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Gunboat manual

GUNBOAT

                      RIVER COMBAT SIMULATION


Table of Contents

Introduction: Faster Than a Speeding PBR...........................1
Section 1: Startup.................................................5
How to Load Gunboat................................................5
Quick Start........................................................7
Combat Maneuvers...................................................9
Section 2: At Dockside: Taking Command
Demonstration Mode................................................12
Practice for Duty.................................................12
Report for Duty...................................................15
    Security......................................................15
    Identify Yourself.............................................16
    Choose Your Mission...........................................18
    Arm Your Boat.................................................19
    About Your Crew...............................................19
Section 3: Gunboat Systems & Procedures...........................21
General Commands..................................................22
The Pilot's Station...............................................26
The Gunners' Stations.............................................32
When the Mission Ends.............................................37
Section 4: PBR Reference Section..................................38
PBR Technical Specifications & Development History +..............38
The Brown Water Navy: An Overview of American PBR Warfare.........40
Armament..........................................................44
Tactics...........................................................46
Know Your Enemy...................................................50
    Vietnam.......................................................50
    Colombia......................................................52
    Panama........................................................54
Section 5: Troubleshooting........................................56

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Faster Than a Speeding PBR

San Francisco Bay glittered under the summer sun as the PBR Mark III
turned away from Mare Island a cut a long, smooth wake over the 
northeastern sloughs.  From his perch in the bow gunner's turret,
Tom Loughry took in the full 270-degree view of crystal clear
California sky overhead, and watched a pair of great blue herons
rise from the rushes along the near shore.  They looked almost close
enough to touch.  He smiled and settled back as the boat picked up to
30 knots.  In his hyperactive imagination, the spark of idea ignited,
and caught fire.

Loughry was riding high in more ways than one that bright May day.
His last entertainment program, the Steel Thunder tank simulation,
had just been nominated for Best Simulation Program of 1988 by
the Software Publisher's Association - the equivalent of being
nominated for an Oscar in software.  Accolade Producer Sam Nelson
was after to him to create another hit - soon.  Steel Thunder had
offered simulation fans a degree of immediacy and realism that 
hadn't been seen anywhere before, and Tom knew that Steel Thunder's
program engine had the potential to drive a great naval combat
simulation.  That afternoon, he also knew that he'd found his boat.

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In Search of the PBR

"I'd been investigating different kinds of boats for awhile,"
Loughry remembers.  "I first looked at big ships like the high-
tech Ticonderoga-class cruisers.  But big ships usually pitch
battles at distances of over 100 miles, hurling missiles and 
planes you can't see against an enemy you can't see.  I was looking
for something with an almost visceral immediacy, and that wasn't it.
So I looked at small craft, which led me right away to the PBR -
'Patrol Boat, River' - that the Navy developed for use in Vietnam.
The high-speed boats and close-combat tactics were exactly what the
Steel Thunder engine was built to handle, and I started to get 
excited.  Then I learned that PBRs are still around - and that their
main training center is at Mare Island, only two hours from home. 
So Roseann Mitchell, (Accolade's graphics and animation chief),
Sam Nelson (Accolade Producer for the project) and I went up there
to take a closer look."

For all three, the PBR was the ride of a lifetime.  "At one point,
the pilot yelled, 'Hang on!,' and spun the boat around in a full-
speed U-turn," remembers Loughry.  "Roseann held on with only one
hand, and lost her grip in the force of the turn.  She would have
gone over the side if she hadn't run into me first.  We'd turned
180 degrees in less than one boat length, at a speed of nearly
30 mph.  It was brutal."

Loughry spent several hours that day checking out the PBR's 
systems and capabilites.  The Mare Island crew showed him how to
pilot the boat, running it in figure 8s and donuts in water in less
than two feet deep.  And then there were the guns.

"Sitting in the bow gunner's turret is like hanging off a 100-foot
pole off the front of the boat.  You're out there in this lightly
armored cubbyhole with nothing but open sky in front of you.  There's
not even a real seat: you sit on this strap, suspended over the bare
hull, with water sloshing around under your feet.  It feels really
dangerous.  Not that the other situations are any more

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cozy: when you're standing at the stern gun and the boat is underway,
your feet are considerably below the water line, and the gun rises 
just above it.  And the midship gunner stands up on top of the engine
compartment, between two steel plates that are only about waist high -
another vulnerable position.  All in all, the most comfortable
place on the boat is the cabin: there's no seat, but at least you're
inside armored walls that come up to your nose."

Setting the Scene

PBR warfare was a central plot element in the movie Apocalypse Now, 
so Loughry figures people who've seen the movie will have a pretty
good sense of what PBR combat is like - "the suspense of not knowing 
what's around the bend, and the intense immediacy of battle."  
Vietnam was a natural starting scenario, because that's where the
U.S. Navy first discovered and perfected modern riverine warfare.

"Panama was a natural, too, given its instability," Loughry notes.
"I discovered some months before the recent invasion that there 
were U.S. PBRs stationed down there, and so I put that into the
simulation.  I had no way of knowing how timely these scenarios
were going to become.  Colombia is another unstable situation,
but the scenarios there are more of a fantasy.  There aren't any
PBR units down there that I'm aware of - but if we ever got involved,
they'd probably be among the first Navy forces to go in."

Blood & Guts

The up-close-and-personal nature of the combat scenes in Gunboat 
posed an ethical dilemma - not only for Loughry, but for several
other members of the development staff.  Most mainstream combat
simulations draw the line at showing dead bodies and blood.  After
plenty of long, lively discussions, it was decided to take Gunboat
through that line, for some important reasons.

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Blood & Guts (continued)

"I don't think computer games should show gratuitous levels of
blood and gore."  Loughry is emphatic.  "On the other hand, 
simulations are designed to communicate some level of reality,
and unfortunately, dead and wounded people are the reality of war.
Most combat games encourage people to think of war in terms of
detached explosions, which is a serious misconception.  A couple
of times, I started to take the gross parts out - but in the end,
I left them in.  War seems to have its place in the world, and
I'd rather have people take their aggressions out on computer games
than on each other."

Wild Times

One of the Gunboat scenarios includes falling rubble from a 7.1
earthquake.  "It's really hidden, so most people will probably
never find it... but it's there," Loughry insists.  The rockpile
is a tribute to the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which
was centered less than 10 miles from Loughry's Santa Cruz mountain
home.  "Like everyone else in the Bay Area, I had trouble
concentrating on my work for a month or so afterward, especially
with the almost continual aftershocks rocking my office.  It seemed
natural to include some sort of monument to the quake, since it was
an important factor in Gunboat's development process."

From that wild spring cruise, through an autumn of wild arguments,
wild earth movements, wild political developments, and a wild pace
that would have exhausted almost any other programmer (but seems
to come naturally to Loughry), it follows that the final result
would be the wildest naval combat simulation ever launched on a 
personal computer.

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Section 1: Startup

How To Load Gunboat (see Instruction Card for Amiga)
 
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Quick Start 

  The following instructions are designed to take you quickly through 
Gunboat's startup procedures.  Follow these steps, and in just a few 
minutes, you'll be out on the water, on your way your first mission. 
 
 o If you want to know more about equipment, armament, tactics, or 
   any phase of your Gunboat mission, turn to the appropriate section 
   of this manual. 
 
 o As a general rule, you can press Enter or the Space Bar to move 
   through the initial setup screens.  The resulting scenario will 
   be based on default options. 
 
1 Follow the instructions in the "How to Load Gunboat" section above 
  to reach the Main Menu screen. Use the joystick or arrow keys to 
  select Report For Duty, and press the joystick button or Enter.

2 When the sentry confronts you, refer to the Gunboat codewheel.  Line 
  up the boat's class name (outer wheel), type (middle wheel), and 
  designation letters (inner wheel); and enter the answer that appears 
  in the window of the codewheel corresponding to the question.

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Combat Maneuvers 
 
Here are a few of the basic command sequences you'll need to run the 
boat and keep yourself out of trouble: 
 
PBR     Startup Sequence 
 
1	Press X to go to Pilot's Station 
2       Press F1 to turn on the Main Power 
3	Press F2 to turn on the engines 
4	Press V to move to the Bow (front) Gunner's station 
5	Press F1 to turn on the master power for the bow guns 
6	Press F2 to remove the safeties from the bow guns 
7	Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight 
8	Press B to move to the Midship Gunner's station 
9       Press F1 to turn on the master power for the midship gun 
10      Press F2 to remove the safety from the midship gun 
11	Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight 
12	Press N to move to the Stern (rear) Gunner's station 
13      Press F1 to turn on the master power for the stern gun 
14	Press F2 to remove the safety from the stern gun 
15      Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight 
 
All your PBR's systems are now on, and you're ready to go. 
 
