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Gunship manual

                          G U N S H I P - I B M

                     Techinical Supplement: 64-TS-429
Introduction-  This supplement provides specific instruction and info. for
using the GUNSHIP simulation with an IBM/PC or 100% compatible computer.

Other Supported Items- The following accessories are supported but not
required: Mutiple floppy disk drives,Hard disk drives,and Joystick.

Caution: GUNSHIP is an accurate simulation of a combat helicopter.DO NOT
attempt to junp and fly by instinct.Helicopters are similar to other
aircraft,but have important difference.Unless you've flown real
helicopters,read part 1 in the OPERATIONS MANUAL carefully and learn to fly
using the tutorials.

Load Disk: To load GUNSHIP,read the appropeiate section in this
supplement.Plce the correct overlay on your keyboard.

Skim Operations Manual: Skim the"Cockpit & Status Panels" and "Controls"
sections of the Operating Manual to familiarize yourself with the Heliicopter
Flying".Specific Controls for your machine are included in this supplement
;deailed descriptions are found in the Opertion Manual.

Follow the Tutorials: First goto "Beginner's Tutorial I-Learning to Fly a
Helicopter."follow it step by step.You'll refer frequently to the"Cockpit" and
"Controls" sections of the Operating Manual.Then follow"Beginner's Tutoial II-
Gunnery and Defenses."

Begin Combat Flying: if you are still uncertain aboyt flying after both
tutorials,continue flying the USA training area.Refer to"A Practical Guide to
Helicopter Flying"and "aerodynamics" in the Operations Manual for a better
understanding of flight.Try the Tutorials again.

Don't Volunteer: Don't volunteer for Western Europe.Watch the risk level as
you select your option.Keep you risk low at first.Above all.avoid the 1st line
in Western Europe.The Warsaw Pact is the most formidable enemy on this planet.

                              ---G U N S H I P---
                               Operations Manual

            FLIGHT CONTROLS           |            COMBAT CONTROLS
 Cyclic      Pitch down    joystick   | Weapons      Sidewinder        4
                           forward    |              2.75"FFAR         5
              Pitch up     joystick   |              Hellfire          6
                           back       |              30mm Cannon       7
             roll left     joystick   |______________________________________
                           left       |  Fire      Fire Weapon  enter or button
             roll right    joystick   |______________________________________
                           right      |Jettison    Jettison Wep. Alt key+weapon
Collective    up fast       F1        |Counter-    Chaff Decoy         8
              up slow       F2        |Measures    Radar Jammer        9
             down slow      F3        |             IR Jammer          0
             down fast      F4        |            Flare Decoy         -
  View       View left      F5        |View Display    Map             M
            View ahead      F6        |               Damage           D
            View right      F7        |               Stores           S
Anti        Rotate left     F8        |  CRT        Change CRT      Space Bar
torque     Stop rotation    F9        |  TADS     New TADS target   Backspace
rotor       Rotate right    F10       |______________________________________
(tail)                                |
Engines    Port(ON/OFF)     1         |
         Starboard(ON/OFF)  2         |
           Rotor(ON/OFF)    3         |
         SYSTEM CONTROLS              |           SIMULATION CONTROLS
Hide Game   "BOSS"Coming         B    |  Sound       Volume(ON/OFF)     V
Exit Program  Exit to Dos     Control |  *Time      Accelerate Time     =
                              + Break |______________________________________
______________________________________| Pause         Pause Game     Control
Exit Flight   Exit to Duty      ESC   |                             +NUM LOCK

        IN the early days of flying"barnstomer"plolots flew by the seat of
their pants following roads and rivers,even dipping down to read roadsigns!
That grand tradition of individual flying is found today among helicopter
pilots.They love getting down among the hills and trees to do
        JUST flying a helicopter if loads of fun,but gere at MicroProse we
wanted more.We wanted to fly a COMBAT helicopter in simulated battle
conditions.All kinds of battle:from guerilla wars to a hypothetical USA-USSR
war in EUROPE.Pop over a hill,launch a Hellifire,dodge a SAM,jam a ZSU's
radar,then duck behind cover again.GUNSHIP is a simulation of everything we

                                   PART 1

                           OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
        On most screens you'll see a small arrow pointer.Your joystick ,mouse
,and cursor control keys move the arrow.To make a selection,move the arrow
 onto the picture or box and press the fire button ,mouse click
button,or return key.

VEHICLE ID: Telling the good guys from the bad ones takes practice.Examine the
vehicle drawing and compare it to the drawings in the "Military Equipment"
section of this manual.Move the pointer to the box beside the corrrect names
and press file/click/return.

DEFAULTS: Here you see the last mission flown.If the defaults shown are
fine,point to"CONTINUE" and press fire/click/return.

AH-64A PILOT ROSTER: This summarizes the "service records" of pilots on the
disk. To select a name,point to the name itself and press
fire/click/return.This highlights the name.Point to "CONTINUE" and press
fire/click/return to go back to the defaults.To enter a new name(such as your
own!)select a name you wish to replace.then point to"ERASE PILOT" and press
fire/click/return.Type the new name and press RETURN/ENTER.THis new name
appears in the roster.The old name is erase,permanently.Each pilot's service
record includes a list of awards,decorations,and reprimands,followed by a
number indicating the quantity of each.The letter abbreviations are:ACM-Army
Commendation Medal,AM-Air Medal,BSV-Bronze Star,CAC-Central America Campaign
Ribbon,CMOH-Congressional Medal of Honor,DSC-Distinguished Service Cross,KIA-
Killed in Action,Mec-Middle East Campaign Ribbon,MIA-Missing in Action,NDS-
National Defense Sevice Medal,PH-Purple Heart,SEAC-Southeast Asia Campaign
Ribbon,SR-Service Reprimand,SS-Siver Star,WEC-Western Europe Campaign Ribbon.

