civilization's capital is captured. In this case, a new ship may be constructed. SPACESHIPS ~~~~~~~~~~ The purpose of your spaceship is to carry as many colonists as possible to another star system. To have any chance of success it must provide at least a minimum of the following: living space for colonists, food sources, energy sources, propulsion power, and fuel for the engines. The better prepared the spaceship, the higher the number of colonists that arrive safely and the faster the voyage Your goal is to build a spaceship that can hold as many colonists as possible, yet travel at a reasonable speed and with reasonable probability of success. As construction of your ship proceeds, keep an eye on its characteristics, displayed to the right of the spaceship window. All spaceships have the same characteristics: population, food, energy, mass, fuel, flight time, and probability of success. Once you have built a spaceship that meets the minimum requirements for carrying colonists, you may launch or proceed with further construction to increase the capacity of the ship. POPULATION: The number of people the spaceship is outfitted to carry. The more people it carries to the new planet, the higher your bonus. SUPPORT: The percentage of the people that the ship is prepared to carry that can currently be supported. People that are not provided with life support cannot be expected to survive the voyage. ENERGY: The % of the energy required by the habitation and life support modules that is currently being provided. If sufficient energy is not provided for life support and habitation, the probability of success will be very low. MASS: All of the components, modules, and structures add to the mass of your spaceship. The greater the mass, the more power required from propulsion parts to move it. FUEL: The % of the fuel your propulsion units require that is currently aboard. If insufficient fuel is provided, the propulsion components aboard cannot work to their maximum power and the best possible speed cannot be attained. FLIGHT TIME: A calculation of the number of years required for your spaceship to reach the nearest star based on the ship's mass and engine power. Adding more engines and fuel reduces flight time. PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS: The approximate % of the people that can be carried that are expected to survive the voyage based on the amount of food and energy provided, plus the flight time. The faster the flight, the higher the expected survival rate. SPACE SHIP LAUNCHING: To send your spaceship on its voyage, press the Launch key (L Key) or the launch button, found at the bottom right of the spaceship display. CONSTRUCTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Your spaceship is constructed of parts. Each part is built like any other improvement, except that when a part is completed, it is automatically added to your ship. The parts of the spaceship come in three types: components, modules, and structures. Each type is available for construction when you have achieved a specific technology advance. All modules and components must be connected to a sufficient structure. If a module or component is not connected, it is marked to signal the part is not working. Once sufficient structural parts have been added, the outline disappears. To build spaceship components you must have achieved the technology advance of Plastics. You can then build components at a cost of 160 resources. There are two kinds of components, propulsion and fuel. When a component has been completed, you choose which type has been built. PROPULSION COMPONENTS: These are the engines that provide the power for space flight. The more engines you add, the faster the ship travels, the sooner it reaches its destination, and the higher the probability of success of the mission. FUEL COMPONENTS: These provide fuel for the propulsion units. In order for the propulsion units to perform to their maximum, one fuel component must be provided for each propulsion component. MODULES ~~~~~~~ Spaceship modules require the technology of Robotics and cost resources each to build. They exist in three types: habitation, life support, and solar panels. When a module is completed, you choose which type to add to your ship. HABITATION MODULE: Each habitation module provides living space, community services, the recreational facilities for ten thousand colonists. LIFE SUPPORT MODULE: Each life support module provides the food and other requirements for the ten thousands colonists carried in one habitation module. People carried in a habitation module that doesn't receive life support have a very low probability of surviving. SOLAR PANEL MODULE: Each solar panel module provides enough energy to power two of the other types of modules. Modules that don't receive power cannot function properly. STRUCTURES ~~~~~~~~~~ Spaceship structure require the technology of Space Flight and cost 80 resources each to build. You must build sufficient structure parts to connect the components and modules together. Parts that are not connected do not work and provide no benefit to the ship. CITIES ~~~~~~ The economic and industrial centers of your civilizations are it cities. They are the residence of the population, the source of tax dollars, the home of your scientists, and the sites of your industrial production. Each city organizes the development of the area surrounding it, converting the nearby agricultural land, natural resources, and potential trade into food, industrial production, technology, and cash. One measure of the success of you civilization is the number of cities it encompasses and the size of each. Larger cities collect more taxes, conduct more technology research, and risk being overrun by larger and more powerful neighbors. Falling too far behind in the arms race, both in quality and quantity, may result in an early exit from history. The management of your civilization involves the founding of cities, their management, and their protection. New cities can be built from scratch or captured from rivals. Managing a city requires maintaining a balance of food, industry, taxes, luxuries, and improvements that keeps the citizens content and productive. Rival civilizations are a constant threat to the security of your cities. After taking steps to protect them, consider conquering cities of your rivals. This reduces the threat they pose and is often an inexpensive way to