Abandonware DOS title

UMS: The Universal Military Simulator manual

Software Presents Part 1 of the UMS Docs
                     Thanks once again to DR.J (U.S.A.)


                            By Rainbird Software


Originally,  the  "Universal Military Simulator" was just the working  title 
for  a  very  unusual piece of software.   That was about  15,000  lines  of 
computer code ago.

Simply put,  the program you just purchased will simulate a conflict between 
any  two  opposing forces,  from history or fantasy,  displayed on  a  three 
dimensional battlefield that can be viewed from any perspective,  while  you 
zoom in on the action, command the smallest unit and change any variable.

Of course there's more.   The Design Map section will help you create  three 
dimensional maps of anything you wish:  battlefields,  D & D worlds, castles 
or maps for reports.  If you're out of ideas UMS will even randomly generate 
maps for you.

The Create Army section will allow you to design armies of any  description.  
The Universal Military Simulator comes with 18 pre-defined unit types,  from 
charioteers  to  armored  cavalry.   If that isn't  enough  you  can  create 
"wildcard units" with the characteristics you wish.

The  Create Scenario function will help you put any two armies  together  on 
any battlefield.   Literally,  any two armies.  It is possible, for example. 
to simulate a conflict between Alexander and Napoleon with their  respective 
troops  on the fields of Gettysburg.   Again,  your imagination is the  only 

UMS  also  possesses  a  unique  Artificial  Intelligence  that  "perceives" 
opposing armies as geometric shapes and interconnecting lines of force while 
individual fighting units are maneuvered as a cohesive army striving towards 
a  common  goal.   Furthermore the 14 actual variables evaluated by  UMS  to 
resolve combat may be viewed by the user after all hostile contacts  thereby 
eliminating "the fog of war" that other wargames hide behind.

Over  seven  years in the making,  the Universal Military  Simulator  is  as 
revolutionary  as it is evolutionary.   UMS will certainly be  the  standard 
that all wargames are measured by for many years to come.

                        CHAPTER I - GETTING STARTED


The  Universal  Military Simulator consists of four sections that  help  the 
user  create new maps,  design armies,  create new battle scenarios and  run 
battle  simulations.   These sections are accessed from the main  menu  that 
first appears after running the program.   To select a section, position the 
arrow cursor over the desired box and click the left mouse button once.

To  terminate  the program select QUIT.   You will be returned  to  the  GEM 
desktop.   To create new armies, or to edit an army that has been previously 
saved  to  disk,  select  DESIGN ARMY.   The  Universal  Military  Simulator 
contains  a  powerful three-dimensional typographical design  tool  that  is 
accessed by selecting DESIGN MAP.   This function is not limited to creating 
battlefields,  but may be used to design maps of all kinds including fantasy 
worlds  from  role-playing  games  and  computer  text  adventures.   CREATE 
SCENARIO  allows the user to place two armies from any time period  together 
on  a  field  of  battle.   There are  virtually  no  restrictions  and  the 
combinations are nearly infinite.   Selecting RUN SIMULATION allows the user 
to participate as the Universal Military Simulator's Artificial Intelligence 
routines  supervise the conflict.   The user may play against  the  program, 
against another human opponent,  or even influence the computer's  decisions 
while viewing the battlefield in complete 3-D.

                     CHAPTER II - RUNNING A SIMULATION


The  Universal  Military Simulator disk contains  five  battle  simulations.  
They are: ARBELA, the battle that decided the conquest of Asia Minor, fought 
in 331 B.C.  between Alexander the Great and Darius of Persia; HASTINGS, the 
great clash of the Medieval Ages between two claimants to the English throne 
in  1066;  MARSTON MOOR where Oliver Cromwell saved the  young  Parliament's 
Army;  WATERLOO,  the last card played from the Emperor Napoleon's hand  and 
GETTYSBURG,  where  General  Robert E.  Lee's Confederate Army  of  Northern 
Virginia  reached their highwater mark under the summer Pennsylvanian  skies 
of  1863.   To select a scenario click the left mouse button once  over  the 
desired simulation.

Other  scenarios from Universal Military Simulator Scenario Disks,  or  user 
created scenarios, may be read from disk by selecting the READ SCENARIO FROM 
DISK option.   After clicking the left mouse button once over this option  a 
dialog  box  will appear requesting that the user specify a  disk  drive  by 
clicking  the left mouse button once over the appropriate  drive  box.   Two 
floppy disks and two hard drives are supported.  Double click the left mouse 
button over the desired file.  Selecting CANCEL returns to the last menu.


The Universal Military Simulator take full advantage of the GEM capabilities 
of the Atari ST.  The battlefield window contains drop-down menus (discussed 
in detail in the following pages), a close box located in the upper lefthand 
corner of the window, and dialog boxes that appear throughout the simulation 
to  receive user input.   At the bottom of the window two status  lines  are 
displayed  that  indicate the  current  three-dimensional  perspective,  the 
current simulation time (in military time) and the present 'active army'  or 
side that is currently capable of receiving commands and firing weapons.

Clicking  the  left  mouse button once inside the close  box  will  end  the 
simulation after the program has confirmed the user's intentions.


The  RUN SIMULATION section is divided into two phases:  the  ISSUE  COMMAND 
PHASE  in  which orders are given by the user to all desired units  of  both 
armies and which is terminated by selecting END COMMAND PHASE from the drop-
down  menu or by pressing the letter Q on the keyboard;  and  the  MOVEMENT/ 
BATTLE  PHASE.   At  the  end of the COMMAND PHASE the  user  is  requested, 
through  a  series of dialog boxes,  to select the desired  computer  battle 
logic.  (For more information see the Battle Logic section in this chapter.)  
The MOVEMENT/BATTLE phase is divided into eight equal  segments.   Selecting 
NEXT  SEGMENT  from the drop-down menus,  or pressing the letter  N  on  the 
keyboard will advance the scenario time and update the  battlefield.   After 
the MOVEMENT/BATTLE phase is completed the COMMAND PHASE is repeated.


