Abandonware DOS title

Hannibal manual


	Welcome to Hannibal, a game of historical strategy. Based upon
actual historical facts. Your new game gives you the chance to slip into
the role of Hannibal and try to wrestle down your bitter enemy, the Roman
Empire. Success and failure depend upon your good judgement, negotiation
skills and strategic ability. Imagine you are Hannibal, one of the greatest
strategists of all time. Think his thoughts, dream his dreams, and plan out
his battle tactics. He is known for being a statesman and commander who
was both genial and controversial. His best known achievement, although
not his most important, was crossing the Alps. More important were his
magnificent victories over the Roman army, especially in his battle near
Cannae where he succeeded in destroying the entire Roman forces. After
this victory, the path to Rome was clear for safe passage. Instead of
taking advantage of this to attack Rome, he marched on to win further

	Many of Hannibal's doings, however, lie hidden in the dark of history,
because the very few records of his campaigns are only partially
complete. This has caused diverse interpretation of Hannibal's existence.
The second part of your manual includes a historical survey of Hannibal
and his times. It will help you to refer to this history and make use of
Hannibal's ideas and, at the same time, avoid his mistakes. However, if you
prefer, the structure of the game allows you to start right away. Just make
a few quick decisions and you are on your way to your first campaign.

	Remember that the scenario you are in has been constructed as a
replica of historical reality. Thus, the population data for more than 700
cities and towns with soldiers and mercenaries is as it was in Hannibal's
time. The army opposing you is led by the computer which has over 2000
commands that are similar to those from history. In this game the
individual armies are not split up into legions. This does not change any of
the historical effects and it will keep you in complete control of your

	Now, it is your turn to prove you are better than one of history's
greatest commanders. In case you find that this is not as easy as it
sounds, the game hints in the manual will help you along.
Enjoy your trip through history.

When starting the game you will be taken to the initial screen (see 
Quick Reference Card).  Here you can decide whether you want to start a 
new game or resume the previous one.  If you choose to play a previous game, 
your saved games are recorded as "Score 1" through "Score 10," depending 
upon your choice (for example, you may want to save your best game as 
"Score 1", your second best as "Score 2" etc.).  Select your saved game by 
clicking on the game you wish to resume.

The key below and the descriptions that follow (1 - 11) all reference side one of the 
Hannibal Quick Reference Card found in the game box


A. Zoomin.
B. Zoom out.
C. Scroll the map by touching the directions. Switch to town inquiry
   by clicking in the middle.
D. Town indicator.

1. Switch to political map.
2. Switch to map menu.
3. Set economy menu.
4. Leave winter quarters.        
5. Switch to store menu/exit to DOS. 
6. Give marching orders. 
7. Switch to market menu.
8. Split/unite armies.
9. Switch to negotiate and siege.
10. Sound on/off.
11. Leave selected point of the menu.

1. Touching this button changes the screen to a large map that shows you
the present political situation. The Carthaginian Empire, their colonies and
their friends are all shown in various shades of green. The Roman Empire,
their colonies and friends are shown in various shades of red. The blue
color shows the countries of the colony of Achaea; the yellow represents
the colony of Egypt. On the right side, you will find a list of important
facts. These will be updated throughout the game.

2. The map menu button reveals more precise information on towns and
armies and allows you to zoom in on specific map data. This is done by
clicking icon A or B. After zooming the sector you can scroll it with the
points of the compass. Move the mouse cursor across the map towards a
town. You'll see a circle around the town in question and its name appears
in D. Pressing the left mouse button shows you all the facts about this
town in the event window (B). Now you can find out if this town is free or
linked to one of the empires, and to which tribe it belongs. Population
figures and the number of available mercenaries and boats are also shown.
These pieces of information might be quite useful for your further strategic
considerations. The same procedure can be followed with the armies.

	If you want to search a certain town, click the center of the
compass. A large map appears with all given towns. At the bottom, you can
type the name of the town in question. The computer shows you the
position with a circle. Type "X," or hit return, and you're back to the menu.
If you want to leave point 2, chick icon 11 with the mouse cursor. This
takes you back to the main menu where you may proceed with the game.

3. This menu allows you to set the economical background of your game.
This data appears in the information window. Here you may feed money
from the Imperial Treasury to the army funds. This happens by clicking
"Army Funds" with the mouse cursor. A small box will appear in the
middle of the screen. By clicking the respective indexes, you may transfer
the money between the treasuries. Clicking "OK" endorses and ends this

You may transfer money to the economy in the same way. In addition to this, 
you can support certain towns in a special way to ensure that they do not 
break away from your empire. To do this, click subsidy to the city treasury. 
You'd see a list of your towns and their funds. Scroll the list by clicking 
the up and down arrows. Find the town in question and click its name. 
You can now transfer the money to the box that appears. You may also set 
the tax rate of certain towns and countries and the tax rate in general, 
and how much they ought to give you. Be careful not to ask for too 
much as this might cause the people to revolt, and you'd lose that town.
You may leave the menu by clicking icon 11.

