G U N S H I P - I B M Techinical Supplement: 64-TS-429 Introduction- This supplement provides specific instruction and info. for using the GUNSHIP simulation with an IBM/PC or 100% compatible computer. Other Supported Items- The following accessories are supported but not required: Mutiple floppy disk drives,Hard disk drives,and Joystick. ______________________________________________________________________________ Caution: GUNSHIP is an accurate simulation of a combat helicopter.DO NOT attempt to junp and fly by instinct.Helicopters are similar to other aircraft,but have important difference.Unless you've flown real helicopters,read part 1 in the OPERATIONS MANUAL carefully and learn to fly using the tutorials. ______________________________________________________________________________ Load Disk: To load GUNSHIP,read the appropeiate section in this supplement.Plce the correct overlay on your keyboard. ______________________________________________________________________________ Skim Operations Manual: Skim the"Cockpit & Status Panels" and "Controls" sections of the Operating Manual to familiarize yourself with the Heliicopter Flying".Specific Controls for your machine are included in this supplement ;deailed descriptions are found in the Opertion Manual. ______________________________________________________________________________ Follow the Tutorials: First goto "Beginner's Tutorial I-Learning to Fly a Helicopter."follow it step by step.You'll refer frequently to the"Cockpit" and "Controls" sections of the Operating Manual.Then follow"Beginner's Tutoial II- Gunnery and Defenses." ______________________________________________________________________________ Begin Combat Flying: if you are still uncertain aboyt flying after both tutorials,continue flying the USA training area.Refer to"A Practical Guide to Helicopter Flying"and "aerodynamics" in the Operations Manual for a better understanding of flight.Try the Tutorials again. ______________________________________________________________________________ Don't Volunteer: Don't volunteer for Western Europe.Watch the risk level as you select your option.Keep you risk low at first.Above all.avoid the 1st line in Western Europe.The Warsaw Pact is the most formidable enemy on this planet. ______________________________________________________________________________ ---G U N S H I P--- Operations Manual FLIGHT CONTROLS | COMBAT CONTROLS ______________________________________|______________________________________ CATEGORY ACTION CONTROL | CATEGORY ACTION CONTROL ______________________________________|______________________________________ Cyclic Pitch down joystick | Weapons Sidewinder 4 forward | 2.75"FFAR 5 Pitch up joystick | Hellfire 6 back | 30mm Cannon 7 roll left joystick |______________________________________ left | Fire Fire Weapon enter or button roll right joystick |______________________________________ right |Jettison Jettison Wep. Alt key+weapon ______________________________________|______________________________________ Collective up fast F1 |Counter- Chaff Decoy 8 up slow F2 |Measures Radar Jammer 9 down slow F3 | IR Jammer 0 down fast F4 | Flare Decoy - ______________________________________|______________________________________ View View left F5 |View Display Map M View ahead F6 | Damage D View right F7 | Stores S ______________________________________|______________________________________ Anti Rotate left F8 | CRT Change CRT Space Bar torque Stop rotation F9 | TADS New TADS target Backspace rotor Rotate right F10 |______________________________________ (tail) | ______________________________________| Engines Port(ON/OFF) 1 | Starboard(ON/OFF) 2 | Rotor(ON/OFF) 3 | ______________________________________|______________________________________ ****************************************************************************** | SYSTEM CONTROLS | SIMULATION CONTROLS ______________________________________|______________________________________ CATEGORY ACTION CONTROL | CATEGORY ACTION CONTROL ______________________________________|______________________________________ Hide Game "BOSS"Coming B | Sound Volume(ON/OFF) V ______________________________________|______________________________________ Exit Program Exit to Dos Control | *Time Accelerate Time = + Break |______________________________________ ______________________________________| Pause Pause Game Control Exit Flight Exit to Duty ESC | +NUM LOCK ______________________________________|______________________________________ INTRODUCTION ~~~~~~~~~~~~ IN the early days of flying"barnstomer"plolots flew by the seat of their pants following roads and rivers,even dipping down to read roadsigns! That grand tradition of individual flying is found today among helicopter pilots.They love getting down among the hills and trees to do some"interesting"flying. JUST flying a helicopter if loads of fun,but gere at MicroProse we wanted more.We wanted to fly a COMBAT helicopter in simulated battle conditions.All kinds of battle:from guerilla wars to a hypothetical USA-USSR war in EUROPE.Pop over a hill,launch a Hellifire,dodge a SAM,jam a ZSU's radar,then duck behind cover again.GUNSHIP is a simulation of everything we wanted. **************************************************************************** PART 1 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS _____________________________________________________________________________ On most screens you'll see a small arrow pointer.Your joystick ,mouse ,and cursor control keys move the arrow.To make a selection,move the arrow onto the picture or box and press the fire button ,mouse click button,or return key. VEHICLE ID: Telling the good guys from the bad ones takes practice.Examine the vehicle drawing and compare it to the drawings in the "Military Equipment" section of this manual.Move the pointer to the box beside the corrrect names and press file/click/return. DEFAULTS: Here you see the last mission flown.If the defaults shown are fine,point to"CONTINUE" and press fire/click/return. AH-64A PILOT ROSTER: This summarizes the "service records" of pilots on the disk. To select a name,point to the name itself and press fire/click/return.This highlights the name.Point to "CONTINUE" and press fire/click/return to go back to the defaults.To enter a new name(such as your own!)select a name you wish to replace.then point to"ERASE PILOT" and press fire/click/return.Type the new name and press RETURN/ENTER.THis new name appears in the roster.The old name is erase,permanently.Each pilot's service record includes a list of awards,decorations,and reprimands,followed by a number indicating the quantity of each.The letter abbreviations are:ACM-Army Commendation Medal,AM-Air