expand. NEW CITIES ~~~~~~~~~~ New cities can be acquired in three ways. They can be started from scratch, a minor tribe discovered by your armies may elect to join you as a new city, or your armies can conquer the cities of your neighbors. FOUNDING NEW CITIES: When a Settler unit is on a map square where you wish to build a new city press B. After establishing the city name your Settler unit will now become a member of cities population. MINOR TRIBES: Occasionally a minor tribe may be awed by your emissaries to immediately become part of your civilization. In this case the minor tribe forms a new city. CAPTURING CITIES: Cities of other civilizations are normally defended. If the defenders can be defeated you will earn the city. Capturing a city may result in the discovery of a new technology advance and plundered cash. Occupying an enemy city may destroy some improvements the city has built, and it eliminates one point of population. Therefore, a city that has only one point of population remaining is destroyed instead of captured. PLACING NEW CITIES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When building a new city, plan carefully where it is placed. The map square in which it is built and the squares surrounding it determine how valuable the city can become. Factors to be considered include the economic value of the square the city is placed in, the economic potential with the city's radius, the proximity of other cities, and the strategic value of the location. Ideally, locate cities it areas offer a combination of food for population growth, resources for production, and trade. Where possible, take advantage of the presence of special resource squares. THE CITY SQUARE: The terrain the city occupies is especially important because it is always under development. You cannot take workers off this square when adjusting development on the city map. If this area is not useful, especially for producing food, then population growth is a new city is handicapped. For this reason, new cities are generally best built in Plains, Grasslands, or Rivers. These provide the best food production and, this, faster population growth. THE CITY RADIUS: The potential area of development extends out two city squares on the map in every direction except diagonally. If the new city grows large enough, its population can bring all of this area into development. When planning a new city, consider this radius and the long-term benefits of any potential site. To grow, the city must encompass sufficient food-growing areas. Any city that can grow has value, but your most important cities are those that also have resources available. These cities can quickly build and support military units and Wonders. Hills and Forests are important sources of resources, as are squares containing special resources symbols for game, horses, coal, and oil. The importance of trade in generating taxes and technology makes River squares especially goof sites for cities when just beginning. Without Rivers, you must quickly build roads in Plains or Grasslands to generate trade. LANDSCAPING: When surveying sites for a new city, keep in mind the potential for some squares to be improved. Hills and Mountains can be mined and then produce increased resources. Plains, Rivers, and Grasslands can be irrigated and then produce more food. Swamps and Jungles can be cleared into Grasslands or converted to Forests. Forests may be cleared into Plains. Plains and Grasslands may be turned into Forests if you need resources. An area of Jungles and Swamps looks barren at first, but has the potential to be a very rich city site. Plains, Grasslands, and Deserts produce trade once penetrated by Roads, and all land squares improve in production when Railroads come through. PROXIMITY OF CITIES: Another consideration when planning new cities is the current or potential location of other cities. Minimize the economic radius overlap restricts the potential growth of one or both cities. When just beginning, explore nearby lands as soon as possible to begin planning the placement of future cities to best take advantage of the terrain. A few large and powerful cities are more useful than several smaller, weaker ones. STRATEGIC VALUE: The strategic value of a city's site is a final consideration. Because the underlying terrain can increase the defender's strength when under attack, in some circumstances the defensive value of the terrain may be more important than economic value. But good defensive terrain is generally poor for production and inhibits the early growth of a city. However, defending a city is generally is easier than defending normal terrain. In a city you can build the City Walls improvement which triples the strength of defenders. Also, in cities only one army at a time is destroyed in combat. Outside of cities, all armies stacked together are destroyed when any army in the stack is defeated. So, in certain cases where a continent bottlenecks and a rival is on the other side, the defensive value of a city site may be more critical than economic value. Placing at least a few cities on the seacoast gives you access to the ocean. This allows the launching of ship units to explore the world and transport your units overseas. With few coastal cities, your sea power is constrained. CITY MANAGEMENT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ STABILITY: Cities that don't maintain a favorable balance of happy people over unhappy people people go into civil disorder. Cities in civil disorder produce no tax revenue, no technology research, and no food surpluses, and suspend production. A nuclear reactor in a city suffering civil disorder may experience a meltdown due to lax safety controls. Keeping a city stable is a very high priority! POPULATION GROWTH: Keeping the population growing is important because each additional person contributes something to your civilization. Each new worker brings a new map square under production. Population growth increases economic power, and thus, the strength of your civilization. The size of your population is a major factor in determining your civilization score, a measure of how well you have ruled. RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: The people of your city that work in the surrounding countryside harness the economic resources of the area. Those resources are converted by the city into more people, industrial production, money, and technology