Located  at the top of the battlefield GEM window are six  drop-down  menus.  
All  functions of the Universal Military Simulator may be  accessed  through 
these  menus.   Many  functions  may also be activated  by  a  corresponding 
keystroke.   The  left most menu,  FILENAMES,  when selected,  displays  the 
actual  filenames  used for storing the maps,  scenario and armies  for  the 
current  simulation.   This  information  is quite helpful  when  editing  a 
scenario.   Three-dimensional viewing perspective is controlled by the drop-
down menus underneath NORMAL and ZOOM IN.   Moving the mouse over any of the 
titles above the window will cause the drop down menu to  appear.   Clicking 
the  left  mouse  button over a highlighted item will cause the  map  to  be 
redrawn  within  the  battlefield  window  from  the  perspective  selected.  
Selecting NORTH, for example, will create a map drawn from the point of view 
of someone south of the battlefield looking North.   Selecting a perspective 
from the ZOOM IN menu will draw a map with a  corresponding close in  aerial 

The  EXTREME  ZOOM IN menu controls highly magnified viewing of  a  selected 
areas.   Selecting  the  item EXTREME ZOOM IN under the  menu  heading  will 
create a flashing 10 grid point by 10 grid point box.   (Color monitors will 
also  show  woods  and unit directions arrows in  reverse.)   This  flashing 
square  is under the control of the mouse.   Any directional change  of  the 
mouse  will be immediately copied by the flashing grid.   Clicking the  left 
mouse  button  will  cause  the map area beneath  the  grid  to  be  greatly 
magnified.   Clicking  the right mouse button will cancel this function  and 
restore the map.  After EXTREME ZOOM IN has been activated the enlarged area 
may be scrolled by either selecting the desired direction from the drop-down 
menu or by pressing the four cursor arrow keys on th right hand side of  the 
keyboard.  Pressing and holding an arrow key will cause the screen to scroll 
continuously  in  indicated  direction  until  the  border  of  the  map  is 
encountered.  (IMPORTANT: to avoid confusion only movement arrows that begin 
and end within the zoomed in area are displayed.)  AUTOMATIC ZOOM works like 
a toggle switch and may be turned on or off.  When AUTOMATIC ZOOM is enabled 
the  computer  will automatically zoom in on any important activity  on  the 
battlefield during the simulation.   A check mark (tick) indicates that  the 
function is on.

The BATTLE menu contains many of the functions required to fully utilize the 
Universal Military Simulator.  Selecting ISSUE COMMANDS TO UNITS either from 
the  drop-down menu or by pressing the space bar on the keyboard  will allow 
the  user to give specific commands to each unit on the  battlefield.   This 
function  is discussed in complete detail in the  following  pages.   SWITCH 
SIDES  is  used in conjunction with ISSUE COMMANDS to select which  army  is 
currently  active or capable of receiving commands.   This 'active' side  is 
shown in the display at the bottom of the battlefield window.   SWITCH SIDES 
is  also  used  in conjunction with FIRE RANGED  WEAPONS  to  select  firing 
targets.  Again, the 'active', or firing, army is displayed at the bottom of 
the  window.   Selecting  END  COMMAND PHASE,  either from the  menu  or  by 
pressing  Q on the keyboard signals the program that the user has moved  all 
desired  units.   See the Battle Logic section in this chapter for  complete 
information.   The  FIRE RANGED WEAPONS function (which becomes  operational 
after  selecting the END COMMAND PHASE) allows the user to fire  units  with 
long  range  capabilities.   This is discussed later in this  chapter  under 
Combat.  The SAVE SIMULATION function is activated from either the drop-down 
menu  or  by pressing the letter S from the keyboard.   After  entering  the 
desired  filename,  select the drive for storage by clicking the left  mouse 
button over the appropriate letter box.   To restore a saved simulation  use 
the  READ FROM DISK option on the previous menu.   All simulation files  end 
with the .SIM extension.

A hard copy print out of the battlefield window may be obtained by selecting 
PRINT  MAP from the drop-down menu or by pressing P on  the  keyboard.   The 
Universal  Military  Simulator supports both the Atari 1280 line  format  or 
Epson 960 dots per inch format.   Select the desired format by clicking  the 
left mouse button over the appropriate box.   The user may also add one line 
of text at the top of the printout.

After  hard  copy  printout  has  been  'formatted'  using  this   function, 
additional  screen prints may be made at any time throughout the program  by 
pressing the ALT and HELP keys simultaneously.   The ORDER OF BATTLE command 
will display all units currently within an army.   If the display  continues 
for more that one screen,  pressing the left mouse button will show the next 
page of units;  pressing the right mouse button will cancel the display  and 
return the user to the simulation.

The  DISPLAY OPTIONS MENU allows the user to control the features  that  are 
displayed on the battlefield map.  The options are 'toggle switches' and may 
be  turned  either on or off.   A check mark indicates that  the  option  is 
active.   The  options  are:  BATTLE MARKERS,  which indicate  points  where 
hostile contact between units has occured,  MOVEMENT ARROWS,  which indicate 
the  future  movement of all units,  TOWNS & LANDMARKS that mark  points  of 
interest  on the battlefield,  WHITE FLAGS and BLACK FLAGS which  will  hide 
from view one or both armies, and FAST DISPLAY MODE.  When FAST DISPLAY MODE 
has  been  toggled on,  the Universal Military Simulator will  only  briefly 
display  contact  between hostile units and computer-controlled  long  range 
fire.   This considerably speeds up the viewing time of a  simulation.   For 
more information see the section on Combat later in this chapter.


Selecting  DEMONSTRATION MODE instructs the Universal Military Simulator  to 
take over all army command functions and viewing perspectives.   To activate 
DEMONSTRATION  MODE press the CONTROL key and the letter D on  the  keyboard 
simultaneously.  A warning box will appear to confirm this choice.

DEMONSTRATION  MODE  can  be activated at any time  during  any  simulation, 
including  user-designed simulations.   The five simulations that come  with 
the  Universal  Military  Simulator,  however,  will  automatically  receive 
special  instructions to recreate the actual battles.   These  battles  will 
follow the guidelines as described in Appendix A.