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To Control the Gunboat From the Pilot's Station 
 
From the Pilot's Station, use the following commands to change the speed 
and direction of the boat: 
 
         Up arrow/joystick forward    Throttle forward 
         Down arrow/joystick back     Throttle back (use this to move
                                      into reverse and back up) 
         ENTER/joystick button        Slow down 
         Left arrow/joystick left     Turn left 
         Right arrow/joystick right   Turn right 
 
 
To Control the Boat from Any Gunners Station
 
From any of the three gunners' stations, use the following commands 
to change the speed and direction of the boat: 
 
  F4  Reverse Course 
  F5  Branch left at the upcoming fork in the river or river mouth 
  F6  Branch right at the upcoming fork in the river or river mouth 
  F7  Slow down 
  F8  Speed up 

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Fire on the Enemy from the Pilot's Station
 
When a possible target appears in your window: 

1 Center the target in front of the boat, and press F9 to request a 
  target ID.  (This is important: firing on friendly forces is the 
  quickest known route to a court-martial.  Your computer gunners 
  won't fire on friendly targets.) 
 
2 Press F10 to order the computerized gunners to open fire on all 
  enemy targets.  Press F1O again to order them to cease fire. 
 
Fire on the Enemy from a Gunner's Station
 
To fire on a target from any of the three gunners' stations:
 
1 Go to the station that gives you the best clear shot at the 
  target - and the best weapon to destroy it.  To do this, press: 

          V  Front (bow) station 
          B  Midship station 
          N  Stern (rear) station 
 
 
2 Use the joystick or arrow keys to aim your guns at the target. 
3 Press and hold the Enter key or joystick button to release a burst 
  of fire. 
4 Press F10 to request additional fire from the other gunners' 
  stations.  The computer automatically identifies the enemy, takes 
  aim, and fires from these stations.  Press F10 again to order the 
  other stations to cease fire. 
 
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Section 2: 

At Dockside: Taking Command 

This section contains specific information on preparing your PBR and 
crew for battle.  lt includes instructions for PBR practice drills, 
dealing with base security and administrative paperwork, choosing your 
mission, equipping your boat, and taking command of your crew.  The 
Admiral recommends that you review it carefully to thoroughly 
familiarize yourself with PBR operations. 
 
Demonstration Mode 

The Gunboat Demonstration Mode is essentially a short hands-off mission 
sequence that lets you see what the simulation looks like. 
 
To enter the Demo Mode, load Gunboat.  When the Main Menu Screen 
appears, press D on your keyboard.  The mission sequence demo repeats 
itself in a continuous loop until you press any key to end it and 
return to the Main Menu Screen.  Gunboat will also enter Demo Mode 
automatically from the Main Menu Screen after approximately 30 seconds 
if no key is pressed. 
 
To run the demo without the sound effects, press S before you enter 
the demo mode. 
 
Practice Mode 
 
Gunboat offers three hands-on Practice Modes that are accessible from 
the Main Menu Screen.  The Practice Mode is actually three different 
drills, each designed so you can master one of the three most critical 
PBR combat skills: operating the guns, firing grenades, or piloting 
the boat. 
 
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        o To enter Practice Mode, load the Gunboat simulation, 
          following the instructions in Section 1.  From the Main 
          Menu screen, rotate the joystick or use the arrow keys to 
          highlight the type of practice you want, then press the 
          joystick button or Enter to select. 
 
        o To leave a Practice Mode and return to the Main Menu 
          Screen, press the Tab key at any point during your drill. 
 
When you enter a Practice Mode, everything's already turned on and 
ready to go.  In each drill, there is no set mission objective, no 
scoring, and no damage inflicted on your boat - though the computer 
keeps track of the damage you inflict on your targets.  Here's how 
each mode works: 
 
Gunnery Practice 

You're the forward gunner, in place and ready at the bow of the 
boat.  Your drill is simply to return fire on any and all enemy 
targets.  Use the arrow keys or joystick to aim your guns; and press 
Enter or the joystick button to fire.  Other commands include: 
 
  -   Change Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast 
      the gun mount turns in response to your joystick or arrow key
      commands.  Press once to make slow turns, a second time to 
      make even slower turns, a third time to speed up the slew
      rate again.

  F9  Identify Target - Press this to find out more about the
      target directly in front of you. 
 
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Grenade Practice 
 
You're the center gunner, located in the middle of the boat along 
with the M129 automatic grenade launcher.  You can send down a hail 
of grenades on anything with impunity.  The practice commands at 
this station are identical to those used in Gunnery Practice mode 
described above - though picking off targets with the slower-firing 
grenade launcher is considerably different than using a smaller gun 
with a higher rate of fire. 
 
Pilot Practice 

You're at the helm, refining your navigation skills and getting the 
feel of the boat.  The practice runs are conducted in and around Mare 
Island, California, the Navy's West Coast PBR base.  As you cruise
the meandering riverways, experiment with the following commands:

-   Steering Slew Rate - A three-way toggle that controls how fast
    the water jets rotate in response to your joystick or arrow key
    commands. - and thus, how fast you turn.  Press once to make slow
    turns, a second time to make even slower turns, and a third time
    to take full, fast advantage of your boat's 30-foot turning radius.

Z   Pilot's port (left) station and view

X   Pilot's center station and view

C   Pilot's starboard (right) station and view

F9  Identify Target

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Use the following commands to change the speed and direction of the
boat:

         Up arrow/joystick forward    Throttle forward 
         Down arrow/joystick back     Throttle back (use this to move
                                      into reverse and back up) 
         Enter/joystick button        Slow down 
         Left arrow/joystick left     Turn left (rotate water jets
                                      left) 
         Right arrow/joystick right   Turn right (rotate water jets
                                      right)  

The light blue stuff behind you in the water is your own wake - or 
someone else's.  To sharpen your skills, try drawing a perfect figure 
8 with your wake. 
 
Report For Duty 

If you`re ready to bypass Practice Mode and get down to business, 
go to the Main Menu Screen and select Report For Duty. 
 
Security 

You must gain entry to the field operations center and pick up 
your orders before you're allowed to go cruising around in hostile 
waters.  At the base's main gate, a sentry interrogates you.  You 
can either draw on your extensive knowledge of the scores of
vessel types comprising the U.S. Naval forces; or you can refer to
the enclosed Gunboat codewheel to get the information he wants.

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Identify Yourself 

PBR units are often assigned to LSTs (Landing Ship, Tank) - large 
maintenance ships anchored offshore, which serve as a kind of mobile 
home port.  Your encounters with the Admiral occur on the bridge of 
your unit's LST.  At the beginning of each mission, the Admiral first 
requests that you identify yourself. 
 
If you want to review your glorious career, or find out who else is 
bucking for promotion, press F1 to view the PBR Commanders' File.  All 
the current PBR officers are listed here (up to 14 on a disk), with 
their individual battle stats, rank, medals, and commendations.  This 
information is updated automatically after each mission.  Move the 
joystick up or down or press the Up and Down arrow keys to cycle 
through these records. 

Page 17 follows:
----------------
 
Press F1 again to return to the bridge.  To identify yourself, 
simply type your name (don't bother with the rank: the Admiral sees 
your stripes very clearly), and press Enter. 
 
NOTE:  The admiral tends to be a little impatient with new recruits.  
Besides being quick on his feet and a keen thinker, he's usually 
extremely busy - which brings out his nasty temper.  Don't make the 
mistake of keeping him waiting around while you dream up answers to 
his questions.  Efficiency counts. 
 
If you're already listed in the personnel file, the Admiral welcomes 
you.  If you're cleared for combat in more than one theatre, he asks 
you to select the region in which you want to serve.  (Your choices 
increase along with your rank and experience.)  Use the joystick or 
the arrow keys to select your region, and press Enter. 
 
If you're new to the riverine units, the Admiral asks: "How should 
I update my roster?"  This is your opportunity to add or change the 
information in the PBR Commanders' File.  Use the joystick or arrow 
key to select one of the following options: 
 
        o ADD       Add a new PBR captain's name to the list 
 
        o REPLACE   Replace one name with another 
 
        o REDO      Return to the Bridge (If you made a mistake, 
                    you can start over again from here.) 
 
Press F1 to view the Personnel Files again, if you want.  Press F1 
again to return to the roster update menu.  When all the information 
in the PBR Commanders' File is correct, press Enter or the joystick 
button to move on. 
 
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Choose Your Mission
 
You gain rank and earn medals by completing missions.  Every mission 
you undertake has a corresponding promotion rank.  If you complete 
the mission successfully, you are automatically promoted to that rank. 