research. When managing a city, you must allocate the people so as to maximize this development, or match it up to your needs. There may be times when increased industrial output is preferred over population growth. There may be times when increased trade is needed. You can give orders to your advisors to shift a city's work force around to change the mix of economic development as desired. TAX REVENUE: Most of the improvements that can be built within cities require money for maintenance. Money is also useful for speeding industrial production, bribing enemy armies, inciting revolts in enemy cites, and for negotiating peace with your neighbors. The combined tax revenues of your cities must exceed their maintenance requirements before cash can accumulate for other uses. Although it is not necessary for each city to produce surplus revenue, enough cities must do so to cover expenses. Some cities may not be especially suited for industrial production, but some may still be good trading centers. Manage these cities to produce extra revenue. TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH: The greater the contribution of research each city makes toward new technology, the faster the new civilization advance is reached. The amount of research is devoted to bringing in new ideas and otherwise discovering technology advances. A city's research contribution can also be influenced by adjusting trade, creating Scientists, and certain improvements. Improvements that can help are the Library and University, which improve research, and several Wonders. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION: Each city has more or less capacity to produce new units and improvements. The most valuable cities have the greatest industrial capacity. They can quickly produce expensive military units that extend power of you civilization. They are also best at producing the Wonders of the World. You must regularly monitor the production of you cities to insure that the most needed items are being built. There are four main tools available to reach and maintain these goals of city management: shifting workers around, converting some workers to SPECIALISTS, building improvements, and building Wonders of the World. Workers can be shifted around the city map display to adjust economic developments. Specialists can be created to increase production of luxuries, taxes, or technology. Within each city you can order the construction of improvements such as a Temple to make some unhappy people content, a Granary to speed population growth, or a Library to increase research. The most costly tools available are the Wonders of the World. These are magnificent improvements that bring lasting glory to your civilization in addition to some special effect. Although Wonders are built in a city like an improvement, their special effect often extends through all or part of your civilization. However, only one of each Wonder may be built in the entire world and your rivals may construct them first. CITY PROTECTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Great economic management of a city is worthless if the city is captured by rivals or barbarians. Part of the management plan must concern the defense of the city. A large part of the defense is not handled locally, but on your borders and coasts. A defensive line of units, both at sea and on land, that can intercept enemies before they close with your cities can be helpful. Even the best defensive lines can be penetrated, so the defense of the city itself cannot be neglected. The minimum city defense is one army, preferably one with a good defense factor. Fortify any armies that you expect to defend a city because Fortified units increase their defense strength. A second defender is often a good idea. Adding an army with a strong attack factor is also useful. This army can attack enemies that move adjacent to the city, perhaps destroying them before they test the defenders. The defense of the city can be substantially improved by building City Walls, an improvement that triples the defender's strength versus most attackers, but not Bombers or Artillery. This tripling takes effect after the effects of veteran status is considered. Being fortified behind City Walls has no effect unless the attacking unit is a Bomber or Artillery unit. City Walls also prevent population loss when defending units are destroyed. When civilization advances make available new army types with better defense factors, take the first opportunity to replace old defenders with better units. Since the offensive capability of your enemies improves as they acquire new technology, your defenses must improve to keep up. Linking cities with Roads and Railroads can be very helpful in speeding the movement of units from one end of your empire to trouble spots elsewhere. This puts your defensive armies on "interior lines," allowing them to rapidly move to where they are needed. CITY DISORDER ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A city suffers civil disorder when unhappy people outnumber happy people, content people being ignored in the calculation. Cities in disorder provide no tax revenue, contribute no technology research, and suspend production of new units or improvements. When order is restored, the city returns to normal operation next turn. You can restore order in several ways. To restore order you may pay to complete an improvement, such as a Temple, that can covert sufficient unhappy people to contentment to restore balance. You may also change the luxury and tax rates of you civilization to attempt to restore order. Increasing luxury convert some content people to happy. You may take one or more people out of the work force, making them Specialists. This increases the number if happy people. When creating Specialists, be careful not to also cause shortages of food or resources that cause starvation of population or scrapping of armies. Under the government types Despotism, Monarchy, or Communism, it is possible to restore order to a city using martial law. Each military unit in a city makes one unhappy citizen content. Only those units possessing an attack factor of one or more can impose martial law. By moving enough units into a city suffering disorder, order may be restored. Under Republican or Democratic government, each military unit not in its home city creates one or more unhappy citizen. When a city is in disorder, destroying