4. By clicking this, your troops will move to winter quarters and so will
your enemy's. The calender will be advanced to April 1st of the following
year. During this time there will be negotiations with several towns and
tribes, who might supply you with new soldiers. You'll know after the
winter break whether these negotiations were successful or not. You may
ignore winter quarters and continue your campaign in winter but this will
cause high losses to your troops.

5. By clicking this you can save a specific game (up to 10 games) or load a
game. You can also end a game.

6. Use this icon to give march orders to certain armies. Click the
respective army in the event window. The screen switches over and shows
you a close-up of the selected armies and their surroundings. On the right
side are all the facts of the army and the nearest accessible towns. If
you want your army to move, the connection to the towns within reach
will be shown by black lines. Move the mouse cursor to the name of the
town and a red Circle will show you its position. Having made your choice,
click the name of the town your army should reach. Keep in mind that the
lower towns are harbor towns that can only be reached if your army has
bought enough boats. Once your choice has been made, the screen will
switch back to the menu. If you want to change your options click the
icon and the army in question again. Then you can order the army to retreat,
wait or march on.

7. Clicking this icon switches the screen to the market menu. Here 
you can buy or sell provisions, mercenaries, elephants, horses and boats (if
available) by clicking the plus and minus symbols. The computer shows you
automatically the amounts that you need for your sales and purchases.
They will automatically be deducted from or added to your balance. If the
market is within your empire you can also reinforce the local army and
transfer soldiers to your army (this will weaken the defensive power of
the town). This option does not only apply to friendly towns. In friendly
towns, you can also strengthen the fortification of the town wall. This
costs you some money, but it makes it a lot more difficult for your enemy
to capture the town. The fortification will come into effect after one
year. If you want to leave the market, click "EXIT" and get back to the
main menu.

8. Click this icon if you want to split an army or join two armies. This can
only be done if the two armies are in the same town. To split up an army,
click the army's icon in the events window with the mouse index. Move to
a free number and click on it. The screen changes and you may now move
parts of ammies to and from by clicking the plus and minus symbols.
"EXIT" takes you back to the main menu. To join two armies, click icon 8
and then the two armies you want to join. When the screen switches over
you can move parts of your armies by clicking the symbols. "EXIT" takes
you back to the main menu.

9. Upon reaching a town that does not belong to your empire and is not a
colony, you have two options: you can try to conquer this town or you can
make friends through negotiation. Clicking 9 takes you to the menu that
lets you choose between these possibilities.

a) siege

	"Begin Siege" by clicking the mouse. You will be informed
immediately that your army has started the siege. This may take days or
weeks and will keep your army occupied throughout that time. Duration
and success depend upon both the strength of the local army and the
fortification of the town. You will be informed daily so you can decide
whether to go on with the siege (don't do anything at all) or if you want to
finish (click icon 9 to end siege). Keep in mind that you will
 have losses in men and provisions. If your siege was successful you will
be informed in the event and information window.

	The screen switches over to a menu that gives you three choices:
conquering a town in a civilized way (the town becomes a colony and gets
you more income from taxes), plundering the town (the town becomes a
colony but does not bring any profit through taxes), or destroying it. The
population emigrates and the town has no further importance. The last two
mentioned are an easy way to fill up your funds. Be careful! This could
cause other towns to shy away from you. They may even enter negotiations
with the Roman Empire. If you succeed in taking the capital of a tribe,
you'd better conquer the remaining towns in that tribe immediately.

b) Negotiating

	Click icon 9 if you have decided to negotiate. Go to "Start
negotiations." The commander of your army will immediately take up talks
with the town. You are informed whether they are interested or not.
Negotiations may take several days. If they are successful, the town will
give you reinforcements. With a marching order (icon 6), you can shift your
army. Be aware that after successful negotiations the town will only give
you soldiers after one year. Should the negotiations take too much time
for your liking, you may end them by clicking icon 9 and giving the order
"Break off negotiations."

Advancing Time

	The current date appears in the upper left of the date and time
window (III). To advance time, move the cursor beneath the hourglass icon
until a triangle symbol appears. Then click the left mouse button to
advance time one day.

Starting the game

	Having started the game, you'll see the main menu which was
described above. The sector of map window will show where your troops
and those of the enemy are positioned. Your armies are marked by an
upside down triangle with green symbols. The enemy's armies are shown
by a similar symbol in red. In the beginning you, Hannibal, will be
commanding 3 armies. Army 1, which is under your personal command is
stationed in Carthago Nova. Army 2, commanded by your brother,
Hasdrubal, is stationed near Tarraco. Army 3 is still in Carthage, under
command of your brother, Mago . Your enemy has 3 armies in the vicinity of
Rome and one in Sicily.