Medal,BSV-Bronze Star,CAC-Central America Campaign Ribbon,CMOH-Congressional Medal of Honor,DSC-Distinguished Service Cross,KIA- Killed in Action,Mec-Middle East Campaign Ribbon,MIA-Missing in Action,NDS- National Defense Sevice Medal,PH-Purple Heart,SEAC-Southeast Asia Campaign Ribbon,SR-Service Reprimand,SS-Siver Star,WEC-Western Europe Campaign Ribbon. DUTY ASSIGNMENT: You Can Select five different areas of the world for combat flying.Point to the babdge representing the area you desire and press fire/click/return to return to the defaults.Beginners should select Flight Traning in the USA and follow the two tutorials.Combat regions are listed in order of difficulty,from Southeast Asia to Western Europe.Regions powerfully affect difficulty.Don't expect success in Western Europe until you do well in the other regions. STYLE OF FLYING SELECTION: Within a region,some areas and missions are more dangerous than others.Here you select the level of dangerous you prefer.Point to the appropriate face and press fire/click/return.Volunteer missions,especially hazardous duty,mean you've facing tougher,more accurate,and faster-reacting opponents.Regular missions pit you against"garden variety"Russian-trained troops with lesser combat skills.This choice has a powerful effect on mission difficulty. ENEMY & REALITY SELECTION: Wherever you fly,you can select between a "Realistic" simulation and "Easy" simplified version.Point to the box beside the option you prefer and press fire/click/return."Easy" reality levels may help you learn to fly.Beginners often prefer"easy" landings and weather effects.However,use"realistic"flying as soon as possible,since experienced GUNSHIP pilots find the realistic level is actually easier to fly in combat. Enemy quality determines the "newness" of enemy equiipment.Soviet-equipped First Line troops have modern equipment(for that region).The Second Line rear area and allied forces use older equipment.The Third Line reservists have obsolote equipment. BRIEFING: Here are you flight orders.They include IMPORTANT info. you should memorize or write down.Above all,note the PASSWORD,look up the countersign in this amnual and write it down.The password and countersigns appear on the end of this doc.Also make a note of your primary and secondary objectives.You'll probably want to check the map to see where they are in relation to your bases.It's also wise to note the wind speed and direction (ONLY if you chose realistic weather conditions).When you're examining map, or other then cockpit screen press fire/click/return.(NOTE:When training in the USA no intelligence report or sick call option exist,and no reminders are necessary. THE SECTOR MAP: This shows the entire battle area,friendly bases and forces in white,your objectives are in violet.It's purely for reference,and to help you plan your mission.The map corrdinates are read military fashion"right and up"That means the first number is the horizontal scale,the second the vertical scale.For example,01-12 is the upper left corner. INTELLIGENCE REPORT: This report gives additional details about enemy forces and equipment.You may wish to read the "Military Equipment" section about these weapond,and/or the "Weapons & Tactics"section about how to deal with them. SICK CALL: If you decided this mission is too diffcult or too dangerous.You could go on sick call and advoid it. Reminders: It's important that you know the password,countersign,and both obj. (primary and secondary).Check your notes to make sure you have the right info. Point to the appropriate box and press fire/click/return. Arming: A standard armament appears here for your region.However,you can adjustthe stores on your helicopter to suit your preferences. Too + or - cannon ammunition point to the "+" or the "-" box and press fire/click/return.Point to "continue" and press fire/click/return to begin flight.Select clear to clear all the stores from your helicopter. Cockpit & Status Panels Due to the picture I didn't put every descriptions on here because if I did you wouldn't know where are they. Fuel Gauga: The two yellow strips titled "F" shows the amound of fuel left from then forward and aft tank. System Damage Lights: These lights show the status of major systems on board your helicopter.Agreen light means the system is fuctioning correctly.A colored light means the system if malfuctioning.Reading from the left to right the systems are: R=main rotor O=nose optics(controls TADS) A=foward avionics bay(Gauges) G=chain gun(30mm cannon) F=foward fuel tank W=port weaponds wing W=starboard weaponds wing E=port engine E=starboard engine F=aft fuel tank A=aft avionics bay(jammers) L=chaff decoy launcher L=flare decoy launcher R=tail rotor(controls rotation) Torquegauge: The two yellow strips titled "T" show the amound of torque in the port(left) and starboard(right) jet turbine engines.This is proportional to the collective control and rotor lift. The higher you set the Collective control,the higher the torque,and the greater the lift. Still In Flight: You are still in flight while examining the map.Be sure to fly over a safe area away from mountain or come under attack. Ins Cursor: While in the map the white crosshair show where you are.Move the crosshair to where ever you want to go and when you get back to the cockpit screen press "INS" and the helicopter will take you to this destination. Grid Coordinates: The map uses a military grid coordinate system. To describe any position, read " right and up ". That is, the first 2 digits are from the horizontal scale, the last two from the vertical scale. Therefore, 01-01 is the lower left corner,01-12 is the upper left corner, 12-01 is the lower right corner, and 12-12 is the upper right corner. Accelerated Time: The accelerated time option is available only while viewing the sector map. Time passes ar double the normal rate, thus halving your flying time between points. ______________________________________________________________________________ STORES STATUS DISPLAY This console displays the stores on your helicopter. Status lights are green if the system is functioning correctly, yellow if damaged, red if destroyed. The view of the helicopter on the left side of the console shows each system appropriately colored. STILL IN FLIGHT: You are still in flight while examining this display. Be sure to look up periodically. Otherwise you might fly into a mountain or come under attack. It's wise to hover in a safe place if you spend long periods examining this display. 30mm HEDP: Ammunition for the 30mm Chain Gun cannon. It uses HEDP(high explosive dual purpose) ammo that is effective against all targets except bunkers which it can destroy only occasionally. The number indicates the actual number of rounds left.