Abandonware DOS title
download 2026 DOS and Windows abandonware games

Decisive Battles of the American Civil War: Vol. 3 manual

DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Strategic Studies Group (SSG)
TUTORIAL (VOL III)

LEARNING TO PLAY THE GAME
After  the  fall of Atlanta, Confederate General  John  Bell
Hood  obtained  permission to march his army into  Tennessee
and  harass the Union forces and Sherman's supply lines.  He
chased  Union  General John M. Schofield  north  across  the
State  as  Schofield tried desperately to link up  with  the
main force under Thomas at Nashville.
At  Franklin, Schofield found the bridge across the  Harpeth
River was down so he was obliged to dig in while he repaired
it.  Hood  arrived before he could complete the  bridge  and
attempted  an immediate assault to try and take  Schofield's
force before it escaped.
John  Schofield was in a stronger position than he realised,
however,  and  his  men  managed to withstand  Hood's  fury,
despite some initial penetration of their lines.
You  are  invited, in this tutorial, to take on the role  of
John B. Hood. You will command the Army of Tennessee and see
if  you  can  do  better  than this  aggressive  Confederate
leader. Your computer will command the Union Forces.
As well as this manual, you'll need to have the data card in
front of you.

(a). Starting Up
Start  up  your computer using the procedure  given  on  the
start  side of the menu card. Menu A (Start Up Menu) appears
to  the  right of the title page. As is the case with  every
menu  in  the  game, you use the arrow keys to  locate  your
choice  from the menu and then type (RET) to select it.  IBM
users  may  alternatively use a function key to  locate  and
select a menu item. The  line in Menu A is the third
line in the menu; therefore f3 will select it. Similarly, f4
will select the  line.
If  you select the wrong menu, don't worry. Apple II and IBM
users  type (ESC) to go back to the previous menu;  C-64/128
users type (f1). IBM and Apple II users should note that the
(DEL) key will serve as the (ESC) key in most situations.
IBM  users can turn the sound on/off through Menu 12 of  the
Game Routines. Apple II and C-64 users should type Cntl  (S)
to turn on/off the sound. Apple II and C-64 users with a B&W
monitor should type Cntl (B).

(b). Selecting the Franklin Scenario
Before  we  can start play, we have to select  the  Franklin
scenario,  tell the computer that we will control the  South
forces and decide which game options we wish to use.
Use  either  arrow key to locate the   line  and  type
(RET) to go to Menu B (Location Select). At this point,  IBM
owners using 5.25" floppy disks should remove Disk One  from
the drive and replace it with Disk Two. Apple II owners with
one disk drive should remove the game disk, turn it over and
put it back in the drive.
Use  an  arrow  key to locate the  line  and  type
(RET) to go to Menu C (Scenario Menu).
Use  an  arrow  key to locate the  line  and  type
(RET)  to go to Menu E (Edit Utility). The scenario briefing
screen  is  displayed to the left of the  menu  window.  IBM
users must select the  line and then position the
cursor over the  line and type (RET).
Use an arrow key to locate the  line and type (RET) to
go  to  Menu N (Game Options). There are two (IBM) or  three
(Apple  II  and C-64) options available when  you  play  the
game.
(i). Exposed. When the exposed flag is set, all units on the
map will be visible at all times. If the exposed flag is not
set,  only  currently sighted units will be visible  on  the
battlefield.
(ii).  Enhanced (Apple II and C-64 Only). When the  enhanced
flag  is  set,  computer controlled  forces  will  be  given
certain  bonuses.  For  example, unit size,  leadership  and
staff ratings may be increased.
(iii).  Radio.  When the radio flag is set,  you  will  have
automatic communications with every unit in your command. If
the  radio  flag  is  not  set, only  those  units  directly
attached to the army HQ and within communications range  can
be given orders.
For tutorial purposes, we will choose to set the exposed and
radio flags but leave the enhanced flag alone. Position  the
cursor on the  line and type (RET). The cursor will
return  automatically to the  line. Select 
in the same way. Select  to go to Menu F (Handicap
Utility).  An Options in Effect box has appeared  below  the
menu  window showing that the exposed and radio  flags  have
been set.
Since  this  is  only a tutorial, we will give  ourselves  a
break. The handicaps below the  line benefit  the
South,  those  above  benefit the North.  The  effect  of  a
handicap is to modify the victory point awards, it does  not
affect  the  artificial intelligence nor the composition  of
the  forces. Note that the handicap structure for IBM  users
asks  you  to  select a veteran, normal or novice  opponent.
Select  a  novice.  AII/C64 users select the    south
line.
You  have  been processed through to Menu G (Player Select).
Locate the  line and type (RET). The cursor has  been
thrown into the briefing screen and you have the opportunity
to  change  the  commanders' names. Do  this  if  you  wish,
otherwise  type  (RET) until you get back to  Menu  E  (Edit
Utility).
Have  a last look at the briefing screen and you'll see  the
South  has  a  major handicap advantage (IBM users  will  be
opposed by a novice computer general), the North forces will
be  run by the computer and the exposed and radio flags  are
set.
At  this  time,  if you wish, you can observe  the  computer
playing  against itself. This will give you an idea  of  the
flow  of  the game and how the combat and movement mechanics
work.  Use  the  line of Menu E to return  to  Menu  G
(Player Select) and select .
Use  an arrow key to locate the  line and type  (RET)
to go to Menu H (Game Master).
That's  the preliminaries over with. We're just about  ready
to play.
Turn your menu card over to the game side.

(c). The First Turn
This  tutorial is a brief introduction as to  how  the  game
plays.  It is not intended to be a description of everything
that  can  happen. The Game Manual describes in  detail  the
full  use  of each menu. Once you have some experience  with
the  game menus, we recommend you read Chapter 5 in the Game
Manual   for  an  explanation  of  the  major  game  systems
controlled by the computer.
Back  to  Menu H. A current turn briefing appears above  the
menu window. The date is 30th November 1864, it is 11 am and
this is the first of the eleven turns in the game. Below the
menu  window you can see it is daylight and the  weather  is
clear.
The  map shows two Union units towards the top of the screen
and  a  single Confederate unit at the bottom. Don't  panic!
More units are on their way.
The    and   lines  in  the  menu  have  been
overprinted with a solid bar to show that you cannot  access
them.  The  solid bar will disappear from the   line
after  the  line has been accessed. This is to  guard
against  accidentally selecting  before issuing  your
orders.  The  line will always be overprinted  during
the  game. The computer does not want you to see what it  is
doing!
Locate the  line and type (RET). This brings up  Menu
2  (Operations  Master). Your choices here  are  ,
,  ,  or ,   and
 (IBM Only).
On  the  first  turn  only,  the ,    and
 lines are overprinted. This is because General Hood,
the figure you represent, does not arrive on the field until
the third turn.
The  map  has  not changed, just the information  above  and
below the menu window. Above the menu window you can see the
army I.D. Below the menu window you are given a casualty and
victory point summary. The VPs show what your score would be
if the game was to end at this moment.
The  ,  and  lines are  the  menus
you  use  to  give orders to your forces, the   line
ends the game immediately and the  line allows you
to  review  your  forces, enemy forces, the battlefield  and
objectives.  The  line displays your complete  Order
of Battle.

(d). Reviewing Your Forces
Before  issuing  orders we'll examine the  battlefield,  the
objectives and the enemy forces.
Select  the  line to go to Menu 3. The screen  has
centred  on  a hollow, flashing cursor. Use the arrow  keys,
the  I,  J, K and M or the 1-6 keys to move the cursor  over
the  map.  The map will scroll once the cursor  reaches  the
edge. Type (0) to centre the screen on the cursor.
At the very bottom of the information panel, you will see  a
three-part icon display. From left to right this  shows  you
the  type of terrain in the hex, which sections of  the  map
are  in  use  for this scenario together with  the  relative
position of the cursor and which side currently controls the
hex.  The name of the terrain type appears immediately above
the display.
Move  the cursor to Moselys Hill. It is in the northern half
of  the  map. IBM owners can use the f1 - f9 keys to  scroll
the  map  in large increments. Moselys Hill is an objective.
Its name appears above the terrain type name and its victory
point details are described.
Move  the  cursor  to any one of the Union brigades  in  the
northern  half of the battlefield. The icons at the  top  of
the  information  panel tell you it is an  infantry  brigade
while  below that you are told its formation and  condition.
Note that one of the units is Schofield's HQ.
Type (RET) to bring up the map display menu. Select ;
all  roads are removed from the map. Type (RET) to bring  up
the  menu  again  then select  to  replace  the  road
network.
 allows you to see which side controls a particular
hex.  removes all units on the map so you can see the
terrain underneath.
Objectives can be selected either by using the arrow keys to
cycle through them or entering the objective name.
Friendly units can be located by entering their name.
Move  the cursor to the Confederate cavalry brigade  at  the
bottom  of  the map. This is Biffle's cavalry  brigade  from
Chalmers' division. The information provided is mostly  self
explanatory; more details are available in Chapter 5 of  the
Game Manual.
We  can't actually give any orders yet until our HQ arrives.
Go back to Menu H and select  to end the first turn.
Turn  2 you will find is much the same as turn 1. Your enemy
is  organising  his forces while all you  can  do  is  check
things  out  with your cavalry. Life is like this sometimes!
After  making  any investigations you wish  using  the   function, go back to Menu H and select  again.

(e). Subsequent Operations
By  now your forces should be flooding on. Most importantly,
Hood himself (you!) should have arrived.
Go  back  to menu 2. The  line is the place  where
you must decide where to put your army HQ and how personally
involved  you  want  to get in the battle. Select.
Below  you  menu  window  you will  see  that  your  current
condition is OK. In the battle you can get captured, wounded
or even killed!
Select   and you will be presented  with  the  four
profiles  you  may choose from. You may change your  profile
each  turn. Your profile will not change from turn  to  turn
unless  you enter this menu and change it. You always  begin
with  the  default value set to . The  words  here
mean  pretty  much  what they say. Heroic will  inspire  all
troops  within four hexes of your position while  increasing
the  likelihood of a nasty accident. Cautious will keep  you
safe  and  sound  but  the effect  on  your  men  may  prove
disastrous.  For  this tutorial, we suggest  you  keep  your
profile on .
Select  . This is the mechanism by which  you  move
your  HQ around the map.  tells the army HQ to remain
exactly where it is.  gives you access to the cursor
so  that you can use the I,J,K,M keys, the arrow keys or the
1-6  keys  to  move your HQ to the location of your  choice.
Note  that  you  will  not be allowed  to  select  an  enemy
controlled hex as your destination.
 directs the army HQ to move as quickly as possible
to  a  friendly corps HQ for the purpose of placing it under
direct command. Because the radio flag is set, Corps HQs  do
not appear and this line will be overprinted.
  allows  you  to  chose  an  objective  as   the
destination for the army HQ, using either the arrow keys  or
the name routine.
For the moment, leave your HQ where it is.
Now  that the personal matters have been taken care of, it's
time  to  give  orders to your subordinates.  Type  (ESC/f1)
until you get back to Menu 2 and then select .  The
  line  gives  you access to  all  your  corps  and
division commanders presently on the battlefield. Note  that
because  the radio flag is set, Corps headquarters  are  not
present.   Only  division  headquarters  appear  under   the
 line.
Because  the  radio flag is set, you will be  able  to  give
orders to all your division commanders each turn. A list  of
your commanders appears in the menu window. The commander in
the  centre of the window is highlighted and information  on
his  command appears above and below the window.  All  three
have   commands with two objectives. Don't change
the commands this turn.
Go  back to Menu 2 and select the  line. You are  now
able to issue orders to all of your brigades. Again, if  the
radio  flag were not set, the number of brigades  you  would
have access to would be severely restricted. Each brigade is
identified  in  a  small  window  in  the  centre   of   the
information display. Use the arrow keys to cycle through the
brigades so far on the battlefield.
If  either of the cavalry brigades are in contact  with  the
enemy  it  would be better to withdraw them. Locate Biffle's
brigade  and  hit (RET) to bring up the brigade order  menu.
Select  . We don't want to waste our  troopers  at
this stage of the battle.
Go  back  to  menu H and select . Battle reports  are
presented  one after another and you should tap the  
bar to move on to the next report. A full explanation of the
combat  mechanics  is given in Chapter 5. Basically,  firing
units  are shown as arrows pointing in the direction of  the
target unit.
Once  the  battles are over, the computer will begin  moving
troops.  If  the exposed flag had not been set,  only  those
units visible to each other would have been seen.

(f). What To Do Next
Read  the scenario notes for this battle given later in this
booklet. You have more men than Schofield but must attack  a
very  tough position. This short scenario will give  you  an
ideal opportunity to practice the attack co-ordination vital
to  successful operations against fortifications. Experiment
with  the command and order menus. If you're uncertain about
what  to do, accept the computer's advice and do not  change
the order. Refer to Chapters 4 and 5 when necessary.

DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Strategic Studies Group (SSG)
GAME MANUAL

1. THE DECISIVE BATTLES GAME SYSTEM
Decisive Battles of the American Civil War (Vol I) recreates
six  important  battles  from the first  years  of  the  War
between the States. The American Civil War lasted four years
and its one million casualties reflect the determination and
ferocity with which it was fought. Hopelessly outnumbered in
terms  of  manpower and materiel, the thirteen  confederated
southern states kept their secession hopes alive by dint  of
commitment, superior leadership and a fair amount of luck.
The American armies which took the field in 1861 were little
more  than  untrained  militia, led for  the  most  part  by
inexperienced  officers  and clumsily  trying  to  copy  the
military systems of the major European powers.
Four  years  later these same armies were a  match  for  any
European  contemporary.  They had  evolved  new  tactics  to
accommodate the vastly increased effect of musketry  on  the
battlefield. The use of trench warfare so characteristic  of
the  Great War some 50 years later was pioneered by American
armies.  Railways were used to expedite the flow of supplies
and  reinforcements to contested areas so that for the first
time  in  the history of warfare, armies could stay  in  the
field almost all year round.
In  the end, of course, the Union triumphed. Robert E. Lee's
surrender  at Appomattox Courthouse in April of 1865  marked
the  effective end of the Confederacy. The Decisive  Battles
Game  System has been specifically designed to recreate  the
battles  of this era. Volumes II and III cover battles  from
the middle and latter years respectively.
To  get  started with the game, we recommend that you follow
this sequence.
(i). Read the specific information for your computer type in
the  scenario booklet for details on installation and start-
up.
(ii).  Play  through the introductory tutorial described  in
the scenario booklet.
(iii).  Select any scenario and start playing, referring  to
this manual as necessary. You should read the Player's Notes
for  a  particular scenario before playing it for the  first
time as they contain useful background information.
This  manual contains two major sections. Part One, The Game
Routines  explains  the operation of  the  game  system  and
contains all that you need to know to play a game. Part Two,
WarPlanÖ  explains the use of the scenario design  routines,
including  WarPaintÖ, SSG's icon and terrain  editor.  While
you  do  not need to read this section to play the game,  it
will  provide some insights into the deeper workings of  the
game  system.  In addition, we would encourage  everyone  to
find out just how easy it is to modify existing scenarios or
create original work.

2. THE TYPES OF GAME MENUS
The  order  menus which drive the game can be  divided  into
four types.
(a)  Branch Menus - These menus signpost the route to  other
menus  [2,4,7,9]. Note that most of them also  provide  some
information.
(b)   Information  Menus  -  These  menus  provide  specific
information on the various forces and functions in the  game
[3].
(c)  Action Menus - These menus are the centre of  the  game
system. All of the orders used in the game are given through
them [5,6,8,10,11,12].
(d) Single Function Menus - [1].

3. THE GAME MENUS DESCRIBED
Menu H (Game Master)
This screen always appears at the beginning of each turn. It
is  common to both players. It is the first screen you  will
see  after  completing  the scenario selection  details  and
choosing .
In  the  four lines of text above the menu window,  you  are
told the date, the time of day, the current turn number  and
the total number of turns in the game.
Below  the  menu window you are told whether it is daylight,
dawn, dusk or night and the weather condition.