DUTY ASSIGNMENT: You Can Select five different areas of the world for combat
flying.Point to the babdge representing the area you desire and press
fire/click/return to return to the defaults.Beginners should select Flight
Traning in the USA and follow the two tutorials.Combat regions are listed in
order of difficulty,from Southeast Asia to Western Europe.Regions powerfully
affect difficulty.Don't expect success in Western Europe until you do well in
the other regions.

STYLE OF FLYING SELECTION: Within a region,some areas and missions are more
dangerous than others.Here you select the level of dangerous you prefer.Point
to the appropriate face and press fire/click/return.Volunteer
missions,especially hazardous duty,mean you've facing tougher,more
accurate,and faster-reacting opponents.Regular missions pit you against"garden
variety"Russian-trained troops with lesser combat skills.This choice has a
powerful effect on mission difficulty.

ENEMY & REALITY SELECTION: Wherever you fly,you can select between a
"Realistic" simulation and "Easy" simplified version.Point to the box beside
the option you prefer and press fire/click/return."Easy" reality levels may
help you learn to fly.Beginners often prefer"easy" landings and weather
effects.However,use"realistic"flying as soon as possible,since experienced
GUNSHIP pilots find the realistic level is actually easier to fly in combat.
Enemy quality determines the "newness" of enemy equiipment.Soviet-equipped
First Line troops have modern equipment(for that region).The Second Line rear
area and allied forces use older equipment.The Third Line reservists have
obsolote equipment.

BRIEFING: Here  are you flight orders.They include IMPORTANT info. you should
memorize or write down.Above all,note the PASSWORD,look up the countersign in
this amnual and write it down.The password and countersigns appear on the
end of this doc.Also make a note of your primary and secondary
objectives.You'll probably want to check the map to see where they are in
relation to your bases.It's also wise to note the wind speed and direction
(ONLY if you chose realistic weather conditions).When you're examining map,
or other then cockpit screen press fire/click/return.(NOTE:When training in
the USA no intelligence report or sick call option exist,and no reminders are

THE SECTOR MAP: This shows the entire battle area,friendly bases and forces in
white,your objectives are in violet.It's purely for reference,and to help you
plan your mission.The map corrdinates are read military fashion"right and
up"That means the first number is the horizontal scale,the second the vertical
scale.For example,01-12 is the upper left corner.

INTELLIGENCE REPORT: This report gives additional details about enemy forces
and equipment.You may wish to read the "Military Equipment" section about
these weapond,and/or the "Weapons & Tactics"section about how to deal with

SICK CALL: If you decided this mission is too diffcult or too dangerous.You
could go on sick call and advoid it.

Reminders: It's important that you know the password,countersign,and both obj.
(primary and secondary).Check your notes to make sure you have the right info.
Point to the appropriate box and press fire/click/return.

Arming: A standard armament appears here for your region.However,you can
adjustthe stores on your helicopter to suit your preferences.

Too + or - cannon ammunition point to the "+" or the "-" box and press
fire/click/return.Point to "continue" and press fire/click/return to begin
flight.Select clear to clear all the stores from your helicopter.

                           Cockpit & Status Panels

           Due to the picture I didn't put every descriptions on here because
if I did you wouldn't know where are they.

Fuel Gauga: The two yellow strips titled "F" shows the amound of fuel left
from then forward and aft tank.

System Damage Lights: These lights show the status of major systems on board
your helicopter.Agreen light means the system is fuctioning correctly.A
colored light means the system if malfuctioning.Reading from the left to right
the systems are:
               R=main rotor
               O=nose optics(controls TADS)
               A=foward avionics bay(Gauges)
               G=chain gun(30mm cannon)
               F=foward fuel tank
               W=port weaponds wing
               W=starboard weaponds wing
               E=port engine
               E=starboard engine
               F=aft fuel tank
               A=aft avionics bay(jammers)
               L=chaff decoy launcher
               L=flare decoy launcher
               R=tail rotor(controls rotation)

Torquegauge: The two yellow strips titled "T" show the amound of torque in the
port(left) and starboard(right) jet turbine engines.This is proportional to
the collective control and rotor lift. The higher you set the Collective
control,the higher the torque,and the greater the lift.

Still In Flight: You are still in flight while examining the map.Be sure to
fly over a safe area away from mountain or come under attack.

Ins Cursor: While in the map the white crosshair show where you are.Move the
crosshair to where ever you want to go and when you get back to the cockpit
screen press "INS" and the helicopter will take you to this destination.

Grid Coordinates: The map uses a military grid coordinate system. To describe
any position, read " right and up ". That is, the first 2 digits are from the
horizontal scale, the last two from the vertical scale. Therefore, 01-01 is
the lower left corner,01-12 is the upper left corner, 12-01 is the lower right
corner, and 12-12 is the upper right corner.

Accelerated Time: The accelerated time option is available only while viewing
the sector map. Time passes ar double the normal rate, thus halving your
flying time between points.


                     STORES STATUS DISPLAY

This console displays the stores on your helicopter. Status lights are green
if the system is functioning correctly, yellow if damaged, red if destroyed.
The view of the helicopter on the left side of the console shows each system
appropriately colored.

STILL IN FLIGHT: You are still in flight while examining this display. Be sure
to look up periodically. Otherwise you might fly into a mountain or come under
attack. It's wise to hover in a safe place if you spend long periods examining
this display.

30mm HEDP: Ammunition for the 30mm Chain Gun cannon. It uses HEDP(high
explosive dual purpose) ammo that is effective against all targets except
bunkers which it can destroy only occasionally. The number indicates the
actual number of rounds left.(Each cannon burst is 20 rounds, therefore with
1200 pounds you have 60 units of fire.)

FORE FUEL: This is the 156-gallon forward fuel tank.

AIM-9L: These are air-to-air "Sidewinder" infra red guided missiles.