distant military units, returning them to the home city, or changing their home city, makes some unhappy people content and may restore the city to order. All of these methods are useful in restoring the balance of your cities or enemy cities that you have just captured. WE LOVE THE (KING) DAY ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When a city becomes sufficiently happy, it may hold a celebration in honor of your rule. The people declare a "We Love the King Day" in thanks for the prosperity you have made possible. While the circumstances that trigger this celebratory mood continue, the city enjoys certain benefits, depending on your civilization's type of government. In order for the "We Love the King Day" celebration to occur, there must be no unhappy people in the city, at least as many happy people as content people, and the city must have population of at least three. Specialists are considered content citizens for this calculation. ANARCHY: The celebration has no effect when the government is in anarchy. DESPOTISM: The celebrating city is operated as if the government is a Monarchy. This can increase the amount of food and resources generated when some terrains are irrigated and mined. MONARCHY/COMMUNISM: A celebrating city currently ruled by either of these governments is operated as if the government is a Democracy instead. This increases the amount of trade generated. REPUBLIC/DEMOCRACY: A celebrating city currently ruled by either of these governments increases in population by one point each turn so long as sufficient food is available. This can result in dramatic growth of the city. CITY RESOURCES WINDOW ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ FOOD: A population unit in your city requires two units of food each turn. If you city is currently producing more food than that, the surplus is shown after a break in the food line. The excess goes into the food storage box shown elsewhere on the city display. RESOURCES: The shield symbol indicates the resources of raw materials and industrial capacity of the city. Surplus capacity is shown to the right of a break in the industry line and is available to be used to build new units or city improvements. Diplomats and Caravans don't require maintenance. TRADE: Trade is produced by Roads through Plains and Grasslands, by Rivers, by Oceans/Lakes, by squares containing Gold Mines or Gems, and by Caravans trade routes. LUXURIES: These are shown as diamonds. For every two diamonds of luxuries produced, one content citizen becomes happy. The amount of luxuries may be increased quickly by creating Entertainers. TAX REVENUES: These are shown as gold coins and are used to pay maintenance costs for city improvements. SCIENCE: The knowledge that results from science research is shown as light bulbs. CORRUPTION: Depending on your type of government and the city's distance from your palace, some trade may be lost as corruption. SPECIALISTS ~~~~~~~~~~~ ENTERTAINERS: People removed from the work force immediately become Entertainers. Each Entertainer is the equivalent of two additional trade symbols added to that part of the city's trade brought in as luxuries. Creating Entertainers has the result of creating more luxuries and making more people happy. TAXMEN: You can change an Entertainer to a Taxman. Click on the Entertainer to convert him. Taxmen increase tax revenue. SCIENTISTS: You can change a Taxman into a Scientist. Click on the Taxman to convert him. The Scientist is a researcher who increases the amount of knowledge your city is producing. PRODUCTION BOX ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CHANGE PRODUCTION: Use the change button to open the menu of items that you can produce. (All of you have probably figured this out!) RUSH JOBS: If you have the cash buy the item instead of waiting for it! The cost is $2 per missing resource shield. You may want to consult your City Status advisor for remaining resource cost on big purchases. SABOTAGE: Enemy diplomats may slip into your cities and destroy items partially completed. All resources currently invested in an item are destroyed and production starts over. Your only protection from this is to destroy enemy diplomats before they can enter. DISASTER: Pirate raids also destroy the partially completed item in the production box. The only defense against them is building the Barracks improvement. IMPROVEMENTS ROSTER ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ This part of the city display is in the upper right hand corner. The only thing you need to know here is that the buttons to the right of the improvements are their sell buttons. If you want to sell an improvement click on the corresponding button. INFORMATION WINDOW ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Within this window various types of information can be reviewed or accessed. Here you can quickly see what military units are defending the city, what trade routes the city has established, whether the city is causing pollution, a small version of the world map, or a bird's-eye view of the city. Across the top of the window are several buttons: Info, Happy, View, Map. Using these buttons you can call up the information you wish to see. MAP: Pressing this button calls up a small version of the world map. The city you are in is marked for reference. Also marked on the map are the location of any cities which you have established trade routes and the location of units that make this their home city. The map may be useful for planning additional trade routes, assessing the danger of enemies, locating units you wish to disband, or deciding a sailing direction for newly launched ships. VIEW: This button opens the bird's-eye view of the city that is seen when a new improvement or Wonder is built. As time passes, note that the architecture of the various dwellings improves. INFO: This button calls up the most useful info. When you first open any city display, this button is automatically on. Just below the row of buttons are shown the icons for all units currently in the city. Fortified units have a border around them and units on sentry duty are shown as faded icons. Fortified units or those on sentry duty may only be activated from this window. When you return to the map display, these units can now be given orders. At the bottom of the window is a list of any trade routes the city has established. Each trade route is noted by the name