(Each cannon burst is 20 rounds, therefore with 1200 pounds you have 60 units of fire.) FORE FUEL: This is the 156-gallon forward fuel tank. AIM-9L: These are air-to-air "Sidewinder" infra red guided missiles. AGM-114A: These are air-to-ground "Hellfire" laser-guided missiles. The Hellfire has an armor-piercing warhead for use against vehicles and bunkers. 2.75" FFAR: These are air-to-ground unguided rockets. The FFAR has a high explosice warhead for use against infantry, AA gun sites and installations. AFT FUEL: This is the 220-gallon rear fuel tank. CHAFF:This is the number of chaff decoy cartridges in the tail-boom launchers. Decoys are launched in groups of three. FLARES: This is the number of flare decoy cartridges in the tail-boom launchers. Decoys are launched in groups of three. _______________________________________________________________________________ SYSTEMS DAMAGE This console displays the major systems on your helicopter. The indicator lights show green if the system is functioning correctly, yellow if damaged, red if destroyed. The view of the helicopter on the left side of the console shows each system appropriately colored. STILL IN FLIGHT: You are still in flight while examining this display. Be sure to look up periodically. Otherwise you might fly into a mountain or come under attack. It's wise to hover in a safe place if you spend long periods examining this display. AFT AVIONICS BAY: This compartment contains the INS navigation computers, and the IR and radat jammers. Damage can make some of this equipment erratic or unreliabe; destruction could eliminate it all. AFT FUEL TANK: This is the rear 220-gallon fuel tank. Damage often causes fuel leaks. If the tank is destroyed all fuel is lost and the helicopter may explode. ANTI-TORQUE (TAIL) ROTOR: This rotor keeps the helicopter from spinning uncontrollably. If the tail rotor is damaged the helicopter may wobble or rotate, making flight control difficult. If the tail rotor is destroyed the helicopter spins out of control. CHAFF & FLARE LAUNCHERS: The chaff and flare decoy launchers are housed in the tail boom. If a launcher is damaged some or all decoy cartridges may not function correctly. If a launcher is destroyed all cartridges are lost. FORWARD AVIONICS BAY: This compartment contains computers and monitoring equipment for flying the helicopter. Damage or destruction can cause the strip gauges and/or round dials to disappear or freeze. FORWARD FUEL TANK: This tank contains up to 156 gallons of fuel. Damage often causes fuel leaks. If the tank is destroyed all fuel is lost and the helicopter may explode. 30mm CHAIN GUN: This is the automatic cannon mounted beneath the nose. If the cannon is damaged it may fire erratically. If destroyed it cannot fire at all. MAIN ROTOR: This keeps your helicopter airborne. Damage causes the helicopter to vibrate and wobble while flying. If the rotor is destroyed, or a damaged rotor comes apart, the helicopter will crash. NOSE OPTICS: This is the heart of the TADS gunsight system. Damage can cause the TADS gunsight to work erratically . Loss of the nose optics destroys TADS, making it impossible to fire accurately. STARBOARD & PORT WINGS: All rockets and missiles are mounted on these weapons wings. Damage causes the weapons to function erratically; if destroyed the weapons and on the wing are lost. STARBOARD & PORT ENGINES: Normally the rotor is powered by both engines combined. However, the helicopter can fly with one engine out. If an engine is damaged or destroyed it automatically shuts down and cannot be restarted until repaired(this minimizes the risk of fire or explosion.) ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRO. TO HELICOPTER FLIGHT This section gives a rudimentary view of common concepts in helicopter flight. LEVEL FLIGHT FORWARD: In level flight the helicopter is pitched down ("nose down"). The greater the pitch, the faster the forward flight. Note that in forward flight the crosshairs are always below the horizon line. The VSI gauge is horizontal(reading 0), indicating flight is level. In combat flying, typical level flight speed is 100 to 150 knots. POWER DIVE: In a power dive the helicopter is pitched down steeply. The crosshairs are significantly below the horizon line, and the VSI gauge needle is pointing downward. Power dives usually require speeds greater than 160 knots. FORWARD CLIMB: When climbing in forward flight, the helicopter is travelling slower than normal(pitch is still present, but smaller than normal),or the collective control(and engine torque) is higher than normal, or both. The VSI gauge needle is pointing upward. Forward climbs are easiest at speeds of 30 to 90 knots. HOVER: Here the helicopter is truly level, with no pitch down or up. Note that the crosshairs are on the horizon line and airspeed is zero( needle is vertical). The collective is adjusted so the VSI gauge is horizontal (zero). From a hover a helicopter can ascend straight upwards or descend straight downwards by changing the collective. BACKWARDS FLIGHT: When flying backwards the helicopter is pitched upwards. Note that the crosshairs are above the horizon -- which only occurs when flying backwards. The airspeed gauge shows the speed backwards. Depending on the speed and amount of collective , the helicopter could be ascending, flying level, or descending while moving backwards. SKID SIDEWAYS: This is only possible at low speeds(under 40 knots) or when hovering. The cyclic joystick is moved left or right to roll the helicopter. Due to a lack of airspeed, the helicopter skids left or right without forward motion. Unless the collective is adjusted appropriately, a skidding helicopter loses some lifting kpower. ROTATE LEFT OR TIGHT: This is only possible at extremely low speeds or when hovering. The anti-torque( tail or "rudder" controls) rotates the helicopter left or right. Rotation does not affect airspeed or VSI. The cyclic joystick and collective are not used when rotating. _______________________________________________________________________________ CONTROLS on the AH-64A Apache simulator _______________________________________________________________________________ FLIGHT CONTROLS This section defines how each control works. Do not use this section as a guide to flying a helicopter. To learn to fly, follow "Beginner's Tutorial #1 -- Learning to Fly a Helicopter". THE KEYBOARD OVERLAY: An overlay appropriate to your computer keyboard is included with the simulation. The control placement is designed for use with this overlay -- don't lose it! Note: Computers sometimes misread multiple key inputs. Unless otherwise indicated, do not press two keys simultaneously. Do