AGM-114A: These are air-to-ground "Hellfire" laser-guided missiles. The
Hellfire has an armor-piercing warhead for use against vehicles and bunkers.

2.75" FFAR: These are air-to-ground unguided rockets. The FFAR has a high
explosice warhead for use against infantry, AA gun sites and installations.

AFT FUEL: This is the 220-gallon rear fuel tank.

CHAFF:This is the number of chaff decoy cartridges in the tail-boom launchers.
Decoys are launched in groups of three.

FLARES: This is the number of flare decoy cartridges in the tail-boom
launchers. Decoys are launched in groups of three.


                                  SYSTEMS DAMAGE

This console displays the major systems on your helicopter. The indicator
lights show green if the system is functioning correctly, yellow if damaged,
red if destroyed. The view of the helicopter on the left side of the console
shows each system appropriately colored.

STILL IN FLIGHT: You are still in flight while examining this display. Be sure
to look up periodically. Otherwise you might fly into a mountain or come under
attack. It's wise to hover in a safe place if you spend long periods examining
this display.

AFT AVIONICS BAY: This compartment contains the INS navigation computers, and
the IR and radat jammers. Damage can make some of this equipment erratic or
unreliabe; destruction could eliminate it all.

AFT FUEL TANK: This is the rear 220-gallon fuel tank. Damage often causes fuel
leaks. If the tank is destroyed all fuel is lost and the helicopter may

ANTI-TORQUE (TAIL) ROTOR: This rotor keeps the helicopter from spinning
uncontrollably. If the tail rotor is damaged the helicopter may wobble or
rotate, making flight control difficult. If the tail rotor is destroyed the
helicopter spins out of control.

CHAFF & FLARE LAUNCHERS: The chaff and flare decoy launchers are housed in the
tail boom. If a launcher is damaged some or all decoy cartridges may not
function correctly. If a launcher is destroyed all cartridges are lost.

FORWARD AVIONICS BAY: This compartment contains computers and monitoring
equipment for flying the helicopter. Damage or destruction can cause the strip
gauges and/or round dials to disappear or freeze.

FORWARD FUEL TANK: This tank contains up to 156 gallons of fuel. Damage often
causes fuel leaks. If the tank is destroyed all fuel is lost and the
helicopter may explode.

30mm CHAIN GUN: This is the automatic cannon mounted beneath the nose. If the
cannon is damaged it may fire erratically. If destroyed it cannot fire at all.

MAIN ROTOR: This keeps your helicopter airborne. Damage causes the helicopter
to vibrate and wobble while flying. If the rotor is destroyed, or a damaged
rotor comes apart, the helicopter will crash.

NOSE OPTICS: This is the heart of the TADS gunsight system. Damage can cause
the TADS gunsight to work erratically . Loss of the nose optics destroys TADS,
making it impossible to fire accurately.

STARBOARD & PORT WINGS: All rockets and missiles are mounted on these weapons
wings. Damage causes the weapons to function erratically; if destroyed the
weapons and on the wing are lost.

STARBOARD & PORT ENGINES: Normally the rotor is powered by both engines
combined. However, the helicopter can fly with one engine out. If an engine is
damaged or destroyed it automatically shuts down and cannot be restarted until
repaired(this minimizes the risk of fire or explosion.)

                         INTRO. TO HELICOPTER FLIGHT

This section gives a rudimentary view of common concepts in helicopter flight.

LEVEL FLIGHT FORWARD: In level flight the helicopter is pitched down ("nose
down"). The greater the pitch, the faster the forward flight. Note that in
forward flight the crosshairs are always below the horizon line. The VSI gauge
is horizontal(reading 0), indicating flight is level. In combat flying,
typical level flight speed is 100 to 150 knots.

POWER DIVE: In a power dive the helicopter is pitched down steeply. The
crosshairs are significantly below the horizon line, and the VSI gauge needle
is pointing downward. Power dives usually require speeds greater than 160

FORWARD CLIMB: When climbing in forward flight, the helicopter is travelling
slower than normal(pitch is still present, but smaller than normal),or the
collective control(and engine torque) is higher than normal, or both. The VSI
gauge needle is pointing upward. Forward climbs are easiest at speeds of 30 to
90 knots.

HOVER: Here the helicopter is truly level, with no pitch down or up. Note that
the crosshairs are on the horizon line and airspeed is zero( needle is
vertical). The collective is adjusted so the VSI gauge is horizontal (zero).
From a hover a helicopter can ascend straight upwards or descend straight
downwards by changing the collective.

BACKWARDS FLIGHT: When flying backwards the helicopter is pitched upwards.
Note that the crosshairs are above the horizon -- which only occurs when
flying backwards. The airspeed gauge shows the speed backwards. Depending on
the speed and amount of collective , the helicopter could be ascending, flying
level, or descending while moving backwards.

SKID SIDEWAYS: This is only possible at low speeds(under 40 knots) or when
hovering. The cyclic joystick is moved left or right to roll the helicopter.
Due to a lack of airspeed, the helicopter skids left or right without forward
motion. Unless the collective is adjusted appropriately, a skidding helicopter
loses some lifting kpower.

ROTATE LEFT OR TIGHT:  This is only possible at extremely low speeds or when
hovering. The anti-torque( tail or "rudder" controls) rotates the helicopter
left or right. Rotation does not affect airspeed or VSI. The cyclic joystick
and collective are not used when rotating.


                           on the AH-64A Apache simulator

                            FLIGHT CONTROLS

This section defines how each control works. Do not use this section as a
guide to flying a helicopter. To learn to fly, follow "Beginner's Tutorial #1
-- Learning to Fly a Helicopter".

THE KEYBOARD OVERLAY: An overlay appropriate to your computer keyboard is
included with the simulation. The control placement is designed for use with
this overlay -- don't lose it!