Menu 1 (Save Game Utility)
This  is a single function menu which allows you to load  or
save  a  game,  change the DOS path to the current  disk  or
directory or load an 'auto saved game' if present.
To  save a game, locate the  line with the  arrow
keys  and type (RET). A large catalog window displays a list
of  current  save game files. Use an arrow key to  move  the
cursor  bar  to the location in which you wish to  save  the
game.  If that location contains an existing file, then  the
current  game will be saved over that file. Empty slots  are
marked 'free'. When you have chosen a location, type (RET).
The  menu  window now displays the  and  
lines.  Choosing  allows you to edit both the  name
of  the  game and a three line synopsis. When you are ready,
locate the  line and type (RET).
To  load  a game, choose . Use the arrow keys to  move
the  cursor bar to the desired game location and type (RET).
The chosen game will be loaded.
The  command allows you to change the current disk  or
directory  for loading and/or saving games. The  default  is
the  directory from which the game was run. When typing disk
identifiers, please type a colon (:) after the drive  letter
(e. g. B:). The path is limited to 26 characters.
Save game disks must be formatted by DOS before use.
The   command will load an auto saved game if one
is present.

Menu 2 (Operations Master)
This  is a branch menu. The information appearing above  the
menu window identifies the commander of the Army, his second
in  command  if present and the name of the Army.  The  icon
representing  the  Army  HQ  appears  to  the  left  of  the
commander's  name.  The information below  the  menu  window
tells  you how many victory points your side has accumulated
to date, a leader and troop casualty summary and whether you
have more victory points than your opponent at this point in
the  game.  IBM  users  are given  an  indication  of  their
performance  to date in the lower right of the  screen.  The
game  is  considered contested if there is less than  a  20%
difference between each side's VP total. Otherwise you  will
be told you are winning or losing.
The  menu  window  is divided into two sections.  These  are
Operations and Reports.
The   function allows IBM users access to a detailed
breakdown  of their forces. Every HQ and brigade is  listed,
along  with  their  strengths,  artillery  complements   and
current  condition. Destroyed and reinforcing  brigades  are
included.  Use the arrow, home, end, or Pg Up/Down  keys  to
locate  individual units or to page through the report.  Hit
(RET)  to select the unit high-lighted by the menu bar.  The
game  map  appears  with the cursor identifying  the  chosen
unit. Note that brigades have a 9-character I.D. in the  IBM
version.
We  recommend  that you examine the   menu  before
issuing  instructions, especially while you're learning  the
game.
Note  that  this  same  function is  available  in
several menus to make information easier to access.
If  you select , IBM users will be given access  to
five  optional  features. Menu 12  will  give  you  all  the
details.  Apple  II/C-64  users  have  the     line
replaced with . The  option is for use when,
for whatever reason, you wish to end the game. The game will
stop and the end of game screen will be printed. You will be
prompted to avoid accidental resignations.

Menu 3 (Map Walk)
This  is  an information menu. On selecting   from
Menu 2, 8, 10 or 11, the cursor is thrown into the map.  Use
the  I,J,K,M keys, the arrow keys or the 1-6 keys  to  march
the  cursor across the map which will scroll once the cursor
reaches  the  edge.  Type (0) to centre the  screen  on  the
cursor.
At  any time you may type (RET) to bring up the menu window.
You  may examine the ownership of hexes, examine the terrain
by  temporarily clearing units from the map or  examine  the
terrain masked by the road network.
You  may move the cursor from objective to objective  either
by naming the objective you wish to go to or using the arrow
keys to cycle through them.
You may also move the cursor from unit to unit by naming the
unit  you wish to go to. The term unit describes any  combat
formation, either brigade or HQ.
Use  the  arrow keys to select the piece of information  you
wish to examine and then type (RET). To terminate a display,
type (RET) to replace the cursor in the menu window, use the
arrow  keys to select the display you wish to turn  off  and
type (RET) again to complete the process.
More  than one display may be examined at the same time.  Be
warned, however, that in some cases the information from one
display will overprint another. Once you have finished, type
(ESC/f1)  to return to Menu 2. All displays will  be  turned
off.
You  can  (and  should) use this menu to get information  on
enemy  units.  It  is  also useful  for  examining  terrain,
especially in active portions of the map, and as a source of
information  on  the  condition  of  friendly   units.   The
information  appearing  to right of the  map  describes  the
contents   of  the  hex  identified  by  the  cursor.   What
information you see depends upon what is in the hex.
The  majority of hexes will be empty, nor will an  objective
be  present. For these hexes, you will be told the  movement
point  cost for entering the hex, how much natural cover  or
protection  the  hex  will offer  to  an  occupant  and  the
expected  visibility or sighting into or  through  the  hex.
Below  this information, the terrain type is named and below
this  name  is a three-part iconic display. In the left-hand
compartment you are shown the terrain icon for the  hex.  In
the centre compartment you are shown a schematic summary  of
the  location  of  the  cursor  in  relation  to  the  whole
battlefield.  In the right-hand compartment the  nationality
icon of the side controlling the hex is displayed.
If  an  active objective is present in the hex,  the  middle
part  of  the report will display its details. You are  told
for  which turns the objective is active, how many turns you
have  held  the  objective to date and  the  number  of  VPs
awarded for its control, both on a per turn basis and at end
of game. The name of the objective appears above the terrain
type name.
If  an enemy unit is present in the hex, the top part of the
report  will  display its details. You are shown  an  iconic
representation of the enemy unit. Underneath  this  you  are
told  whether the unit is in line or column and  whether  it
appears  steady or shaken. A unit is shaken when its current
cohesion   value  is  3  or  less,  unless  it  occupies   a
fortification.
As  you can see by moving the cursor around the maps, all of
these displays are separate from each other. However, when a
friendly  unit  occupies  a hex,  all   information  on  the
display  except  for  the terrain name  and  the  three-part
iconic display are replaced with data on the friendly unit.
A brigade report contains the following information. A boxed
display  identifies the brigade, its type  and  its  current
order. At the top of the screen you are shown the HQ icon of
the formation to which the brigade is attached. The name  of
this HQ, its current order and the objective, if any, it has
been  directed  to are also displayed. Where two  objectives
are  shown,  you  should read this as the  second  objective
being  the real one. The first objective simply defines  the
line of march.
There are four separate icons directly above the brigade ID.
They  provide a simple summary of the status of the brigade.
From  left to right the icons display the brigade type icon,
whether  the  brigade is shattered or occupies a battlefield
entrenchment or fortification, whether the brigade is within
the  communication  range  of its superior  HQ  and  finally
whether  an  order has been issued to the brigade  for  this
turn.
Below  the  brigade ID are details of the brigade's  current
effective strength (rounded off to the nearest 100 men), the
number of guns attached to the brigade, the current cohesion
level  and  the  experience and leadership  ratings  of  the
brigade.
In Summary
A  summary  of  the  effects of the   menu  appear
below.
Control.  All terrain icons are replaced with the  Union  or
Confederate  control  icon. Hexes containing  units  do  not
display  a control icon; in every case a hex occupied  by  a
unit  will  be  controlled by that unit. It is difficult  to
overstate  how important hex control is in the play  of  the
game. Units in friendly territory are not usually visible to
the opposing player.
Roads. The road network is temporarily removed to reveal the
hex types underneath.
Clear.  All  units are temporarily removed from the  map  to
reveal the hex types underneath.
Name Objective. A cursor appears above the menu window. Type
in  the name of the objective you wish to examine. Once  the
computer  has  enough letters to distinguish it  from  other
objectives,  the  screen  and cursor  will  centre  on  that
objective.
Cycle Objective. The cursor appears on the nearest objective
and  from there the arrow keys are used to cycle the  cursor
from one objective to the next.
Name  Unit. A cursor appears above the menu window. Type  in
the  name of the unit you wish to examine. Once the computer
has  enough letters to distinguish it from other units,  the
screen and cursor will centre on that unit.

Menu 4 (Army Master)
This  is  a  branch  menu. The screen has  centred  on  your
present location; i.e. your Army HQ. If the Army HQ has  not
yet  arrived on the battlefield, the screen will  centre  on
its scheduled arrival hex. The Army ID is repeated above the
menu  window while the personal status of the Army commander
and  his  second in command is given below the  window.  The
army leaders can be OK, wounded, captured or killed.
You  use  this menu to choose the location you wish to  send
your  Army HQ to and to select the personal profile you wish
to adopt for the next hour of the battle.

Menu 5 (Move Army HQ)
This  is an action menu. There are four mechanisms by  which
you can move your Army HQ.
Position  the  cursor  over the   line  and  type
(RET). You will be allowed to name the objective you wish to
move  your Army HQ to or use the arrow keys to cycle through
the  available objectives until you locate the one  of  your
choice. Only objectives currently under friendly control may
be selected.
Position the cursor over the  line and type (RET).
The pinwheel appears in the menu window and you may select a
Corps  HQ  from it. The Army HQ will move to the  Corps  HQ.
This line will be overprinted with a solid bar if there  are
no corps under your command.
While an Army HQ occupies a hex adjacent to the Corps HQ and
its  last move order was to that Corps HQ, it assumes direct
command  of  the formations subordinate to the Corps  HQ  as
though they were its own.
If  none  of the above mechanisms will allow you  move  your
Army  HQ  to its desired location, position the cursor  over
the   line and type (RET). You will be given control
over the cursor appearing on your current Army HQ location.
Use the arrow keys, the 1-6 keys or the I,J,K,M keys to move
the  cursor to the chosen location and then type (RET). Only
hexes  under friendly control may be selected. Your Army  HQ
has now been ordered to that location.
If  you  wish  to  cancel an Army HQ  move  or  to  halt  HQ
movement, select .
Once  ordered  to  move, an Army HQ will take  the  quickest
route  to its chosen destination and become stationary  once
it   reaches   that  location.  Remember  that   the   staff
effectiveness  rating  of  your Army  HQ  will  be  slightly
reduced while it is moving. A careful commander will do  his
best to keep HQ movement to a minimum.
An Army HQ may directly supersede the orders of any friendly
brigade  within four hexes of its location as  explained  in
subsequent menu descriptions. Similarly, your Army HQ  staff
rating is temporarily reduced when enemy brigades are within
five  hexes of the HQ's location. You should keep these  two
points in mind when positioning your Army HQ.

Menu 6 (Personal Profile)
This is an action menu. Basically, you must choose the level
of  personal danger you wish to expose yourself to  for  the
next  hour.  There are pros and cons for each  choice.  Your
choice  will  remain  active  until  you  change  it  in   a
subsequent  hour  or  conditions  make  it  ineligible.  The
default profile is sensible.
Heroic.  You will only be allowed to choose this profile  if
there is a targeted friendly brigade within four hexes.  You
and  a  small escort are considered to have moved  into  the
front line to personally direct the battle.
For  the  hour  immediately following your  decision  to  be
heroic, there will be a temporary reduction in your Army  HQ
staff  value. As compensation, all targeted brigades  within
three  hexes  of your Army HQ will receive a  combat  bonus.
Leading  by  example  may  be the  only  way  to  prevent  a
disaster.  However, the cost of courage is  not  cheap.  You
will be exposed to enemy fire and bayonet point. You run the
risk   of  being  wounded,  incapacitated  or  even  killed.
Furthermore,  the  rest  of  your  Army  will  be  virtually
leaderless until you return to your Army HQ. You will not be
allowed  to select a heroic profile after the Army commander
has  suffered  either a killed, wounded or  captured  combat
result.
To  put this profile in perspective, you should find that in
most of your battles you never have to select it!
Bold.   You  will only be allowed to choose this profile  if
there  is a targeted friendly brigade within four hexes.  In
this case, you remain at your HQ and have chosen to maintain
a high profile for the purpose of stiffening your men.
A  small  combat  bonus  is conferred on  targeted  friendly
brigades  within  four hexes at a cost  of  some  danger  to
yourself and a slightly reduced staff efficiency
This profile should be selected when all is going well (i.e.
you   have  no  need  to  send  off  new  orders   to   your
subordinates)  and you wish to get your men off  to  a  good
start.
Sensible.  You have chosen to expose yourself to the  normal
level   of   danger   present  on  the  nineteenth   century
battlefield.  This is roughly equivalent to a 2%  chance  of
being  killed  or  wounded in a normal day's  fighting.  All
brigades  within  command radius of  your  Army  HQ  may  be
stiffened  by your presence or they may ignore you.  In  any
case, your staff effectiveness rating will not be affected.
Cautious.  The difference between a cautious profile  and  a
sensible  profile is small. By selecting a cautious  profile
you  are  reducing the risk of personal danger to zero.  You
also  give up all chance of inspiring your men. There is  no
change  to  your staff effectiveness rating. You should  not
confuse  cautious  with  cowardly; I'm  sure  there  are  no
Schimmelpfennigs (a luckless Union General found hiding in a
pig-sty after the Battle of Gettysburg) playing this game.
Which  of the two latter profiles you choose will depend  on
the  local situation. It really boils down to how lucky  you
feel.

Menu 7 (HQ Select)
This is a single function menu. The pinwheel appears in  the
menu window and you may use the arrow keys to select any  of
the  Corps or Division HQs directly subordinate to your Army
HQ.  Note that Division HQs subordinate to Corps HQs do  not
appear  in  the pinwheel unless your Army HQ is  temporarily
directing  the  Corps HQ as explained in  Menu  5.  Brigades
never  appear in the pinwheel. If the radio flag is on  then
Corps  headquarters are not used in the game.  The  pinwheel
bar  identifies the HQ which is centred on the  screen.  The
information available for each subordinate HQ is as follows.
The  top two lines of the screen show the ID of the  HQ  and
its current command, either offensive, defensive or reserve.
A HQ with an offensive command can have up to two objectives
displayed beneath its ID. A HQ with a defensive command will
have  one  objective displayed below its ID.  A  HQ  with  a
reserve  command  will have no objectives displayed  beneath
its ID.
There  are  four  separate  icons directly  above  the  menu
window. They provide a simple summary of the command  status
of  the  HQ.  From left to right the icons display  the  on-
screen HQ icon (corps or division), the HQ type (infantry or
cavalry),  whether the HQ is within the communication  range
of the Army HQ and finally whether a command has been issued
to  the  HQ for this turn. Obviously, a HQ cannot receive  a
command while it is out of communication.
Below  the menu window you are told the leadership and staff
ratings   of   the  HQ.  If  the  HQ  commander   has   been
incapacitated  (i.e. killed, wounded or captured)  then  the
leadership line will tell you there is a new commander.  You
are  not told how capable he is! To issue a command  to  the
selected HQ, type (RET).