not push the joystick while holding a key. Pushing the joystick while holding a key may cause weird effects. CYCLIC JOYSTICK: Pushing forward pitches down the helicopter ("drops the nose"). Pulling back pitches up the helicopter("raises the nose"). Pushing left or right rolls the helicopter in that direction ("tilts" the rotor and body left or right). A pitch below horizontal moves the helicopter forward. A large pitch down causes a power dive. Pitch up above horizontal moves the jelicopter backward. Rolling left or right at low speed causes a skid ( or "sideslip") left or right. At medium and high speeds it causes a banking turn left or right. The artificial attitude and horizon indicator shows the current pitch and roll of the helicopter. COLLECTIVE:This control can be moved up fast(increases lift by large amounts) or down slowly (decreases lift by small amounts). When you raise or lower the collective, the engine torque changes appropriately. To mobe the collective a large amount, tap it repeatedly and quickly. Lift keeps the helicopter airborne. If you start in level flight or hover, then increase the lift, the helicopter ascends. If you start level and decrease lift, the helicopter descends. ANTI-TORQUE(TAIL)ROTOR: These function only when hovering or moving extremely slowly(just a few knots.) Tap rotate left to swing the nose left. Tap rotate right to swing the nose right. Multiple taps on the key increase the rate of rotation. Tap stop rotation to eliminate all rotation. PORT or STARBOARD ENGINE ON/OFF: Tap the appropriate key to turn on(if currently off) or turn off (if currently on) each engine. You must turn off the engines to finish your flight. If an engine is damaged or destroyed it turns off automatically. You cannot restart the engine until it is repaired. ROTOR ENGAGE/DISENGAGE: Tap this key either to engage the rotor(cause the engines to turn the rotor), or disengage the rotor(cause the roto to spin freely, unconnected to the engines). When the rotor is disengaged, the collective is automatically "bottomed"(dropped to zero). _______________________________________________________________________________ VIEWING CONTROLS CHANGE CRT: The CRT has 3 display modes. Each tap on this key switches the CRT to the next mode. These modes are: (1)TADS target mode (2)Map mode (3)Radio message mode If no target is ahead of the helicopter, the TADS target mode does not appear. If no new radio message is available, the radio mode does not appear. If neither a target not a radio message is available, then CRT is always in map mode. MAP: Tap this key to see the full sector map. You continue flying, so beware of flying into something while examining this discplay. Tap this key again to return to the standard cockpit view. STORES: Tap this key to see the stores display. It shows the status of systems with stores, including the amounts remaining. You continue flying, so beware of flying into something while examining this display. Tap this key again to return to the standard cockpit view. DAMAGE:Tap this key to see the systems display. It shows each system and whether it's functional, damaged, or destroyed. You continue flying, so beware of flying into something while examining this display. Tap this key again to return to the standard cockpit view. VIEW: The view center key shows your view directly ahead. The view left key shows your view diagonally ahead to the left. The view right key shows your view diagonally ahead to the right. Due to the engines, transmission, and rotor shaft your rearward view is blocked. Note that the crosshairs are present only on the center view. _______________________________________________________________________________ COMBAT CONTROLS GO TO TADS TARGET MODE: If the CRT is not displaying a TADS target, but the prompt "TARGET" is showing, tap the fire button to switch the CRT to TADS. You can also use the standard Change CRT control. NEW TADS TARGET: Tap this key to move the TADS gunsight box from one target to another, showing the new target in the CRT. If no other targets are present directly ahesd TADS remains on the original target. WEAPONS: Tap the appropriate key to select one of the four possible weapons: AIM 9L SIDEWINDER MISSILES, 2.75" FFAR ROCKETS, AGM-114A HELLFIRE MISSILES, OR THE 30MM CANNON. FIRE: Tap the fire button to fire the weapon currently selected. Each tap fires one missile(Sidewinder or Hellfire), a pair of rockets, or a burst of 20 cannon rounds. DROP CHAFF or FLARE DECOY: Tap the appropriate key to release the appropriate decoy. The cockpit indicator remains lighted as long as the decoy is functioning. RADAR or IR JAMMER ON/OFF: Tap the appropriate key to turn on or off the jammer. When the radar jammer is running you see a green light beside the "R" warning light. When the IR jammer is running you see a green light beside the "I" warning light. JETTISON STORES: To jettison all ammo for a particular weapon hold down the select weapon key and tap Jettison. This dumps all the Sidewinder, rocket, or Hellfires, depending on which weapon you select. For example, to jettison all your FFAR rockets in the C64/C128 version, hold down the "5" key and tap "RESTORE". _______________________________________________________________________________ SIMULATION CONTROLS ACCELERATED TIME: This key doubles the speed of time, thus shortening flight time form one point to another. This function works ONLY if you are viewing the sector map. It automatically turns off when you return to the standard cockpit view. PAUSE: This key freezes the simulation. Tap any key to resume the simulation. RESET: Hold down these keys to restart the simulation. In effect you are "jettisoning" the entire mission. _______________________________________________________________________________ ANSWER THE RADIO! When you see the prompt "MESSAGE" above the CRT, tap Change CRT once to read the incoming radio message. Ignoring the messages can be detrimental to your health! PASSWORD & COUNTERSIGN: As you approach your friendly base, you will get a radio message. It's VITAL that you read and answer this message! Tap Change CRT to display the message on the CRT. You will be radioed the password and asked for the countersign. You must type the proper countersign at the keyboard and press "RETURN/ENTER" BEGINNER'S TUTORIAL 1 Learning to Fly a helicopter _______________________________________________________________________________ This tutorial teaches you how to take off, control the helicopter in basic flight maneuvers, and land againn. Refer to "Cockpit & Status Panel" to understand what's appearing on the screen. Refer to "controls" and the keyboard overlay to find the appropriate controls. Glance over "A Practical