Note: Computers sometimes misread multiple key inputs. Unless otherwise
indicated, do not press two keys simultaneously. Do not push the joystick
while holding a key. Pushing the joystick while holding a key may cause weird

CYCLIC JOYSTICK: Pushing forward pitches down the helicopter ("drops the
nose"). Pulling back pitches up the helicopter("raises the nose"). Pushing
left or right rolls the helicopter in that direction ("tilts" the rotor and
body left or right).

A pitch below horizontal moves the helicopter forward. A large pitch down
causes a power dive. Pitch up above horizontal moves the jelicopter backward.
Rolling left or right at low speed causes a skid ( or "sideslip") left or
right. At medium and high speeds it causes a banking turn left or right.

The artificial attitude and horizon indicator shows the current pitch and roll
of the helicopter.

COLLECTIVE:This control can be moved up fast(increases lift by large amounts)
or down slowly (decreases lift by small amounts). When you raise or lower the
collective, the engine torque changes appropriately. To mobe the collective a
large amount, tap it repeatedly and quickly.

Lift keeps the helicopter airborne. If you start in level flight or hover,
then increase the lift, the helicopter ascends. If you start level and
decrease lift, the helicopter descends.

ANTI-TORQUE(TAIL)ROTOR: These function only when hovering or moving extremely
slowly(just a few knots.) Tap rotate left to swing the nose left. Tap rotate
right to swing the nose right. Multiple taps on the key increase the rate of
rotation. Tap stop rotation to eliminate all rotation.

PORT or STARBOARD ENGINE ON/OFF: Tap the appropriate key to turn on(if
currently off) or turn off (if currently on) each engine. You must turn off
the engines to finish your flight.

If an engine is damaged or destroyed it turns off automatically. You cannot
restart the engine until it is repaired.

ROTOR ENGAGE/DISENGAGE: Tap this key either to engage the rotor(cause the
engines to turn the rotor), or disengage the rotor(cause the roto to spin
freely, unconnected to the engines). When the rotor is disengaged, the
collective is automatically "bottomed"(dropped to zero).


                           VIEWING CONTROLS

CHANGE CRT: The CRT has 3 display modes. Each tap on this key switches the CRT
to the next mode. These modes are:

(1)TADS target mode
(2)Map mode
(3)Radio message mode

If no target is ahead of the helicopter, the TADS target mode does not appear.
If no new radio message is available, the radio mode does not appear. If
neither a target not a radio message is available, then CRT is always in map

MAP: Tap this key to see the full sector map. You continue flying, so beware
of flying into something while examining this discplay. Tap this key again to
return to the standard cockpit view.

STORES: Tap this key to see the stores display. It shows the status of systems
with stores, including the amounts remaining. You continue flying, so beware
of flying into something while examining this display. Tap this key again to
return to the standard cockpit view.

DAMAGE:Tap this key to see the systems display. It shows each system and
whether it's functional, damaged, or destroyed. You continue flying, so beware
of flying into something while examining this display. Tap this key again to
return to the standard cockpit view.

VIEW: The view center key shows your view directly ahead. The view left key
shows your view diagonally ahead to the left. The view right key shows your
view diagonally ahead to the right. Due to the engines, transmission, and
rotor shaft your rearward view is blocked. Note that the crosshairs are
present only on the center view.


                                COMBAT CONTROLS

GO TO TADS TARGET MODE: If the CRT is not displaying a TADS target, but the
prompt "TARGET" is showing, tap the fire button to switch the CRT to TADS. You
can also use the standard Change CRT control.

NEW TADS TARGET: Tap this key to move the TADS gunsight box from one target to
another, showing the new target in the CRT. If no other targets are present
directly ahesd TADS remains on the original target.

WEAPONS: Tap the appropriate key to select one of the four possible weapons:

FIRE: Tap the fire button to fire the weapon currently selected. Each tap
fires one missile(Sidewinder or Hellfire), a pair of rockets, or a burst of 20
cannon rounds.

DROP CHAFF or FLARE DECOY: Tap the appropriate key to release the appropriate
decoy. The cockpit indicator remains lighted as long as the decoy is

RADAR or IR JAMMER ON/OFF: Tap the appropriate key to turn on or off the
jammer. When the radar jammer is running you see a green light beside the "R"
warning light. When the IR jammer is running you see a green light beside the
"I" warning light.

JETTISON STORES: To jettison all ammo for a particular weapon hold down the
select weapon key and tap Jettison. This dumps all the Sidewinder, rocket, or
Hellfires, depending on which weapon you select. For example, to jettison all
your FFAR rockets in the C64/C128 version, hold down the "5" key and tap


                          SIMULATION CONTROLS

ACCELERATED TIME: This key doubles the speed of time, thus shortening flight
time form one point to another. This function works ONLY if you are viewing
the sector map. It automatically turns off when you return to the standard
cockpit view.

PAUSE: This key freezes the simulation. Tap any key to resume the simulation.

RESET: Hold down these keys to restart the simulation. In effect you are
"jettisoning" the entire mission.


                               ANSWER THE RADIO!
When you see the prompt "MESSAGE" above the CRT, tap Change CRT once to read
the incoming radio message. Ignoring the messages can be detrimental to your

PASSWORD & COUNTERSIGN: As you approach your friendly base, you will get a
radio message. It's VITAL that you read and answer this message! Tap Change
CRT to display the message on the CRT. You will be radioed the password and
asked for the countersign. You must type the proper countersign at the
keyboard and press "RETURN/ENTER"

                        BEGINNER'S TUTORIAL 1
                                Learning to Fly a helicopter

This tutorial teaches you how to take off, control the helicopter in basic
flight maneuvers, and land againn. Refer to "Cockpit & Status Panel" to
understand what's appearing on the screen. Refer to "controls" and the
keyboard overlay to find the appropriate controls. Glance over "A Practical
Guide to Helicopter Flying" for additional insights and illustrations.