The Admiral can offer you assignments in one of three areas, depending 
on your previous experience and achievements.  For your first several 
missions, he assigns you to Vietnam - the birthplace of modern 
riverine warfare.  Once you're promoted to Second Lieutenant, you have 
the opportunity to battle vicious drug lords and cocaine smugglers in 
Colombia.  Only the elite PBR captains - those who've reached the rank 
of Lieutenant Commander or above - are entrusted with the politically 
sensitive missions that keep clear the Panama Canal Zone. 
 
Once you've been assigned to a particular battlefront, the Admiral 
outlines the current missions.  You can choose from between 2 and 8 
missions, depending on your experience.  Use the joystick or the Up or 
Down arrow keys to cycle through the assignment files.  In each file, 
you can: 
 
        o Read a brief description of the mission. 

        o Press F2 to view the map of the mission area.  The arrow 
          points to your primary mission target.  Press the arrow keys 
          to show maps associated with other missions.  Press F3 to 
          return to the assignment file that corresponds with the map 
          you are viewing. 

        o Press F4 to view boat and weapons specifications.  Use the 
          joystick or the Up or Down arrow keys to cycle through the 
          information screens.  Press F3 to return to the assignment 
          file. 

        o Press Enter to accept the mission. 
 
The first mission of each scenario is a practice mission in which 
you are invulnerable to enemy fire.  This helps you get the lay of the 
land, and familiarize yourself with the enemy's positions and armament. 
 
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Arm Your Boat 

The next step is to equip your PBR with the right engine and armament 
for this particular mission. 

From the PBR Outfitting Screen, you can press F4 to get more detailed 
data on the engines and guns at your disposal.  Use the joystick or the 
Up and Down arrow keys to cycle through the information.  (For even 
more in-depth information on these options, refer to Section 4/
Equipment Reference.)  To return to the PBR Outfitting Screen, press 
F3. 

Move the joystick or use the arrow keys to move up and down the list 
of engine and gun options.  To choose one of the options, press Enter 
or the joystick button. 

Fortunately, the ammunition supply for these guns isn't an issue when 
you're in combat: fuel and ammo are your only cargo, and the boat holds 
several days' worth of ammo.  Remember, however, that your abundant 
ammo stores are a major attraction for the guerillas who inhabit 
these rivers: they will pursue you enthusiastically and kill you quite 
cheerfully to take possession of them. 
 
About Your Crew
 
In the real world, U.S. Navy PBRs typically carry a crew of four: a 
first-class petty officer who serves as boat captain and pilot; a 
gunner's mate, who controls the forward guns; an engineman, who takes 
care of the engines and serves as midship gunner; and a seaman who 
controls the aft guns.  All four are crosstrained in each other's 
tasks - a redundancy that becomes crucial if one or two crew members 
are wounded. 
 
The four crew positions in the Gunboat simulation correspond to each 
of the positions mentioned above. Your Gunboat crew includes: 
 
Page 20 follows:

About Your Crew (continued)

        o The Pilot, who controls the boat's course and speed 

        o The Bow Gunner, who fires the twin M2HB .50 caliber or 
          single .30 caliber Minigun mounted on the front of the boat
 
        o The Engineman/Midship Gunner, who handles the grenade 
          launcher or machine gun mounted in the middle of the boat
 
        o The Stern Gunner, who fires the gun mounted in the stern of 
          the boat. 
 
As a Gunboat captain, it's your job to make tactical decisions, and 
see to it that your gunners and pilot interact effectively under fire. 
The next chapter contains more information about each station's 
operations and capabilities. 
 
Once you've selected your assignment and armed your boat, your boat is 
fully staffed and equipped.  The Admiral sends you off with a few 
parting words.  When you press Enter for the last time, you're in the 
pilot's seat, ready to shove off from the dock. 

Anchors aweigh! 
 
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Section 3 : 
Brown Water Warfare: 
Gunboat Systems & 
Procedures 
 
This section covers the systems and procedures for navigating your PBR,
commanding your crew, operating the four onboard battle stations, and 
engaging the enemy in combat - in short, everything you need to know 
to complete your assigned mission, from the time you leave the dock 
until the time you return. 
 
Every system on board your PBR is monitored and controlled from one or 
more of the four crew stations.  Each station is accurately modeled 
after the actual stations on the PBR Mark III boats currently in use by 
the U.S. Navy. 
 
Your primary role is that of PBR captain.  When you're at the Pilot's 
Station, the computerized gunners stand by at their stations, awaiting 
your order to fire.  As you become familiar with all the systems and 
commands used in running and navigating the boat, you can rely less on 
your computerized gunners, and move from station to station yourself,
operating the guns manually while issuing commands to the computerized 
pilot at the helm. 
 
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General Commands
 
These commands are generally available to you at any point during 
the simulation: 
 
   ESC    Pause Action/Resume Action 

    S     Sounds On/Off - Allows you to run the game wihout the music,
          engine sounds, or battle noises.
  
  CTRL Q  Exit to DOS 

    Z     Move to the Pilot's Port (left) View Screen 

    X     Move to the Pilot's Main (center) View Screen
 
    C     Move to the Pilot's Starboard (right) View Screen
 
    V     Move to the Bow (front) Gunner's Station 

    B     Move to the Midship Gunner's Station
 
    N     Move to the Stern (rear) Gunner's Station
 
    E     Engine Sound On/Off - The PBRs huge engines are pretty 
          noisy, especially when you're moving fast.  If the roar
          bothers your concentration, turn it off.
 
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    D     Detail Level Low/Hi - Reduces the level of simulation
          detail for added speed on slower machines.
 
   TAB    Return to Base - When the carmage gets extreme, or the
          mission's over, this is how you get home again.
 
    M     Mission Map - Get an overview of your position, and the
          surrounding area.  The maps are based on actual maps
          of Vietnam, the riverways of Colombia, and the Panama 
          Canal Zone.  The Practice Mode maps shows the sloughs 
          and rivers of the northeastern San Francisco Bay, where
          the U.S. Navy's Mare Island PBR training center and
          operations base are located. 
 
Watch the map carefully when you know that there's an upcoming fork 
in the river, so you'll be ready to give the computer pilot the right 
directions when the time comes.  Two marks appear on the map to help 
you keep your bearings: 
 
        o A flashing arrow indicates your approximate destination 
 
        o A flashing dot and crosshairs show your current position. 
 
The action temporarily pauses while you refer to this screen:
 
    ,    Chase Boat View Screen - The top of the screen shows what 
         your boat would look like from a chase boat following along 
         behind you.  Use the joystick or arrow keys to move around 
         and get different perspectives on your PBR. 
 
The lower part of the screen summarizes how many enemy targets you've 
destroyed so far in the course of this mission. 

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General Commands (continued)

NOTE: Don't get too caught up in watching your boat dance gracefully 
over the waves, or gloating over your kill rate so far.  While you're 
in the Chase Boat, your PBR is in the hands of your computer pilot (who 
is none too bright), and your gunners hold their fire.  Unfortunately, 
the enemy continues about its ugly business in your absence, and you 
run the risk of returning to a dead boat with a deader crew. 
 
    .    Assignment Review - After the ninth or tenth tough firefight 
         of the day, you may start wondering why you ventured out here 
         in the first place.  It might help to take another look at your 
         mission orders, and refresh your memory.  The action pauses 
         while you look at this screen. 
 
    /    Damage Report Screen - A status summary of your PBR's crew and 
         operating systems.  When you're under heavy fire, check the 
         Damage Report Screen frequently to find out at a glance which 
         systems you can still use, and how your crew is doing.  The 
         action pauses while you look at this screen. 
 
Because your PBR is fairly well armored, small-caliber bullets fired 
on your hull won't slow you down much - though a few well-placed enemy 
.50 caliber machine gun rounds can do some real damage to exposed crew 
members, radar and spotlights.  You can't repair anything on board 
while you're in enemy waters: if you take a hard hit, run aground, get 
stuck, or lose your engines, use any resources you have left to blow 
away as many of your attackers as you can - and then press Tab to 
abandon your boat and Return to Base. 
 
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NOTE:  The status of your PBR's Bilge Pumps is included on your Damage 
Report Screen and will normally indicate that they are OFF.  They 
automatically come ON when you sustain hull damage.  If you sustain 
enough hull damage, the bilge pumps will not remove water as fast as 
the water pours in, and you will sink. 
 
    =   Time Compression - If you want to speed things up a little on 
        your way to the front, press this three-way toggle key once. 
        To speed them up even more, press twice - and hold onto your 
        stomach.  Because time compression also speeds up the enemy's 
        thinking processes and response rate, press it a third time 
        when you suspect that enemy forces are nearby, or find 
        yourself under fire.  This turns off the Time Compression 
        entirely. 
 