of the city with which you are trading and the amount of trade generated. This trade is automatically included in the trade your city is generating, shown in the city resources window of the display. As your civilization moves into the Industrial Age, pollution may become a problem. In the middle of this window, pollution indicators appear when the city's industry get sufficiently large. The indicators are smokestack icons. The presence of several smokestacks is a cue that you need to reduce pollution or be prepared to clean it up. The alternative is eventual environmental disaster. There can be up to one hundred smokestacks present indicating a 100% probability of pollution each turn. HAPPY: This button opens the Population Happiness Chart, which shows what factors are affecting the happiness of the city's population. All people in a city beyond a certain number are unhappy before any modifying influences are taken into account. At the Emperor level of difficulty, only the first two PEOPLE are content; at King level, the first three; and so on down to Chieftain level, where the first six people are content. When the city's population increases beyond these minimums, the new people are unhappy unless their condition is improved by a culture and a standard of living that provides luxuries, religion, and entertainment; they are coerced into contentment by martial law; or the presence of Wonders of the World lifts their pride and spirits. The top row of the chart shows the happiness of the population before taking into account any of the factors that improve happiness. The second row shows the effects of the luxuries that are provided to the city, if any. Two units of luxuries make on content person happy or one unhappy person content. A contented person is made happy before another unhappy person is made content. The third row shows the effects of Temples, Cathedrals, and Colosseums. These improvements have the effect of making unhappy people content. The fourth row shows the effects or martial law and military service. Under all governments except the Republic and Democracy, each military unit in a city coerces one unhappy person into contentment. Any units imposing martial law are shown is this row. Under the Republic or Democracy, martial law does not work. Instead, each military not in its home city make one person unhappy. This is shown by "SAD FACE" symbols in this row and under the units in the home city roster. The fifth row shows the effects of any Wonders of the World, either in this city or elsewhere, that are influencing the population's happiness. Specialists are content people, and are taken from the ranks of the content or happy population when created. The effect of the increased luxuries created by Entertainers is shown in row two. The bottom row of the chart shows the cumulative effect of all factors on the happiness of the population roster at the top of the display. Examining this chart is useful for understanding what is affecting the happiness of the city and perhaps indicating what else could be done if the city is out of balance. You may see where creating Entertainers, disbanding out of town units, bringing in more units, or building a new improvement can bring the city back into order. CITY IMPROVEMENTS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ When beginning a new civilization, you normally may only build one type of improvement, the Barracks. As your civilization acquires new technologies, more improvements become possible. Each city may only build one of each improvement. The improvements that your city possesses are listed in the improvements roster on the city display. Once built, improvements may be destroyed by sabotage, disaster, and capture, and may even be sold for cash. SABOTAGE: Diplomats may enter a city and attempt industrial sabotage. This may result in the destruction of an existing improvement. The only defense against this type of attack is destroying the Diplomat before it can enter a city. DISASTER: Volcanos, Pirate Raids, Floods, Fires, and Earthquakes may destroy improvements in a city. There is no defense against Earthquakes, but Aqueducts prevent Fires, Temples prevent Volcanos, City Walls prevent Floods, and Barracks prevent Pirate Raids. CAPTURE: Some, all, or none of a city's improvements may be destroyed when it is captured by another civilization. SELLING IMPROVEMENTS: You may sell an existing improvement to raise cash by pressing the sell button next to its name in the improvements roster of the city display. AQUEDUCT: Cities without an Aqueduct may not grow beyond a size of 10 population points. In addition, Aqueducts prevent the disasters of Fire and Plague. Aqueducts require the advance of Construction, cost 120 resources to build, and cost $2 per turn to maintain. BANK: Banks increase the luxuries and taxes generated by a city by 50%. Banks cost 120 resources to build and $3 per turn to maintain. BARRACKS: New units built in this city are already veterans, increasing their attack and defense factors by 50%. Barracks prevent the disaster of pirates. They disappear when you acquire the advances of Gunpowder and Combustion. SECOND generation Barracks cost $1 per turn and third generation Barracks cost $2 to maintain per turn. CATHEDRAL: A Cathedral makes four unhappy people content and is very useful for keeping a large city out of civil disorder. It costs 160 resources to build, and takes $3 to maintain per turn. CITY WALLS: City walls triple the strength of a defending unit, except when attacked by a Bomber or Artillery unit. This tripling occurs after considering the effect of terrain and veteran status. Cities defended by City Walls do not suffer population losses when a defending unit it destroyed. Walls also prevent the disaster of Flood. They cost 120 resources and requires $2 per turn to maintain. COLOSSEUM: Its presence makes 3 unhappy people content. It costs 100 resources to build, and requires $4 per turn to maintain. COURTHOUSE: This improvement reduces corruption in a city by 50%. It costs 80 resources and needs $1 per turn to maintain. FACTORY: A Factory increases the amount of resources generated by a city by 50%. They become obsolete and stop working if a Manufacturing Plant is built in the same city. It costs 200 resources to build and requires $4 per turn to maintain. The effect of a Factory may be increased by the presence of a Hydro Plant, a Nuclear Plant, or a