This turtorial is for use with the "realistic" flight mode, not the "easy"
flight mode. MicroProse recommends that you learn and fly in the realistic
mode form start(you'll appreciate the advantages later). You can always "fall
back" on the easy mode if the realistic mode becomes too frustrating.

The second tutorial will cover your weapons and defenses. For more detail
about how a helicopter flies and how to perform advanced tactical maneuvers,
see the "Aerodynamics" section.

WARNING - DON'T OVERCONTROL: Helicopter controls are SLUGGISH. That is, they
react slowly. Even a frisky thorough bred like the APACHE takes one to two
seconds to respond to your control movement. Therefore, just tap a key and see
what happens. When using the joystick/mouse/keyboard move it  little, then let
it go. The most common error in flying is to overcontrol by pulling hard on
the stick or pressing too long and hard on a key.

In short, be gentle with the controls. After each control movement watch for
the result before you do anything else. Numerous fast, radical control
movements will produce incomprehensible results and probably a crash!

STARTING: Take the vehicle i.d. test, enter your name on the pilot roster, and
make sure your region is set to "Training in the USA" duty assignment. Reality
defaults should be set to "Realistic Flying","Easy Landing" and "Easy
Weather".Read the briefings and armament options, but don't bother to change
them. See "Preparing to Fly" for details on how to control the starting

PAUSE WHILE LEARNING: As you work through the tutorial, tap the Pause key
whenever you wnat to read about the next maneuver or explanation. Then tap any
key to resume, try the maneuver, then pause again as you read the next part of
the tutorial,etc.

ATTACKS: Don't worry about enemy attacks and firing while learning to fly. In
training situations the enemy always fires "blanks" -- you cannot be damaged
or destroyed by enemy fire. On your first training flights you should ignore
enemy activity. In the next tutorial you'll learn how to respond to enemy
attacks and how to hit targets.

POWER UP: Turn on the port and starboard engines by tapping Port Engine On/Off
and Starboard On/Off. Wait until the engine RPM strip gauges climb to
normal(about the 80% point). Then tap Rotors Engage/Disengage once. The roto
engaged warning light previously red, should turn off. You'll hear the rotors
come up to speed. Wait until the middle strip gauge (rotor RPM) climbs to
normal (slightly above the engine RPM levels).

CLIMB TO A HOVER: Now repeatedly tap Collective Up Fast. Watch the torque rise
as you "raise" the collective. Note that if you "lower" the collective , the
torque drops . Once the torque reaches 75% use the Collective Up Slow key
until you rise off the ground(at about 80-95% torque , depending on how close
your weight is to the maximum). You should be hovering at about 12 feet

ROTATING IN A HOVER: Tap the Rotate Right once. Your helicopter begins to
ratate to the right. Tap Stop Rotation once and you'll stop turning. Tap the
Rotate Left to rotate in that direction. If you tap either rotation key
repeatedly, the helicopter rotates faster in that direction. You can only use
rotation when you are moving just a few knots, or stationary.

Now stop the rotation. You're ready to begin flying.

TAKEOFF AND FORWARD FLIGHT: Ascend to a hover. Up collective and cyclic
joystick forward for level forward flight.

FORWARD FLIGHT: Add a little more collective up slow. As you begin climbing
push forward lightly on the cyclic joystick to "pitch down" the helicopter.
You'll begin to move forward . At about 30 knots you'll begin to climb. You
can see this on your altimeter (upper right dial) and your VSI(lower right
dial) gauges. This is because forward motion in a helicopter adds extra lift
( termed "translational lift") especially at 30-90 knots.

The further you pitch down, the more your speed increases. As your speed
exceeds 100 knots, translational lift decreases. The CSI gauge will mobe
toward  the negative end of the scale. More pitch downward will push you into
a power dive at 160-200+ knot speeds.

LEVEL FLIGHT: Move the joystick forward or back until the airspeed gauge reads
100 to 150 knots. Now look at the VSI. If you're descending (the needle is
below horizontal) add some Collective Up Slow until the needle is on "0"
(horizontal). Alternately, if you're ascending , put in some Collective Down
Slow. When the VSI needle is horizontal reading zero), you are in level

Remember, due to the slow responses of helicopter controls, it's easy to
overcorrect and put in too much collective. This results in you "chasing the
needle". After each change in the collective, wait a second or two for the VSI
needle to stabilize.

CHANGING ALTITUDE: When flying level at 100-150 knkots, the easiest way to
descend is to push the cyclic joystick forward(pitch down) into a power dive .
As you approach the altitude you desire, gently pull the cyclic joystick
back(pithc up) until the VSI again stabilizes at zero( needle is horizontal.)
Similarly, the easiest way to ascend is to pitch up slightly, reducing your
airspeed to 50-100 knots. When you reach the desired altitude, pich down again
until the VSI satbilizes.

This technique of flying is not unlike an airplane. You can change altitude
without disturbing the collective . A second way to change altitude,
applicable at any speed, is to raise or lower the collective. When you reach
the new altitude, input an equal and opposite amount of collective to regain
lecel flight(VSI of zero). This technique is the only way to chanmge altitude
from a hover.

Regardless of which technique you use, don't try to control the helicopter by
constant "fiddling" with the collective. Learn to "feel" the right collective
setting, then fly with your cyclic joystick. Don't expect to gain this ability
on the first flight. Be patient, after a number of flights and landings you'll
find collective adjustments come naturally , just like a real heliicopter

LOW ALTITUDE TURBULENCE: While flying under 100'. you may feel air turbulence.
You will tend to bouce up and down, or sometimes roll form side to side. Air
turbulence and "wind shears" varywith your speed and your dista\nce from the
ground: the faster and lower you fly, the more difficult it is to keeep the
cragt under control.