If you have a slow-running computer, you may want to fight the entire 
mission with the time compression turned on. 
 
    Backspace   Extra Time Compression - When you find yourself in a 
                long, quiet stretch - or a very big hurry - hold down 
                this key to get maximum time compression.  To slow down 
                again, just release the Backspace key. 
 
 
    F9   Identify Target - When you have a potential target in view, 
         you can ask for identification.  (To get a clearer idea of 
         what kinds of targets you might encounter, turn to Section 5.) 
         Use this command often: shooting at friendlies is one of the 
         better ways to get yourself court-martialed, so this is your 
         insurance of continued job security. 
 
Be sure that the target is lined up directly in front of the boat or in 
your gunsight before you press F9.  This key identifies the closest 
interesting looking target in the area dead ahead. 
 
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The Pilot's Station 
 
The helm is the central control station for the entire boat, where all 
the mechanical and navigational systems are located.  As captain, you 
may spend a fair amount of time here: your ultimate success largely 
depends on your competence at managing this station.  To reach the 
Pilot's Station at any time, press X. 

When you're at the Pilot's Station, the PBR is under your manual 
control.  The pilot is assumed to be the captain of the boat (that's 
you), so when the pilot dies, the mission is over. 
 
The Pilot's Station includes three view screens.  Together, they give 
you a nearly 270-degree view of the horizon, plus access to all your 
controls.  To view these three screens, press:
 
     C  to view the right-hand panel 

     X  to view the center panel 

     Z  to view the left- hand panel 
 
Keyboard Commands
 
The following commands can be executed any time you're at the Pilot's 
Station.  All of the corresponding gauges and indicators are located 
on the center panel - with the exception of the radar screen, which is 
on the right. 
 
    F1    Master Power On/Off - The PBR's main power switch.  Turn it 
          on to power up the boat.  Turn it off, and every powered 
          system on the boat quits. 
 
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    F2     Engine Power On/Off - Powers up the engines.  They take a 
           few seconds to warm up. 
 
    F3     Radar - The radar display maps the nearby coastline, along 
           with vehicles, boats, surfacing mines, anything else that's 
           nearby and interesting.  Use of radar is strictly optional, 
           you may find it useful for "seeing" around corners - and 
           indispensable for getting around at night.  The Raytheon 
           1900/W unit is surface-scanning, and doesn't include
           sonar, so don't count on it to tell you about underwater 
           obstacles. 
 
    F9     Identify Target - Gives you a positive ID on any potential 
           target that's directly in front of the boat. 
 
    F10    Open Fire/Cease Fire - Press F10 to order the gunners to 
           open fire on a nearby target.  The gunners who are in the 
           best position to get a clear shot respond immediately.  This 
           command does not fire the mortars: to do that, you must move 
           to the stern gunner's station.  To cease fire, press F10 
           again. 
 
    ENTER  Throttle Neutral - Moves the throttle into neutral.  Each 
           time you press Enter, the boat slows down a little, until 
           it eventually stops it dead in the water.  The throttle 
           stick on the helm comes to rest in a neutral position. 
 
    Up Arrow/Joystick Forward

           Throttle Forward - increases power to the water jets, 
           propelling the boat forward.  Press ENTER or pull back on 
           the joystick to slow down.  The throttle levers at the 
           right of the screen move up as you accelerate, and the RPM 
           gauges indicate how much power you're getting out of the 
           engines. 

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    Down Arrow/Joystick Back
  
           Throttle Back - This command drops deflectors down behind 
           each of your two jets, reversing the thrust and effectively 
           putting you in reverse.  If you're moving forward when you 
           first throttle back, the RPMs drop down to zero as you slow 
           down, then pick up again as you begin to move backward.  The 
           throttle levers at the right of the center view screen move 
           down as you back up. 
 
NOTE:  The twin engines (especially the big 450-horse-power ones) can 
create a lot of racket when they're running wide open.  In situations 
where stealth is more important than speed, slow down until you're 
under the halfway point on the RPM gauges.  Running under the full-
throttle mark quiets the boat down considerably.
 
    Left Arrow/Joystick Left; Right Arrow/ Joystick 
    Right Turn Left/Turn Right

           These commands rotate the water jets, causing you to turn 
           left or right.  If you lose one of the two engines or jets, 
           the boat becomes much harder to steer, and may not respond 
           to your attempts to control it.  The steering wheel on the 
           center panel moves in response to your turning commands. 
 
    -      Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast the water 
           jets turn in response to your commands.  Press the minus key 
           once to make slow turns, a second time to make slower turns, 
           and a third time to speed up again.  The Slew Rate knob on 
           the center panel shows you current slew rate setting. 
 
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Gauges & Indicators
 
The Pilot's Station includes a collection of gauges and indicator 
lights that can give you a great deal of important information about 
your PBR's systems.  They include: 
 
RPM Gauges - One for each engine.  They work in both forward and 
reverse.  RPM is a measure of power output, not speed, so don't 
depend on these as speedometers. 
 
Fuel Gauges - Each of the two engines has its own separate fuel tank; 
these gauges show how much fuel you have left in each tank.  You can't 
transfer fuel from one tank to the other; if you lose one tank in 
combat, or just run out of gas, that engine is dead for the rest of 
the mission. 
 
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Gauges & Indicators (continued)

Water Jet Direction Indicator - The PBR doesn't use rudders to turn: 
instead, the water jets swivel around, causing the boat to turn left 
or right.  The pointer in this bar shows which way each water jet is 
trying to point - though whether or not you actually make the turn 
depends on the condition of your engines and jets, and what's in the 
water.  If your jets get damaged or you lose engine power, the 
Direction Indicator's accuracy can't be trusted. 
 
Engine Status Light - These lights are located right above the power 
switches for each engine.  As long as the light is green, the engine 
is fine; when it flashes red, that engine is history. 
 
Compass - Like any computerized compass, this one expresses your 
heading as a number between zero and 360 degrees.  North is zero; east 
is 90 degrees; south is 180 degrees; and west is 270 degrees. 
 
Clock - Like any other clock. 
 
Time Compression Indicator - For a full explanation of time 
compression, see page 25 above.  This gauge shows which of the three 
Time Compression settings you're currently using. 
 
Slew Rate Indicator - The Slew Rate is discussed in the Keyboard 
Command section on the previous page.  This knob shows which of the 
three Slew Rate settings you're currently using. 
 
Computer Pilot 

When you leave the pilot's station, the computer pilot takes over. 
Before you leave the helm in his hands, there are a few things you 
need to understand about this guy.

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With a little help from a friend in the base records department, we 
recently got an unauthorized look at his service record.  And all we 
can tell you is; watch him closely.  It's not that you can't trust 
him (although you may sometimes wonder if he's on the enemy payroll - 
and in Colombia, your suspicion might be justified); it's just that 
he's got the decision-making capabilities of your average opossum. 
According to the commanders who've been stuck with him before, there 
are some specific situations where he's next to useless: 
 
        o  While you're off attending to other business on the boat, 
           he does his level best to figure out what your course is, 
           and hold to it.  But he can't read maps, and the Mission 
           Map looks as tangled to him as the LA freeway system does 
           to the rest of us.  When he comes to a fork in the river, 
           or heads toward a coastline, he may remember your previous 
           instructions to branch right or left or he may forget, and 
           make the decision all by himself.  Keep a close eye on him - 
           and the map - so you can correct his course before he 
           steers you straight into downtown Phnom Penh. 
 
        o  After several years in the Navy, he finally got the general 
           idea that the best course to take in most rivers is straight 
           down the middle, in the deep water, and well away from shore-
           bound enemies; and that the thing to do with coastlines is to 
           follow them.  (The brass, recognizing this as true progress, 
           promptly promoted him.)  But he still forgets sometimes, and 
           has been known to run boats aground.  He's especially shaky 
           booming through narrow canyons at high speeds, so it's best 
           if you take over before he drives the PBR straight into a 
           sheer rock wall. 

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Computer Pilot (continued)

        o  Out on the open sea, he'll just take over from your current 
           helm settings: if you were going straight when you left 
           the helm, he'll keep going straight until he hits Hawaii - 
           or (occasionally) a rockpile along the coastline.  If you 
           were turning, he'll keep with it, running in circles 
           forever.  And he hasn't the foggiest idea of how to evade 
           boats or other obstacles in the water. 
 