Guide to Helicopter Flying" for additional insights and illustrations. This turtorial is for use with the "realistic" flight mode, not the "easy" flight mode. MicroProse recommends that you learn and fly in the realistic mode form start(you'll appreciate the advantages later). You can always "fall back" on the easy mode if the realistic mode becomes too frustrating. The second tutorial will cover your weapons and defenses. For more detail about how a helicopter flies and how to perform advanced tactical maneuvers, see the "Aerodynamics" section. WARNING - DON'T OVERCONTROL: Helicopter controls are SLUGGISH. That is, they react slowly. Even a frisky thorough bred like the APACHE takes one to two seconds to respond to your control movement. Therefore, just tap a key and see what happens. When using the joystick/mouse/keyboard move it little, then let it go. The most common error in flying is to overcontrol by pulling hard on the stick or pressing too long and hard on a key. In short, be gentle with the controls. After each control movement watch for the result before you do anything else. Numerous fast, radical control movements will produce incomprehensible results and probably a crash! STARTING: Take the vehicle i.d. test, enter your name on the pilot roster, and make sure your region is set to "Training in the USA" duty assignment. Reality defaults should be set to "Realistic Flying","Easy Landing" and "Easy Weather".Read the briefings and armament options, but don't bother to change them. See "Preparing to Fly" for details on how to control the starting options. PAUSE WHILE LEARNING: As you work through the tutorial, tap the Pause key whenever you wnat to read about the next maneuver or explanation. Then tap any key to resume, try the maneuver, then pause again as you read the next part of the tutorial,etc. ATTACKS: Don't worry about enemy attacks and firing while learning to fly. In training situations the enemy always fires "blanks" -- you cannot be damaged or destroyed by enemy fire. On your first training flights you should ignore enemy activity. In the next tutorial you'll learn how to respond to enemy attacks and how to hit targets. POWER UP: Turn on the port and starboard engines by tapping Port Engine On/Off and Starboard On/Off. Wait until the engine RPM strip gauges climb to normal(about the 80% point). Then tap Rotors Engage/Disengage once. The roto engaged warning light previously red, should turn off. You'll hear the rotors come up to speed. Wait until the middle strip gauge (rotor RPM) climbs to normal (slightly above the engine RPM levels). CLIMB TO A HOVER: Now repeatedly tap Collective Up Fast. Watch the torque rise as you "raise" the collective. Note that if you "lower" the collective , the torque drops . Once the torque reaches 75% use the Collective Up Slow key until you rise off the ground(at about 80-95% torque , depending on how close your weight is to the maximum). You should be hovering at about 12 feet altitude. ROTATING IN A HOVER: Tap the Rotate Right once. Your helicopter begins to ratate to the right. Tap Stop Rotation once and you'll stop turning. Tap the Rotate Left to rotate in that direction. If you tap either rotation key repeatedly, the helicopter rotates faster in that direction. You can only use rotation when you are moving just a few knots, or stationary. Now stop the rotation. You're ready to begin flying. TAKEOFF AND FORWARD FLIGHT: Ascend to a hover. Up collective and cyclic joystick forward for level forward flight. FORWARD FLIGHT: Add a little more collective up slow. As you begin climbing push forward lightly on the cyclic joystick to "pitch down" the helicopter. You'll begin to move forward . At about 30 knots you'll begin to climb. You can see this on your altimeter (upper right dial) and your VSI(lower right dial) gauges. This is because forward motion in a helicopter adds extra lift ( termed "translational lift") especially at 30-90 knots. The further you pitch down, the more your speed increases. As your speed exceeds 100 knots, translational lift decreases. The CSI gauge will mobe toward the negative end of the scale. More pitch downward will push you into a power dive at 160-200+ knot speeds. LEVEL FLIGHT: Move the joystick forward or back until the airspeed gauge reads 100 to 150 knots. Now look at the VSI. If you're descending (the needle is below horizontal) add some Collective Up Slow until the needle is on "0" (horizontal). Alternately, if you're ascending , put in some Collective Down Slow. When the VSI needle is horizontal reading zero), you are in level flight. Remember, due to the slow responses of helicopter controls, it's easy to overcorrect and put in too much collective. This results in you "chasing the needle". After each change in the collective, wait a second or two for the VSI needle to stabilize. CHANGING ALTITUDE: When flying level at 100-150 knkots, the easiest way to descend is to push the cyclic joystick forward(pitch down) into a power dive . As you approach the altitude you desire, gently pull the cyclic joystick back(pithc up) until the VSI again stabilizes at zero( needle is horizontal.) Similarly, the easiest way to ascend is to pitch up slightly, reducing your airspeed to 50-100 knots. When you reach the desired altitude, pich down again until the VSI satbilizes. This technique of flying is not unlike an airplane. You can change altitude without disturbing the collective . A second way to change altitude, applicable at any speed, is to raise or lower the collective. When you reach the new altitude, input an equal and opposite amount of collective to regain lecel flight(VSI of zero). This technique is the only way to chanmge altitude from a hover. Regardless of which technique you use, don't try to control the helicopter by constant "fiddling" with the collective. Learn to "feel" the right collective setting, then fly with your cyclic joystick. Don't expect to gain this ability on the first flight. Be patient, after a number of flights and landings you'll find collective adjustments come naturally , just like a real heliicopter pilot. LOW ALTITUDE TURBULENCE: While flying under 100'. you may feel air turbulence. You will tend to bouce up and down, or sometimes roll form side to side. Air turbulence and "wind shears" varywith your speed and your dista\nce from the ground: the faster and lower you fly, the more difficult it is to keeep the cragt under control. TURNING: Return to level flight at 100-150 knots. Next push the stick left slightly and release it . Your helicopter rolls into a banking left turn . As you turn, observe the change in your digital heading readout( in the lower left of the cockpit display , just under the compass). If you