TURNING: Return to level flight at 100-150 knots. Next push the stick left
slightly and release it . Your helicopter rolls into a banking left turn . As
you turn, observe the change in your digital heading readout( in the lower
left of the cockpit display , just under the compass). If you continue to
push the stick left and bank into a steep turn, you'll lose some lift. Notice
that your altitude is dropping and the VSI is below horizontal. If you roll
back to the right and level out, you'll return to level flight.

To maintain your altitude in a steep bank(important if you're flying low) add
a bit of Collecitve Up Slow just before you start to turn. then put in a bit
of Collective Down Slow just before you come out of it. Change the collective
first because the collective controls react more clowly then the cyclic

NAVIGATION: Tap the Map key to see the full sector map. Your objective is to
find your way jomw to base! Move the crosshair cursor to the central white
helibase, then switch back to your cockpit view. Quite probably your heading
and the INS heading are different. Make a banking turn toward the INS heading
until the two numbers match. Notice that the INS arrowhead marker below your
own course arrowhead will also match. You're on course, flying back to base.
Descend until you're in lecel flight at 50 to 100 feet altitude. It's easier
to learn to land if you come in slow and low, although "officially" a constant
descent is preferred by air controllers.

LANDINGS: As you approach the base it first appears as an outline on the
horizon. Reduce your speed to 60 knots by pulling back slightly on the cyclic
joystick. You'll need to put in some collective don slow to maintain your 50'
altitude. Now wait until the detailed buildings and landing "T" come into
view. Your goal is to land directly on the "T", but anywhere within the larger
rectangle is fine.

Just before you cross the outside edge of the base, begin slowing down to a
hover by pulling up on the cyclic joystick. Be sure to put the crosshairs on
the horizon-- it's easy to pich up too far and end up going backward. Note
that as your speed falls from 70 to 0 knots, your ligt will decrease. Use the
collective up slow to stabilize your altitude with 0 VSI. By the time you
accomplish all this and are hovering at about 50' altitude, you shold be near
the center of the base.

Finally, use the cyclic joystick carefully to move your helicopter toward the
"T". Come back to a hover and tap the collective down slow once to egin your
final descent. At about 20' and/or 10' altitude you need another tap to
continue descending to a touchdown.

SHUT DOWN: When you land (altitude is 0 turn off both engines.This ends the
Flight; your postflight options will appear.

MISSION: After this first flight, your debriefing will show mission not yet
accomplished. To satisfy your instructors, you must learn how to hit the
target too. Go to "Beginners Tutorial II" to finish your training.


                                BEGINNER'S TUTORIAL II
                                        Defense and Gunnery

This tutorial teaches you how to recognize and deal with carious enemy
missile(SAM) and gun(AA) attacks. It also gives you practice in using your own
weapons against appropriate targets.

STARTING: If you have just finished the first Tutorial, you can use the same
defaults again(same region,style of flying, and reality levels). The region
should be "Training in the USAsyle showld be "Regular Missions", and reality
should be "Realistic Flying""Easy Landing" and "Easy Weather".

Note: When training in the USA, all missiles and gun shells fired at you are
"blanks". YOu can never suffer damage from enemy fire while training. However
don't forget that everywhere else the enemy play "for keeps".

MAKE A PLAN: Before takeoff examine the sector map of the training area. Pick
one of the 3 dummy installations(HQ,Russian Helibase, or the Depot) as your
objective. Move the INS marker to that objective . Notice the "enemy" forces
along or near the line of flight from your base to the objective. These are
the "opponents" you will engage.

TAKEOFF: Take off and get into lecel flight at 100' altitude(digital readout
on altimeter is "01")

THREATS: As you fly, watch the threat display on the lower right. A red dot
means an enemy with AAA (anti-aircraft aritllery) or SAMs(surface to air
missiles) have detected you. A flashing red and white dot means an enemy
helicopter is approaching. A white dot means a missile is flying(yours or an
enemy's -- the threat display cannot distinguish one missile from another).
Also watch your warning lights. When the "I" turns red an IR homing missile is
being launched. When the "R" is red radat-guided missiles or guns are either
searching for or tracking you.

When enemies appear on your threat display they are also plotted on the map.
If you have the time, you can look at the map to learn what type of enemy is
attacking you. Though virtually every enemy has some sort of light guns or
sholder-launched missile (the AS-7,AS-7B, OR AS-14), the most dangerous are
the AA gun siters and vehicles, or the SAM vehicle.

USING A JAMMER: When a warning light comes on the standard response is to turn
on the appropriate jammer(press the IR or Radar Jammer On/Off once). A small
green light beside the warning light turns on showing your jammer is running.
If the warning light turns off, the jamming was successful. Not turn onto a
new course. Jammed missiles often continue flying on their old course, an will
hit you unless you change course.

Keep your jammer running until you destroy or fly away from the enemy launcher
or gun . In concentrations of enemies some pilots will turn on both jammers
and constantly fly a "jinking" zig0zag course to confuse missiles and enemy

USING A DECOY: If the warning light does not turn off by jamming, try using a
decoy. Tap Drop Chaff or Drop Flare to deploy decoys. The decoy symbol below
the CRT will light up. While the symbol is lighted the decoy should be drawing
the misslie or gunnery control toward it.

Decoys are launched in 3- cartridge "units of fire". Although your cockpit
control panel shows unite of fire for conveninence, the pre-flight arming and
stores readout displays show actual cartridges acailable. If you check your
stores display after launching a chaff of flare decoy, you'll see the amount
remaining has decreased by 3.

EVASIVE FLYING: Another way to avoid a threat is to dive to a lower altitude
while turning parallel to or away from the threat. If you get lower and avoid
closing the range an enemy often loses sight of you. Enemy weapons aimed by
eyeball(many AA guns and a few SAMs) cannot be jammed or decoyed. Against
these threats evasive flying isyour only defense. Another evasive technique is
to slow your speed once you're low. Slow movement at low altitude is very hard
to spot at a distance . It is possivle to "sneak up " on enemy positions with
a helicopter.