Menu 8 (HQ Order)
This is an action menu. It is used to give the HQ its orders
for the next hour.
HQs  which  are out of communication with the Army  HQ  will
only  be  able to access the  line in the menu.  A
message in the menu box will inform you that the HQ  is  out
of  command. HQs which are in communication with the Army HQ
will  have access to the full range of options in the  menu.
There  are  three command types, the effects  of  which  are
explained below. Note that the chosen command type will have
an effect on both communications and combat.
The  Offensive Command. An offensive command allows the Army
commander  to  select either a friendly or enemy  controlled
objective  as  the destination for the HQ.  Furthermore,  an
additional objective may be specified to define the route of
march.
Position the cursor on the  line and type  (RET).
You can use the arrow keys or the name routine to locate the
chosen  objective. Type (RET) to accept the objective.  When
issuing  this command, you must specify the manoeuvre  point
as  the first objective and the intended destination as  the
second  objective. If you don't need to include a  manoeuvre
point,  you  must type (RET) twice. Once you have  completed
this routine, you are returned to Menu 7.
A  corps HQ which has been given this command will check its
subordinate  formations  and, where necessary,  amend  their
orders  to  comply  with the new command. How  quickly  this
happens;  indeed, whether it happens at all will  depend  on
the  leadership rating of the corps HQ. The corps HQ  itself
will  accompany one of its subordinates. Note  that  the  HQ
icon  is  not  allowed to enter enemy controlled  territory.
Remember that to supersede the authority of a corps HQ  over
its subordinates, you will have to select that corps HQ from
Menu 5 and wait until you are adjacent to it.
A division HQ which has been given this command will execute
it  as  soon as conditions allow. A poor division  commander
may  take longer to obey his command than a capable officer.
A  division in contact with the enemy may take some time  to
disengage.
Once  a  formation reaches its destination it will  `listen'
and  look  for enemy units. Should any be detected within  5
hexes,  then the formation will march to engage  them;  i.e.
they  will  march  to  the  sound of  the  guns.  Note  that
formations  subordinate  to a corps  HQ  may  not  all  take
exactly  the  same route as specified for the corps  HQ  nor
will  they  all  select the same objective; they  will  not,
however,  stray very far away. If there are  no  visible  or
audible enemy, then the formation will deploy to defend  its
objective(s).
Do  not attempt a major redeployment of engaged troops.  You
will almost certainly end up with a disaster.
The  Defensive Command. A defensive command allows the  Army
commander to select a friendly controlled objective  as  the
destination  for the HQ. You will not have access  to  enemy
controlled objectives.
Position the cursor on the  line and type  (RET).
You can use the arrow keys or the name routine to locate the
chosen  objective. Type (RET) to accept the objective.  Once
you have completed this routine, you are returned to Menu 7.
The  command  is implemented much the same as the  offensive
command  except  that formations which  have  reached  their
destination will not march to the sound of the guns but will
deploy  and defend their objective. There is always a  small
chance that a commander who is out of communication with his
superior will spontaneously decide to march to the sound  of
the guns.
The   Reserve  Command.  A  reserve  command  instructs  the
subordinate HQ to withdraw from action and rest or simply to
wait in place until the appropriate time for its employment.
A  corps HQ with a reserve command will usually call off any
attacks made by its subordinates. Offensive commands will be
changed  to  defensive  or  reserve  commands  depending  on
circumstances.
A  division  HQ  will  instruct its  component  brigades  to
withdraw  from action where applicable and to  recover  lost
cohesion.  Brigade  responses  are  covered  in  the   notes
accompanying the description of Menus 10 and 11.
Note  that cavalry formations will generally continue  in  a
screening  role until a deterioration in their own condition
compels a withdrawal.
Do  not  confuse  the HQ reserve command  with  the  brigade
reserve order. They are quite different.
Special  Note.  On the first am turn of any  day  after  the
first day of a battle, you may be allowed access to all  the
corps  and division HQs subordinate to the army HQ. See  the
note in Chapter 6 for more details.
Menu 9 (Brigade Select)
This  is an information menu. Brigades are the combat  units
in the game. All of the actual fighting is done by them. The
orders which they can be given are generally dependent  upon
their  current circumstances. The information given here  on
each  brigade is exactly the same as you see when you access
the  brigade through the  routine. Use  the  arrow
keys to cycle through the brigades.
When  the   flag is set for a scenario, all  brigades
can be accessed by the army HQ from this menu. When the flag
is  not  used  (thus recreating a more authentic  nineteenth
century  battlefield), only certain brigades can be accessed
by the army HQ through this menu.
These brigades are: all brigades which are directly attached
to  the  army  HQ and which are in communication  (including
brigades  directly  attached  to  a  corps  which  is  being
temporarily superseded by the army HQ); all brigades  within
4 hexes of the army HQ which are in communication, no matter
to whom they are subordinated.
Note  that  those  brigades  within  four  hexes  which  are
subordinated  to  a corps or division HQ  will  display  the
order  which their commander has chosen for them this  turn.
You may override the order if you wish.
Independent brigades attached directly to the army HQ  which
are  out of communication cannot be accessed at all and  you
will have to rely on their commanders to do the right thing.
Note  that  you may always access every brigade through  the
 routine;  you just won't be able to tell it to do
anything.
Once  you  have selected the brigade you wish to  assign  an
order  to,  type (RET) to bring up the brigade  order  menu.
There  are two distinct brigade order menus. Which  one  you
get is determined by your proximity to enemy units.
A  brigade adjacent to an enemy brigade will always use  the
engaged  order menu. A brigade within two hexes of an  enemy
brigade  will  generally  use the engaged  order  menu.  The
exceptions are when a river, bridge or ford intervenes, when
the  friendly brigade is unsighted or when a prohibited  hex
intervenes.  A  brigade more than two hexes  away  from  all
enemy brigades will always use the manoeuvre order menu.
An  engaged  brigade is distinguished on the screen  from  a
to whom they are subordinated.
Note  that  those  brigades  within  four  hexes  which  are
subordinated  to  a corps or division HQ  will  display  the
order  which their commander has chosen for them this  turn.
You may override the order if you wish.
Independent brigades attached directly to the army HQ  which
are  out of communication cannot be accessed at all and  you
will have to rely on their commanders to do the right thing.
Note  that  you may always access every brigade through  the
 routine;  you just won't be able to tell it to do
anything.
Once  you  have selected the brigade you wish to  assign  an
order  to,  type (RET) to bring up the brigade  order  menu.
There  are two distinct brigade order menus. Which  one  you
get is determined by your proximity to enemy units.
A  brigade adjacent to an enemy brigade will always use  the
engaged  order menu. A brigade within two hexes of an  enemy
brigade  will  generally  use the engaged  order  menu.  The
exceptions are when a river, bridge or ford intervenes, when
the  friendly brigade is unsighted or when a prohibited  hex
intervenes.  A  brigade more than two hexes  away  from  all
enemy brigades will always use the manoeuvre order menu.
An  engaged  brigade is distinguished on the screen  from  a
to whom they are subordinated.
Note  that  those  brigades  within  four  hexes  which  are
subordinated  to  a corps or division HQ  will  display  the
order  which their commander has chosen for them this  turn.
You may override the order if you wish.
Independent brigades attached directly to the army HQ  which
are  out of communication cannot be accessed at all and  you
will have to rely on their commanders to do the right thing.
Note  that  you may always access every brigade through  the
 routine;  you just won't be able to tell it to do
anything.
Once  you  have selected the brigade you wish to  assign  an
order  to,  type (RET) to bring up the brigade  order  menu.
There  are two distinct brigade order menus. Which  one  you
get is determined by your proximity to enemy units.
A  brigade adjacent to an enemy brigade will always use  the
engaged  order menu. A brigade within two hexes of an  enemy
brigade  will  generally  use the engaged  order  menu.  The
exceptions are when a river, bridge or ford intervenes, when
the  friendly brigade is unsighted or when a prohibited  hex
intervenes.  A  brigade more than two hexes  away  from  all
enemy brigades will always use the manoeuvre order menu.
An  engaged  brigade is distinguished on the screen  from  a
manoeuvre  brigade by the fact that the intended  target  of
the engaged brigade is identified by the battle cursor.

Menu 10 (Engaged Order)
This  is  an action menu. The engaged order menu appears  at
the bottom of the information panel. Some of the information
concerning the brigade has changed.
The  top  four  lines show the type of enemy unit  targeted,
whether   it  is  in  column  or  line  formation  (mounted/
dismounted  for cavalry, limbered/unlimbered for  artillery)
and whether it is steady or shaken. A brigade will be shaken
if  its  cohesion  is  less  than  4  unless  it  is  in   a
fortification.
The  four  status icons and the brigade ID  do  not  change.
There   is   some  additional  information  concerning   the
equipment  of  the brigade. You are told both  the  type  of
small arms and the type of artillery used by the brigade.
The  routine is identical to the routine available
through  Menu  2.  Below the  line  are  the  four
options available to an engaged brigade.
Note  that  a  surprised  brigade will  have  these  options
replaced  with a message that informs him of his  bad  luck.
Only  brigades  moving in column can be surprised.  Brigades
which are encamped are always considered to be in column for
this purpose.
To  select an option, position the cursor on the appropriate
line  and type (RET). You will be returned directly to  Menu
9. The four options are.
Assault.  This option is available to all brigades  adjacent
to  their  targeted enemy opponent unless a  river  hex-side
intervenes. It is a full-scale brigade charge combined  with
a volley of musketry. The targeted enemy brigade will almost
always  fire  before  the charge goes  in  so  that  a  well
positioned,   determined  defender  is  very  difficult   to
dislodge  on a one-on-one basis. If you are not adjacent  to
your  opponent, you will be denied access to  the  
line.
Skirmish.  This  option is always available when  the  enemy
brigade  is  two hexes away. It may or may not be  available
when the enemy brigade is adjacent. Your brigade is told  to
stand  and  fire at its opponent when he is adjacent  or  to
send  a  couple of regiments forward to harass your opponent
if he is two hexes distant.
This  is  the order which gives you the best chance to  fire
first,  particularly  if you did not move  in  the  previous
turn.  The artillery component of a brigade cannot  fire  if
the brigade moved in the previous turn unless the brigade is
cavalry.
If   you   are  adjacent  to  your  opponent,   not   in   a
fortification, not separated by a bridge, ford or river hex-
side  and  the  combined cover values of your hex  and  your
opponent's hex are less than 4, you will be denied access to
the  line.
Advance.  This  option is always available  when  the  enemy
brigade  is two hexes away. It is also available  when  your
opponent is adjacent and separated from you by a river  hex-
side.  Where  possible, the order will move you adjacent  to
your opponent. The brigade will deliver a volley of musketry
but  generally not until all stationary brigades have  fired
first.  Use  this order to get into position to  deliver  an
assault.
Withdraw.  This is the only option which is always available
to  an  engaged brigade, regardless of whether it is one  or
two  hexes  away. The brigade will attempt to  move  out  of
contact  with both its opponent and any other enemy present.
A  cavalry  brigade  given a withdraw order  will  fight  as
though it had a skirmish order but move as though it  had  a
withdraw order.

Menu 11 (Manoeuvre Order)
This is an action menu. The manoeuvre order menu appears  at
the bottom of the information panel. Some of the information
concerning the brigade has changed.
The  information above the brigade ID does not change. Below
the  brigade ID you are told whether the brigade is in  line
or      column     (mounted/dismounted     for      cavalry,
limbered/unlimbered for artillery), its size  and  artillery
strength,  the number of movement points available  for  the
coming  turn  and the maximum number of hexes  it  may  move
regardless of its MP allowance.
The  routine is identical to the routine available
through  Menu  2.  Below the   line  are  the  six
options  available  to  a manoeuvre  brigade.  Note  that  a
manoeuvre brigade cannot be surprised.
Column/Objective.  A brigade attached  to  a  division  will
display the  line, a brigade attached to a corps  or
army HQ will display the  line.
This  means that a brigade attached to a division cannot  be
given a separate objective; placing it in column will direct
it   to  the  current  objective  of  its  division  HQ.  An
independent brigade may be given a separate objective.
Position the cursor on the  line and type (RET). You
will be returned directly to Menu 9. Position the cursor  on
the  line and type (RET). The cursor will move to
the map and centre on the brigade's last objective. If there
is  no last objective, the cursor will centre on the nearest
objective. Use the arrow keys or the name routine to  locate
the  chosen  objective and type (RET). You will be  returned
directly to Menu 9.
Deploy. This order allows the commander a one hex radius  in
which to reposition the brigade. Position the cursor on  the
  line and type (RET). The cursor will move  to  the
map  and centre on the brigade. The brigade icon will  flash
alternately with an indicator icon to show the direction the
brigade will move in.
Use  the arrow keys to redirect the indicator icon and  type
(RET)  when  it  is facing in the chosen direction.  Once  a
direction has been chosen, the indicator icon will disappear
to  be replaced with an action icon over the chosen hex.  In
the  ensuing  turn,  the  brigade will  move  into  the  hex
identified by the action icon.
Regroup. A brigade with a regroup order will attempt to move
as  quickly  as  possible to its superior HQ.  Position  the
cursor  over the  line and type (RET). You will  be
returned directly to Menu 9. A brigade to which the division
HQ  is  attached cannot regroup; rather it will act  as  the
locus for regrouping by other brigades in the division.
Stand. A brigade with a stand order will stay exactly  where
it  is.  Position the cursor over the  line and  type
(RET). You will be returned directly to Menu 9.
Reserve.  A  brigade  must  be in reserve  to  recover  lost
cohesion.  Never miss an opportunity to put a  brigade  into
reserve  if  its  cohesion is fair or  worse.  Position  the
cursor  over the  line and type (RET). You will  be
returned  directly to Menu 9. Brigades in reserve  will  not
move  and  are  automatically surprised if  they  enter  the
engaged  order routines. Shattered brigades cannot  go  into
reserve  if  their cohesion is 4 or greater. Other  brigades
cannot go into reserve if their cohesion is 6 or greater.
Brigades  with objective/column or regroup orders will  move
in  column  (mounted for cavalry, unlimbered for artillery).
If  they  are  forced into the engaged order routines  while
they  have  these  orders, there is a  chance  they  may  be
surprised.  The  higher the leadership and  experience,  the
lower the chance of being surprised. A surprised brigade  is
considered  to  have  had insufficient time  to  deploy  for
combat and suffers accordingly.
Battlefield  entrenchments can be dug  by  certain  infantry
brigades. A side must be specified in the briefing setup  as
capable  of entrenchment. If this is the case, then infantry
brigades which do not move or fire in a particular turn  may
dig   a  battlefield  entrenchment.  The  entrenchment  will
disappear as soon as the brigade leaves the hex or is  given
an  assault order. Shattered brigades will not benefit  from
entrenchments.  Battlefield  entrenchments  are  treated  as
fortifications with a value ranging from 1 - 3.

Menu 12 (Options)
There are five options available.
The    line will tell you the final  score  if  the
scenario were to end at this point. Hit any key to return to
the options menu.
The    line will display a couple of  paragraphs  of
handy  hints for the scenario. Hit any key to return to  the
options menu.
The  line operates as explained in Menu 2.
The  line toggles the sound on/off.
The   line activates the Auto Save feature.  When
Auto  Save is on, the scenario in play will be saved at  the
end of each turn. Only one file is maintained and it is over-
written  each turn with the current turn. This file  can  be
loaded using the  line in Start Menu C.

4. THE GAME SYSTEMS
The major systems which operate within the game are sighting
(visibility),   communications,   combat,    cohesion    and
manoeuvre.  There  is quite a bit of inter-relation  between
these  systems but for ease of clarification they have  been
discussed separately.
To  play the game, all you need to know is what the menus do
and  how to use them. To understand what is going on  behind
the  scenes and to play the game well, you should read  this
chapter carefully.

Sighting
After a couple of introductory games, most people will  want
to  play the game with the  flag switched off.  Not
knowing  where all your opponent's troops are,  not  knowing
how  many he has, add a completely new dimension to the play
of the game.
The  sighting rules work like this. There are two mechanisms
by  which a unit may be sighted. The first is by the eyeball
contact of a friendly unit, the second is by a patrol picket
represented  in the game by the hex control  icons  you  can
observe in the  routine.
Each  terrain type on the map has a cover value assigned  to
it.  These values can be found from the   routine.
The  computer  sums the cover values between  each  friendly
unit  and every enemy unit within five hexes, including both
the  hex  occupied by the friendly unit and the hex occupied
by the enemy unit.
The  sighting value is increased by 4-15 points for each  of
the  following conditions which apply; overcast, rain, snow,
dawn, dusk, night, heavy fog and light fog.
The  sighting  value is increased by 8 for each  intervening
hex.  A random number of 0-7 is added. If the final sighting
value   is   less  than  56,  the  enemy  unit  is  sighted.
Furthermore, the maximum sighting range at night or in heavy
fog  is  one hex. As you can see, it is possible for a  unit
which  sights  an  enemy unit to remain undetected  by  that
enemy unit!
A  sighting  check is made at the end of each turn  and  all
units  which  have  been sighted by this  mechanism  are  so
flagged and become visible on the map.
The  second  mechanism for sighting has nothing to  do  with
enemy  units or terrain type. Whenever a friendly unit moves
adjacent to an enemy control icon, it is flagged as picketed
and immediately becomes visible on the screen.
Simultaneously with this, as the friendly unit moves  across
the  map, it switches the control icon of every hex adjacent
to its path except hexes across a river, bridge or ford hex-
side  and hexes adjacent to an enemy unit. For example,  you
would  only see the first unit of a column of troops  moving
along a road which was enemy controlled at the start of  the
turn.  It  would be up to you to decide if the force  was  a
single brigade or a whole corps!
A  picket  check  is made every time a unit  moves  and  the
picket  flag  is  set  as  soon  as  a  positive  result  is
triggered.
At  the  beginning of each turn, the sighting status of  all
units  is  updated.  All units with the  picketed  flag  set
become  unsighted.  All  units with the  sighting  flag  set
become picketed.

Communications
When  you play the game with the  flag set, there  is
no need to worry about communications at all. You are always
in  control  of  every HQ and brigade in your force.  Again,
however,  after you have played a couple of games, you  will
want to experience a more authentic battle environment.
Switching  the  flag off will introduce  you  to  the
frustrations  and  challenges of the  pre-twentieth  century
battlefield.  With  both  the   and    flags
switched off, you can be sure of a very exciting experience.
At  the beginning of each turn, every brigade and HQ on  the
board except for the army HQ makes a check with its superior
formation. As a result of this check, every brigade  and  HQ
will  be  either  in communication or out of  communication.
Army HQs are always considered in communication. Troops  yet
to   arrive   on   the  battlefield  are   always   out   of
communication.
Whether  a  brigade  or  HQ is in communication  or  out  of
communication is displayed in its status report as described
in Menus 7 and 9.
The mechanism by which this judgement is made is as follows.
The  distance  between  the unit and its  superior  unit  is
measured in hexes and cross-referenced to the communications
table.  The  number  obtained is the  base  chance  measured
against  a random 15 (i.e. a number between 0 and  15)  that
the unit will be in communication.
There  are  several variables which modify the  base  chance
before  it  is checked against the random number. Note  that
the base chance can never fall below 0; i.e. there is always
at   least  1  chance  in  16  that  a  unit  will   be   in
communication.
Time of Day. Night (-4), dawn, dusk (-2).
Weather. Rain, snow, heavy fog (-3), drizzle, light  fog  (-
1).
Staff Rating. Add the staff value of the testing unit's HQ.
Corps Modifiers. Infantry corps (0), cavalry corps (+4)
Division  Modifiers. Infantry division (0), cavalry division
(+6), army HQ (+2), corps HQ (0).
Brigade  Modifiers. Infantry brigade (0), mounted  infantry,
artillery brigade (+6), cavalry brigade (+8), army HQ  (+2),
corps HQ (1), division HQ (0).
Miscellaneous  Modifiers. For army HQs: -2 if enemy  brigade
within 4 hexes, -1 if moved last turn, -3 if heroic,  -1  if
bold; for corps HQs: -1 if enemy brigade within three hexes,
-1 if offensive command.