All  units participating in a scenario may be given specific  commands  that 
control  the  unit's movement and status.   The ISSUE COMMANDS  function  is 
activated  either from the drop-down menu or by pressing the keyboard  space 
bar.   After  selecting this option the COMMAND BOX appears and  the  active 
unit's  vital  information  is displayed along the left  hand  side  of  the 
battlefield window.   A copy of the unit's flag is also displayed surrounded 
by  the  eight compass directions.   If AUTOMATIC ZOOM has  previously  been 
selected the area immediately around the active unit will be  enlarged.   To 
move  a  unit either click the left mouse button over  the  desired  compass 
direction box or position the mouse cross-hairs over the intersection  point 
on the map.   Units move from adjacent point to another.   To scroll the map 
(when  in  EXTREME ZOOM) click the left mouse button  over  the  appropriate 
arrow  key in the lower right hand corner of the battlefield  window.   NEXT 
UNIT  and LAST UNIT will de-activate the current unit and  activate  another 
unit for commands.  Pressing the right mouse button will also advance to the 
next unit.   QUIT erases the COMMAND BOX.   If AUTOMATIC ZOOM has previously 
been  selected  the  map  will be redrawn  to  that  last  full  perspective 

A unit may also be ordered to assume one of the following statuses: MANEUVER 
(which allows for maximum movement but leaves the unit vulnerable to  attack 
and defense),  ATTACK (which reduces a unit's mobility but greatly increases 
its value in battle),  DEFEND (which halts all further movement by the  unit 
but increases the unit's ability to withstand attack), and RESERVE (the unit 
may not move,  and is vulnerable to attack; however the unit's morale factor 
will be increased after one full eight segment movement phase).


To access the Universal Simulator's Battle Logic,  select END COMMAND  PHASE 
after all desired units and commands have been made.  The Universal Military 
Simulator  may be instructed to assume command of either one or both  armies 
or run in a 'supervisory' mode and simply referee the simulation and  decide 
the  outcome of contact between hostile units.   The first dialog  box  that 
appears  after  selecting END COMMAND PHASE requests that  the  user  assign 
commanders for both the black and white armies.   If both armies are  placed 
under  HUMAN COMMAND the Universal Military Simulator will not  request  any 
further information and will activate the MOVEMENT PHASE.   Selecting either 
NEXT  SEGMENT  from  the  drop-down menu or pressing the  letter  N  on  the 
keyboard will 'step' the units on the battlefield to their ordered positions 
and increase the time appropriately.

If,  however,  either  army is placed under COMPUTER CONTROL  the  Universal 
Military Simulator will display a series of dialog boxes requesting specific 
instructions,  or limitations,  for the command of those forces.  The BATTLE 
LOGIC dialog box is now displayed.   Any one of the following options may be 
selected:  ALLOW  COMPUTER  TO DECIDE STRATEGY (the computer will  make  the 
decision  to  attack or defend after analyzing over 10 factors per  unit  in 
both armies), FORCE COMPUTER TO ATTACK (the computer will decide and execute 
the  attack  with the greatest probability of success),  FORCE  COMPUTER  TO 
DEFEND (the computer will not attack but will assume the defensive,  and, if 
possible,  move units to a more secure position),  LEFT FLANK,  RIGHT FLANK, 
ATTACK  IN  CENTER  and DOUBLE ENVELOPMENT  require the  Universal  Military 
Simulator  to execute the desired attack plan.   LEFT FLANK and RIGHT  FLANK 
attacks  may  also be supported by the opposite half if  the  army.   Dialog 
boxes are displayed to receive user input.

Click the left mouse button over CONTINUE,  or press RETURN on the keyboard, 
to  continue.   CANCEL de-activates the BATTLE LOGIC and allows the user  to 
give orders to units.   IMPORTANT: The Universal Military Simulator's Battle 
Logic will not move units that have already received commands from the user.  
This  allows  for the movement of some specific units while  the  rest  will 
receive computer orders.


Combat  occurs  during the  MOVEMENT PHASE when units from  opposing  armies 
move onto adjacent points.   Some units have long range weapons  (artillery, 
armor  and  archers,  for  example) and can enter  into  combat  at  greater 
distances.  See the Fire Ranged Weapons section in this chapter for details.  
When  combat  occurs the two opposing units flash.   If AUTOMATIC  ZOOM  has 
previously been selected the area immediately surrounding the combat will be 
greatly  enlarged.   If FAST DISPLAY MODE had previously been  selected  the 
units will flash 20 times and the results of combat calculated.   No  combat 
results  will be displayed,  however,  and the Universal Military  Simulator 
will continue moving units and updating the battlefield map as previous.

If FAST DISPLAY MODE had not been previously selected the two hostile  units 
will continue to flash until the right mouse button is pressed.   The  vital 
statistics  of  each unit and the combat results are now  displayed  on  the 
screen.  Clicking the left mouse button in SEE EQUATION box will display the 
values  and equation used by the Universal Military Simulator  to  determine 
this  particular combat result.   Starting with the original unit  strength, 
eight different modifiers are evaluated.  NOTE: A retreat path is calculated 
for the losing unit, and displayed.


The FIRE RANGED WEAPONS routine is activated from either the drop-down  menu 
or  by  pressing  F  on  the  keyboard.    It  is  only  active  during  the 
MOVEMENT/BATTLE  PHASE.   If  both  armies are under  COMPUTER  CONTROL  the 
Universal  Military Simulator will make all Ranged Weapon firing  decisions.  
The  army  capable  of receiving firing instructions  is  indicated  in  the 
display  at the bottom of the battlefield window.   The active army  may  be 
changed  by selecting SWITCH SIDES from the drop-down  menu.   If  AUTOMATIC 
ZOOM has previously been selected,  the area directly surrounding the active 
unit will be greatly magnified.   IMPORTANT:  do not use the AUTOMATIC  ZOOM 
function when issuing firing orders to units with a firing range of  greater 
than five; it may be impossible to select the desired targets.