continue to push the stick left and bank into a steep turn, you'll lose some lift. Notice that your altitude is dropping and the VSI is below horizontal. If you roll back to the right and level out, you'll return to level flight. To maintain your altitude in a steep bank(important if you're flying low) add a bit of Collecitve Up Slow just before you start to turn. then put in a bit of Collective Down Slow just before you come out of it. Change the collective first because the collective controls react more clowly then the cyclic joystick. NAVIGATION: Tap the Map key to see the full sector map. Your objective is to find your way jomw to base! Move the crosshair cursor to the central white helibase, then switch back to your cockpit view. Quite probably your heading and the INS heading are different. Make a banking turn toward the INS heading until the two numbers match. Notice that the INS arrowhead marker below your own course arrowhead will also match. You're on course, flying back to base. Descend until you're in lecel flight at 50 to 100 feet altitude. It's easier to learn to land if you come in slow and low, although "officially" a constant descent is preferred by air controllers. LANDINGS: As you approach the base it first appears as an outline on the horizon. Reduce your speed to 60 knots by pulling back slightly on the cyclic joystick. You'll need to put in some collective don slow to maintain your 50' altitude. Now wait until the detailed buildings and landing "T" come into view. Your goal is to land directly on the "T", but anywhere within the larger rectangle is fine. Just before you cross the outside edge of the base, begin slowing down to a hover by pulling up on the cyclic joystick. Be sure to put the crosshairs on the horizon-- it's easy to pich up too far and end up going backward. Note that as your speed falls from 70 to 0 knots, your ligt will decrease. Use the collective up slow to stabilize your altitude with 0 VSI. By the time you accomplish all this and are hovering at about 50' altitude, you shold be near the center of the base. Finally, use the cyclic joystick carefully to move your helicopter toward the "T". Come back to a hover and tap the collective down slow once to egin your final descent. At about 20' and/or 10' altitude you need another tap to continue descending to a touchdown. SHUT DOWN: When you land (altitude is 0 turn off both engines.This ends the Flight; your postflight options will appear. MISSION: After this first flight, your debriefing will show mission not yet accomplished. To satisfy your instructors, you must learn how to hit the target too. Go to "Beginners Tutorial II" to finish your training. _______________________________________________________________________________ BEGINNER'S TUTORIAL II Defense and Gunnery _______________________________________________________________________________ This tutorial teaches you how to recognize and deal with carious enemy missile(SAM) and gun(AA) attacks. It also gives you practice in using your own weapons against appropriate targets. STARTING: If you have just finished the first Tutorial, you can use the same defaults again(same region,style of flying, and reality levels). The region should be "Training in the USAsyle showld be "Regular Missions", and reality should be "Realistic Flying""Easy Landing" and "Easy Weather". Note: When training in the USA, all missiles and gun shells fired at you are "blanks". YOu can never suffer damage from enemy fire while training. However don't forget that everywhere else the enemy play "for keeps". MAKE A PLAN: Before takeoff examine the sector map of the training area. Pick one of the 3 dummy installations(HQ,Russian Helibase, or the Depot) as your objective. Move the INS marker to that objective . Notice the "enemy" forces along or near the line of flight from your base to the objective. These are the "opponents" you will engage. TAKEOFF: Take off and get into lecel flight at 100' altitude(digital readout on altimeter is "01") THREATS: As you fly, watch the threat display on the lower right. A red dot means an enemy with AAA (anti-aircraft aritllery) or SAMs(surface to air missiles) have detected you. A flashing red and white dot means an enemy helicopter is approaching. A white dot means a missile is flying(yours or an enemy's -- the threat display cannot distinguish one missile from another). Also watch your warning lights. When the "I" turns red an IR homing missile is being launched. When the "R" is red radat-guided missiles or guns are either searching for or tracking you. When enemies appear on your threat display they are also plotted on the map. If you have the time, you can look at the map to learn what type of enemy is attacking you. Though virtually every enemy has some sort of light guns or sholder-launched missile (the AS-7,AS-7B, OR AS-14), the most dangerous are the AA gun siters and vehicles, or the SAM vehicle. USING A JAMMER: When a warning light comes on the standard response is to turn on the appropriate jammer(press the IR or Radar Jammer On/Off once). A small green light beside the warning light turns on showing your jammer is running. If the warning light turns off, the jamming was successful. Not turn onto a new course. Jammed missiles often continue flying on their old course, an will hit you unless you change course. Keep your jammer running until you destroy or fly away from the enemy launcher or gun . In concentrations of enemies some pilots will turn on both jammers and constantly fly a "jinking" zig0zag course to confuse missiles and enemy gunnery. USING A DECOY: If the warning light does not turn off by jamming, try using a decoy. Tap Drop Chaff or Drop Flare to deploy decoys. The decoy symbol below the CRT will light up. While the symbol is lighted the decoy should be drawing the misslie or gunnery control toward it. Decoys are launched in 3- cartridge "units of fire". Although your cockpit control panel shows unite of fire for conveninence, the pre-flight arming and stores readout displays show actual cartridges acailable. If you check your stores display after launching a chaff of flare decoy, you'll see the amount remaining has decreased by 3. EVASIVE FLYING: Another way to avoid a threat is to dive to a lower altitude while turning parallel to or away from the threat. If you get lower and avoid closing the range an enemy often loses sight of you. Enemy weapons aimed by eyeball(many AA guns and a few SAMs) cannot be jammed or decoyed. Against these threats evasive flying isyour only defense. Another evasive technique is to slow your speed once you're low. Slow movement at low altitude is very hard to spot at a distance . It is possivle to "sneak up " on enemy positions