The up side is that he does recognize a few commands, and executes those 
fairly reliably.  To issue orders from one of the other stations, use the 
following keys: 
 
    F4   Reverse Direction or, in simple language, turn around 
 
    F5   Branch Left at the upcoming river mouth or fork 
 
    F6   Branch Right at the upcoming river mouth or fork 
 
    F7   Slow Down (he'll let you know when you've slowed to a stop) 
 
    F8   Speed Up (he'll tell you when you've reached maximum speed). 
 
 
The Gunners' Stations 
 
The pilot is supported by a crew of three gunners, who operate all the 
artillery on the boat.  Depending on the situation, you can move to any 
of the the three gunners' stations and take matters into your own 
hands; or you can rely on the computerized gunners to help carry the 
battle.  To reach the three stations, press: 
 
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    V    Bow (front) Gunner's Station 
 
    B    Midship Gunners Station 
 
    N    Stern (rear) Gunner's Station 
 
The three gunners' stations use identical commands, and are equipped 
with a similar collection of gauges and indicators. 
 
Keyboard Commands
 
Use the following commands to control the guns and spotlights at each 
station. 
 
    F1   Power On - Turns on the gun's main power supply 
 
    F2   Gun Safety On/Off - Releases or sets the gun's safety 
         mechanism.  The safety must be turned off before you can 
         fire.  Generally, you can turn it off at the beginning of the 
         mission, and leave it off for the duration. 
 
    F3   Spotlight On/Off - Each gunner's station is equipped with a 
         bright spotlight.  This toggle switch turns the light on and 
         off.  The spotlight is attached to the gun, and moves with the 
         gun in response to your joystick or arrow key commands. 
 
The spotlights can be helpful at night, but old-timers suggest that you 
use them carefully, because they can attract a lot of unwanted attention 
from enemy forces who otherwise may not have spotted you. 
 
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    F9   Identify Target - Gives you a positive ID on any potential 
         target that's directly in your line of fire. 
 
    F10  Open Fire/Cease Fire at Other Stations - Opens fire at all 
         gunner's stations except the one you're at.  The other two 
         gunners continue to scan for targets and shoot until you 
         press F10 again to cease fire.  The computerized gunners 
         don't fire the mortar launcher. 
 
    Joystick/Arrow Keys

         Aim Gun - Move the joystick or press the arrow keys to aim 
         the gun at the target.  If the spotlight is on, these 
         commands aim it as well. 
 
    Enter/Fire Button

         Open Fire - The burst of fire continues for as long as you 
         hold down the key. 
 
    -    Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast the gun 
         turns in response to your joystick or arrow key commands. 
         Press the minus key once to make slow turns, a second time 
         to make slower turns, and a third time to speed up again.  
         The Slew Rate knob on your control panel shows the current 
         slew rate setting. 
 
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Gauges & Indicators 

Each gunner's station comes equipped with a small selection of gauges 
and indicator lights: 
 
Compass - Just like the compass on the pilot's station, but this one 
shows the direction your gun is pointing.  This is really useful if 
you've been moving around the boat a lot, and are getting disoriented. 
 
Slew Rate - The Slew Rate is discussed in the Keyboard Command section 
just above.  This knob shows which of the three Slew Rate settings 
you're currently using. 
 
Time Compression - This gauge shows which of the three time compression 
settings you're currently using. 
 
Power On/Off - When this light is on, so you're gun's main power.  When 
it goes off, your gun is dead. 
 
Safety On/Off - When this light is green, the gun's safety is off, 
and it's ready to fire.  Red means that the safety is on.  Press F2 
to turn it off. 
 
Spotlights On/Off - If the green light is blazing, so is this 
station's spotlight.  The light turns red when your spotlight is off 
or has been damaged beyond use. 
 
About the Bow Gunner
 
The front gun turret offers the best view on the entire PBR, and you 
may find yourself spending most of your time up here.  After all, in 
most situations, you're the first to spot danger ahead, and the first 
to fire on it.  It's also the only station equipped with two guns, 
instead of just one. 
 
The Bow Guns rotate a complete 270 degrees, so you can fire on just 
about anything except the boat's cabin behind you.  You can outfit 
the Bow Gunner's station with a pair of .50 cal M2HB machine guns, or 
a M134 Minigun.  To find out more about these weapons, turn to the 
discussion of Armament in Section 4. 
 
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About the Midship Gunner

The engineman/midship gunner stands on a steel platform high atop the 
engines, just behind the PBR's cabin.  Your gun rotate: in a full 
270-degree sweep that takes in the sides and rear of the boat but, 
like the bow gunner's station, you can't turn the guns around to fire 
on your own cabin.  Also (to the relief of the stern gunner, who stands 
just below you on the fantail), the gun can't be lowered far enough to 
fire on the stern gunner's station. 
 
The Midship Gunner's Station can be equipped with an M129 automatic 
grenade launcher, or an M6OD .30 caliber machine gun.  Both these guns 
were used in Vietnam, and both are still used on U.S. PBRs today.  For 
a detailed description of each, turn to the Armament list in Section 4. 
 
About the Stern Gunner 
 
The Stern Gunner is located low down in the PBR's fantail - so low, 
in fact, that when the boat's underway, he stands almost even with 
the water.  (In Gunboat, you might notice that the boat's stern rises 
up out of the water slightly as the boat accelerates.)  Like the 
midship gun, the stern gun rotates 270 degrees around the sides and 
back of the boat.  You can't turn it around far enough to fire on the 
cabin or the midship gunner. 
 
The Stern Gunner can be equipped with one M2HB .50 caliber machine 
gun; an M6OD .30 caliber gun; or a 6Omm mortar that's your best bet 
for bunkers and bridges.  Specific information on each of these guns 
in provided in Section 4. 
 
About the Computer Gunners 

Because there are three gunners' stations - and only one of you - a 
team of computerized gunners takes control of the stations you're not 
currently occupying.  The computerized gunners respond to just one 
command: F10, the order to open or cease fire.  They operate according 
to some very specific rules: 

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        o  When the Open Fire order is in effect, the gunners scan for 
           enemy targets, and shoot same without any action on your 
           part.  They continue to search and destroy enemy targets 
           until you press F10 again, ordering them to cease fire. 
 
        o  Computer gunners won't fire on friendly targets, which keeps 
           you out of a lot of trouble. 
 
        o  They also don't fire the mortar launcher.  You're on your 
           own with that one. 
 
        o  Though they're very supportive and reliable, remember that 
           the computerized gunners generally aren't as accurate as you 
           are.  If you're in a tricky situation and want the job done 
           right, it's probably best to move in and do it yourself. 
 
A message at the top of the screen notifies you when one of four 
gunners is wounded.  When a gunner is killed, you no longer have access 
to his weapon.  If you were at that gunner's station when he took the 
fatal hit, the Damage Report Screen immediately appears in front of you. 
 
When the Mission Ends 
 
Missions can end in one of three ways: 
 
        o You achieve your mission objective 

        o Your entire crew is killed and your boat is destroyed 

        o You decide to abandon the mission in the middle, and go watch 
          Apocalypse Now. 
 
In any of these three cases, press Tab to return to base.  The Admiral 
issues a mission report that evaluates your effort, and summarizes 
your career status to date. 

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Section 4 
PBR Reference Section 
 
PBR Technical Specifications & 
Development History 

The PBR (Patrol Boat, River) is a military adaptation of a commerical 
boat originally designed and manufactured by United Boatbuilders of 
Bellingham, WA.  Over the past 25 years, the U.S. Navy has 
commissioned three generations of the PBR: 
 
PBR Mark 1 (1966) 

Length: 31'
 
Maximum Width: 11 feet 

Top Speed: 28 knots 

Engine: 215hp General Motors diesel truck engine; Jacuzzi water jet 
        propulsion pump.
 
Draft: 18" fully loaded
 
Crew: Four 
 
Radar: Raytheon 1900/W surface-scanning unit 

Cost; $75,000 (in 1966 dollars)
 
As the first U.S.-made PBR, the 120 Mark I boats delivered in 1966 
formed the foundation of the U.S. Navy's forces in the Mekong Delta. 
It was smaller and slower than its successors, but proved the 
viability of riverine warfare beyond a doubt.  Its twin 215-horsepower 
diesel engines are included as an option in the Gunboat simulation. 

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PBR Mark II (1967) 

Slightly longer and more powerful than the Mark I.  The protective 
aluminum gunwales on the Mark II's hull were a major improvement over 
the Mark I, which was annoyingly prone to being sliced open whenever 
it made hard contact with rocks, underwater obstacles, or other boats. 
Over 130 Mark II PBRs were sent to Vietnam between 1967 and 1969. 
 