The  FIRE  RANGED WEAPONS box is now displayed.   Clicking  the  left  mouse 
button over the NEXT UNIT or LAST UNIT will de-activate the current unit and 
activate  the  next appropriate unit in the army.   Only  units  capable  or 
ranged weapon fire will be activated.   To select a target, locate the mouse 
cross-hairs  over the grid-point where the enemy unit is located  and  press 
the left mouse button.   An arrow is drawn and the results are displayed  at 
the  bottom of the screen.   This function may be repeated until  all  units 
under  HUMAN  CONTROL have fired.   A unit may fire only once  per  movement 
segment, or a total of eight times per MOVEMENT/BATTLE PHASE.


screen  is displayed showing an updated casualty and battle  report.   After 
clicking  the left mouse button in the CONTINUE box a message  is  displayed 
indicating that the COMMAND PHASE is again active.   When the simulation has 
reached  the previously designated end time,  or when all units from  either 
army have been eliminated, the FINAL BATTLE ANALYSIS screen is displayed.  A 
hard copy of all units,  from both armies and the last unit strengths may be 
printed if desired.  The user may return to the Battlefield Window or to the 
MAIN MENU by clicking the left mouse button over the desired box.

                     CHAPTER III - CREATING NEW ARMIES


The UNIT SELECTION MENU is displayed after selecting the DESIGN ARMY  option 
from  the MAIN MENU and either selecting an old army to edit or  entering  a 
new  army  name and pressing RETURN.   Clicking the left mouse  button  over 
CANCEL will return the user to the MAIN MENU.  This section of the Universal 
Military  Simulator  allows  the  user  to create  new  armies  for  use  in 
simulations,  or  to modify existing armies.   Selecting QUIT from the  UNIT 
SELECTION MENU will return the user to the MAIN MENU.   A previously created 
army  may  be loaded and edited by clicking the left mouse button  over  the 
LOAD box.   The user is requested to select a drive.  The Universal Military 
Simulator supports two floppy disk drives and two hard drives.  Double click 
the  left  mouse button over the desired filename.   Selecting  CANCEL  will 
return the user to the UNIT SELECTION MENU.   To save an army to disk  click 
the left mouse button over the SAVE box.   Enter the filename and click  the 
left mouse button over the desired drive.   All Universal Military Simulator 
filenames  end with the .ARM file extension.   Selecting CANCEL will  return 
the  user to the UNIT SELECTION MENU without saving the army file  to  disk.  
To  enter a new unit to an army click the left mouse button over the  desire 


The  Universal Military simulator stores a great deal of data on  each  unit 
used  in a simulation.   Some  items  (morale,  status,  location,  marching 
orders)  are acquired during a simulation,  or at the time the  scenario  is 
created (see the chapter on Creating a Scenario for details).   The rest  is 
entered at the time that the unit is created.

Enter all items requested at this time.  To change a unit's efficiency click 
the left mouse button over the box containing the desired rating.  Click the 
left  mouse button over CANCEL to return to the UNIT SELECTION MENU  without 
saving the unit.   To advance to the next line press either TAB or  position 
the mouse cursor over the desired line and click the left mouse button once.  
After all data has been entered,  click the left mouse button over CONTINUE.  
If the user has neglected to enter all necessary data the Universal Military 
Simulator  will  display a gentle error message and return to  this  screen.  
The entire army's ORDER OF BATTLE is now displayed.  If there are more units 
within the army than can be displayed on one screen, pressing the left mouse 
button  will continue to the next screen.   Pressing the right mouse  button 
will cancel the display and return to the UNIT SELECTION MENU.


An  army's ORDER OF BATTLE is a graphic depiction of each unit  within  that 
army  and the accompanying vital statistics.   The ORDER OF BATTLE  function 
may be activated from the drop-down menu in the BATTLEFIELD WINDOW, from the 
UNIT  SELECTION  MENU  or  automatically after  a  unit  has  been  created.  
Pressing the left mouse button will continue the display; pressing the right 
mouse  button will cancel the display and return to the  previous  activity.  
The ORDER OF BATTLE is continuously updated during a simulation and reflects 
the current unit strengths.


Selecting  EDIT UNIT from the UNIT SELECTION MENU allows the user to  change 
the vital statistics of a previously created unit.   Clicking the left mouse 
button  over the NEXT UNIT or LAST UNIT boxes will de-activate  the  current 
unit and replace it with the requested unit.   Selecting CANCEL will  return 
to  the  SELECT UNIT MENU.   A unit may be removed from the army's ORDER  OF 
BATTLE  by  clicking  the left mouse button in the  DELETE  UNIT  box.   The 
Universal  Military simulator will request confirmation before removing  the 
unit.   Unless  the deleted unit had been previously stored to disk it  will 
now  be irretrievably lost.   Click the left mouse button over EDIT UNIT  to 
change any of the vital statistics.  The window will now display all current 
statistics of the unit and they may be edited using the method described  on 
the  previous page.   Selecting CANCEL will return the user to the  previous 
menu  without storing any edited statistics.   Select CONTINUE to  keep  the 
data for the edited unit.


An  army may contain up to six 'wildcard' or user-defined units in  addition 
to the 18 pre-defined units.   A wildcard unit may be any type that the user 
needs  or can invent.   A wildcard unit may be defined,  for example,  as  a 
squadron of B-52 bombers,  a wizard,  or an air cavalry company.   The  only 
limitations to a wildcard unit is the user's imagination.

A wildcard is selected from the UNIT SELECTION MENU in the normal manner  by 
clicking the left mouse button over the desired unit.   Enter the UNIT  TYPE 
data  from the keyboard.   To enter the UNIT VALUE data either press TAB  or 
click the left mouse button over the field.   The UNIT VALUE is a rating  of 
the firepower of this unit type.  Some of the default unit values are:

          Unit Type                   Unit Value
          Light Infantry                   .75
          Heavy Infantry                  1.0
          Archers                         2.75
          Knights                         4.5
          Armor                          15.5

Once  a wildcard's values have been defined,  all subsequent units  of  this 
type  will  automatically acquire them.   It is only necessary to  define  a 
wildcard's values once.