with a helicopter. Evasice flying is also superior to jammers and decoys because it doesn't broadcast your position. Both jammer and decoy, not to mention firing, receal your presence to the enemy. DAMAGE: If you don't respond in time to a threat the gunfire or missile will hit you. You'll see the flash of explosions around the edge of the cockpit . In training that's all you'll see-- your helicopter cannot be damaged. In real battle, the explosion may penetrate your armor. If a sys. across the top of the cockpit is no longer green, something is malfunctioning. Check the damage desplay for details. Sometimes you'll want to fly home for repairs before continuing your mission. If you suffer too many damaging hits, the structural integrity of your helicopter will fail, causing a general power failure. The only way to survive this is to successfully "autorotate" to a landing(see "Aerodynamice" for details on autorotation). The actual number of hits varies with the situation and enemy weaponry, but a good rule of thumb is expect the worst after you've suffered 3 or 4 damaging hits. USING TADS(Target Acquisition & Designation System): LOod on your map and find a large concetration of red targets near your flight path. Fly in that direction. When you're close pull up into a hover.ow use the rotate right and rotate left keys to turn your nose lect and right. When the crosshair is close to a target, the prompt "TARGET" appears above the CRT. Press the fire button on the joystick. The TAKS gunsight box will appear around the target while the zoom camera shows the target on your CRT. The range to taget in kilometers appears in the upper left( for example, if the range is "0.8", the target is 0.8 km-800 m - away.) Tap next TADS target to shift the TADS to another target near the crosshairs. If there is no other target near the crosshairs, Tads remains on the original target. After TADS is locked onto a target you can rotate left or right and watch TADS track the target for you. As the box gets near the edge of your cockpit view tap the View right or Biew Left key as appropriate. Your view switches to the side. Notice that TADS continues to follow the target. As long as you can see the target, TADS will follow it. If the target leaces your field of view, TADS loses it and automatically unlocks. Unless there is another target near your crosshairs for TADS to lock onto , the CRT switches back to the map. TADS can only lock onto targets you can spot. At low altitude (such as under 100') you can't see very far. Targets appear at very short ranges(just a few hundred meters away.) The higher you are, the further you can see; TADS can lock onto targets at further and further ranges. Of course the highter you are , the easier it is for the enemies to spot you. As a result , helicopter pilots tend to fly low and occasionally "pop up" to locate enemies. A favorite maneuver is to "pop up" from behind a hill. The 30mm Chain Gun cannon and the 2.75" FFAR rockets have varying accuracy, depening on range and whether the weapon faces ahead. The TADS box changes color from dark(poor accuracy ) to light (good accuracy)with these weapons. The sidewinder and hellfire always hve good accuray and therefore the TADS bax is always light colored if one of these weapons is selected. RADIO MESSAGES & MAP VVIEWS DURING BATTLE: If the CRT target view interfers wiht your navigation, or you want to read a radio message, tap Change CRT. TADS turns off and the CRT switches the next available mode (see "Controls" for details). FIRING WEAPONS: To fire you must first select a weapon. When you press the appropriate Select Weapon key, that weapon lights up beneath the CRT and the ammo supply appears in white. Cannon ammo is shown in 20 round bursts. Once a weapon is selected, to fire simply press the Fire Button on the joystick. The 30mm Chain Gun cannon is automatically aimed at the target designated by the TADS(the AH-64A has a ballistic computer that aims the cannon for you). However, the cannon is more accurate firing straight ahead. The TADS box will turn a brighter color as accuracy improves. Cannon maximum range is 1.5 km, but the effective range is about 0.7 km firing ahead , and only 0.3 to 0.4 km in a "deflection shot" to the side..by tuan dang.. The AGM-114A Hellfire anti tank missile is guided by lase at the TADS Target . As long as you keep TADS locked on target the Hellfire flies toward it. The Heffgire has a minimum range of a few hundred meters -- it takes time for the missile to lock onto the TADS lase. The maximum range of the Hellfire is 6 km. Furthermore, once beyond minimum range, Hellfire accuracy is unaffected by range. The 2.75" FFAT rockets are completely unguided. You must line up the crosshairs in the center of the TADS box, then fire. The rockets fly straight ahead at whatever was in the center of the crosshair when you fired. After the rockets are launched you need not keep the target in the crosshairs. The maximum range of FFAT rockets is about 1.8 km, but accuracy improves at shorter ranges. As with the cannon, the TADS box will become brighter as your accuracy improves. The AIM-9L Sidewinder is a "fire and forget" air to air homing missile. Lock the TADS onto a flying target and make sure the target is generally ahead(fairly close to the crosshairs). Then fire the missle. Once you fire you can switch the TADS to something else and/or fly away. Enemy aircraft may have jammers or decoys that could cause a Sidewinder to miss. Maximum range of the L-model Sidewinder is 18 km. Effective range against a helicopter is vurtually equivalent to the maximum range. WEAPON RESTRICTIONS: Certain weapons are only effective against certain targets. The 30mm cannon is effective against anything except bunkers which it can destroy only occasionally. The AGM-114A Hellfire is effective against "hard" targets(all vehicles and bunkers, but not other installations). The 2.75" FFAR rockets are effective against "soft " targets(infantry, AA gun sites, and installations--uch as the HQ , Depot, and Russian Heli-base). The AIM-9L Sidewinder is effective only against flying targets. It is useless against any ground targets. RECOIL: When you fire a cannon or unguided missile the helicopter bucks and recoils upwards. Be prepared to regain control quickly. HITTING THE OBJECTIVE: Eventually you'll reach your objective. LOck the TADS onto the the HQ, Heli-base or Depot and select 30mm cannon. In actual combat, you'd fly straight in and open fire at 0.7 km(closer if you're short of ammo). However, in training try "buzzing" over the target at 30'first. This will show you what the target looks like. Then circle around , lock on the TADS once more, and make a second pass with the