First am Turn Provisions
On  the  first move turn of each day after the first day  of
the  battle,  there  may be a special opportunity  to  issue
commands  to  corps and division HQs. If there have  been  6
consecutive  no  move  turns (i.e. the  move  value  in  the
briefing  routine  is set to 0, then  an  army  HQ  will  be
allowed access to all on-map HQs for command purposes.  This
is  to  simulate  the nightly briefing which would  (should)
have occurred.
An army commander will have the most control over his forces
when  his  army  HQ  is not engaged, is stationary  and  the
weather  is good. The more you move around, the more closely
you  get involved in the action, then the more tenuous  will
be your control over your troops.
You   must  strike  the  right  balance  between  committing
yourself personally and directing your army efficiently. The
player  who does this consistently better than his  opponent
will win.

Combat
After  you  have issued commands and orders to your  troops,
the  first on-screen events you will witness after selecting
the  line are the combat reports. The target unit  of
each  battle  is  identified by  the  action  icon  and  all
brigades attacking it are identified by indicator icons.
The  information panel describes the battle represented  on-
screen  by  the  combat  icons. The  attacker's  information
always appears above the defender's information.
The  combined  strength of all attacking brigades  is  shown
together  with the defending brigade's strength. The  combat
result is shown as a number of hits and a cohesion loss.
The relationship between hits and cohesion is detailed later
in this section and an explanation of cohesion provided in a
later section. Leaders may be killed, wounded or captured.
Firstly,  you  need to know who fights who,  in  what  order
these  fights are carried out and what factors are  used  to
calculate fire and melee values.
Target Selection. Only brigades select targets. Brigades and
HQs may be selected as targets. Each brigade must select one
eligible  enemy unit within its range as its target.  Target
selecting  priorities are as follows. Note that occasionally
they will be violated to reflect the uncertainty of war.
Each brigade will select the closest enemy brigade.
Each  brigade  will select an untargeted  enemy  brigade  in
preference to an already targeted enemy brigade.
Each  brigade  will  select  a  deployed  enemy  brigade  in
preference to an enemy brigade in column.
Obviously, this routine is used only when there is more than
one potential target.
In summary, this means that adjacent enemy units will almost
always  be chosen in preference to more distant enemy  units
and  that  multiple  brigades cannot gang  up  on  a  single
brigade unless it is alone.
Sequence  of  Attack.  Each  brigade  fires  and/or   melees
separately.  For  convenience of combat reporting,  however,
all  attacks  against  a  single unit  are  displayed  as  a
combined attack. The screen would look too messy if  we  did
it  any other way. We tried several display systems. What we
ended  up  with is by far the best. There is no  distinction
between sides in these combat routines.
Not  every brigade which selected an opponent in the  target
selection  routine is actually eligible to attack. Artillery
brigades  which  moved in the preceding  turn  cannot  fire.
Similarly, the artillery component of non-artillery brigades
which moved last turn will not contribute to their brigade's
fire value unless the brigade type is cavalry.
All   other  attacking  brigades  fall  into  one  of   four
categories.  All  brigades within one category  will  attack
before  any  brigades in subsequent categories will  attack.
Within  a  category,  every brigade consults  a  formula  to
determine the order of attack.
The four categories are.
(i).  Infantry  and  mounted infantry  in  line,  dismounted
cavalry   (unless  with  assault  orders)   and   unlimbered
artillery which did not move in the preceding turn.
(ii).  Infantry  and  mounted infantry in  line,  dismounted
cavalry   (unless  with  assault  orders)   and   unlimbered
artillery which did move in the preceding turn.
(iii). Infantry, mounted infantry and cavalry which has been
surprised (i.e. in column).
(iv).  Cavalry with assault orders. For game purposes,  this
is  considered to be a cavalry charge. Note that any brigade
with a small arms type which has a range of 0 also fits into
this  category. There are no such unit types  in  Civil  War
battles.  A Zulu impi, for example, would have a small  arms
type with 0 range.
Within  each  category, the mechanism used to determine  the
sequence of attack is calculated from the following formula.
Cohesion + 0.5 (lead. + exp.) + brigade type + brigade order
+ rnd (3)
Where  brigade  type is artillery (+4), all others  (0)  and
brigade  order  is skirmish (+6), assault or  advance  (+2),
withdraw  (0). Note that a cavalry brigade with  a  withdraw
order  is treated as though it had a skirmish order for  the
purpose of determining the sequence of attack.
In  summary,  every attacking brigade has  been  assigned  a
position  in  the firing order. Properly deployed,  prepared
troops will generally fire first. And, as you will see  from
the   firing   mechanics,  firing  first  is  a   tremendous
advantage.
The Fire Value. Each brigade determines its fire/melee value
according to the following data.
(i). Artillery Brigades
     (a). Add all battery strength points
     (b). Add 1 for each point of experience above 4
     (c). Add 1 for each point of leadership above 4
     (d). Add rate of fire value
     (e). Add effectiveness value (if opponent is adjacent)
       (f).  Add  penetration  value  (if  opponent  is  not
adjacent)
     (g). Subtract 2 for every intervening hex
      (h).  Subtract half of the cover value of the  firer's
hex (unless in a fortification)
      (i).  Subtract  the cover value of  the  target's  hex
(unless  in  a  fortification or the target has  an  assault
order)
      (j).  Subtract twice the fortification  value  of  the
target's hex (unless the target has an assault order)
All  artillery brigades have a maximum fire value  of  6  in
rain, snow, heavy fog or at night. Artillery brigades with a
withdraw order may not have a fire value greater than 8.
The  fire value of the artillery component of other  brigade
types is calculated in the same way.
(ii). Infantry, Mounted Infantry and Cavalry Brigades
Note  that  cavalry  brigades with assault  orders  and  all
brigades   with  a  small  arms  range  of  0  are   treated
differently.
      (a).  Add all of the first 8 strength points, half  of
the  next 8 strength points and one quarter of the remaining
strength points
     (b). Add 1 for each point of experience above 4
     (c). Add 1 for each point of leadership above 4
     (d). Add 1 for every regiment in the brigade above 4
     (e). Add fire value of the small arms type
      (f). Add twice the melee value of small arms type  (if
order is assault)
      (g).  Subtract half of the cover value of the  firer's
hex (unless in a fortification)
      (h).  Subtract  the cover value of  the  target's  hex
(unless  in  a  fortification or the target has  an  assault
order)
      (i).  Subtract twice the fortification  value  of  the
target's hex (unless the target has an assault order)
Surprised brigades cannot have a fire value greater than  2.
Brigades  with  a withdraw order cannot have  a  fire  value
greater  than 8. Note that cavalry brigades with a  withdraw
order  are  treated  as though they had  a  skirmish  order.
Brigades  with a small arms range of 0 cannot  have  a  fire
value greater than 2. Brigades have a maximum fire value  of
6 in rain, snow, heavy fog or at night. Brigades firing at a
non adjacent opponent have their fire value reduced to 25%.
(iii). Cavalry Brigades with Assault Orders
This group includes all brigades with a small arms range  of
0 who are assaulting.
     (a). Add all  strength points
     (b). Add 1 for each point of experience above 4
     (c). Add 1 for each point of leadership above 4
     (d). Add 1 for every regiment in the brigade above 4
      (e). Add twice the melee value of small arms type  (if
current order is assault)
     (h). Subtract twice the cover value of the target's hex
(unless  in  a  fortification or the target has  an  assault
order)
      (i).  Subtract three times the fortification value  of
the target's hex (unless the target has an assault order)
Brigades have their fire/melee value reduced by 50% in rain,
snow, heavy fog or at night.
As  a  final  modifier,  the current cohesion  rating  of  a
brigade affects its fire value. Cohesion value 6 or 7  =  no
effect, 4 or 5 = 75%, 2 or 3 = 50%, 1 = no fire value.
All brigades with an assault order are eligible to receive a
combat  bonus  if  a heroic army commander  is  within  four
hexes.  This  bonus  can be as much  as  50%  again  of  the
brigade's fire value.
The  fire  value is the principal factor used in calculating
how much cohesion a brigade loses as a result of being fired
upon. Cohesion is explained in the following section.

Cohesion
The  gradual  reduction  in  a  brigade's  fighting  ability
throughout  the  game  is  measured  through  a  fluctuating
Cohesion  Value.  The  cohesion  value  is  decreased  as  a
consequence of taking losses from combat. The cohesion value
can only be increased while a brigade is in reserve.
As  soon as a brigade's cohesion value drops to 0, then  the
brigade is removed from play.
As  soon  as  a  brigade's cohesion value  drops  to  2,  it
shatters.  There  is no additional effect when  a  shattered
brigade's cohesion value drops to 2.
If the shatter flag in the brigade creation screen is set to
1,   then  the  brigade  begins  the  game  in  a  shattered
condition. If the flag is set to 0, then the brigade  begins
the game in a normal condition.
A  normal brigade may recover to a cohesion value  of  6.  A
shattered  brigade  may recover to a cohesion  value  of  4.
During night turns, normal brigades may sometimes recover to
a  cohesion  rating  of 7, shattered brigades  may  reach  a
cohesion rating of 5.
A brigade's cohesion value can only drop as a consequence of
sustaining  casualties in combat. Each time a brigade  is  a
target  for enemy fire, it immediately checks to  see  if  a
cohesion  value loss has occurred. This loss is  implemented
immediately.
The  procedure  for calculating a brigade's  cohesion  value
loss   is  given  below.  Note  that  HQs  do  not  have   a
vulnerability value. If they are subject to enemy fire, they
make an automatic retreat of 2-4 hexes.
Step  One. Calculate the target's vulnerability value  using
the following formula.
Current  Cohesion   + 0.5 (lead. + exp.) +  brigade  type  +
brigade size + rnd 3
where  brigade type is artillery (8), infantry (6),  mounted
infantry,  cavalry (4), all surprised brigades, all  reserve
brigades (0) and brigade size is 1-4 SPs (0), 5-8 SPs (1), 9
16 SPs (3), 17+ SPs (6).
Step  Two.  Compare  the fire value with  the  vulnerability
value to obtain the number of hits scored. Table 2 gives the
details.
Each  hit  scored  is  one random (1) chance  of  causing  a
cohesion loss except against a brigade with a withdraw order
or  a brigade with the encamped flag set. In the former case
it  is one random (3) chance of causing a cohesion loss  and
in  the  latter case it is an automatic loss of one cohesion
point.
Step  Three.  At the completion of all combat, each  brigade
fired on makes a cohesion check to see if its current orders
are over-ridden. The test is:
Current Cohesion + 0.5 (lead. + exp.)  + fortification value
+  tactical factor + confidence factor  + command factor   +
current order  + previous turn  + rnd 7
where  tactical factor is fired at through frontal hex-sides
(4),  enfiladed (0), the confidence factor is the number  of
friendly  brigades within three hexes minus  the  number  of
enemy  brigades within 2 hexes, the command factor is heroic
army  leader  in range (3), bold army leader in  range  (2),
sensible  army leader in range (1), cautious army leader  in
range (0), current order is assault (2), withdraw (-2).
Note  that an account is also made for events which occurred
in  the  previous turn. Friendly brigades within four  hexes
and  enemy  brigades  within 3 hexes  may  have  an  affect.
Subtract 1 for each friendly brigade which retreated, 3  for
each  friendly  brigade  which  shattered  and  7  for  each
friendly  brigade  which was KIA'd. Add  2  for  each  enemy
brigade either retreated, shattered or KIA'd.
The maximum negative value of this variable is -7. There  is
no limit as to how large it may be. Finally, the effect of a
KIA'd brigade may persist for up to two turns.
(a).  If  this value is 0 - 6, then a shattered  brigade  is
eliminated, all other brigades become shattered and flee 3-4
hexes to the rear.
(b). If this value is 7 - 10, then the brigade shatters  and
flees 3-4 hexes to the rear.
(c).  If  this  value is 11 - 15, then brigade retreats  1-2
hexes to the rear.
(d). If this value is 16+, then there is no effect.
Remember  that independent of these results, as  soon  as  a
brigade's cohesion value drops to 2 it will shatter  and  as
soon  as it drops to 0 it will disappear (KIA) for the  rest
of the game.

Manoeuvre
Once the last combat report has been displayed, the movement
routines  are  activated. The computer determines  in  which
order   the  units  will  move.  This  is  based  on  staff,
experience, leadership, cohesion, current order and a  small
random component. If necessary, the movement routine will be
divided  into  a  series of pulses. This is to  ensure  that
every  unit  has  the maximum opportunity  to  complete  its
movement without being blocked by friendly units.
The  menu  window will display the word  throughout
the  duration  of  the movement routines.  The  screen  will
centre on each unit as it moves. Note that there will be  no
indication of the movement of unsighted units. The number of
movement points available to a unit can be reduced by any of
the  following; bad weather, time of day, low cohesion, poor
leadership   or   just  plain  bad  luck.   Units   out   of
communication are more likely to lose MPs.

6. WINNING THE GAME
The  game  will  end  with the completion  of  the  movement
routine on the last turn. The victory screen will appear and
summarise the players' performance.
Additionally, players may elect to end the game at any  time
by selecting the  line from Menu 2. If this is done,
victory  points  will be displayed as though  the  game  was
scheduled to end on that turn.


DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Strategic Studies Group (SSG)
SCENARIOS (VOL III)

WILDERNESS
May 5 - 6, 1864
Fought  in  the tangle of undergrowth that had  overset  Joe
Hooker,  the  battle of Wilderness was a  total  and  bloody
confusion. Normally steady troops often broke and  ran  when
unexpected attacks broke out of tangled vegetation a bare 20
yards  away and on both sides units tended to become  mixed,
making the transmission of orders difficult.
Three  main roads led into the Wilderness from the west  and
south-west:  the Turnpike and Plank Roads from  Orange,  and
the  Catharpin Road from Gordonsville. Ewell was ordered  to
take  his  corps along the plank road and form  a  defensive
position and wait for Hill, on the Plank Road and Longstreet
on  the Catharpin to arrive. Longstreet had much farther  to
travel than the other two.
Ewell  deployed  successfully and ran into  Warren's  corps.
Initially,  Ewell's  forward  brigade  was  routed  but  the
attackers were soon outflanked and routed in their turn. Two
more  blue  divisions were surprised and  driven  off,  some
fleeing  into Confederate lines so completely had they  lost
their  sense of direction. Ewell did not advance beyond  his
original position and spent the afternoon digging in.
Hill,  coming slightly later up the plank road,  made  heavy
contact  with Hancock who had been given orders to backtrack
from  the  Catharpin  Road to deal  with  him.  The  terrain
decisively  favoured the Confederate defenders  but  it  was
still  25,000  versus 7,500 and Hancock would probably  have
broken through were it not for the fall of darkness.
Both commanders were planning attacks for the following day.
Grant  sent  Burnside  to fill the gap  between  Warren  and
Hancock and Warren was to keep Ewell occupied while the main
attack went in on Hill. Lee planned to shift Longstreet from
the  Catharpin  Road to the Plank Road and have  Hill  sidle
north to fill the gap.
Longstreet's  corps  was delayed until well  after  sunrise.
Hill's troops, who had neglected to entrench overnight, were
pushed  back,  although  in good  order,  and  matters  were
getting  critical  when Longstreet's  lead  brigade  finally
arrived. By about 10.00 o'clock, the line had been restored.
There  was  then something of a lull. Grant, at this  point,
had  both flanks exposed and no centre, for Burnside had got
himself  lost  in  the  tangle and was wandering  around  in
circles   with   two   divisions.  Ironically,   by   having
disappeared,  Burnside put in an effective  defence  on  the
right  flank.  Gordon, commanding the Confederate  far  left
brigade repeatedly asked permission to attack the open flank
but was refused because Burnside was unaccounted for.
On the Union left, not only was Hancock's flank open, but an
unfinished  railroad cutting led right up to it.  Longstreet
was  not  the  man to miss such an opportunity and  he  sent
Sorrel with three brigades into the attack. At 11.00  am  he
exploded  into  the  Union flank with  dynamic  results.  As
Hancock  said  to Longstreet years later "You rolled  me  up
like a wet blanket."
The Confederate units had become terribly mixed-up, however,
and  two  actually started firing on each other.  Longstreet
went forward to stop it and was badly wounded and had to  be
carried  from the field. Command went to General  Field  who
spent  the next four hours sorting the units back into  some
sort of order.
At 6.00 pm Gordon finally got permission to attack the Union
right when Lee himself came up to investigate. Burnside  had
by  this time found the centre opposite Hill and his phantom
flank  protection worked no longer. Gordon  charged  in  and
started to roll up the flank, but darkness fell before Grant
suffered any major disaster.
The  following day saw both sides entrenched and very little
fighting.  Grant had been decisively beaten,  losing  17,666
casualties to his opponent's 7,800 and being turned on  both
flanks. It was a far worse disaster than Hooker had suffered
on the same ground. Unlike Hooker, however, Grant managed to
avoid  defeat  by  the  simple  expedient  of  refusing   to
acknowledge  it. He marched for Spotsylvania and  Lee  would
have to do his work all over again.
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union. As Grant, your first task is to prevent the advancing
units  of  A. P. Hill's Corps from reaching the Brock  Road.
Only  then  can you afford the luxury of planning  offensive
moves.  The  North  has  the initiative  but  be  ready  for
Longstreet's  arrival on Day 2. If you lose control  of  the
Brock Road you will probably lose the game.
Confederate.  Lee must drive quickly along the Orange  Plank
Road  until  a solid Union line is encountered, then  extend
his  flanks and consolidate. Pushing too hard against  Union
positions that are steadily being reinforced will drain  too
much Southern blood. Place your artillery carefully as there
are  few open areas for its effective employment. (Note that
artillery  units  cannot move through  wilderness  unless  a
track  is  present.) The South can win without  cutting  the
Brock  Road  but  to  do  so you must  dish  out  much  more
punishment than you take.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).  Lee commanded the battle from the south and gave Ewell
little guidance apart from instructing him to coordinate his
actions  by reference to the sound of the battle  raging  to
his south. To give Lee a different perspective, we can start
him  on  the northern flank with Ewell. Do this by  changing
the South's Army HQ location to 0,11.
(2).  Each  commander had only a limited  knowledge  of  his
opponent's  forces and strength throughout this  engagement.
To  create  more  uncertainty during the  game,  modify  the
arrival times for the following units, using either or  both
options as you choose:
(a). Longstreet arrives earlier. Change Longstreet's HQ  and
Brigades  arrival  time to Day 1, 11 am and  the  likelihood
value to 5.
(b).  Hancock's arrival uncertain. Subtract 7 from Hancock's
HQ and Brigade arrival times and change likelihood to 2.

SPOTSYLVANIA
May 10 - 12, 1864
After  the  battle of Wilderness, Grant attempted  to  march
around  Lee's  right flank to Spotsylvania  and  thus  place
himself between his opponent and his capital, Richmond. Lee,
however, anticipated the movement and Anderson, leading  the
vanguard,  was  just  in  time  to  hold  off  Grant's  lead
elements.  On  9th  May there was some  skirmishing,  during
which Sedgwick, one of Grant's ablest commanders, was killed
by  a  sniper  but the main activity was Confederate  troops
digging into a strongly fortified position.
Grant  was  left  with  three unpalatable  alternatives.  Do
nothing  (the  McClellan gambit). This would  allow  Lee  to
detach  troops  elsewhere. Manoeuvre around Lee  again  (the
Sherman/Grant  gambit).  This  would  simply  postpone   the
confrontation,  shortening Lee's lines of  communication  in
the   process.  Assault  the  fortifications  (the  Burnside
gambit).  This  would  almost certainly  lead  to  a  bloody
repulse.
To  one of Grant's temperament, option three was really  the
only  choice despite the risks. A major assault was  planned
for  5  pm. Warren appealed for permission to attack  early,
believing  he  saw the possibility of a breakthrough.  Grant
let him have his head but Warren was repulsed in what was to
prove the pattern of the day.
Colonel Emory Upton, however, came up with a plan to assault
on  a narrow front in 4 lines, not returning fire until  the
entrenchments were reached. He achieved a penetration but  a
supporting action by Wright's Division was routed and  Upton
had to fight his way out again.
Nevertheless, Grant was impressed with the idea and  planned
to  repeat  the  whole  manoeuvre on  a  grand  scale  using
Hancock's  Corps. The 11th was spent in preparation  and  on
the  12th,  the  attack went in. Hancock was to  attack  the
salient  frontally, supported by Burnside to  the  east  and
Wright  to  the west. Warren was to attack further  west  in
order to tie up more of Lee's troops.
Initially, the attack succeeded well. An intelligence  error
had  led  Lee  to  believe  that Grant  was  retreating  and
consequently the 22 guns in the salient had been  withdrawn.
General Edward Johnson ordered them back again but they were
still  being  moved when the attack went in and  nearly  all
were captured without firing a shot. Three generals, 30 guns
and  a  full  division of men were taken in the first  rush.
However,  the penetration was not smooth, being held  up  by
stubborn pockets of resistance and by the unfamiliar terrain
and  soon  20,000  men were packed into an  extremely  small
area.
A  counter-attack by Gordon slammed into the packed mass  of
men with devastating effect and the assault degenerated into
close  fighting across barricades. The salient, soon  to  be
known  as the "Bloody Angle", was the scene of some  of  the
nastiest and most prolonged fighting in the war. From  early
morning  until  midnight, men fought at arm's length  across
the barricades. The hail of lead was such that an oak, fully
two feet in diameter, was felled by small-arms fire.
Burnside's  supporting attack was a total failure,  his  men
contenting  themselves with long distance sniping.  Wright's
attack went in much more vigorously but his men were held at
the  barricades  and  joined Hancock's Corps  in  the  close
fighting.  Warren's attack, on the Confederate  left  flank,
was  late getting under way and did not close in until 9 am.
It  was  soon  repulsed and this enabled Lee  to  send  more
troops across to the salient.
Despite the long day's fighting, Lee's position held but  at
the cost of about 6,000 killed, wounded or captured. Grant's
total  was  similar  and slightly higher  at  6,820.  As  at
Wilderness, Grant had failed to break Lee's veteran army but
again he refused to concede defeat. After a further week  of
skirmishing he set off again for another rendezvous at  Cold
Harbor.
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union.  Those Southern boys have been busy digging -  facing
you  are  lines  of well-placed breastworks, bristling  with
guns.  Deploy  your  men  and launch the  best  co-ordinated
attack  possible. Force your opponent to commit his reserves
and  hope  you  can crack his lines enough to break  through
with some fresh troops.
Confederate.  As  Lee, the aim is to hold your  ground.  The
"Bloody  Angle" around McCoull's Farm will probably fall  to
Northern  assaults but you should be able to regain  it.  If
things get desperate and the North aren't pressuring you  on
the  west bank of the Po River, create an extra reserve with
either Mahone's or Heth's Divisions.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).  Before  the  start of the scenario,  a  flanking  move
carried  out by General Hancock's command along the  eastern
side  of  the map caused Lee to re-deploy Heth on  his  left
flank and move Mahone across the Po River. To re-create  the
original situation, make the following changes:
(a). Add a dawn turn at 4 am on Day 1 and add day-move turns
between this and those already in existence.
(b). Remove Confederate entrenchments from the west bank  of
the  Po  River  and  substitute the  appropriate  underlying
terrain as per the map.
(c). Move Mahone's Division east of the Po River.
(d). Move Heth's Division to positions near Spotsylvania and
change his HQ's Objective to 8.
(e). Change Hancock's orders to OFFENSIVE with Objectives  5
and 6. Change Birney's and Gibbon's orders to OFFENSIVE with
Objectives 5 and 6. Change Barlow's orders to OFFENSIVE with
Objectives 17 and 6.
(2).  A  storm  arrived  during the night  of  11th  causing
lowered  visibility on the following day.  To  create  clear
weather  throughout  this scenario, change  the  Weather  to
CLEAR on Days 2 and 3 and remove all fog.

COLD HARBOR
June 1 - 3, 1864
At  the  end of May 1864, Grant attempted to move  his  army
around Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia to Cold Harbor.
On  31st May, a day-long cavalry battle between Sheridan and
FitzLee took place and Sheridan managed to take Cold Harbor.
He  was  not convinced he could hold it for long but  direct
orders from Grant and Meade told him to do his best.
Lee  had anticipated Grant's movement and planned to  attack
and  defeat  the  northern army in detail as  it  moved  up,
starting with Sheridan's troopers. Lee himself, however, was
suffering from an abdominal complaint and was unable to take
the  field  personally  and in his absence  the  attack  was
bungled.
On  the  morning  of  1st June, Kershaw's division  attacked
Sheridan's  cavalry. The lead brigade was commanded  by  the
inexperienced Col Keitt who led the charge in  gallant  1861
style  and promptly perished in a hail of bullets. His  men,
who  had  spent the last two years in soft garrison  duties,
fled  at the sight and the veteran troops on the flanks were
obliged  to  give back also. The attack degenerated  into  a
panic retreat.
By  midday,  Wright arrived with three divisions to  relieve
Sheridan  and  dug in. Lee was obliged to call  off  further
attacks.  Towards sunset, Meade pushed Smith's and  Wright's
divisions  forward into jumping-off points for the following
day's attack.
The attack did not happen on 2nd because Hancock's Corps did
not  arrive until 6.30 am, two hours late, and they were too
tired  from  their long night march to assault  immediately.
The  attack was then set for 5 pm but Confederate activities
on  the flanks, including the taking of Turkey Hill, decided
Grant to postpone it until the 3rd.
Grant was convinced that Lee's army was almost finished  and
this caused him to plan the attack carelessly. Little or  no
provision  was  made for communication or co-ordination  and
virtually  no  reconnaissance  was  carried  out.  The  men,
however,  were  deeply pessimistic about their  chances  and
many  spent  the evening sewing pieces of paper  with  their
names  on  onto  their coats so that their bodies  might  be
identified.
Their  pessimism was fully warranted and the  attack  was  a
massacre. It ran into carefully prepared fields of fire  and
few   men   made   it  anywhere  near  the  barricades.   In
approximately  eight minutes the attack  had  been  bloodily
repulsed and that was it. Grant ordered further assaults but
the  local  commanders to a man chose to interpret  this  to
mean a stepped-up rate of fire only. None would advance into
the  certain  death awaiting them in front.  Eventually,  at
1.30 pm Grant gave in and suspended the assault order.
Casualties  for  the battle were 1500 Confederate  and  7000
Union, most of the latter having been incurred in the  first
few  minutes  of  the  charge. With uncharacteristic  gloom,
Grant  remarked "I regret this assault more than any  one  I
ever ordered". Up at the sharp end, regret was even greater.
A  diary  recovered from one of the Union corpses  held  the
following entry: "June 3. Cold Harbor. I was killed."
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union. At Cold Harbor, Grant faced an interlocking system of
trenches  and  fieldworks that would, with the  addition  of
barbed wire and machine guns, have been right at home on any
WWI  battlefield.  Heavy  losses  are  unavoidable  and  the
careful coordination of attacking brigades is essential  for
any  chance  of  a  Northern (Pyrrhic!)  victory.  Choose  a
valuable  victory hex as your primary objective and  attempt
to  maximise victory points gained against troop losses. And
don't  forget to pin a name tag to the back of your  coat  -
just in case!
Confederate.  The first day will probably see a  penetration
into  your lines around New Cold Harbor. When reinforcements
arrive,  concentrate  on regaining the  fortification  lines
with   deliberate,  well-timed  attacks  on   the   fatigued
Federals.  Position the artillery brigade to best  advantage
as  the Union attack develops. It can give you a significant
edge if used properly.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).  The Scenario varies from history by allowing Hancock's
Corps  to  arrive fresh and ready for battle on  day  2.  In
reality  this unit arrived in such an exhausted  state  that
Grant  was forced to postpone his attack until the following
day. To recreate this situation, make the following changes.
(a). Replace the END at dusk on Day 2 with MOVE
(b).  Give all of Hancock's Brigades (#58 - #68 and  #76)  a
cohesion of 4
(c).  Change  Hancock's  Corps and  Division  HQ  orders  to
RESERVE, with no set objectives
(d). Make the North defensive on Day 2
(e).  Add  2 to the fort value of all Southern and  Northern
breastworks.
This  should  result  in  the historical  crushing  Southern
victory.
(2).  The timely arrival of Hill's Corps saved the  day  for
the  South.  To give the North a real chance, change  Hill's
Corps HQ and all his brigade's (#22 - #34) likelihood values
to 5, thereby delaying their arrival.

ATLANTA
July 22, 1864
In  replacing  Johnston  with  Hood,  the  Confederate  High
Command expected an aggressive approach to Sherman's advance
on Atlanta. In this regard, Hood did not fail to deliver. On
July  20th he made a sortie which became known as the Battle
of Peachtree Creek. Launched against the rock-steady Thomas,
it  achieved  little  but  on the  following  day  Wheeler's
cavalry  reported  that McPherson, on the  Union  left,  had
neglected to protect his flank. Hood saw an opportunity here
for a decisive victory and sent Hardee on a circuitous night
march,  with orders to attack the exposed flank at dawn.  He
withdrew  the rest of his troops to Atlanta's inner defences
and  sent  Wheeler to attack Decatur and the  Union  baggage
train.
Things did not go completely according to plan due partly to
bad luck and partly to bad management. There were delays  in
the process of disengagement and it was not until 3 am. that
the   last   of   Hardee's  corps  had  left   the   Atlanta
entrenchments.  The  men were also  tired  after  the  heavy
fighting  on 20th and skirmishing on 21st. It was not  until
noon,  therefore, that Hardee arrived at his  objective  and
launched the attack.
The  results were variable. Maney's division went in too far
to  the left and hit an entrenched position. Cleburne,  next
in  line,  was  much more successful and made a  substantial
penetration. On the right, however, Bate and Walker ran into
an  unexpected defence. An entire Union corps, under  Dodge,
had spent the morning engaged in destroying the railroad  to
the  north  and was marching back as Bate and  Walker  moved
forward.  They immediately faced left and the column  turned
into a long defensive line.
McPherson, one of the North's most able generals, was killed
in  the battle. He was at headquarters with Sherman when  he
heard firing and went to investigate. He ran into Cleburne's
men and was shot down as he tried to ride away. Sherman sent
few  re-inforcements  across, wanting  to  give  McPherson's
veterans a chance for revenge.
His  faith  in  them was warranted. There was hard  fighting
around  Bald  Hill,  held by Leggett but the  gallant  corps
commander  Logan took command of McPherson's  army  and  the
critical point held. At the end of the day, Hood had nothing
to  show  for  his  efforts except for 8,000  casualties  to
Sherman's  3,700.  Unlike  Johnston,  Hood  did  not   fully
appreciate  that aggression was not necessarily  the  better
part of valour.
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union.  You  begin the game with your southern flank  turned
and  your  first job is to stabilise it. Fuller  and  Sweeny
will  probably  need  help but don't over-react,  as  Hood's
attack  from  Atlanta  must be dealt  with  as  it  arrives.
General McPherson was killed during this battle, largely due
to  his  moving around the field without an adequate escort.
As  the  Northern commander we recommend that  you  be  more
sensible in your command profile.
Confederate. Hood begins the game at his HQ in  the  Atlanta
fortifications.  He has the option to wait until  Hardee  is
engaged and then control Cheatham's Corps or to move to  the
southern flank and direct Hardee's units as they drive  into
the  Northern rear. Either choice is valid and as the action
unfolds, success can depend on whether you are in the  right
place at the right time.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).  Just  after McPherson ordered Dodge's Corps to  deploy
south  protecting his exposed flank, Sherman commanded Dodge
to  move east and destroy the railroad lines around Decatur.
McPherson persuaded Sherman to withdraw his orders and  thus
prevented   Hood's   outflanking   movement   from    having
devastating  effect. To simulate Dodge's removal,  make  the
following changes.
(a). Relocate Dodge's HQ and Brigades to 17,2.
(b).  Change  arrival time to Turn 1 and  likelihood  to  3.
(This  gives this unit a 25% chance of not arriving at  all,
or else arriving with a 2-7 turn delay.)
(2). Hood's plan called for Hardee to be in position for his
attack  at  dawn  but delays on the approach  march  prevent
this.  To  make the battle begin at dawn, enter the briefing
screen  for Day 1 and place a dawn turn at 5 am and add  day
turns as necessary to fill the existing gap. Move Dodge's HQ
and Brigades to 8,3; 9,3; 10,3 and 11,3 respectively.
(3). Historically, Hood delayed the commitment of Cheatham's
Corps.  To  simulate this, change Cheatham's  Corps  HQ  and
Brigades likelihood value to 6.