PBR Mapk III (1976) 

The viciously powerful post-war version of the PBR, the Mark III is the 
Navy's most current riverine craft.  The engines - 450- horsepower 
monsters with a maximum speed of nearly 50 knots - put out enough 
power to give a hydrofoil a fair race in open water.  In addition, 
the Mark III is more maneuverable than anything you'll find in Road & 
Track.  You can brake down from top speed to a dead stop, or complete 
a 180-degree turn, in just a single boat length.  On the down side, 
though, it's somewhat noisier than its predecessors, which means your 
engine choice often comes down to a question of speed over stealth. 
 
In 1978, the PBR Mark III cost about $500,000, minus guns. 
 
Over the years, the term PBR (Patrol Boat, River) has described a wide 
variety of boat types that were outfitted to perform the same 
function.  The PBR in Gunboat fits the Mark II and Mark III 
specifications described above, but can be equipped with weapons and 
engines that saw use on the Mark I. 

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The Brown Water Navy: 
an Overview of American PBR 
Warfare
 
Throughout its 200-year history, the U.S. Navy has focused on big 
boats - enormous ocean-going vessels with tremendous range and 
firepower; free-floating cities capable of supporting vast military 
operations by sea, land, and air.  Because of this emphasis on 
dominating the world's oceans, the Navy arrived in Vietnam with only 
one previous experiment in small-craft riverine warfare: a fleet of 
tiny boats that had patrolled the coastlines and rivers of Dixie a 
hundred years earlier, during the American Civil War. 
 
Made for the Mekong 

The beginnings of modern riverine warfare can be traced back to French 
colonial forces who occupied Vietnam during the early 1950s - and to 
the Vietnamese themselves, who had used the waterways of the Mekong 
Delta as major highways (and, on occasion, battlegrounds) for centuries. 
In 1953, the French designed the first prototypical PBR-type warboats 
specifically for use on Vietnam's endless riverways, and introduced 
them as the core of a new Vietnamese Navy that was specially geared 
toward riverine combat.  (Only later did the French officers in charge 
add a fleet of ocean-going ships.)  In 1955, the French turned full 
control of the colonial navy over to the Diem government. 
 
That same year, the first American naval advisors arrived in Vietnam, 
and immediately grasped the tremendous strategic potential of the 
Vietnamese Navy's riverine fleet.  When the Gulf of Tonkin resolution 
was passed in 1964, the naval advisors seized the chance to quickly
upgrade the fleet with faster, quieter, newer, more heavily armored 
boats, which would enable them to secure the critical Mekong Delta 
region.  From here, the U.S. and South Vietnamese could dominate all 
of Vietnam. 
 
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To save time and money, the Navy bypassed the usual development 
process, and went shopping for an existing commercial boat that 
might do the job.  At United Boatbuilders of Bellingham, WA, they 
found what they were looking for: a slick little jetdriven cutter 
with a big GM-built engine, and no propellers to get tangled up in 
sandbars and seaweed.  A military contract was issued in 1965, and 
by March 1966 the first 120 PBR Mark I boats arrived in Vietnam. 
 
The Brown Water War 

The American-made PBR was far faster and more powerful than the earlier 
generations of riverine craft, and the first U.S. PBR crews found 
themselves literally writing the book on a whole new type of combat. 
Every day demanded that they invent new tactics; every season over 
the next four years saw further evoluion and refinement of their 
strategies and skills. 
 
Over the course of the war, "Brown Water Navy" missions fell into three 
classes: 
 
        o interdicting Viet Cong supply lines along the Vietnamese coast;
 
        o flushing out NVA guerillas who infiltrated the inland Delta 
          waters (this was especially critical - and tremendously 
          effective - during the 1968 Tet Offensive); 

        o and working in convoy with armored troop carriers and other 
          boats on strike force missions throughout the Mekong region. 
 
In the early years of the conflict, PBRs weren't based at onshore docks 
or harbors.  Instead, they were attached to and serviced by LST (Landing 
Ship Tank) vessels, which were anchored offshore.  The crews lived on 
these ships, the PBRs were supplied and maintained by them, and every 
mission began and ended there.  LSTs would stay at anchor for about six 

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The Brown Water War (continued)

months, providing a floating command base for PBR units, before 
returning to their own home bases in Japan, Singapore, or the 
Philippines.  Later in the war, as the U.S. established harbors and 
bases in the Mekong, PBR support facilities were moved onshore. 
 
The PBR's size, stealth, and speed inspired its crews to invent some 
rather imaginative uses for their craft: 
 
        o On night missions, the crew would cut the engines completely 
          and drift with the current (or wait at anchor in a secluded 
          area), silently biding time, watching.  A nearby enemy unit 
          settling in for the night would abruptly find themselves 
          rudely awakened by blinding spotlights as one or two PBRs 
          suddenly materialized out of the jungle darkness with all 
          guns spirting out a rain of fire. 
 
        o In early 1969, the Navy used giant CH-54 Flying Crane 
          helicopters to airlift PBRs into isolated battlezones that 
          were unreachable by waterway.  Their appearance in these 
          inaccessible areas took the Viet Cong by tremendous surprise 
          - an advantage that the PBR units usually turned into 
          decisive victory. 
 
        o And no, the onscreen reference to waterskiing isn't just a 
          fantasy.  Jim Mesko, who has written extensively about 
          Vietnam PBR units, notes: "In reality, PBR patrols were just 
          like any other military operation - long, tedious, boring 
          days that were sometimes punctuated by minutes of sheer 
          terror."  During those long, tedious, unbearably hot and 
          humid days on the Mekong, American PBR crews actually did 
          haul out the ropes and skis, and perfected their wake-
          hopping techniques during a little spontaneous R & R.  With 
          its powerful jets and tremendous speed, the PBR was a world-
          class water ski boat. 

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Because of their unique role and the singular nature of their 
missions, the riverine brigades were the only Navy forces who wore 
jungle-green camouflage fatigues (instead of navy white & blue) as 
their daily uniform.  Within the Navy, the PBR units earned a 
distinguished reputation as an elite force that never, throughout 
the entire war, failed to achieve a mission objective. 
 
Modern Times 

The U.S. military's policy of Vietnamization literally changed the 
face of the PBR crews in the late 1960s.  One by one, over a period 
of months, U.S. Navy crew members trained their Vietnamese 
counterparts to take over control of the boats.  When U.S. forces 
invaded Cambodia in 1970, the Mekong route into Phnom Penh was 
opened by PBR units that were over 80% Vietnamese.  In the closing 
years of the war, ownership of the boats passed into the hands of the 
Vietnamese Navy.  And, no doubt, some of those original patrol boats - 
now over 25 years old - cruise the Mekong Delta to this day. 
 
Back home again, the Navy moved forward.  In Vietnam, their PBR units 
had made history as one of the most successful and effective fighting 
forces in the entire U.S. military.  In recognition of the PBR's 
strategic value, the Navy established two permanent riverine fleets. 
In 1976, the Navy commissioned the modern PBR Mark III a slightly 
longer version of the Vietnam-era PBR, with General Motors 450-
horsepower engines that are nearly twice as fast as their 
precedessors.  By 1980, the Mark III could be found in the navies of 
Iran, Sri Lanka, Syria, Cambodia and the Philippines....and 
throughout the waters of northern San Francisco Bay and the sloughs 
of the Sacramento River Delta, where new crews come and take their 
lessons from the pioneering vets of the Mekong's brown water war. 
 
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Armament 
 
When selecting weaponry for your PBR, take into account the type of 
targets you're likely to encounter; and the kind of range, firepower, 
and accuracy you'll need in order to complete your mission.  Your 
choices include: 
 
M2HB Browning .50 Caliber Heavy Machine 
Gun
 
Fire Rate:              600 rounds per minute 

Effective Range:        1996 yards 

Ammunition:             .50 cal armor-piercing incendiary (API) rounds 
 
This hefty gun has been in widespread use since the end of World War I, 
and was standard equipment on PBRs in Vietnam.  After 70 years, it's 
still a mainstay of the U.S. armed forces and 29 other armies around 
the world.  It's your best choice for stopping onshore light armor and 
unarmored boats - though somewhat less effective against infantry, due 
to its slow rate of fire.  (Besides, firing API rounds at human beings 
brings new meaning to the concept of overkill.) 
 
GE M434 Minigun 

Fire Rate:              2000 to 6000 rounds per minute 

Effective Range:        1250 yards 

Ammunition:             .30 cal bullets 
 
The six rotating barrels on this small Gatling gun can churn out a 
rain of bullets so devastating that the Vietnamese poetically named 
it "The Muttering Death".  Among the aircraft and PBR crews who use it, 
it's simply called the "Six Pack".  Because of its efficency as an 
anti-infantry weapon, it was installed on the PBRs recently sent to 
Panama.