Each  army  may have six different wildcards;  consequently a  scenario  may 
contain 12 wildcards (six wildcards each from two armies).   An army may  be 
created entirely from wildcards.

                       CHAPTER IV - CREATING NEW MAPS


The  Universal  Military  Simulator contains  a  powerful  three-dimensional 
mapping  utility  that is accessed from the MAIN MENU by clicking  the  left 
mouse button over the DESIGN MAP box.  The user may create virtually any map 
from history,  fiction,  adventure or fantasy.   These maps may be used as a 
battlefield  within  the  universal  Military  Simulator  and   role-playing 

The  filename of the map currently being designed is displayed near the  top 
of the window.  Clicking the left mouse button in the upper left hand corner 
CLOSE  BOX  will  end  the  map  designing  function.   The  current  three-
dimensional perspective is displayed at the bottom of the window.   A series 
of drop-down menus are at the top of the window and are activated by  moving 
the mouse cursor over the titles and clicking the left mouse button over the 
desired item.  Many of the drop-down menu functions may also be activated by 
an appropriate keypress.


Clicking the left mouse button over the NEW MAP item will erase the  current 
map.   The  filename displayed at the top of the window will be the  default 
NEW MAP.   All Universal Military Simulator map files end with the extension 
.MAP.   Sixteen  different  perspectives amy be selected  with  the  options 
underneath the NORMAL and ZOOM IN titles.  Selecting Northeast, for example, 
will  cause  the map to be redrawn from the viewer  perspective  of  someone 
southwest of the map looking northeast.  Selecting EXTREME ZOOM will cause a 
flashing  10  grid  point by 10 grid point box that  is  controlled  by  the 
movement  of  the  mouse.   Pressing the left mouse button  will  cause  the 
highlighted area to be greatly magnified.   Pressing the right mouse  button 
will  cancel  the EXTREME ZOOM function.   Selecting PRINT or  pressing  the 
letter  P on the keyboard allows the user to obtain a hard copy printout  of 
the current map and perspective.   The Universal Military Simulator supports 
both  the  Atari  1280 D.P.I printer and the Epson standard  of  960  D.P.I.  
Select  the  desired  format  by clicking the left  mouse  button  over  the 
appropriate box.   The user may also add one line of text at the top of  the 
printout.   After  hard  copy  printout  has  been  'formatted'  using  this 
function,  additional screen prints may be made at any time  throughout  the 
program  by  pressing the ALT and HELP keys  simultaneously.   A  previously 
created map that has been stored to disk may be edited by using the LOAD MAP 
function selected from either the drop-down menu or by pressing the letter L 
on the keyboard.  A map may be stored on disk by selecting SAVE MAP from the 
menu or pressing S on the keyboard.   both functions support two floppy disk 
drives  and two hard drives.   Selecting CANCEL during either function  will 
return the user to the MAP DESIGN WINDOW.


The  topographical  menu  is  displayed after a  map  grid  point  has  been 
selected.   The active map grid point is highlighted by a  three-dimensional 
cube.   A large section of the map can be activated by clicking and dragging 
the mouse from one grid point to another.

All topographical features can be PLACED or CLEARED.   Click the left  mouse 
button  over the desired window.   All highlighted grid points will  receive 
the selected landscape feature.

When entering a landmark,  click the left mouse button over the text line of 
the desired landmark type, enter text and press RETURN when done.


Random  maps can be generated by selecting this function from the  drop-down 
menu.  Hills, Ridges, Depressions and Forests can all be computer generated.  
For each item either enter a minimum and maximum number of select RANDOM for 
a completely random number of features.   CLUMPING controls the way that the 
features  appear  on the map.   A very low number will  create  a  scattered 
pattern,  higher numbers create a more ordered landscape.  The default value 
is three.  Calculating time is proportional to the complexity of the map.
If  OVERLAY  is  off (default) the old map is erased before  a  new  one  is 
generated.   When OVERPLAY is on (highlighted) the old map is not destroyed, 
but overlayed with a new random map.


The Landmarks, Cities and Towns menu is reached from the Topographical Menu.  
To select the desired landmark type, click the left mouse button to the left 
of the desired landmark inside the editable text field.  Use the keyboard to 
enter any seven letter name and press RETURN when done.   Landmarks have  no 
importance  other than a historical one during a battle simulation.   A  map 
may contain 30 different landmarks.



Scenarios  are created,  or edited,  by assigning the unit displayed in  the 
upper left hand box to a map grid point location.  This location is selected 
by  clicking the left mouse button over a map grid point.   A message  above 
the  box  indicates whether this unit currently has a location on  the  map.  
The  unit  in  the box may be changed by either  pressing  the  right  mouse 
button,  selecting  NEXT  UNIT or LAST UNIT from the drop-down  menu  or  by 
pressing the keyboard letters N or L.

Perspective may be changed selecting the desired view from either the NORMAL 
or ZOOM IN menus.   Selecting EXTREME ZOOM IN will cause a flashing 10 x  10 
grid  on the map that is controlled by the mouse.   Pressing the left  mouse 
button will greatly enlarge the area underneath the flashing  box;  pressing 
the right mouse button will cancel this function.

Select  SAVE  SIMULATION  or press the letter S on the keyboard  to  save  a 
simulation  to disk.   Enter the filename (the .SIM extension will be  added 
for  you)  and  click the left mouse button over  the  desired  disk  drive.  
Selecting  CANCEL  will  end this function  without  saving  to  disk.   The 
Simulation  Time and the Long Ranged Weapon data may be edited by  selecting 
EDIT TIME/RANGES from the drop-down menu.

Click  the left mouse button in the CLOSE BOX in the upper left hand  corner 
to end this function.


The starting time of the simulation,  end time,  the length of segments, and 
the message that appears at the top of the Battlefield Window are entered by 
clicking the left mouse button over the appropriate text field and  entering 
the data from the keyboard.   Pressing ESC clears the line;  TAB advances to 
the  next  line.   If  an  old  simulation  is  being  edited,  the  current 
information  is displayed in the text field.   Click the left  mouse  button 
over CONTINUE when done.