FRANKLIN
November 30, 1864
After  Sherman  took  Atlanta, Hood obtained  permission  to
launch what was to be a futile expedition into Tennessee. On
28th-29th  Schofield, retreating north, had escaped  from  a
trap, largely due to a mix-up of orders on Hood's side. Hood
was  absolutely furious and it is possible that this  warped
his judgement.
He  arrived at Franklin to find Schofield dug in and in  the
process of repairing the bridge across the Harpeth River  so
that  he  could  continue towards Nashville. Two  of  Hood's
seven divisions were still well to the rear, as well as  all
but  eight of his guns, so he had with him about 30,000 men.
Schofield   was  entrenched  with  34,000   and   60   guns.
Furthermore,  there was two miles of open plain  before  the
town.  Hood's  subordinates were aghast when  he  ordered  a
general  attack but, in the grand tradition  of  Ambrose  E.
Burnside,  he  refused to listen and at 4.00 o'clock,  about
one hour before sunset, the attack went in.
Initially  the  attack  went surprisingly  well,  due  to  a
mistake on the Union side. Wagner had two of his brigades in
a forward position across the turnpike, about half a mile in
front  of the main defences. As Hood's army started  forward
Wagner neglected to send a message ordering the two brigades
to  retreat  and  the  colonels in charge  delayed  to  fire
volleys into the approaching enemy.
They left their retreat too late and were swamped and routed
by  the  oncoming charge. As they ran back,  Cheatham's  and
Brown's  divisions followed in close pursuit and  were  thus
shielded   from   hostile  fire.   They   broke   into   the
entrenchments  and  tried to turn  the  guns  there  on  the
defenders  but  the  horses  had bolted  with  the  primers.
Suddenly,  tired  from having run half a  mile,  they  found
themselves under fire from about two dozen guns and when the
reserve, under Opdycke, charged in, they were forced to fall
back and try to find cover outside the works.
This was the high point of the attack. French, Walthall  and
Loring, attacking the Union left, were caught in heavy  fire
from  across  the  river from Fort Granger and  from  masked
batteries,  and  in  small arms fire from entrenched  troops
armed with repeating rifles. At 7.00 pm, an hour after  full
darkness, Hood committed the reserves but although  fighting
went on until 9.00 o'clock nothing was achieved.
Schofield  retreated during the night and Hood  had  wrecked
his  army.  Six generals were killed, including  the  highly
competent  Cleburne,  one captured and five  badly  wounded.
6,252   veterans  were  casualties,  including  1,750  dead.
Schofield had suffered 2,326 casualties and was falling back
on re-inforcements. Hood continued the pursuit to Nashville,
to  lose  heavily in a battle with Thomas on 15th  December,
but  essentially,  any hope of a successful  campaign  ended
here at Franklin.
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union. Initially, the Northern commander must decide whether
to sacrifice Wagner's Division and buy a little more time or
attempt  to minimise losses by withdrawing them before  they
are over-run. Once the Southern attack commences in earnest,
try  to  keep some reserve brigades ready to plug any  gaps.
Steadfast defence is the key to success at Franklin.
Confederate. For the South to succeed, a carefully  planned,
co-ordinated  attack  is essential.  The  concentrated  fire
power  of  entrenched Federals can easily shatter  the  most
gallant of Southern brigades. Piecemeal attacks will hand  a
victory to your enemy, tarnishing your reputation as an  up-
and-coming Confederate commander.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).  Most of Hood's artillery was not in position  for  use
during  the  attack. This explains the lack of guns  in  the
majority of Southern brigades. To give the rebels their full
complement of artillery, edit the Franklin OB by giving  all
brigades  the same battery strengths and artillery types  as
in the Nashville scenario (brigades #1 - #27).
(2).  Wood's  Division  took no part  in  the  fighting  and
remained north of the Franklin River. To give them a  chance
of  arrival, subtract 7 from the arrival value and  enter  a
likelihood value of 3 for Union brigades #54, #55 and #56.

NASHVILLE
December 15 - 16, 1864
Following  his  disastrous defeat at  Franklin,  Hood  still
declined  to see the folly of his ways and continued  on  to
Nashville  where  Thomas was heavily entrenched  with  about
55,000 men. As Hood's own army was now composed of less than
40,000  it was difficult to see what he could do.  The  only
plan  he could come up with was to dig in outside Nashville,
hope  that  Thomas would attack him and that he  could  then
repulse Thomas and follow up into Nashville.
Thomas  was not the most impulsive of men, however,  and  he
watched   unconcerned,  well  supplied  behind  his   strong
defences,  as the ill-supplied Confederate army shivered  in
its trenches in the bleak December weather. Still, if Thomas
was in no hurry, his superiors were and he received a stream
of   telegrams,   urging  him,  with  varying   degrees   of
politeness, to advance. A cold snap turned the ground to ice
on  8th but a thaw on 13th at last enabled him to manoeuvre.
On  15th  December he struck. His plan was elegantly simple.
Steedman  would  demonstrate  against  Hood's  right,  where
Cheatham was in command. Everyone else would execute a large
scale  left  wheel  and smash into Hood's left,  rolling  up
Stewart's  Corps.  As  Hood had somewhat  unwisely  detached
Forrest's cavalry to deal with the Murfreesboro garrison  it
seemed quite likely that the movement would succeed.
It  did,  although  not  perfectly. Heavy  fog  delayed  the
initial  movement  and  it  was not  until  8  o'clock  that
Steedman  went in. His attack met a stubborn resistance  and
was repulsed but it was not expected to succeed in any case.
By  noon,  Thomas had some 48,000 men lined up and ready  to
attack   on  Hood's  left.  Stewart's  Corps,  depleted   by
detachments and casualties, was only about one tenth of that
number.
Several   outlying  redoubts,  however,  put  up   a   stiff
resistance and it was not until after 4.00 pm that the  left
wing  collapsed.  The  retreat  was  not  a  rout  and  Hood
succeeded  in forming a new line, some two miles  back  from
the first and his remaining soldiers spent the night digging
in. Hood still refused to run away.
The  following day was initially fairly quiet  while  Thomas
got  his army reorganised. Hood had also changed around  his
corps  and  now Stephen Lee was holding the right,  Cheatham
the  left  and  Stewart the centre. Lee  had  scarcely  been
engaged  the  previous  day and his men  held  firm  against
attacks by Wood and Steedman. But on the left, Cheatham  was
in trouble for Wilson had got his cavalry around behind him,
cutting off his line of retreat.
Finally,  about  4  o'clock,  the  artillery  rain  stopped,
Schofield  and  Smith  went in and the Confederate  position
fell apart. Only a rallying action by Lee prevented the army
from  being  completely overwhelmed.  In  the  two  days  of
fighting,  Hood had lost about 1,500 killed or  wounded  and
4,500 taken prisoner. Thomas had lost about 3,000. Hood  had
finally  completed the destruction of his army,  begun  with
the futile attacks at Atlanta five months earlier.
PLAYER'S NOTES
Union.  Thomas has manoeuvred into an excellent position  to
outflank  Hood's  lines.  To complete  this  fine  piece  of
generalship you must drive for Shy's Hill and attempt to cut
the  Southerners  off from their line of retreat  along  the
Franklin Pike. Keep your men moving but don't push too  hard
as  some  fresh  troops may be needed to pry any  entrenched
rebels loose from those vital southern objectives.
Confederate. As Hood, you start the game at HQ, well to  the
rear.  Initial HQ placement is critical to your  control  of
the  situation.  The  majority of your  first  line  is  now
useless  so you should aim to form a second line of  defence
anchored  on Shy's Hill and stretching to Overton  Hill.  To
win,  the South must minimise troop losses and grimly defend
the Franklin Pike.
SCENARIO VARIANTS
(1).   Forrest's  cavalry  corps  was  not   recalled   from
Murfreesboro early enough to reach Nashville in time for the
battle. A composite division under Jackson has been included
in  the OB with a very low likelihood of arrival. To improve
Hood's  chances of early cavalry reinforcement,  change  the
arrival  time  of  Brigades 30, 31 and 32  to  4,  5  and  6
respectively and change their likelihoods to 3.
(2).  The arrival of two Southern Corps commanders (Cheatham
and  S.  D. Lee) is delayed. This allows a better simulation
of  the  initially uncoordinated Southern withdrawal towards
their  lines  of communication when it became apparent  that
their  entrenched line was totally outflanked. To  give  the
Southern  player more control, change the arrival times  for
S. D. Lee and Cheatham to 0.


DECISIVE BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Strategic Studies Group (SSG)
CONSTRUCTION KIT MANUAL

1. INTRODUCTION
The  following  notes  are  meant as a  guide  to  WarPlan.  The
information they contain will also provide some insights into how
the  game  works, and should be read at some stage  even  if  you
never construct your own scenarios.
Varying  an existing scenario is fairly straight-forward and  the
easiest  way  to  get  the most out of  your  game.  All  of  the
scenarios in the game come with suggested variations which can be
easily implemented. However, designing an original scenario  will
require a reasonable degree of familiarity with the game itself.
We  publish  complete  scenarios for the  Decisive  Battles  Game
System  in  our  magazine Run 5. The magazine  contains  all  the
information required to create entirely new games using  WarPlan
and  WarPaint.  For details on Run 5 magazine,  please  contact
Strategic Studies Group (SSG).

2. USING THE DESIGN MENUS
The  data card contains a schematic display of the design  menus.
They  operate  in the same way as the Game Menus  that  you  have
already used.
You  cannot  make changes to the historical scenarios themselves;
rather you must save the scenario onto a save game disk and  then
edit   the  data.  This  is  to  prevent  you  from  accidentally
corrupting the historical scenarios. Nor can you edit a  game  in
progress. Only scenarios with a game turn number of zero  may  be
edited.

3. PREPARING A DISK
Whether  making a variation to an historical scenario or creating
an  original  scenario, the procedure for preparing a  save  game
disk is essentially the same. Examine the Start and Design menus.
If  you  have  not formatted a Decisive Battles save  game  disk,
prepare  one using the procedure given in Chapter 3 of  the  Game
Routines.
When  making  a  change  to an historical  scenario,  select  the
 line from Menu A and type (RET) to obtain Menu B.
If  the  template which is providing the source for the variation
is on a scenario disk, select the  line and type (RET).
Select  the  chosen  scenario from  Menu  C.  The  computer  will
automatically process you through to Menu J (Create Master).
If  the  template which is providing the source for the variation
is  on  a save game disk, select the  line and type  (RET).
Load   the   chosen  file  from  Menu  D.   The   computer   will
automatically process you through to Menu J (Create Master).
Use  WarPlan and WarPaint to make whatever changes you wish  to
the data and then come back to Menu J.
Select  the  line to go to Menu D. Select the   line.
Locate  the desired save location in the catalog with  the  arrow
keys  and then type (RET). You will be offered an opportunity  to
enter  a comment. Use it if you wish, otherwise select the   line and type (RET).
IBM  users can store scenario and save games in the same catalog.
Thus, there is no Menu D in the IBM routines.
When  you  wish to create an original scenario, repeat the  above
procedure but before entering data use the  line in Menu J
to erase the data bases.