Power Plant. It may also be increased by the Hoover Dam, a modern Wonder of the World. GRANARY: Cities possessing a Granary use up only 50% of their stored food to create new population. The storage box only half empties. In addition, the Granary prevents a Famine disaster from destroying population. The Granary requires 60 resources to build and $1 per turn to maintain. HYDRO PLANT: The production bonus for a Factory or Manufacturing Plant is doubled of the city has a Hydro Plant. In addition, a Hydro Plant reduces the probability of pollution. A Hydro Plant may only be built by a city on or near a River, Hills, or Mountains. It costs 240 resources and requires $4 per turn to maintain. LIBRARY: A Library increases the knowledge production of a city by 50%. It costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1 per turn to maintain. The effect of all Libraries in your cities is increased if you possess Isaac Newton's College, a medieval Wonder of the World. MANUFACTURING PLANT: This improvement increases the resources generated by a city by 100%. It costs 320 resources to build, and costs $6 per turn to maintain. Its presence makes and already existing Factory obsolete and the Factory ceases to work. The effect of a Manufacturing Plant may be increased by the presence of the Hydro Plant, the Nuclear Plant, the Power Plant, or the Hoover Dam. MARKETPLACE: A marketplace increases tax revenue and luxuries by 50%. The Marketplace costs 80 resources to build, and costs $1 per turn to maintain. MASS TRANSIT: In cities with Mass Transit, the population has no effect on pollution. It costs 160 resources to build, and costs $2 per turn to maintain. NUCLEAR PLANT: Like other types of power plants, the Nuclear Plant increases the production of a Factory or Manufacturing Plant by another %50. A Nuclear Plant also reduces the day-to-day probability of pollution. However, a Nuclear Plant in a city suffering civil disorder risks a nuclear meltdown. The Nuclear Plant costs 160 resources to build, and costs $2 per turn to maintain. PALACE: This is the administrative and governmental center of your civilization. The farther any city is from the city containing the Palace, the more corruption is likely. You may build a new Palace in another city, but this causes the retirement of the first Palace and relocation of the government. If your Palace is destroyed, a new one may be built in any existing city. The Palace requires 200 resources to build and costs nothing to maintain. POWER PLANT: The source of industrial power increases the resources generated by Factories and Manufacturing Plants by an additional 50%. However, it increases the probability of pollution significantly. The Power Plant costs 160 resources, and needs $4 per turn to maintain. RECYCLING CENTER: The recycling center reduces the probability of pollution by 2/3. It costs 200 resources to build and costs $2 to maintain. SDI DEFENSE: The SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Defense protects the city from Nuclear units. Attacks by these weapons have no effect. This improvement costs 200 resources and needs $4 to maintain per turn. TEMPLE: The Temple's presence makes one unhappy citizens content. With the additional advance of Mysticism, another person is made content by a Temple, for a total of two. A Temple presents the Volcano disaster. Temples cost 40 resources to build and need $1 to maintain per turn. The effect of a Temple may be doubled if your civilization possesses the Oracle, an ancient Wonder of the World. UNIVERSITY: The presence of a University increases the knowledge generated by a city by 50%. A University bonus is added to the bonus from an existing Library. Together they double the knowledge generated. Universities cost 160 resources to build and $3 to maintain. The effect of all Universities in your cities is increased if you possess Isaac Newton's College, a medieval Wonder of the World. WONDERS OF THE WORLD ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ As your civilization progresses through the years, certain advances make possible the building of Wonders of the World. There are 21 Wonders, 7 each for the three great epochs of civilization. Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Industrial Age. These Wonders are the extraordinary monuments of a civilization, bringing everlasting glory and other benefits to their owners. A Wonder is a dramatic, awe-inspiring accomplishment. It is typically a great achievement of engineering, science, or the arts, representing a milepost in the history of humankind. Each Wonder is unique, existing only in the city where it is constructed. In addition to the glory attached to owning a Wonder, each one has a specific, unique benefit. The people of your civilization are able to perform amazing feats, inspired by their pride in the possession of Wonders. The benefits of some Wonders apply only to the civilization that possesses them. If a Wonder you build is lost when one of your cities is captured, the powers of the Wonder then apply to the conquering civilization. The same holds true if you capture a Wonder. However, the benefits of the ancient Wonders and most of the Wonders of the Middle Ages may not stand for all time. Objects and accomplishments that awed the ancients may not similarly inspire the people of the Industrial Age. The achievement of later advances may end the benefits of older Wonders, regardless of whether your civilization or another makes the cancelling advance. CONSTRUCTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Each Wonder may be built once your civilization achieves a specific technology. For example, when your civilization acquires Map Making, you may begin construction of the Lighthouse. You may only build a Wonder is it does not already exist somewhere else in the world. If it exists in another city, it does not appear as an option in your production menus. If you are building a Wonder in one of your cities and the same Wonder is completed elsewhere before you finish, you cannot complete your construction. You must convert your construction to something else. Wonders are not destroyed when an enemy occupies their city. However, if a city possessing a Wonder is destroyed, than that Wonder is lost forever and cannot be rebuilt. Wonders are built in the same manner as any other city improvement with one exception. You may move a Caravan into the city of construction and accept