A gentle reminder will be displayed if the fields are incorrectly entered or 
left blank and the user will be returned to this menu to correct the data.


Some units may possess long range weapons capability (they are able to  fire 
at  units that are not on adjacent grid points).   These units are  Archers, 
Catapults,  Field Artillery,  Horse Artillery, Armor, or Wildcard Units.  To 
enter a range click the left mouse button over the desired text field, press 
BACKSPACE  if necessary,  and enter the data.   If a wildcard unit had  been 
previously defined,  its type will also be displayed.  The maximum effective 
range is 50 grid points.

                                 APPENDIX A



To accurately recreate the battle of Arbela,  place the White Army  (Darius) 
under Computer Control and select FORCE COMPUTER TO DEFEND.  Place the Black 
Army  (Alexander) under Computer Control and select RIGHT FLANK ATTACK  with 
the SUPPORT WITH LEFT FLANK option.   This is necessary because  Alexander's 
forces  are  outnumbered  by almost a two to one margin  and  The  Universal 
Military Simulator's Battle Logic will not attack at such odds.  After about 
two  hours  of simulation time have elapsed switch the White Army  to  ALLOW 
COMPUTER  TO DECIDE STRATEGY.   A general melee will ensue now  (both  sides 
completely  controlled  by  the Universal  Military  Simulator)  that  quite 
accurately reflects that fateful day in 331 B.C.  Best viewing perspectives: 
For  the  first hour or two of simulation time select NORTHWEST ZOOM  IN  or 
NORTHEAST  ZOOM  IN and turn off the AUTOMATIC ZOOM function.   It  is  also 
advisable to put the Universal Military simulator in FAST MODE.   Within the 
first  three  hours  of combat over 125 individual  battle  will  erupt  and 
watching them all in detail can become a bit tiring.


Place  both  armies  under  complete computer  control  by  selecting  ALLOW 
COMPUTER  TO  DECIDE  STRATEGY and step back  to  1066.   The  best  viewing 
perspective  for the first two or three simulation hours is  NORTHEAST  ZOOM 
IN.   Remember it is quite possible for the Normans (Black Army) to  utterly 
destroy the defending Saxons on the hill and only achieve a marginal victory 
(the  type  of  victory  is decided on a comparison  of  the  percentage  of 
casualties  for  both armies - if the Normans suffer  many  casualties  they 
could  win  the  battle  and still lose the  war).   The  armies  have  been 
accurately  recreated.   To  even  up the play-balance (at  the  expense  of 
historical  accuracy) use the EDIT ARMY function to give the Saxons  another 
2000  peasants.   Then  place  them  in position  using  the  EDIT  SCENARIO 


Put  the  White  Army (Royalist) under Computer  Control  and  select  FORCE 
COMPUTER TO DEFEND while the Black Army (Parliament) is ordered to execute a 
DOUBLE  ENVELOPMENT.   All  of the Zoom In perspectives offer  an  excellent 
aerial view of the battlefield.   To see the Universal Military  Simulator's 
Battle  Logic  in  action,  place both armies in ALLOW  COMPUTER  TO  DECIDE 
STRATEGY  mode  and  watch how the Black Army threads its  way  through  the 
intervening ditch to attack the Royalist forces.


The  Universal  Military Simulator is not aware of  the  Emperor  Napoleon's 
precarious political position and consequently must be instructed to  attack 
the seemingly impregnable positions of the Anglo-Allies by placing the Black 
Army (French) under Computer Control and selecting FORCE COMPUTER TO ATTACK.  
Leave  the  AUTOMATIC  ZOOM  on and let  the  Universal  Military  Simulator 
highlight the action as it develops.   To create a more equal play balance - 
and  to  increase Napoleon's chances of winning at Waterloo - use  the  EDIT 
ARMY function to add the French Corps described in Appendix B.


As at Waterloo,  the political consequences of victory for the smaller  army 
greatly  outweighed  sound  strategic  thinking.   Robert  E.  Lee  and  the 
Confederate Army must win at Gettysburg even though they are outnumbered  by 
the Union Army.   To recreate Gettysburg, place the Union (White Army) under 
Computer  Control  and select FORCE COMPUTER TO  DEFEND.   The  confederates 
should  be  assigned to FORCE COMPUTER TO ATTACK.   There are  a  number  of 
exciting perspectives of the Gettysburg battlefield including ZOOM IN NORTH, 
ZOOM IN SOUTH,  and ZOOM IN NORTHEAST.   To increase the Confederate odds of 
victory add J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry corps as shown in Appendix B.

Software Presents Part 2 of the UMS Docs
                     Thanks once again to DR.J (U.S.A.)

                        UNIVERSAL MILITARY SIMULATOR

                              SCENARIO HANDBOOK

1 October 331 B.C.
Alexander - Darius

In  334 B.C.  Alexander the Great,  son of Philip of  Macedon,  turned  his 
victorious  horsemen  and phalanxes east across the Hellespont  and  boiled 
into  Asia  Minor  to destroy the outposts of the  empire  of  Darius  III, 
commander of the mightiest army on the face of the earth.  Within two years 
Alexander  had  isolated the Persian fleets in the  Mediterranean  and  the 
Aegean  by capturing all the seaports from present day Turkey to Egypt  and 
securing his lines of communications back to his base in Macedonia.  In the 
process  Tyre,  the home port of the Persian navy,  was reduced  to  rubble 
after an extended siege and its inhabitants sold off as slaves.   By April, 
331  B.C.  Alexander,  after spurning  Darius' peace offer of  10,000  gold 
talents  ($300  million dollars),  all of the Persian Empire  west  of  the 
Euphrates and the hand of the princess royale,  was prepared to march  east 
and take it all, anyway.

Darius,  with  his infantry from Afghanistan,  Bokhara,  Khiva  and  Tibet, 
Kurdish  horsemen,  Bactrian cavalry  including ancestors of the  legendary 
Sikh warriors,  scythe wheeled chariots and war elephants waited for him on 
the plains of Gaugamela,  20 miles from Arbela (about 18 miles northeast of 
present day Mosul,  Iraq).  Persian engineers had meticulously prepared the 
ground, leveling it flat to allow the war chariots to strike out unimpeded.