Evasice flying is also superior to jammers and decoys because it doesn't
broadcast your position. Both jammer and decoy, not to mention firing, receal
your presence to the enemy.

DAMAGE: If you don't respond in time to a threat the gunfire or missile will
hit you. You'll see the flash of explosions around the edge of the cockpit .
In training that's all you'll see-- your helicopter cannot be damaged. In real
battle, the explosion may penetrate your armor. If a sys. across the top of
the cockpit is no longer green, something is malfunctioning. Check the damage
desplay for details. Sometimes you'll want to fly home for repairs before
continuing your mission.

If you suffer too many damaging hits, the structural integrity of your
helicopter will fail, causing a general power failure. The only way to survive
this is to successfully "autorotate" to a landing(see "Aerodynamice" for
details on autorotation). The actual number of hits varies with the situation
and enemy weaponry, but a good rule of thumb is expect the worst after you've
suffered 3 or 4 damaging hits.

USING TADS(Target Acquisition & Designation System): LOod on your map and find
a large concetration of red targets near your flight path. Fly in that
direction. When you're close pull up into a hover.ow use the rotate right and
rotate left keys to turn your nose lect and right. When the crosshair is close
to a target, the prompt "TARGET" appears above the CRT. Press the fire button
on the joystick. The TAKS gunsight box will appear around the target while the
zoom camera shows the target on your CRT. The range to taget in kilometers
appears in the upper left( for example, if the range is "0.8", the target is
0.8 km-800 m - away.)

Tap next TADS target to shift the TADS to another target near the crosshairs.
If there is no other target near the crosshairs, Tads remains on the original
target. After TADS is locked onto a target you can rotate left or right and
watch TADS track the target for you. As the box gets near the edge of your
cockpit view tap the View right or Biew Left key as appropriate. Your view
switches to the side. Notice that TADS continues to follow the target. As long
as you can see the target, TADS  will follow it.

If the target leaces your field of view, TADS loses it and automatically
unlocks. Unless there is another target near your crosshairs for TADS  to lock
onto , the CRT switches back to the map.

TADS can only lock onto targets you can spot. At low altitude (such as under
100') you can't see very far. Targets appear at very short ranges(just a few
hundred meters away.) The higher you are, the further you can see; TADS can
lock onto targets at further and further ranges. Of course the highter you are
, the easier it is for the enemies to spot you. As a result , helicopter
pilots tend to fly low and occasionally "pop up" to locate enemies. A favorite
maneuver is to "pop up" from behind a hill.

The 30mm Chain Gun cannon and the 2.75" FFAR rockets have varying accuracy,
depening on range and whether the weapon faces ahead. The TADS box changes
color from dark(poor accuracy ) to light (good  accuracy)with these weapons.
The sidewinder and hellfire always hve good accuray and therefore the TADS bax
is always light colored if one of these weapons is selected.

wiht your navigation, or you want to read a radio message, tap Change CRT.
TADS turns off and the CRT switches the next available mode (see "Controls"
for details).

FIRING WEAPONS: To fire you must first select a weapon. When you press the
appropriate Select Weapon key, that weapon lights up beneath the CRT and the
ammo supply appears in white. Cannon ammo is shown in 20 round bursts. Once a
weapon is selected, to fire simply press the Fire Button on the joystick.

The 30mm Chain Gun cannon is automatically aimed at the target designated by
the TADS(the AH-64A has a ballistic computer that aims the cannon for you).
However, the cannon is more accurate firing straight ahead. The TADS box will
turn a brighter color as accuracy improves. Cannon maximum range is 1.5 km,
but the effective range is about 0.7 km firing ahead , and only 0.3 to 0.4 km
in a "deflection shot" to the side..by tuan dang..

The AGM-114A Hellfire anti tank missile is guided by lase at the TADS Target .
As long as you keep TADS locked on target the Hellfire flies toward it. The
Heffgire has a minimum range of a few hundred meters -- it takes time for the
missile to lock onto the TADS lase. The maximum range of the Hellfire is 6 km.
Furthermore, once beyond minimum range, Hellfire accuracy is unaffected by

The 2.75" FFAT rockets are completely unguided. You must line up the
crosshairs in the center of the TADS box, then fire. The rockets fly straight
ahead at whatever was in the center of the crosshair when you fired. After the
rockets are launched you need not keep the target in the crosshairs. The
maximum range of FFAT rockets is about 1.8 km, but accuracy improves at
shorter ranges. As with the cannon, the TADS box will become brighter as your
accuracy improves.

The AIM-9L Sidewinder is a "fire and forget" air to air homing missile. Lock
the TADS onto a flying target and make sure the target is generally
ahead(fairly close to the crosshairs). Then fire the missle. Once you fire you
can switch the TADS to something else and/or fly away. Enemy aircraft may have
jammers or decoys that could cause a Sidewinder to miss. Maximum range of the
L-model Sidewinder is 18 km. Effective range against a helicopter is vurtually
equivalent to the maximum range.

WEAPON RESTRICTIONS: Certain weapons are only effective against certain
targets. The 30mm cannon is effective against anything except bunkers which it
can destroy only occasionally. The AGM-114A Hellfire is effective against
"hard" targets(all vehicles and bunkers, but not other installations). The
2.75" FFAR rockets are effective against "soft " targets(infantry, AA gun
sites, and installations--uch as the HQ , Depot, and Russian Heli-base). The
AIM-9L Sidewinder is effective only against flying targets. It is useless
against any ground targets.

RECOIL: When you fire a cannon or unguided missile the helicopter bucks and
recoils upwards. Be prepared to regain control quickly.