cannons blazing. If you want a real test of skill, don't use the cannon. Instead make a rocket attack at 1.5 km or so. You'll probaly need to fire lots of rockets. RETURNING TO BASE: After destroying the objective go back to the sector map and set your INS for your home base. Fly home, land and shut down both engines. You can either rearm and refuel for antother round of target practice , or you can call it quits here. A successful flight may qualify you for the National Defense Service Medal. _______________________________________________________________________________ AFTER THE MISSION: Succeeding as Gunship Pilot _______________________________________________________________________________ DEBRIEFING & SUBSEQUENT OPTIONS ENDING A MISSION: YOu end a mission by landing , turnning off both engines, and waiting for the rotor to stop. You then are told your stauts, and if you crash as a Sergeant or Warrant Officer you get the option to "retry" the flight instead of continuing. If you retry, you fly the same mission again. If you "continue"(this is automatic at higher ranks) you recieve normal results. Next you can decide whther to examine your caraft , leave it, or(if at a friendly base) ask for more furel, armnament and/or repairs. If you select repairs the enemy will have time to bring up reinforcements. In somecases your situation or damage will prevent certain options. After landing you are "debriefed " and may receive promotions or decorations appropriate to your performance. If you ignored your orders and failed to perform the mission assigned you could find yourself peeling potatoes for a while!(Your commanding officer dislikes beeing ignored!) Finally , you'll see your currnet rank, decorations and score compared to the two all-time top scoring pilots of the game. These all-time top scorers are saved on disk independently of the current roster, and can only be erased here. REPLAY OPTIONS: If you decide to try another mission you can eeither reamain in the same region, flying the same type of missions , or you can change your style of flying, or you can request a transfer to a new region. Alternately, you can put your career on hold and go on R&R(rest and recuperation). Pilots on R&R remain on the roster until you deliberately erase them. ENDING THE SIMULATION: On the replay options screen you end the simulation by removing the disk and turning off your computer. To ensure accuarcy in your pilot roster and records, you should turn off the computer only when the replay options are showing. _______________________________________________________________________________ SUCCESS THE MISSION: If you leave the helicopter somewhere other than a friendly base, you could be captured by enemy troops, Naturally the chances increase if you're deep in enemy territory. As a good soldier, your duty is to complete the assigned mission. This means destroying the pimary target. Destroying the secondary target as well is a definite plus. Sometimes your commander will change his mind during a mission and reassign the secondary target as your new primary target. Many missions have multiple targets spread over a range of map coordinates. If you finish the mission without achieving either objective your commander will not be pleased, no matter haw many other targets you hit. Flying around blasting the closest enemy does NOT guaratee promotions and decorations. On the other hand, targets hit in addition to the assigned objectives definitely help toward decorations and faster promotion. Your commander will rate your performance based on time elapsed. If you are flying over 20 minuters, he will reduce the credit given for your achievements. If you accomplish both primary and secondary missions, he will automatically insist the mission is over when you return to base. RANKS: Successful completion of your assigned missions improves your record. A good record leads to promotions. Even on the battlefield promotions take time. Don't expect a promotion after every mission. You start with the rank of Sergeant- just like real helicopter pilots entering flight training. When you successfully complete a mission(usually flight training) you'll be promoted to Warrant Officer(WO1). After that , success leads to 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Lieutenant, Captain, Major,Lieutenant Colonel, and finally Colonel. Although higher ranks exist in the U.S. Army, the highest conceivable rank where an officer could still perform combat flying is Colonel. Each reprimand you earn goes into your record and makes promotion more difficult. Reprimands occur when you use "Sick Call" to evade a mission, or when you acheive no assigned objectives. On the other hand,each heroism decoration makes promotion easier. DECORATIONS: If you do exceptionally well on a mission, you may be awarded a medal for heroism and bravery above and beyond the call of duty. Unlike rank, these decorations are based purely on your performance during a single mission. Your rank and prior record have no effect on your chance of getting a decoration (just like the real army). The decorations for heroism and valor(from least difficult to acheive upwards):Army commendation Medal,Bronze Star, Silver Star, Distinguished Service Cross, and the Congressional Medal of Honor(America's highest military award). In addition to decorations for heroism, additonal medals and ribbons are awarded for regions of service, wounds, etc. The National Defense Service Medal is traditionally given for successfully completing training. Te Purple Heart is awarded for wounds in combat. Capaign Ribbons for a particular region are awarded for completing a tour or duty(multiple successful missions) in that region. After a campaign ribbon, additonal tours give you the Air Medal, which recognizes exceptional flying time. WORLD'S GREATES GUNSHIP PILOT: The ultimate Apache pilot is a colonel with ribbons and air medals for every region. In addition, he holds the Congressional Medal of Honor along with a one or more lesser decorations for heroism and gallantry. Can you meet this challenge once? How many such Colonels can you have on your pilot roster? THIS IS A LIST OF EACH PASSWORD AND IT'S COUNTERSIGN: PASSWORD |COUNTERSIGN ------------------|----------------------- Accent = Trampoline Billboard = Kickback Cromagnon = Melodrama Dakota = Onstage Electra = Vertical Foothold = Insolent Grenadier = Nocturne Hedgehof = Locksmith Ivory = Willow Knockout = Purebred Lozenge = Romantic Mazurka = Yellow Nebula = Quaker Ovation = Upstage Penthouse = Symphony Quartz = Zebra If you don't type it onto the screen, your base will assume you're hostile and shoot you down!!!!!
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