On  September  25,  Macedonian  cavalry  on reconnaissance  discovered  the 
position of the great Imperial army.   Alexander,  knowing that Darius  was 
waiting for him on prepared ground, called a halt in his eastward march and 
made camp to rest his troops.   After four days Alexander called his men to 
arms  and  approached the Persian hosts.   On the night  of  September  30/ 
October 1,  Alexander crossed a slight rise that had previously hidden  the 
two  armies  from  direct  observation  of  each  other.   There  Alexander 
conducted a first hand reconnaisance of the ground and mistakenly concluded 
that the suspiciously smooth san concealed great pitfalls dug to entrap his 
cavalry.  He immediately called a council of war.

A number of Alexander's officers voted for a night assault.   But Alexander 
replied that he, "would not filch a victory and that Alexander must conquer 
openly and fairly".   It was a wise choice for the army of Darius was  wide 
awake  and waiting for the Macedonian under the cloak  of  night.   Indeed, 
while  Alexander's men rested for the next day's fight,  the  Persian  army 
remained drawn up in line of battle under arms.   The dawn would find  them 
greatly fatigued.

The positions of the forces that faced each other on the Plain of Gaugamela 
2318 years ago (1987) are precisely known and accurately portrayed  in  the 
simulation  because  Darius'  own  Order  of  Battle  and  maps  fell  into 
Macedonian  hands  after  Arbela.   These,  along  with  the  positions  of 
Alexander's  troops,  were  copied  into the  journals  of  Aristobulus,  a 
division commander in Alexander's army, and later re-copied by Arrian.
In  the center of the Persian lines stood Darius, surrounded by  the  Royal 
Kinsman whose privilege it was to guard the body of the Emperor.   Flanking 
the Kinsman were the last contingents of Greek mercenaries that had managed 
to earlier survive the crushing defeat given them by Alexander at Issus  in 
333 B.C.   In advance were the Royal Squadron supported by Mardian archers.  
200  war chariots were spread across the front in three groups and  in  the 
vanguard stood 15 elephants with their handlers and firing platforms.   The 
flanks  were supported by great masses of heavy cavalry while the  bulk  of 
the  Persian  army was composed of infantry levies from  the  satropys  and 
fiefdoms of Darius' empire.

Across  the plains Alexander had arrayed his smaller army  with  particular 
care to protect his flanks.  With forces inferior in number having to cross 
terrain prepared in advance by his enemy,  Alexander's greatest fears  were 
that Darius would overlap his lines,  and pour cavalry around his flanks in 
a  double envelopment while his ponderous war elephants would  trample  the 
famed Macedonian phalanx.   To counter this quite likely series of  events, 
Alexander took a number of precautions:   first, he left a mass of Thracian 
infantry  in  the  center some distance behind the  phalanx  (Alexander  is 
credited  with inventing the tactical reserve);  second he positioned  both 
flanks at a 45 degree angle from the main battle line; and lastly, after he 
stationed  the  eight troops of the royal horse-guard with himself  on  the 
right,  he  removed all chance of a Persian attack by striking first in  an 
oblique attack on Darius' left flank.

The Macedonian phalanx,  composed of six brigades of 3000 men each, started 
off  with  its goal the extreme left flanks of  Darius'  Bactrian  cavalry.  
Traveling  behind  the 18,000 foot-soldiers rode Alexander  and  his  famed 
Companions.   Darius stared in horror as he realized that Alexander was not 
advancing  straight ahead as he had planned.   Having made  no  contingency 
plans the best Darius was able to improvise was to send his Persian,  Daan, 
Bactrian   and  Scythian  cavalry  against  the  approaching   Macedonians.  
Alexander  had prepared for this and now ordered his  horsemen,  previously 
screened by the phalanx, to engage the enemy.  A sharp cavalry fight ensued 
with the Macedonians getting the worst of it at first.   However, the issue 
was never in doubt as Alexander's reserves were close by while the  Persian 
cavalry was engaged far in front of their lines.

After he spent all of the cavalry on his left with little observed  effect, 
Darius  ordered  his  chariots  to dash across   the  plain  and  route  the 
Macedonian phalanx.   Alexander,  having prepared for this,  sent forth his 
archers  who  cut down horses and drivers a 100 hards before  they  reached 
their intended target.

The Persian horsemen that were able to reform after the initial defeat  now 
wheeled  about and attempted to swarm around the Macedonian  right.   Again 
Alexander countered this by detaching squadrons from the Royal horse-guard.  
Darius now stripped his center of all mobile troops and threw them into the 
maelstrom that was quickly enveloping his left flank.  In so doing, a large 
gap  appeared in the Persian line that Alexander was quick to exploit  with 
his personal guard.

Meanwhile,  the Macedonian phalanx,  moved inexorably towards the Persians.  
Though  only the left half of the Persian troops had been engaged  and  the 
right still stood firm, panic began to engulf the center at the approach of 
the phalanx.   When a thrown javelin killed Darius' personal chariot driver 
he abandoned his troops,  mounted a swift horse,  fled toward  Arbela,  and 
left  his  army leaderless like a great writhing beast with a  head  wound.  
The outcome of the battle had now been decided but a great deal of  killing 
was still to be done.

Almost  as if in a reflexive motion the Persian right under the command  of 
Mazaeus  struck  out  at  the  unsupported  Macedonian  left  commanded  by 
Parmenio.   Greatly  outnumbered  Parmenio's  wing gave  ground  until  the 
Persians fell upon the Thracian rearguard and began to sack the  Macedonian 
camp.   Alexander,  seeing the chaos on his left, abandoning his pursuit of 
Darius,  and wheeling the royal horse guard ran to the support of Parmenio.  
A  less  vicious fight ensued where 60 of Alexander's  personal  guard  and 
three generals fell at the king's side.   Only a few Persians escaped  with 
their lives.