HITTING THE OBJECTIVE: Eventually you'll reach your objective. LOck the TADS
onto the the HQ, Heli-base or Depot and select 30mm cannon. In actual combat,
you'd fly straight in and open fire at 0.7 km(closer if you're short of ammo).
However, in training try "buzzing" over the target at 30'first. This will show
you what the target looks like. Then circle around , lock on the TADS once
more, and make a second pass with the cannons blazing. If you want a real test
of skill, don't use the cannon. Instead make a rocket attack at 1.5 km or so.
You'll probaly need to fire lots of rockets.

RETURNING TO BASE: After destroying the objective go back to the sector map
and set your INS for your home base. Fly home, land and shut down both
engines. You can either rearm and refuel for antother round  of target
practice , or you can call it quits here. A successful flight may qualify you
for the National Defense Service Medal.


                        AFTER THE MISSION:
                                Succeeding as Gunship Pilot

                        DEBRIEFING & SUBSEQUENT OPTIONS
ENDING A MISSION: YOu end a mission by landing , turnning off both engines,
and waiting for the rotor to stop. You then are told your stauts, and if you
crash as a Sergeant or Warrant Officer you get the option to "retry" the
flight instead of continuing. If you retry, you fly the same mission again. If
you "continue"(this is automatic at higher ranks) you recieve normal results.

Next you can decide whther to examine your caraft , leave it, or(if at a
friendly base) ask for more furel, armnament and/or repairs. If you select
repairs the enemy will have time to bring up reinforcements. In somecases your
situation or damage will prevent certain options.

After landing you are "debriefed " and may receive promotions or decorations
appropriate to your performance. If you ignored your orders and failed to
perform the mission assigned you could find yourself peeling potatoes for a
while!(Your commanding officer dislikes beeing ignored!)

Finally , you'll see your currnet rank, decorations and score compared to the
two all-time top scoring pilots of the game. These all-time top scorers are
saved on disk independently of the current roster, and can only be erased

REPLAY OPTIONS: If you decide to try another mission you can eeither reamain
in the same region, flying the same type of missions , or you can change your
style of flying, or you can request a transfer to a new region. Alternately,
you can put your career on hold and go on R&R(rest and recuperation). Pilots
on R&R remain on the roster until you deliberately erase them.

ENDING THE SIMULATION: On the replay options screen you end the simulation by
removing the disk and turning off your computer. To ensure accuarcy in your
pilot roster and records, you should turn off the computer only when the
replay options are showing.



THE MISSION: If you leave the helicopter somewhere other than a friendly base,
you could be captured by enemy troops, Naturally the chances increase if
you're deep in enemy territory.

As a good soldier, your duty is to complete the assigned mission. This means
destroying the pimary target. Destroying the secondary target as well is a
definite plus. Sometimes your commander will change his mind during a mission
and reassign the secondary target as your new primary target. Many missions
have multiple targets spread over a range of map coordinates.

If you finish the mission without achieving either objective your commander
will not be pleased, no matter haw many other targets you hit. Flying around
blasting the closest enemy does NOT guaratee promotions and decorations. On
the other hand, targets hit in addition to the assigned objectives definitely
help toward decorations and faster promotion.

Your commander will rate your performance based on time elapsed. If you are
flying over 20 minuters, he will reduce the credit given for your
achievements. If you accomplish both primary and secondary missions, he will
automatically insist the mission is over when you return to base.

RANKS: Successful completion of your assigned missions improves your record. A
good record leads to promotions. Even on the battlefield promotions take time.
Don't expect a promotion after every mission.

You start with the rank of Sergeant- just like real helicopter pilots entering
flight training. When you successfully complete a mission(usually flight
training) you'll be promoted to Warrant Officer(WO1). After that , success
leads to 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Lieutenant, Captain, Major,Lieutenant Colonel,
and finally Colonel. Although higher ranks exist in the U.S. Army, the highest
conceivable rank where an  officer could still perform combat flying is

Each reprimand you earn goes into your record and makes promotion more
difficult. Reprimands occur when you use "Sick Call" to evade a mission, or
when you acheive no assigned objectives. On the other hand,each heroism
decoration makes promotion easier.

DECORATIONS: If you do exceptionally well on a mission, you may be awarded a
medal for heroism and bravery above and beyond the call of duty. Unlike rank,
these decorations are based purely on your performance during a single
mission. Your rank and prior record have no effect on your chance of getting a
decoration (just like the real army).

The decorations for heroism and valor(from least difficult to acheive
upwards):Army commendation Medal,Bronze Star, Silver Star, Distinguished
Service Cross, and the Congressional Medal of Honor(America's highest military

In addition to decorations for heroism, additonal medals and ribbons are
awarded for regions of service, wounds, etc. The National Defense Service
Medal is traditionally given for successfully completing training. Te Purple
Heart is awarded for wounds in combat. Capaign Ribbons for a particular region
are awarded for completing a tour or duty(multiple successful missions) in
that region. After a campaign ribbon, additonal tours give you the Air Medal,
which recognizes exceptional flying time.

WORLD'S GREATES GUNSHIP PILOT: The ultimate Apache pilot is a colonel with
ribbons and air medals for every region. In addition, he holds the
Congressional Medal of Honor along with a one or more lesser decorations for
heroism and gallantry. Can you meet this challenge once? How many such
Colonels can you have on your pilot roster?


Accent            = Trampoline
Billboard         = Kickback
Cromagnon         = Melodrama
Dakota            = Onstage
Electra           = Vertical
Foothold          = Insolent
Grenadier         = Nocturne
Hedgehof          = Locksmith
Ivory             = Willow
Knockout          = Purebred
Lozenge           = Romantic
Mazurka           = Yellow
Nebula            = Quaker
Ovation           = Upstage
Penthouse         = Symphony
Quartz            = Zebra

If you don't type it onto the screen, your base will assume you're hostile and
shoot you down!!!!!
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