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Though it can create some interesting holes in unarmored vehicles and 
buildings, the Minigun's high rate of sustained fire is most useful for 
mowing down bad guy and tents - making it the best choice for missions 
in which you expect to encounter mostly infantry. 
 
M6OD 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun
 
Fire Rate:              550 rounds per minute 

Effective Range:	984 yards 

Ammunition:            .30 caliber bullets 
 
The M60 has been the standard U.S. military machine gun for the past 
30 years, and saw heavy use in Vietnam.  This version has been 
specially adapted for use as a pintle-mounted gun on helicopters, 
armored vehicles, and riverine craft.  Belt-fed and gas-powered, the 
M60 is intended to be used against infantry, light boats, and 
unarmored targets.  (Don't bother firing it at bunkers or houses.) 
 
M1 29 Automatic Grenade Launcher 

Fire Rate:              230 to 450 rounds per minute 

Effective Range:        1875 yards if you're not moving: about 400 
                        yards if you are. 

Ammunition:             40mm grenades 
 
The M129 was originally designed to be mounted on helicopters, but 
was later adapted for use by ground forces, tanks, and riverine craft 
as well.  You can't keep up the burst very long - but then again, you 
probably won't have to: small boats, unfortified buildings, and 
unarmored vehicles will probably be rendered useless by just one well-
placed grenade and anyone unlucky enough to be within 10 yards when one 
detonates probably won't live to tell about it.  It's the best thing 
going for medium-scale deforestation, turning huts and sampans into 
piles of straw, and even flattening small villages (if you're up for 
the nasty court martial that's likely to follow).

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M129 Automatic Grenade Launcher
(continued)

On the other hand, the launcher is hard to aim, and the grenades 
don't pack quite enough juice to do much damage to structures like 
bridges or bunkers, so don't waste time and ammo trying. 
 
M224 6Omm Mortar Launcher 

Fire Rate:              Launches one HE bomb at a time 

Effective Range:        Approximately 1900 yards 

Ammunition:             M720 high explosive (HE) bombs 

This isn't used any more, but it was common equipment in Vietnam. 
The M224 is the heaviest artillery in the Gunboat arsenal, and your 
only serious choice against bridges, docks, concrete fortifications, 
and onshore armor.  Be sure to aim the launcher carefully, and slow 
down as much as possible before firing - the vibration and movement of
the boat can really cut down on the mortar's accuracy.  The M224's 
extremely slow rate of fire makes it useless in ambushes, unless 
you're in a fortified position; and it lacks the finesse needed to be 
very effective against tiny, slow-moving infantry targets. 
 
Tactics
 
The first U.S. riverine crews arrived in Vietnam without so much as a 
book to go by.  You don't have to.  Here are some tactics, tips, and 
assorted odd thoughts on making the most of your PBR: 
 
For Pilots 

  o Full-throttle is the only way to fly if you're trying to get 
    somewhere - or get away from something - very fast.  But most of 
    the time, PBR crews prefer to mosey along at a leisurely pace, 
    with plenty of time to scout the banks and choose their course.

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  o If you keep your speed low (below half throttle), the enemy is 
    much less likely to hear you - the better for sneaking up on 
    targets.  Opening the throttle over the halfway mark makes you a 
    great deal easier to find. 
 
  o If you approach a target head-on, your bow gunner is the only crew 
    member that can get a clear shot at it.  Since everyone wants to 
    get into the act, try to angle in on a target, go your midship and 
    stern gunners get the chance to use their firepower. 
 
  o PBRs are very light, and draw almost no water - attributes which 
    make them terrific on smooth, shallow rivers, but about the last 
    boat you'd want to take into rough water or high seas.  Bear this 
    in mind, and exercise extreme caution when you're out in open water. 
 
  o Beware of submerged rocks, roots, and sandbars whenever you 
    approach the shore.  They can hang you up, bog you down, or damage 
    the boat.  The radar screen sometimes provides clues as to their  
    location, but your best defense is to slow down and ease up to 
    the shore. 
 
  o Recognize the limitations of your computerized pilot.  When you're 
    under fire from a fort, are speeding through a canyon, or find 
    yourself in any situation that requires a steady, quick hand on 
    the helm, switch to the driver's station.  For one thing, you're 
    no doubt better at evasive driving, avoiding traffic, and making 
    it through a slalom course of mines.  For another, he has an 
    annoying tendency to panic under fire and ram the PBR into things 
    like canyon walls or other boats. 
 
  o Hitting the shoreline or running aground can do more damage to 
    your boat than a bunker's worth of hostile infantry:

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For Pilots (continued)

  o You can do serious damage to your water jets.  If just one of the 
    jets gets skewed, your PBR can persistently veer left or right for 
    the rest of the mission.
 
  o If both jets get mangled, you're in for a slow, wobbly ride. 
 
  o If you hit a rock or cliff, you risk putting a hole in your hull. 
    In these cases, your flak jacket does not do double duty as a 
    flotation device. 
 
  o Use the Backspace or = (equals) keys to turn on the time compression 
    and zip through stretches of friendly or barren territory.  Use them 
    until you get shot at, or reach something you want to inspect more 
    closely.  One caution: enemy thinking processess also speed up when 
    you use time compression, so turn it off immediately when you 
    discover enemies about. 
 
For Gunners 

  o None of the guns on your PBR come equipped with stabilizers.  Your 
    aim is cleanest when the boat is stopped, moving slowly, or 
    maintaining an even speed over smooth water; and your chances 
    decrease drastically in rough water, or at high speeds.  In order 
    to get the most accurate identification of a target, slow the boat 
    down - especialiy if you're in choppy water. 
 
  o In most cases, it's easiest to aim using the middle slew rate 
    setting.  To refine your aim, slow the slew rate down to the 
    lower setting. 
 
  o When the boat is rapidly turning, suddenly speeding up, or 
    abruptly slowing down, it's prone to tilt, which can throw off 
    your aim.  Be aware of this, and try to compensate.  If possible, 
    ask the pilot to slow down, and don't issue Slow Down or Speed Up 
    commands while aiming at targets. 
 
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  o If the target's moving, don't aim at where it is - aim at where it 
    will be a few seconds from now, when your shell catches up with 
    it.  The amount of lead time depends your range, your fire rate, 
    and how fast the boat is moving relative the target.  If you try 
    to hit a target that's out of your gun's range, you'll probably miss. 
 
  o Shoot your guns in short bursts.  This gives you time between 
    bursts to check and make sure you're actually hitting something. 
 
  o The front gunner's station is probably the best seat in the house. 
    You're the first to see trouble ahead, and the first to respond to 
    it. 
 
  o The spotlights are great for finding your way around at night - but 
    they also advertise your position to enemy.  Instead of risking 
    exposure, press F9 to identify targets in the dark. 
 
  o Keep an eye on the computerized pilot, and anticipate upcoming 
    river forks.  Remember, if you don't press F5 (branch left) or F6 
    (branch right), he'll decide for himself which fork to take, and 
    the next thing you know, you'll be sending the Admiral postcards 
    from Caracas. 
 
  o There's a right way to mount a bridge assault - and a wrong one. 
    The wrong way is to blast away at the midspan, creating a small 
    gap that the enemy can patch up in less than a week.  The right 
    way is to aim at the supports on either end, effectivly undermining 
    the structure of the entire bridge. 
 
  o It is extremely difficult to get a clean mortar hit at a bridge 
    foundation.  Practice, and don't give up on your assault too soon. 

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For Gunners (continued)

  o Every gunner's station has a different 180-degree field of view. 
    It's disturbingly easy to get yourself turned around as you switch 
    from station to station, especially if the boat's taking some fast 
    turns.  If you're feeling dizzy, refer to the Mission Map 
    frequently to make sure you're still heading the right direction. 
 
  o It's hard to aim anything very accurately on a fast-moving boat. 
    In situations where you can't do the job with a sharpshooter's 
    finesse, make up for it with raw, unleashed power.  Your ammo is 
    unlimited, so it costs you nothing to spray your guns back and 
    forth over the targets and mow `em down - just like in the 
    gangster movies. 
 
  o When the Good Shot!  message appears at the top of the screen, 
    remember that you're not the only crew member aboard - and the 
    comment could be intended for someone else. 
 
Know Your Enemy 
 
You may encounter scores of different target types on your various 
Gunboat missions.  We've compiled this list to familiarize you with 
some of the more common enemy resources. 
 
Vietnam 

The Vietnamese scenarios reflect the war as it was in 1970, and the 
equipment you encounter there is the similar to what the original 
riverine units faced during those days.  Among the unfriendlies 
you'll meet: 
 
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PT76 Tank
 
A light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tank.  Watch out 
for the 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of 
the cargo. 
 