4. THE WARPLAN DESIGN MENUS
This  section  describes the various menus in  WarPlan  together
with explanations of their functions. The order in which they are
presented represents a convenient sequence for the creation of  a
new  scenario. Once you completed your new scenario,  we  suggest
you  run it through in  mode several times to fine  tune
the  game balance. To assist with this process, type Cntl (F)  at
any time to enter the fast resolution mode.
(a). MAP DATA (Menu 5)
(i). Map Size/Info (Menu 6)
The map size in Decisive Battles is variable. Each map element is
9  hexes  wide by 9 hexes deep. There may be up to three elements
across and three down. Thus, the maximum size of a battlefield is
27  by 27 hexes. At a suggested ground scale of 300-500 yards per
hex,  this represents an area somewhere between 20 and 60  square
miles.
In  creating  a  scenario, map size must be set  before  anything
else.  Select the smallest map size that can comfortably  support
the  action  you wish to represent. Apart from being  less  work,
smaller maps will mean faster games.
The  top  left sector should always be set to 0. Set  the  bottom
right sector variable to the appropriate value. To make a 9  x  9
grid  (i.e. a 1 sector map), set the bottom right sector variable
to 0!
IBM  users can choose colours for river, coast-line and  map-edge
hex-sides. Road and cursor colours are also selectable.
(ii). Define Terrain (Menu 7)
There  are  thirty-two (32) terrain shapes in  Decisive  Battles.
Each shape can be completely redrawn using our powerful WarPaint
graphics  editor.  The names and sighting,  movement,  cover  and
fortification effects of each terrain type are defined  here.  It
is possible to represent the ground conditions of any battlefield
by  judicious  use  of names and effects. Use the  (RET)  key  to
advance the cursor through the screen.
Examine  any (or all) of the game scenarios and the blank  design
form in Appendix A.
For  each  terrain shape you wish to use, enter a 1-11  character
name.
The  sighting  value represents the ease of visibility  into  and
through  the  hex.  A  value  of 0 specifies  that  there  is  no
impediment to visibility; i.e. the hex is easy to see through.  A
value  of  15  specifies  that the line of  sight  is  completely
blocked. Values of 8-15 will create super dense terrain  and  may
result in adjacent units being unable to see each other.
The  movement  value of a hex specifies how many movement  points
each  unit  must  expend  when traversing  it.  Units  in  column
formation  will pay only 1 MP when using visible roads no  matter
what  terrain type is underneath. Hidden roads do not affect  the
movement value of a hex. Note that terrain types with an MP value
of 0 prohibit entry for any unit.
The terrain symbol along the top of the screen corresponds to the
line currently being edited by the cursor.
The  cover  value  of  a  hex  measures  the  extent  of  natural
protection  from enemy attack provided by the terrain type.  This
does  not include any man-made structures. A value of 0 specifies
that there is little or no protection afforded to units occupying
the  hex. A value of 7 indicates tremendous protection. Note that
brigades defending hexes with high natural cover values may  have
more  difficulty  in bringing fire to bear on the  enemy  than  a
brigade  in  more  open terrain. Assaults launched  from  heavily
covered  hexes are less effective than assaults from open ground.
There  is a balance to be struck . Brigades assaulting from  open
terrain  will suffer more severely than brigades assaulting  from
heavily covered terrain.
The  fortification  value measures the extent of  man-made  rifle
pits,  breastworks and basic field defences in a given hex  type.
We  have  allowed  the use of 31 hex types to  ensure  there  are
enough  to  construct  detailed field  defences.  A  value  of  7
specifies the extensive development of field defences. A value of
0  specifies none. A separate entry should be used for North  and
South fortifications.
By  examining  the terrain data bases in each of  the  historical
scenarios, you can quickly see how to implement these  values  in
your  own designs. Field defence construction became an ever more
important battlefield tactic to both sides as the war progressed.
The  Confederacy,  particularly, excelled in the  preparation  of
complex and deadly entrenchments.
In many instances, you will note several hex shapes with the same
name  and  effect values. The large number of hex types available
has  allowed us to customise terrain features to produce  a  more
aesthetically pleasing battlefield.
(iii). Map Create Utility (Menu 8)
It's  probably  a  good  idea to make a  draft  version  of  your
battlefield before completing the rest of the map data.  However,
we  strongly advise you not to edit the map screen until all  the
information  in Menus 6 and 7 has been compiled and entered  into
the  program. IBM users should read the note at the end  of  this
section.
A  9 x 9 hex section of the map will appear with a white, hollow,
flashing cursor. In the top right of the screen you will find the
hex  co-ordinate of the cursor's current location. In the  bottom
right  of  the  screen you will see the terrain  name,  the  icon
corresponding to the name, the relative position of the cursor in
relation to the whole map and the icon identifying the side which
controls  the hex.  If the hex has been defined as an  objective,
the name appears immediately above the terrain name.
There  are  32 terrain types which can be entered. River,  bridge
and ford hex-sides can be entered. Roads can be added to a hex  .
Every hex must be identified as North or South controlled.
The  I,J,K,M  and  1-6  keys  will move  the  cursor  around  the
battlefield. Type (0) centre the screen on the cursor.
IBM  users can use the f1 - f9 function keys to select sequential
9x9  sectors of the map; i.e. f1 selects the top left sector,  f9
selects the bottom right sector.
To create a terrain type in a hex, type (T)(n) where n = a number
between  0 and 31. Please see the blank terrain effects chart  in
Appendix A. Note that terrain types T1-T3 require you to type (T)
(n)  (SPACE).  This  is  to distinguish them  from  double  digit
terrain types which use 1-3 as the first number. Terrain types T0
and T1(SPACE) are water hexes. T0 cannot be entered by any units.
T1(SPACE)  can be entered by all units and is therefore  suitable
as  a  bridge, ferry, ford or pontoon link across a wide body  of
water.  Terrain types T2(SPACE)-T31 can be entered  by  all  unit
types  and it is these types which make up the land component  of
the battlefield.
The road structure needs some explanation. There are two types of
roads; functional roads and cosmetic roads. Functional roads  are
those used by the movement routines to march columns of men  long
distances. Cosmetic roads are those which end in dead  ends,  the
map  edge  or  anywhere which could confuse the computer.  Use  a
cosmetic road if you don't want the computer to treat the hex  as
a road when moving troops in column or determining march routes.
Units using either type of road pay 1 MP per road hex entered. To
add a functional road to a hex, type (R) while the cursor is over
the  hex.  Type (R) again to remove the road. To add  a  cosmetic
road  to  a hex, type (C) while the cursor is over the hex.  Type
(C) again to remove the cosmetic road.
Functional roads are one of two types; normal or hidden. Type (R)
(X)  to  specify a hidden road. The road icon is  masked  by  the
terrain  icon and any units using the road will pay the  movement
value of the terrain in the hex.
The movement routines will nonetheless use hidden roads as though
they  were normal roads when determining march routes and  column
movement.  This  technique is suited  for  picking  out  a  track
through  dense terrain where placing a normal road  would  confer
too great an advantage on the user. Type (X) again to convert the
hidden road back to a normal road.
To  create a river hex-side, you must type three keys. The  first
is  (S).  This  identifies a hex-side. The  second  is  a  number
between 1 and 3. This identifies north, north-eastern and  south-
eastern  hex-sides respectively. Note that the south hex-side  of
one  hex is the north hex-side of the hex directly below  it.  In
this  way, all 6 hex-sides can be edited. The third is  a  number
between 1 and 3. (1) identifies a river. (2) identifies a bridge.
(3) identifies a ford.
Type  (S0)  to clear all hex-sides from a particular hex.  Rivers
cannot  be  crossed except at fords or bridges. The  presence  of
small streams can be accounted for in the terrain types.
Unlike our previous design kits, cities are created by using  the
terrain types; they are not a separate flag.
To set control of a hex to North or South, type (RET) to bring up
the   map  menu  and  select    or     as
appropriate. All hexes, except T0s, will have their terrain  icon
replaced by the North or South control icon. As the cursor moves,
it will leave a trail of the appropriate control icons behind it.
To change control, type (RET) to bring up the map menu and select
.  You  are back at square one  and  can  repeat  the
procedure using the other control icon. When editing hex  control
from scratch, the default value is South.
For  convenience, you can set the cursor to automatically produce
a  terrain shape. With the cursor flashing on the chosen terrain,
type  (RET).  This  brings up the map menu on the  right  of  the
screen.  Selecting   from this  menu  will  lock  the
current terrain shape to the cursor. You may now move the  cursor
and  the  selected shape will be created wherever the  cursor  is
moved.  Type (RET) again to go back to the menu and select  to turn off the shape.
We  suggest you keep the map size as small as possible  for  your
first original scenario.
All maps are compromises between the actuality of the terrain and
its  representation.  Do  not feel afraid  to  be  creative  with
terrain to make the map work properly within the game system.
Important Note for IBM Users. If your IBM supports an EGA or  VGA
card  and you have a colour monitor, you will be able to use  our
"full-map" graphics. There are a few changes you need to be aware
of  when you are building a new map. There are up to 250 full map
icons  which  can be used to create the map. However,  there  are
still  only 32 different terrain types. In other words,  the  new
graphics are purely an overlay covering the basic terrain shapes.
What  you  must do is first create a map using the basic graphics
(i.e.  go  to DOS and re-enter the program, disabling the  "full-
map"  graphics). For example, the Decisive Battles Vol I game  is
usually  started with the command db1. To start  up  without  the
"full map" graphics, use the command db1 f.
Build  up the map using the standard graphics and save as normal.
Return  to DOS and restart with the "full-map" graphics  enabled.
You  can  now go to the WarPaint routines and prepare brilliant,
16 colour terrain shapes and unit icons.
These  icons  are  stored  in a .lbm file  and  are  DPAINT2  (c
Electronic Arts) compatible. Note that when you place these full-
map  hexes  on the map, the original terrain type and  name  will
remain in the lower right of the screen.
Finally.  Issue  14 of our Run 5 magazine contains  an  extensive
article on the use of "full map" graphics.

(b). UNIT DATA (Menu 9)
(i). Limits (Menu 10)
The  limits  menu  is  used to divide the available  unit  blanks
between  the North and South. Select  and by  typing  the
(RET)  key repeatedly you will see there are three values  to  be
entered.
There  are a maximum of 15 Corps which may be created.  When  you
type  a  number  into  the  line you  are  allocating  the
available  Corps  between  the North  and  South.  The  South  is
allocated  a  number  of Corps equal to 1 less  than  the  number
entered. For example, if you type (8) the South will be allowed a
maximum  of 7 Corps. This number appears in the   column  of
the Southern Corps line.
The procedure for allocating divisions and brigades is identical.
For  example, a value of 19 in the division line would mean  that
the Rebs could use a maximum of 18 divisions, the Union 21.
We have chosen this way of unit allocation so that we can produce
the largest possible force pool in the smallest amount of memory.
Note  that  the value range displayed to the left  of  the  North
forces shows the current, legitimate range for each entry.
(ii). Weapons (Menu 13)
Examine  the blank weapons roster in Appendix A. If the  scenario
you  are  preparing is set in the American Civil  War,  then  the
weapons roster used in all of the historical scenarios should  be
more than adequate. Otherwise, you will have to make your own.
There  are  31 possible weapon types you may use. These  must  be
divided  between artillery types and small arms types.  You  will
have already used Menu 10 (Define Limits) to select the number of
each type you require.
Artillery
To create an artillery type, complete the following steps.
I.D. Enter a 1-11 character name to identify the artillery type.
RANGE.  Enter  a  value between 0 and 5. This  is  the  effective
range, measured in hexes, of the artillery type. For example,  in
a  scenario  where  the  ground scale is  500  yards/hex,  a  6pd
smoothbore would have an effective range of 2 hexes.
RATE  OF FIRE. Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value measures
the reliability, ease of use and rate of fire of a gun.
EFFECTIVENESS. Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value measures
the performance of the gun at close range; i.e. the effectiveness
of its fire into an adjacent hex.
PENETRATION.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value  measures
the fall-off in performance as the range of the gun increases.  A
value  of 0 means that the gun has little effect beyond the first
hex.  A  value  of  7  means that the gun  retains  much  of  its
effectiveness at its maximum range.
Small Arms
To create a small arms type, complete the following steps.
I.D. Enter a 1-11 character name to identify the small arms type.
RANGE.  Enter a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0 indicates that  the
small  arms  type  is  primarily for melee  use.  A  value  of  1
indicates  that  the  small arms type is primarily  a  projectile
weapon.  Troops  armed  with both melee  and  projectile  weapons
should be assigned a value corresponding to their primary type.
FIRE  EFFECT.  Enter a value between 0 and 7.  This  value  is  a
quantitative  measure of the firepower  delivered  by  the  small
arms type.
MELEE  EFFECT.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  is  a
quantitative measure of the melee performance of the  small  arms
type.
For  example, Civil War cavalrymen used firearms for  skirmishing
but  switched  to  sabres on the occasion of a charge.  The  fire
effect of the pistol should be 1 or 2 while the melee effect of a
sabre  in  the hands of a mounted cavalryman should be  5  or  6.
However,  Civil War cavalrymen were not primarily employed  in  a
charging role so the range should be set at 1.
(iii). Forces (Menus 11)
Examine  the  blank force rosters in Appendix  A.  One  of  these
should be prepared for each formation in the game. Do not attempt
to edit the screen until these rosters have been completed.
The  most  important thing to note about troop  creation  in  the
Decisive  Battles System is that there is no fixed organisational
structure. For example, brigades may be attached to divisions, or
corps, or even directly to the Army HQ. Such a flexible structure
is  the  best way to reflect the operational employment of troops
in the nineteenth century.
Army HQs
COMMANDER. Enter a 1-11 character name to identify the  commander
of the Army.
SECOND IC. Enter a 1-11 character name to identify the second  in
command  of the Army. This variable should only be used  where  a
second in command was officially appointed such as Beauregard  at
Shiloh.  A  2IC  will  reduce the adverse  effects  of  a  C-in-C
casualty.
HQ  I.D.  Enter one or two 1-11 character names to  identify  the
Army.
LOCATION. Enter the x, y map co-ordinates of the Army HQ's  start
or arrival hex.
ARRIVAL.  Enter a number between 0 and 95. This is the turn  that
the  Army HQ will arrive on the map. An arrival number of 0 means
the  HQ begins the game deployed on the map. A human player  will
have  no  control over his subordinates until the Army HQ appears
on the map.
OFFENCE  #1.  Enter  a  value between 0 and  23.  A  value  of  0
specifies  that there is no offensive objective; any other  value
identifies the chosen objective. Only enemy controlled objectives
should be chosen.
OFFENCE  #2. Enter a value between 0 and 23. As above. A computer
Army commander will attempt to capture the first objective before
moving on to the second objective.
DEFENCE  #1.  Enter  a  value between 0 and  23.  A  value  of  0
specifies  that there is no defensive objective; any other  value
identifies  the chosen objective. Friendly controlled  objectives
must be chosen.
DEFENCE  #2. Enter a value between 0 and 23. As above. A computer
Army commander will defend both objectives, giving preference, if
necessary, to the first defensive objective.
HQ  MOVEMENT. Enter a value between 0 and 15. It is the number of
movement points the Army HQ has available each turn to move  over
the  map. The value should reflect the vigour shown by the Army's
commander throughout the battle. The value should also be related
to  the  movement allowances of other troops and to  the  terrain
effects.  In  general, an Army HQ should have a  higher  movement
allowance than a Corps HQ.
STAFF.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value is a subjective
evaluation of the amount of preparation the Army HQ has done  for
the  battle.  Factors  which  are included  in  this  rating  are
battlefield  familiarity  (recon),  extent  and  detail  of   the
briefings given to subordinates, staff experience and the overall
confidence of the army in its commander.
STRENGTH.  Enter  a  value between 0 and  7.  This  value  simply
describes the size of the provost guard accompanying the Army HQ.
The units are 100s of men. It is not suitable for offensive use.
LEADERSHIP.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  is  only
used  when  the computer is placed in command of an  Army.  Human
commanders must rely upon their own judgement and intuition  when
issuing  orders  to subordinates. You can expect a  much  tougher
battle from a commander with a high leadership value than from  a
lowly rated duffer.
Corps HQs
ARMY  HQ  I.D. Enter 1-9 character name to identify the Corps  or
its commander.
LOCATION. Enter the x, y map co-ordinates of the Corps HQ's start
or arrival hex.
CORPS  TYPE.  Enter a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0 specifies  an
infantry corps; a value of 1 specifies a cavalry corps.
ARRIVAL.  Enter a number between 0 and 95. This is the turn  that
the Corps HQ will arrive on the map. An arrival number of 0 means
the  HQ begins the game deployed on the map. You will not be able
to issue commands to the subordinates of a particular corps until
that corps' HQ has entered the map. Brigades belonging to a Corps
not yet on the map may be directed by the Army commander provided
they are within the four hex immediate command range.
ORDERS.  Enter  a  number between 0 and 2. 0  =  offensive,  1  =
defensive, 2 = reserve. A Corps formation must have an  offensive
order  to move on an enemy controlled objective or to issue  such
an  objective to a division HQ under its control. A Corps with an
offensive order may select two objectives, the first defines  the
route of march to the final destination.
A  Corps with a defensive order may move, or issue such an  order
to  a  subordinate  division HQ, only to  a  friendly  controlled
objective.  Only one objective can be given to  a  corps  with  a
defensive order. A Corps with a reserve order will hold in place,
awaiting  further orders. A Corps with a reserve order  will  not
pay  any  attention to an objective. Note that the Army commander
can  change  these orders as soon as the Corps  HQ  comes  within
communication range. The primary function of these orders  is  to
make  sure that newly arriving troops do not mill about aimlessly
but move sensibly into battle.
OBJECTIVE  #1.  Enter a value between 0 and 23.   A  value  of  0
specifies  no objective; any other value identifies a  particular
objective. The previous paragraph describes their purpose.
OBJECTIVE #2. Enter a value between 0 and 23.  As above.
HQ  MOVEMENT. Enter a value between 0 and 15. It is the number of
movement points the Corps HQ has available each turn to move over
the  map. The value should reflect the vigour shown by the Corps'
commander throughout the battle. The value should also be related
to  the  movement allowances of other troops and to  the  terrain
effects.  In  general,  Corps  HQs  should  have  more  MPs  than
subordinate brigades of the same type.
DAILY  COMMITMENT.  This  value is used  only  by  computer  army
commanders. For any particular day of a battle, a corps commander
can  be  specified as being completely out of communication.  The
army  commander  will not be able to issue orders  to  the  corps
commander.  An  example  of where this feature  is  used  is  the
Chattanooga scenario. Thomas, one of Grant's corps commanders, is
a  very capable officer. However, on the first day of the battle,
Grant  wanted  Thomas to remain on the defensive while  Sherman's
and  Hooker's troops moved into position. For a human  commander,
implementing this plan is no problem. For the computer, it's  not
so  easy. The Union is on the offensive on the first day and thus
the  first time a computer controlled Grant gets in contact  with
Thomas,  he  will be given an offensive command.  By  using  this
value  to put Thomas out of communication with Grant on the first
day  of  the battle, the computer can properly implement  Grant's
historical plan. Enter 0 if this feature is not to be used by the
corps.  Enter 1 if the corps is to be isolated on the  first  day
only,  enter 2 if the corps is to be isolated on the  second  day
only,  enter  3 if the corps is to be isolated on the  first  and
second  days only, enter 4 if the corps is to be isolated on  the
third  day  only, enter 5 if the corps is to be isolated  on  the
first and third days only... etc; i.e day 1 =1, day 2 = 2, day  3
=  4  and day 4 = 8. If the corps is to be isolated for more than
one day, add the value for those days together.
LEADERSHIP.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  measures
the   experience,  confidence  and  determination  of  the  Corps
commander. It is especially important when the Corps HQ is not in
communication  with  its  Army  HQ  and  must  rely  on  its  own
initiative to get things moving.
STAFF.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value is a subjective
evaluation  of  the amount of preparation the Corps  HQ  and  its
commander have done for the battle. Factors which are included in
this  rating  are  battlefield familiarity  (recon),  extent  and
detail  of  the briefings given to subordinates, staff experience
and  the overall confidence of the corps in its commander.  These
are the same criteria used to rate the Army staff values.
STRENGTH.  Enter  a  value between 0 and  7.  This  value  simply
describes  the size of the provost guard accompanying  the  Corps
HQ.  The  units are 100s of men. It is not suitable for offensive
use.
LIKELIHOOD.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  measures
the  likelihood of a Corps HQ appearing on its start  or  arrival
hex  at the scheduled time. A value of 7 means that the Corps  HQ
is  certain to arrive. HQs or brigades on the same side with  the
same  likelihood  value will be delayed by  the  same  number  of
turns. Units with values of 4 or less may not arrive at all.