the option "help build Wonder." All of the resources that went into the Caravan are added to the construction of the Wonder. Wonders may be built in any city and more than one may be built in the same city. EFFECTS ~~~~~~~ Each Wonder has a specific and general benefits. General benefits are the glory that accrues to your civilization for possessing the Wonder, even after new technology makes it obsolete. Each Wonder that your civilization possesses adds to your civilization score. The presence of Wonders are significant when the top 5 cities in the world are measured. The presence of Wonders also influences the historians, such as Gibbon, who periodically rate the world's civilizations. Finally, Wonders also influence the decision of the people to improve your palace. ANTIQUITY ~~~~~~~~~ COLOSSUS: The Colossus is a great bronze statue bestriding the gates or harbor mouth of the city. This amazing statue draws tourists from around the world, greatly increasing the trade of the area. Trade is +1 in every city map square that is already generating some trade. The effect on tourism stops working after development of Electricity and the trade benefit is thereafter lost. The Colossus requires the advance of Bronze Working and takes 200 resources to build. GREAT LIBRARY: Begun as a hobby by a local ruler, the Great Library is an obsession for the city. Its agents scour the world for books and manuscripts, making the Great Library the largest known repository in existence. The Great Library gives you any technology that two other civilizations have acquired. However, it stops working after development of the University. It requires the advance of Literacy and takes 300 resources to build. GREAT WALL: The Great Wall was built not so much to keep invaders out, but to retard their escape with any loot. The effect is to deter the aggressiveness of neighbors. When you possess the Great Wall, other civilizations always offer peace during negotiations. However, the effect of the Great Wall ceases after development of Gunpowder. It requires the Masonry advance and takes 300 resources to build. HANGING GARDENS: The magnificent Hanging Gardens are a great marriage of engineering and beauty. Architecturally brilliant layered tiers of gardens and ingeniously supplied with water. Any visitor is overwhelmed by the grace of this man-made garden of paradise. Possessing this beautiful monument brings great pleasure to the people of your civilization and results in a +1 happy citizen in each of your cities. This magical effect of the Hanging Gardens expires with the development of Invention because, thereafter, the gadgetry of the garden design becomes cheaply available to everyone. Knowledge of the Hanging Gardens is acquired with the advance of Pottery, and the Wonder takes 300 resources to build. LIGHTHOUSE: The construction of this immense Lighthouse not only creates the greatest navigational aid of antiquity, but triggers a birth of seafaring skills and traditions. The result is great achievements by your ships and captains. Possession of the Lighthouse increases sea movement rates by 1 SQUARE for all of your ships. However, the effect of the Lighthouse ceases working after development of Magnetism, a new navigational aid that puts competent sailing within the grasp of anyone. The Lighthouse requires the advance of Map Making and it takes 200 resources to build. ORACLE: Building the Oracle gives the beliefs of your civilization a unifying central dogma that increases the effect on its people. The auguries of the Oracle are transmitted through the local Temples, exerting significant control over their lives. The Oracle becomes available with the advance of Mysticism and doubles the effect of your Temples in making unhappy people content. It stops working after the development of Religion, which appeals to more widely to the growing literate, intelligent citizenry. The Oracle takes 300 resources to build. PYRAMIDS: The Pyramids are the greatest and oldest of the ancient Wonders. Their construction requires great government control of the entire nation to make possible the effort of their construction. A civilization that possesses the Pyramids may change government type without going through a period of Anarchy. In addition, that civilization may select any type of new government, not just those for which it has made the correct advance. The Pyramids require the advancement of Masonry and take 300 resources to build. However, the effects of the Pyramids expire after the advance of Communism is achieved. THE MIDDLE AGES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ COPERNICUS'S OBSERVATORY: Working alone on cold nights in the tower of his cathedral, this Polish priest re-established that the Sun was the center of the Solar System, not the Earth. This fact had been recognized by ancient astronomers but lost is the Dark Ages, buried under superstition and religious dogma. Copernicus's findings were controversial but proven true, and were an important step in the rebirth of Western science. Building Copernicus's Observatory doubles knowledge of production in the city, after all adjustments for Libraries, Universities, and Scientists. However, this benefit stops working after the development of the Automobile. The advance of Astronomy makes the Observatory possible. It costs 300 resources to build. DARWIN'S VOYAGE: Partially from the research accomplished on his scientific voyage aboard the Beagle to the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution that was published in his masterwork, The Origin of Species. Darwin's arguments, and those of his contemporary, Alfred Russell Wallace, were so convincing that they were only disputed on philosophical grounds, mainly by religious fundamentalists. The theory of organic evolution was the foundation of all following research in biology. The civilization that builds Darwin's Voyage immediately acquires two civilization advances. The advance of Railroads makes Darwin's Voyage possible. The Voyage costs 300 resources. ISAAC NEWTON'S COLLEGE: Considered by many to be the greatest scientist of all time, Newton developed theories of universal gravitation that explained both the motion of heavenly bodies and the falling of bodies to Earth. He also wrote important works on calculus, optics, the spectrum of light, fluid mechanics, the motion of comets, and the motion tides, and built the first reflecting telescope. For 