T55 Tank
 
A Soviet World War II dinosaur with stubbornly thick armor and a 
wicked 100mm gun.  Nothing to do but turn tail and run, or grit your 
teeth and lean on the throttle - you don't have the armament to deal 
with it. 
 
BTR 6O/BTR 70
 
Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped 
with a .5Ocal machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it with 
.50 caliber rounds - before it nails you. 
 
RPG7 

This Soviet missile launcher isn't as deadly to boats as it is to 
tanks - though will still put a hole in your aluminum hull.  Shoot 
down the missile if you can; then take out the launcher belore it can 
fire another one. 
 
Machine gun nests
 
These are basically sandbag piles.  Use .5Ocal guns or grenades. 
 
Bridges 

You'll encounter a wide assortment of bridges.  All of them can be 
taken down with your mortar launcher and enough persistence. 
 
Sampans 

The natives make these boats out of reeds.  Everyone in Vietnam used 
them, including civilians and the U.S. forces, so you should be extra 
careful about firing on the right ones. (Blowing up old ladies on the 
way to market is a good way to get courtmartialed; blowing up your 
own troops is an even better one.) 
 
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----------------

Infantry 

VC infantry wear either fatigues or the standard-issue black pajamas. 
Be sure to get a good ID before blazing away at them. 
 
Trees 

Green, leafy stationary targets.  You don't get points for blowing 
them up.         
 
Docks 

Used by both us and them, and the civilians as well.  Like bridges 
and sampans, don't blow one up without good ID - or good reason.  Your 
mortar launcher is your best bet. 
 
Water Buffalo 

Hamburgers, anyone? 
 
Colombia 
 
The Colombia scenarios represent an escalation of the current American 
war on drugs.  You're going up the tropical rivers to clean out drug
refineries, chemical storage dumps, docks, and fortified strongholds 
of the Medellin Cartel.  One thing here that you won't find elsewhere: 
some of the enemy armament you'll come up against is American-made. 
Even at black-market prices, these high rollers can afford the best. 
 
M48 Tank 

The good old Made-In-America World War II-vintage Patton tank working 
here for the Other Side.  Lucky commanders can get away with lobbing 
mortars at it.  Smart ones just get away. 
 
Huey Gunship 

A big old lumbering U.S. battle chopper outfitted .30 and .50 caliber 
guns - and sometimes, TOW-2 wire-guided missiles.  Your .50 caliber gun 
should be enough to swat it out of the sky. 
 
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Pickup Truck
 
Could be Juan Valdez hauling his mountain-grown coffee beans into 
town.  Or, it could be a small arsenal-on-wheels, complete with 
TOW-2 launchers and machine guns of varying sizes in the back.  If it's 
the latter, take it out with your .50 caliber gun or grenade launcher. 
 
PT 76 Tank 

Light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tanks.  Watch out for 
their 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of the 
cargo.  Use your .50 caliber guns. 
 
BTR 6O/BTR 70 

Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped 
with a .50 cal machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it with 
.50 caliber rounds - before it nails you. 
 
Power Boats
 
Flashy, fast small and medium-sized power boats.  They're usually 
bristling with small arms.  Like any unarmored vehicle, it's 
vulnerable to your .50 caliber gun or your grenade launcher 
 
Huts 

Colombian huts tend to be more substantial than Vietnamese hooches - 
and require more substantial ammo.  But they don't last long in a 
rain of grenade fire. 
 
Machine Gun Nests
 
Your basic stack of sandbags.  Use the .50 caliber gun or the grenade 
launcher. 
 
Mortar Nests 

A sturdy sandbag structure that's reinforced with tree trunks.  It 
houses a single mortar launcher.  In this case, fight fire with fire, 
and go for your own mortar. 
 
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Enemy Fortification
 
A solid brick building that probably contains a large salvo of 
mortars, and possibly other heavy armament as well.  Defensive 
driving is your best best when caught in a hail of fire from one of 
these fortifications.  Generally, the shells tend to fall in an 
identifiable pattern.  A sharp pilot who discerns the pattern can 
anticipate and evade incoming fire, ensuring that the PBR comes 
through in one piece. 
 
Mercenaries 

Infantry by any other name.  Deal with them accordingly. 
 
Panama 

The Soviets supply most of the armament you'll see in Panama; until very 
recently, they were a more reliable source of spare parts. 
 
T62A 

A widely-exported Soviet tank with heavy armor and big guns.  Not 
modern, but formidable.  Don't even try to stop them. 
 
PT 76 Tank 

A light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tank.  Watch out 
for the 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of 
the cargo.  The thin armor won't stop your .50 caliber shells. 
 
BTR 60/BTR 70 

Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped 
with a .50 caliber machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it 
with .50 caliber rounds - belore it nails you. 
 
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Radar Installation
 
Think of it as a sitting duck.  It's huge, stationary, extremely 
visible (that big dish can be seen for miles), and vital to the 
enemy.  It's also very vulnerable to fire from your .50 caliber gun, 
if you can get within range. 
 
Anti-Ship Missiles 

Positioned to keep the Panama Canal clear of unwelcome traffic, this 
one means double trouble for you.  The airborne missile can wipe you 
out in mere seconds, unless you slow down, take careful aim with your 
.50 caliber, and shoot it out of the sky belore it reaches the boat. 
Even if you succeed, the launcher can instantly lob another one at you 
- so don't hesitate to destroy the launcher, too. 
 
Mi-24 Hind Helicopter 

In the Canal Zone, these Soviet-made choppers are thicker than 
mosquitos, and even more annoying.  They carry lots of AT-6 Spiral 
missiles, which they will gleefully hurl at you.  On the other hand, 
they're not the most maneuverable of beasts, so it's not impossible to 
take out a low-flying Hind with your .50 caliber machine gun. 
 
Power Boats 

Flashy, fast small and medium-sized power boats.  They're usually 
bristling with small arms.  Sink them with your trusty .5G caliber 
machine gun. 
 
Trucks/Buildingsd/Infantry 

Ubiquitous targets.  If you can't handle these by the time you get 
to Panama, you don't deserve your stripes. 
 
Statuary 

Sorry - there are no bonus points for defacing local monuments. 
 
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Section 5: Troubleshooting
 
If you have any questions about Gunboat, and you can't find the 
answers in the manual, our Customer Support folks can help.  You can 
call us at 408-296-8400 between 9 AM and 5 PM Pacific Time, or write 
to Accolade Customer Support, 550 S. Winchester Blvd., San Jose, CA 
95128.  Be sure to have your computer handy when you call, and have 
the following information: your computer's brand and model, its 
memory and what peripherals are attached.

GUNBOAT
-------

COMMAND CHART

"Go To Station" Commands

Pilot's port (Left Station)......................... Z
Pilot's Main Station................................ X
Pilot's Starboard (Right) Station................... C
Bow (Front) Gunner's Station........................ V
Midship Gunner's Station............................ B
Stern (Rear) Gunner's Station....................... N

While In a Pilot's Station

Power On/Off........................................ F1
Engines On/Off...................................... F2
Radar On/Off........................................ F3
Steering Slew Rate: Hi/Med/Low...................... -
Throttle Forward.................................... Up Arrow
Throttle Back....................................... Down Arrow
Slow Down........................................... Enter
Rotate Water Jets Left.............................. Left Arrow
Rotate Water Jets Right............................. Right Arrow
Indentify Target.................................... F9
"Gunners, Open Fire/Cease Fire"..................... F10
Detail Level: Low/Hi................................ D

While In a Gunner's Station

Power On/Off........................................ F1
Gun's Safety On/Off................................. F2
Spotlight On/Off.................................... F3
Aim Slew Rate: Hi/Med/Low........................... -
Aim................................................. Up Arrow, Down Arrow,
                                                     Left Arrow and
                                                     Right Arrow
Fire................................................ Enter
"Pilot, Reverse Course"............................. F4
"Pilot, Branch Left"................................ F5
"Pilot, Branch Right"............................... F6
"Pilot, Go Slower".................................. F7
"Pilot, Go Faster".................................. F8
Identify Target..................................... F9
"Gunners, Open Fire/Cease Fire"..................... F10
Detail Level: Low/Hi................................ D

General Game Commands

Engine Sound On/Off................................. E
Sounds On/Off....................................... S
Pause Game.......................................... ESC
Return To Base...................................... TAB
Exit To DOS......................................... CTRL + Q
Time Compression Off/On/Hi.......................... =
Time Compression While Pressed...................... Backspace

Mission Information

View Map............................................ M
Chase Boat View..................................... ,
View Assignment..................................... .
View Damage......................................... /
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