First Step

	Acquaint yourself with the political situation by touching icon I .
Follow the explanations in the menu. After having done so, you will return
to the main menu.

Changing the Sector

	Touching icon 2, select "A" to enlarge your view of the sector. You
can scroll in any of 4 directions by touching the corresponding compass
point. You may now move the mouse index to any army or town. Gather
information in the event window (II) by pressing the right button. This
enables you to get acquainted with the armies and the surrounding towns. If
you are looking for a particular town, click the center of the compass and
proceed as instructed in the menu (point 2). Having collected your
information, go back to the initial map.
 Surface Routes

	Take a close look at the map. The plains are light yellow; mountains
and elevated areas are light brown; rivers are dark brown. The different
ways of marking a town should give you an idea of the tribe to which they
belong. All possible connections between any of these towns are shown by
black lines. An army can only reach a town if it is connected to the town
where the army is stationed.

Sea Routes

	Certain harbor towns are connected by green lines. These are the sea
routes that can be used by armies, but only if there are enough boats
at your disposal. You need one boat for every 200 soldiers. You might have
to split up your army in order to be able to move at least part of your
people along a sea route. Horses, elephants and provisions do not have to
be taken into account.

Moving Your Armies

	The menu description (item 6) tells you how to move your armies.
Their speed depends upon various factors: one is the type of countryside,
another is whether or not there are horses. Naturally, it takes an army
quite some time to cross a mountain range. A high percentage of horses
can get your army to its destination more quickly (you may want to
consider splitting your army into smaller groups and equipping certain
groups with horses). Another factor to consider is the amount of
provisions you carry. The more you carry, the slower you move.


	Your army will certainly suffer losses in the course of a campaign.
These will not only occur in battle, but also during long marchcs through
deserts and mountain ranges (e.g., Hannibal lost more than half his
people while crossing the Alps). Since much of your army is made up of 
mercenaries, you may also find that they tend to
desert the troop. It could also happen that hostile or predatory tribes
attacked certain detachments, most often the baggage train at the rear.
Your fleet of ships may be lost in bad weather or captured by pirates.
You'll receive news of such happenings in the information window.


	Whenever one of your armies meets a hostile unit on land or at sea,
a battle will ensue. Your battle menu will appear and you can choose from
several battle options: you can choose to fight offensively, defensively,
unprotected, or take advantage of an ambush (this was one of Hannibal's
specialities). You can also choose specific battle tactics.

	Once the battle has started, keep track of your losses and decide
whether it is wise to continue the battle or turn and retreat. This can be
done by touching the respective icon. If you opt to retreat, the battle is
stopped immediately and you must quicky march your army to safety. To do
this, touch icon 6 of the main menu. Your army will move away from the
enemy at three times normal speed.

Reaching a Town

When you reach a town, you have 4 choices: 
1. March on. 
2. Negotiate (Item 9 of the main menu).
3. Try to conquer the town (also Item 9). 
4. Replenish your troops and provisions at the market (Item 7 of 
   the main menu).

Keep in mind that everything you buy costs money: if you hire additional
mercenaries, you must pay them soldiers' wages. You may also make money
in the market by selling equipment you no longer need.
 Money and Taxes

	You will be dealing with two kinds of currency: the most common one
is called a "talent." One talent is one ingot of gold and is worth 36,000
oboles. Should the total amoumt be more than 1 million, it is merely
referred to as "million." This appears most often in the town and army
treasuries in the market menu.

	The actual balance of the army treasury, is shown on the left. If the
amount of money gets too low, you may be able to refinance from the
Imperial Treasury (menu Item 3). Your battle strategy also determines
your financial status. For instance, if you plunder a town, you now have
control of that town's treasury and all its funds.

	Your Imperial Treasury is renewed annually with money from taxes
you collect from the towns in your empire. Use Item 3 of the menu to
decide the tax rate for each town. Be aware that high rates do not always
get you more money. The tax due depends upon a town's economic situation.
You can improve a town's economy with government subsidies, if
necessary, and set the tax rates accordingly.

	This will create better economic conditions and will generally keep
the citizens happy. On the other hand, poorer economic conditions lead to
unrest among the citizens. If you set the tax rates too high, the towns may
revolt or emigrate to the Romam empire. This will mean a loss of revenue
for you.

Battle Tactics

	Before you can start a land war you should decide on your order of
battle. There are 6 orders of battle from which to choose. Keep in mind the
topography of the battle ground. Remember that this was always an
important consideration for Hannibal. He tried to retain the decision on the
location of the battle and to take advantage of natural conditions, such as
forests, hills, rivers, etc. It is advisable to construct an ambush in the
mountains and to limit the intended battle ground (e.g. by ordering a
massive formation). On the plains, a widespread formation could be

	Also, you must decide if you want to use elephants in the battle. Be
sure to consider the strengths and weaknesses of your enemy .