32 years he was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University. Possessing Newton's College increases the knowledge benefit of all your Libraries and Universities. It may be built once you have acquired the Theory of Gravity, but stops working after development of Nuclear Fission. The College requires 400 resources to build. J.S. BACH'S CATHEDRAL: Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the great composers of the Western world. Born into a family of distinguished musicians, he was noted as a virtuoso performer during his life, but has become much more reversed since his passing for the genius of his music. The majority of his compositions were written while serving the church, and most pieces were written for the organ and dedicated to the glory of his God. Possessing Bach's Cathedral decreases unhappy citizens on the same continent by 2 per city. The Cathedral may be built following the advance of Religion and costs 400 resources. The power of Bach's music does not expire. MAGELLAN'S EXPEDITION: Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator, led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe. Sponsored by Charles I of Spain, he was searching for a westward route to the spice islands of the Moluccas. Along the way he discovered the straits at Cape Horn that bear his name. Unfortunately, he died in the Philippines fighting natives. Only one of his five original ships and few of his men reached home, but the expedition proved that the Earth was round. Possessing Magellan's Expedition increases sea movement rates by 1 square for all of your ships. The expedition becomes possible after the advance of Navigation and never expires. It costs 400 resources to build. MICHELANGELO'S CHAPEL: You may build the Chapel after achieving the advance of Religion. Possessing it increases the benefits of Cathedrals throughout your civilization until the advance of Communism diminishes the strength of Religion. The Chapel takes 300 resources to build. SHAKESPEARE'S THEATRE: The Theatre may be built after achieving the advance of Medicine. Thereafter, all unhappy people in the city are content, until the advance of Electronics makes the Theatre obsolete. It costs 400 resources to build. INDUSTRIAL AGE ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ APOLLO PROGRAM: The Apollo Program may be built after achieving the advance of Space Flight. It allows construction of space ships by any civilization having the technology to build parts. The Apollo Program costs 600 resources to build. CURE FOR CANCER: After the development of the advance of Genetic Engineering, you may work on the Cure for Cancer. Possessing the Cure creates a +1 happy citizen in all cities of your civilization. The Cure for Cancer costs 600 resources to build. HOOVER DAM: The Hoover Dam may be built after the advance of Electronics is acquired. The Dam provides electric power to all cities in the same continent, increasing the resources generated by the city by 50%. In addition, the Dam reduces the probability of pollution from these cities. The Hoover Dam costs 600 resources to build. MANHATTAN PROJECT: Once any civilization completes the Manhattan Project, all civilizations in the world may begin building nuclear weapons, if they have the proper technology. The Manhattan Project itself may be built once the advance if Nuclear Fission has been achieved. The Project costs 600 resources to build. SETI PROGRAM: The SETI Program may be built when your civilization acquires the advance of Computers. Thereafter, the knowledge generated by your cities increased by 50%, unless the Program is destroyed or captured by a rival. The SETI Program costs 600 resources to complete. WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE: Women's Suffrage becomes available after the advance of Mass Production. Under a Republic or Democracy, units away from their home city create one less unhappy citizen than normal for a civilization that possesses Women's Suffrage. It costs 600 resources to achieve. UNITED NATIONS: Building the United Nations is a great achievement by a civilization. It is only available after the advance of Communism. During negotiations with other civilizations, they always offer to make peace with you. This allows at least a temporary resolution to all wars you engaged in. The United Nations costs 600 resources to build. DISASTERS ~~~~~~~~~ Each game turn there is a chance that a disaster of some sort may strike one of your cities. A disaster may result in loss of pop ulation, destruction of a city improvement, or disruption of production. Some disasters may be prevented if your civilization has acquired certain advances of if the city has built a certain improvement. In these cases, the disaster does not occur or has no effect. The possible disaster are described below. For each there is an explanation of why it occurs, the effect on your city when it strikes, and what measures can prevent it, if any. EARTHQUAKE: Earthquakes may strike any city that is built adjacent to Hills terrain. There is nothing that you can build or learn to prevent this disaster. An earthquake destroys one city improvement. FAMINE: Famine strikes randomly. It can be prevented by building a Granary improvement. If it strikes a city with no Granary, all food in the food storage box is lost and the city's population is reduced. FIRE: Fire can hit any city at any time. It can be prevented by building an Aqueduct improvement. Fire destroys one city improvement. FLOOD: Flood can strike any city built adjacent to an River square. It can be prevented by building a City Wall. Flood reduces city population. PIRACY (Yeah, our favorite topic): Pirate raids may strike any city built adjacent to an Ocean square. Pirates can be prevented by building a Barrack. Pirates remove all food from the food storage box and destroy whatever is being built in the production box. All resources spent so far in production are lost. PLAGUE: Plague may strike any city at any time. It can be prevented by acquiring the advance of Medicine or by building and Aqueduct improvement. Plague reduces the city's population. VOLCANO: A volcano may erupt and damage any city built adjacent to or on Mountain terrain. The effect is a volcano may be negated by building a Temple improvement in the city. Volcanic eruptions reduce the city's population unless negated.
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