Division HQs
DIVISION  HQ  I.D.  Enter  1-9 character  name  to  identify  the
Division or its commander.
CORPS.  Enter a number between 0 and 15. This number defines  the
place  the division will occupy in the order of battle. An  entry
of  0  places the division directly under the command of the Army
HQ. An entry of 1-15 places the division under the command of the
Corps HQ identified by that number.
DIVISION   TYPE. Enter a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0  specifies
an  infantry division; a value of 1 specifies a cavalry division.
Mounted  infantry  divisions should  be  classified  as  infantry
divisions  for  this  purpose. You  should  not  place  artillery
brigades  in  divisions but rather attach them to Corps  or  Army
HQs. Division artillery should be distributed among the component
brigades.
ORDERS.  Enter  a  number between 0 and 2. 0  =  offensive,  1  =
defensive,  2 = reserve. A division must have an offensive  order
to  move  on  an enemy controlled objective. A division  with  an
offensive order may select two objectives, the first defines  the
route  of  march  to  the final destination. A  division  with  a
defensive order may move only to a friendly controlled objective.
Only  one  objective can be given to a division with a  defensive
order.  A  division  with a reserve order  will  hold  in  place,
awaiting further orders. A division with a reserve order will not
pay  any attention to an objective. Note that the Army commander,
or  the  Corps commander, can change these orders as soon as  the
division  comes within communication range. The primary  function
of these orders is to make sure that newly arriving troops do not
mill about aimlessly but move sensibly into battle.
OBJECTIVE  #1.  Enter a value between 0 and 23.   A  value  of  0
specifies  no objective; any other value identifies a  particular
objective. The previous paragraph describes their purpose.
OBJECTIVE #2. Enter a value between 0 and 23.  As above.
LEADERSHIP.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  measures
the  experience,  confidence and determination  of  the  division
commander. It is especially important when the Division HQ is not
in  communication with its superior HQ and must rely on  its  own
initiative to get things moving.
STAFF.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value is a subjective
evaluation of the amount of preparation the Division HQ  and  its
commander have done for the battle. Factors which are included in
this  rating  are  battlefield familiarity  (recon),  extent  and
detail  of  the briefings given to subordinates, staff experience
and  the  overall  confidence of the division in  its  commander.
These are the same criteria used to rate the Army and Corps staff
values.
Brigades
BRIGADE  I.D. Enter a 1-3 character name to identify the  brigade
or its commander. IBM users can enter a 1-9 character name.
UNIT SIZE (IBM Only). Enter a 1-3 character name to identify  the
size  of  the  unit; e. g. Bde, Rgt, Bn or Bty. This is  cosmetic
only and appears on the unit roster in the IBM version.
LOCATION. Enter the x, y map co-ordinates of the brigade's  start
or arrival hex.
CORPS.  Enter a number between 0 and 15. This number helps define
the  place  the  brigade will occupy in the order of  battle.  An
entry  of  1-15 places the brigade directly under the command  of
the  Corps HQ identified by that number. An entry of 0 means that
the  brigade is not under the command of any of the corps in  the
game.
DIVISION.  Enter  a  number between 0 and 39. This  number  helps
define  the place the brigade will occupy in the order of battle.
An entry of 1-39 places the brigade directly under the command of
the  Division HQ identified by that number. An entry of  0  means
that the brigade is not under the command of any of the divisions
in  the game. Note that if both Corps and Division values are  0,
then the brigade will be under the direct command of the Army HQ.
ARRIVAL.  Enter a number between 0 and 95. This is the turn  that
the  brigade will arrive on the map. An arrival number of 0 means
the brigade begins the game deployed on the map.
BRIGADE   TYPE. Enter a value of 0-3. A value of 0  specifies  an
infantry  brigade,  a  value of 1 specifies  a  mounted  infantry
brigade, a value of 2 specifies a cavalry brigade and a value  of
3 specifies an artillery brigade.
OBJECTIVE. Enter a value between 0 and 23. A value of 0 specifies
no  objective; any other value identifies a particular objective.
In   general,  the  only  brigades  which  need  objectives   are
independent  brigades attached to Corps or Army HQs  or  brigades
scheduled  as reinforcements. If a reinforcing brigade  does  not
have  an  objective,  it  will mill about  for  one  turn  before
receiving instructions from its superior HQ.
SMALL  ARMS  TYPE. Enter a value between 0 and 31. A value  of  0
specifies  that the brigade is not equipped with  small  arms.  A
value  of  1-31 specifies which small arms type from the  weapons
list has been issued to the brigade.
ARTILLERY  TYPE. Enter a value between 0 and 31.  A  value  of  0
specifies  that  the brigade is not equipped  with  artillery.  A
value  of  1-31 specifies which artillery type from  the  weapons
list has been issued to the brigade.
TROOP  STRENGTH.  Enter a value between  0  and  31.  This  value
describes the size of the brigade in increments of 100 men.
MOVEMENT.  Enter a value between 0 and 15. It is  the  number  of
movement points the brigade has available each turn to move  over
the  map.  We  recommend that Infantry and artillery brigades  be
given  4-8  MPs, mounted infantry and cavalry brigades 6-12  MPs.
Brigades   which  were  capable  of  particular   initiative   or
enthusiasm  can be given a 1-3 MP bonus. The final  value  chosen
should  also  take into account the movement point costs  of  the
terrain on the battlefield.
ARTILLERY  STRENGTH. Enter a value between 0 and 15.  This  value
specifies the number of artillery pieces in the brigade. For  all
Civil  War  battles, we recommend that 1 point of this  value  be
equal  to  2  pieces of artillery. Thus, a typical 6 gun  battery
attached to a brigade would have an artillery strength of 3.
SHATTERED. Enter a number between 0 and 1. A value of 0 indicates
that  the brigade begins the game in a normal condition. A  value
of 1 indicates that the brigade begins the game suffering from  a
recent mauling. The effect is the same as for a brigade shattered
in the course of the game.
LEADERSHIP.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  measures
the  experience,  confidence  and determination  of  the  brigade
commander. It is especially important when the brigade is not  in
communication  with  its superior HQ and must  rely  on  its  own
initiative to get things moving.
COHESION. Enter a value between 0 and 7. This value should be set
at  7  unless  the  scenario begins in the middle  of  a  battle.
Cohesion  measures the current fighting condition of the  brigade
as described in the game routines section.
EXPERIENCE.  Enter  a  number between 0 and  7.  0  =  green  and
unreliable (but not necessarily useless), 7 = elite troops of the
highest  quality (for example the Iron Brigade or  the  Stonewall
Brigade). The average brigade should have an experience between 3
and  5, although this value should increase toward the end of the
war; especially for Confederate brigades.
REGIMENTS. Enter a number between 0 and 7. This number  specifies
the  number of regiments (or major sub-units) which make  up  the
brigade.   It   is  a  very  good  indicator  of  the   brigade's
flexibility.
LIKELIHOOD.  Enter a value between 0 and 7. This  value  measures
the likelihood of a brigade appearing on its start or arrival hex
at  the  scheduled time. A value of 7 means that the  brigade  is
certain to arrive. HQs or brigades on the same side with the same
likelihood value will be delayed by the same number of turns.
(iv). Objectives (Menu 12)
Examine the blank objective chart in Appendix A.
A  maximum  of  23  objectives per scenario can be  created.  The
 and  lines in the menu window are used  to  bring
up  the  next  objective. The  line is used  to  enter  the
objective  and  set  its  parameters.  The    line   is   an
alternative method of positioning the objective on the map.
Each  objective must be given a 1-11 character name and an  x,  y
map location.
Victory points for each side can be awarded for the possession of
an  objective on a turn by turn basis throughout the game  and/or
at the end of the game.
When  awarding  points throughout the game, you must  select  the
turn  that point scoring will begin and the turn on which it will
end.
If  you wish to create an objective simply as a signpost for  the
direction  of  your troops, then don't assign  any  VPs  for  its
possession.
A  manoeuvre  value  of 0-15 is available to  make  a  particular
objective  more  attractive to the computer's movement  routines.
The  higher the value, the more likely is the computer  to  route
troops through that point. The best way to get the feel for  this
tool is to have a careful look at the historical scenarios. Then,
if  the  troops in your scenario are reluctant to go the way  you
want them to, experiment with the manoeuvre value.
(c). TITLE (Menu 15)
Enter  a  1-16 character name for the scenario. There are  up  to
three  26  character  lines you can use for a  sub-title  to  the
scenario.
Enter  a  1-9  character name to identify the North  nationality.
Enter  a  1-9  character name to identify the South  nationality.
These  character names will be the ones appearing  in  the  first
game menu; i.e. Menu H (Game Master).
(d). BRIEFING (Menu 14)
(i). Rosters (Menu 15)
There  are two items to enter here. The advice window allows  you
to  enter several paragraphs of handy hints for each side.  These
can be accessed during the game from Menu 12.
The  roster menu should only be edited once you have entered  all
the data for your forces. The display shows your forces organised
in  a  standard military way. All you have to do is tidy  up  the
appearance  by  inserting line spaces to  make  the  roster  look
professional.  Look at one of the scenarios to see  what  can  be
done. To do it, use the arrow keys to select the  line  and
then  the  arrow keys again to move the bar cursor  to  the  line
below  where you wish to insert a space. Hit (RET) to insert  the
space. Blank lines are identified by the word . To remove
a blank line, position the bar cursor over the blank line and hit
(RET).
(ii). Scenario Setup (Menu 16)
Enter  the  turn, day, month, year and century that the  scenario
begins.
A maximum movement distance (in hexes) must be specified for each
type   of  unit.  A  separate  specification  is  made  for  each
nationality.  Enter a value between 0 and 15. We  recommend,  for
Civil War battles, these values; infantry brigades (4-6), mounted
infantry  brigades  (6-9),  artillery  brigades  (4-9),   cavalry
brigades (6-12) and HQs (9-15).
To recreate the conditions of a surprise attack, enter a value of
1 in the  line for a side which is caught unprepared by
the enemy assault. If there is no surprise, enter a value of 0.
To  allow  a side to construct battlefield entrenchments  in  the
course  of  the scenario, enter a value of 1-7 in the  
line.  A  value  of  0 means a side cannot construct  battlefield
entrenchments. Entrenchments increase the cover value of  a  hex.
The  higher  the entrenchment value, the more protection  a  unit
will receive.
In  addition to the victory points awarded for the occupation  of
objectives,  points  are also awarded for causing  casualties  to
enemy leaders and troops. A value of 0-31 can be entered for each
category.
IBM  Only.  A  combat value of 0-7 has been added to reflect  the
change in unit density in combat as the war progressed; i.e.  the
lethality  of  the  rifled musket forced troops  to  abandon  the
exposed formations characteristic of the Napoleonic Wars. A value
of  0  describes very exposed formations; a value of 7  describes
formations deployed to minimise enemy firepower.
(iii). Scenario Details (Menu 16)
Examine the blank briefing form in Appendix A as well as  any  of
the scenarios.
A  scenario may last as long as 4 days. These routines  fill  out
much  of  the  background information necessary to get  the  game
moving.
For  each  day the expected atmospheric weather must be  defined,
whether  each  side  is expected to take the  offensive  must  be
decided and three values must be entered for each of the 24 hours
in a day.
WEATHER.  Enter a value between 0 and 4. 0 = clear, 1 = overcast,
2 = drizzle, 3 = rain, 4 = snow.
NORTH  OFFENSIVE. Enter a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0 puts  the
North  on the defensive for the day. A value of 1 puts the  North
on the offensive for the day.
SOUTH  OFFENSIVE. Enter a value of 0 or 1. A value of 0 puts  the
South  on the defensive for the day. A value of 1 puts the  South
on the offensive for the day.
MODE.  Enter a value between 0 and 3. 0 = night, 1 =  dawn,  2  =
dusk, 3 = day.
MOVE. Enter a value between 0 and 3. 0 = no move, normal cohesion
recovery  will occur; 1 = normal move, both sides will  move  and
fight; 2 = end game, a normal move is completed and then the game
ends; 3 = skip, no move and no cohesion recovery is allowed.
FOG. Enter a value between 0 and 2. 0 = no fog, 1 = light fog,  2
= heavy fog.

5. WARPAINT
WarPaint  is entirely new to wargame construction. Even  we  are
amazed  at just how useful it is. Every icon in the game  can  be
edited, including all unit and terrain icons.
5.1 WARPAINT (Menu 17)
The   line gives access to the icon editor. The 
and   lines are used to install or extract a graphics set
from any save game or scenario disk.
To  transfer the graphics from one scenario to another, you would
execute  the following steps. Load the source scenario,  and  use
the    line  to load the graphics. Remove  that  disk  and
insert  the  destination disk. Load the destination scenario  and
use  . The graphics that were in the source scenario  are
now  in  the destination scenario. Save the altered scenario  and
the change is permanent.
The    line gives IBM users access to  the  "full-map"
graphic routines.
5.2 DESIGN GRAPHICS (Menu 18)
The screen shows a large boxed section on the left. This shows  a
pixel  by pixel representation of an icon. Below it the  icon  is
shown  in  white and the allowable colours as it would look  upon
the  screen.  The icon number is shown above the  menu  box.  The
current  selected colour is shown below the menu  box.  Selecting
the   line shows a flashing cursor in the top left  of  the
icon  box.  The  box is fourteen elements across by  16  elements
down. The presence of a pixel is shown by a white square and  its
absence by a white dash.
The  I,  J, K, and M keys or the arrow keys are used to move  the
cursor around the icon box. At any location the (RET) key creates
a  pixel if none is present and removes it if one is. As you make
changes  in the large icon box these are reflected in  the  small
icons at the bottom of the screen.
The  rules  for  manipulating  the  screen  icons  are  a  trifle
complicated  and  may vary from computer to  computer.  They  are
explained in detail below.
After  using the edit function type (ESC) to leave. Apple  II/C64
users will be asked to  or  their changes and  must
make  this  choice before returning to Menu 21.  Choosing  
incorporates any changes you have made while  returns the
icon  to its previous shape. IBM users have access to the  
function described below.
The   option allows you to change the selected  colour  of
the icon. The  and  options allow you transfer  an
icon  between  different icon numbers, allowing easy  variations.
The   option blanks the screen, and for IBM users, at  the
same time transfers the previous image to the clip location.  The
 option restores the screen with the image currently in the
clip location.
5.3 "FULL-MAP" GRAPHICS (Menus 19-21)
These  notes offer some suggestions for the use of the "full-map"
graphics  available  to IBM users with EGA or  VGA  cards  and  a
colour  monitor. Read the note at the end of text in Menu 8  (Map
Create  Utility).  It  explains how to  disable  the  "full  map"
graphics so the basic map can e created.
Users  with  EGA  or  VGA cards can access our enhanced  graphics
routines  for  the 250 icons which make up the different  terrain
shapes  and  the  60 odd icons which represent  units  and  other
functions.
The  cumbersome    and   lines  from  the  standard
graphic routines have been replaced by a 'Clip' feature. Whenever
you edit a shape, the original shape is transferred to the 'clip'
window.  To  restore the original shape, select   from  the
menu window.
The  enhanced  graphics  routines have  a  number  of  additional
features. Select  to bring up the enhanced graphic menu.
  will take you into the icon image. Use the arrow keys  to
locate the pixel you wish to edit. Use the Tab/Shift Tab keys  to
select  a  colour from the palette at the bottom of  the  screen.
Type   to set the drag key. This will trail the chosen  colour
after the cursor. Type  again to turn off the drag feature.
 will show you what your terrain shape will look  like
on a full screen.
 allows you to change a particular colour to another.
Select   and then use the arrow keys to locate on  the
terrain shape the colour you wish to change. Now hit (ENTER)  and
use  the arrow/tab keys to locate from the palette the colour you
wish to substitute.
  shunts the terrain shape in the direction  specified  by
the  chosen  arrow  key. Use this feature to  vary  a  particular
terrain shape.
 will flip the shape horizontally.
 will flip the shape vertically.
 will bring in the corresponding terrain shape from the
standard graphic routines.
The f1-f8 and Alt f1-f8 keys will select a particular colour. The
f9 key will select the colour under the cursor. Tab/Shift Tab and
+/- will select the next colour in either direction.
A  little familiarity with these routines will teach you all  you
need to know.

TECHNICAL NOTES
(a).  IBM  Users. IBM users have neither pixel nor  colour-mixing
problems!  The  CGA card has fewer colour choices  than  the  EGA
card.  Note  that  Tandy  users have the same  number  of  colour
choices as an EGA user.
(b). Icon Functions. All icons have a particular function. In the
case  of  the terrain icons (numbers 0 to 31), the functions  and
the name are defined in the terrain menu. All other icons serve a
particular  purpose  which  does not  change.  If  you  edit  the
Confederate  Army HQ icon to look like a woods  symbol,  it  will
still function as an Army HQ.

This website uses cookies to ensure we give you the best browsing experience. This includes cookies from third party websites. If you want to know more or if you wish to change cookie settings, please click here. If you continue browsing our website you're giving your consent to receive all cookies on this website and from third parties.