Formation Key: (Please see side two of the Hannibal Quick Reference Card for
actual formations described below.)

I. The Cannae Formation

	This was one of Hannibal's favorite orders. For quite sometime, the
Romans had difficulty with this formation.

	The armored infantry is divided into three columns with the middle
one forming a semi-circle. In front of them are the spear men who fling
their spears and retire. The armored cavalry is positioned on the same
flank as the Roman cavalry, while the light Numidiam cavalry opposes the
cavalry of the Roman allies. As soon as the Roman cavalry has been driven
back, the Carthaginian cavalry turns to the center to attack the Romam
cavalry from their flank. At that moment, the center column of infantry
(which needn't be very strong) retreats while the other two move towards
the center.

II. Formation with a wide front line

	This classical order is suitable for open territory when there are
elephants available and the two armies are of the same strength. The
cavalry attacks from the flanks. The light cavalry is positioned behind the
elephants. During battle, they move aside to allow the armored cavalry to
III. The Wedge-shaped Formation

	The light cavalry in the center is shaped like a wedge with its
flanks covered by armored cavalry and infantry. The light infantry is
positioned behind the wedge with one unit of armored infantry. After the
wedge has been opened, they advance through the breach in the enemy's
front line. This formation generally works well if your army consists of
many cavalry units.

IV. The Flank Formation

	This formation is suitable for open territory. It is simply a wide
front line, which can give you an edge because the enemy cannot
recognize your strategic intentions right away. A part of the infantry
stands in the second row amd moves to the front line later in the battle.
With this formation, the elephants are distributed only in the center
rather than along the whole front line. The cavalry tries to reach the
enemy's flanks with the light cavalry staying behind as reserves.

V. The Ambush Formation

	Both the cavalry and the infantry are positioned in one line, which is
hidden by elephants and out of the enemy's view. The light cavalry of
Numidians stands in front of the elephants and attacks first, turning round
after flinging their lances, provoking the enemy to advance. In this way,
they lead the enemy towards their own troops who are still under cover of
the elephants. This formation is suitable in the event of bad weather or in
territory that can not be controlled.

Vl. Solid Formation

	In this formation the cavalry remains on one side. The main impact
of the attack lies in the center, where the armored infantry is positioned.
During battle, both the cavalry and the infantry turn from the flanks to the
center to assist the armored infantry. The light cavalry amd infantry, who
have been positioned in the second line, then move to the flanks. This
formation is quite suitable for a battle field which is not quite so
spacious, and in cases where the enemy does not have much cavalry.

Hints & Tricks

1. At the beginning of the game take about 80 % of the money out of the
Imperial Treasury and fill it into the army funds.

2. Take away small cavalry units and send them ahead of the main army.
This mobile detachment is very handy to negotiate with towns before the
arrival of the main army.

3. Small parts of the army should frequently be sent in various directions
to win allies and recruit soldiers. If you have gathered enough
 mercenaries (ca. 10,000) you should unite these with the main army or
equip new armies. 

4. Under all circumstances, leave a small detachment in
all the countries (Spain, Sicily, Germany, Egypt, Greece, etc.) in case you
have colonies or allies there who might try to break away. 

5. Try to reach
Italy without plundering. Wait until you arrive in Italy to do so. 

6. Order your men to plunder only if your funds are exhausted and the 
Imperial Treasury does not contain enough funds to support you. 

7. Do not try to transport a large part of your army by sea. Always keep in 
mind that your fleet is in a bad state of repair. 

8. Remember that there could be large numbers of mercenaries available 
in the bigger towns of Egypt, Greece, Germany, etc. Many ofthem may be anxious 
to join you. Your losses can be great during a campaign and you will need 
many reinforcements. 

9. Retire to winter quarters in December of each year. If you don't, your 
soldiers could starve, desert or freeze to death. 

10. It is not advisable to attack Rome with fewer than 200,000 soldiers. 

11. It is not wise to attack any town when your army is small. A town's 
strength does not depend on its size or population but rather on its 
army and level of fortification. As a rule, multiply the size of the town's 
army by its level of fortification to determine the full strength of 
your opposition. 

12. No matter what happens, try to keep a second army traveling towards
Rome by way of Sicily and southern Italy.

Ending a game

	Once you have completed your projects, you can close out your game
and move on to the next day. Click on the time switch (E) until a small
triangle appears. Touch the triangle to move the calendar one day ahead.
The information window will report activities and special events for that
date for both you and your enemies. Collect all necessary information and
move on.