Alexander's victory was complete.   A bridge across the river Lycus created 
a  bottleneck for the fleeing Persians and the pursuing Macedonian  cavalry 
mercilessly struck down the remnants of Darius' army.

Three  days  later Alexander triumphantly entered Babylon as the  lord  and 
master of the "oldest seat of earthly empire".

                              ORDER OF BATTLE 

                              The Macedonians
                      Alexander the Great commanding

The Phalanx
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Taxis 1               Coenus              2,500       Taxis 1
     Taxis 2               Perdiccas           2,500       Taxis 2
     Taxis 3               Meleager            2,500       Taxis 3
     Taxis 4               Polysperchon        2,500       Taxis 4
     Taxis 6               Craterus            2,500       Taxis 6

The Cavalry
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Mercenary Cavalry     Menidas               600       Mrchary
     Paeonian Cavalry      Ariston               459       Paeonia
     Scouts                Aretes                459       Scouts
     Greek Cavalry         Erigyius              384       Greek
     Thessalian Cavalry    Philippus           2,020       Thessal
     Mercenary Cavalry     Andromachus           400       Merc 2
     Greek Cavalry         Coeranus              320       Greek
     Odrysian Cavalry      Agathon               342       Odrysia
The Companions  - Philotas commanding
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     The Royal Squadron    Cleitus               300       Cleitus
                           Glaucius              253       Glaucis
                           Ariston               253       Ariston
                           Sopolis               253       Sopolis
                           Heracleides           253       Hrcldes
                           Demetrias             253       Demetrs
                           Meleager              253       Mleager
                           Hegelochus            253       Heglchs
Other Units
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Mercenary Infantry    Cleander            6,700       Merc 1
                                                           Merc 2
                                                           Merc 3
     Macedonian Archers    Brison                500       Macedon
     Half Agrianians       Attalus               500       Agrian
     Thracian Javelineers  Balacrus            1,000       Thracia
     Cretan Archers                              500       Cretan
     Hypaspists            Nicanor             3,000       Hypas 1
                                                           Hypas 2
     Thracian Infantry     Sitalis             5,500       Thrac 1
                                                           Thrac 2

                               THE PERSIANS
                     Darius III Colomannus commanding

The Cavalry

     troops                                    # men       flagname
     Special Bactrian Cavalry                  1,000       Spe Bac
     Special Scythian Cavalry                  2,000       Spe Scv
     Bactrian Cavalry                          8,000       Bactr 1
                                                           Bactr 2
                                                           Bactr 3
                                                           Bactr 4
     Daan Cavalry                              1,000       Daan
     Arachotian Cavalry                        1,000       Arachot
     Susian Cavalry                            1,000       Susian
     Cadusian Cavalry                          1,000       Cadusia
     Indian Cavalry                            1,000       Indian
     Sacesinian Cavalry                        1,000       Sacesin
     Albanian Cavalry                          1,000       Albania
     Hyrcanian Cavalry                         1,000       Hyrcani
     Tapurian Cavalry                          1,000       Tapuria
     Sacan Cavalry                             1,000       Sacan
     Median Cavalry                            1,000       Median
     Mesopotamian Cavalry                      1,000       Mesopot
     Assyrian Cavalry                          1,000       Assyria
     Armenian Cavalry                          1,000       Armenia
     Cappadocian Cavalry                       1,000       Cappadc
     Persian Cavalry                           5,000       Persia 1
                                                           Persia 2

The Infantry
     troops                                    # men       flagname
     Greek Mercenary                           2,000       Greek
     Phrygia                                   1,000       Phrygri
     Cilicia                                   1,000       Cylicia
     Colchian                                  1,000       Colchia
     Babylonian                                1,000       Babylon
     Cossaean                                  1,000       Cossae
     Uxian                                     1,000       Uxian
     Carmanian                                 1,000       Carman
     Chorasmian                                1,000       Chroash
     Arian                                     1,000       Arian
     Gedrosian                                 1,000       Gedrosh
     Oxydracae                                 1,000       Oxydrac
     Sogdiana                                  1,000       Sogdian
     Paraetacene                               1,000       Paraeta
     Assaceni                                  1,000       Assacen
     Aspasi                                    1,000       Aspasi
     Paropamisadae                             1,000       Paropah
     Gandhara                                  1,000       Cathaei
     Drangiana                                 1,000       Drangia
     Ariaspae                                  1,000       Ariaspa
     Oreitae                                   1,000       Oreitae
     Arabian                                   1,000       Arabian
     Eqyptian                                  1,000       Egypt
     Lycaonia                                  1,000       Lycaon
     Pamphylian                                1,000       Pamphyl
     Bithynian                                 1,000       Bithyni
     Lydian                                    1,000       Lydian
     Lycian                                    1,000       Lycian
     Arbelitis                                 1,000       Arbelit
     Ethiopian                                 1,000       Ethopia
The Special Units
     troops                                    # men       flagname
     Scythe Wheeled Chariots                     200       1st
     War Elephants                                15       Royal
     Royal Foot Guard                          1,000       Royal
     Royal Horse Guard                         1,000       Royal

This  Order  of  Battle  was prepared from  research,  and  with  the  kind 
assistance, of Charles Pierce.  It is reprinted with his permission.

14 October 1066
Harold - William

Harold  Godwinson,  elected  King  of England as successor  to  Edward  the 
Confessor on January 5, 1066 was between a rock and a hard place.  The rock 
was the Norse king,  Harald Hardrada, considered the finest military leader 
of  the 11th century and pretender to the English throne.   The hard  place 
was William,  Duke of Normandy, another contender for the monarchy.  Within 
10  months both of Harold's opponents would invade  his  kingdom;  Hardrada 
from  the  north,  William from the south,  each at the head  of  a  large, 
professional army and Harold's first mis-step would be his last.

The first to attack,  in September, were the Norwegians, joined by Harold's 
traitorous  brother,   Tostig,   who  had  been  promised  the  Earldom  of 
Northumbria  after  Haradrada's conquest  of  England.   Harold,  with  his 
Housecarls (3,000 professional soldiers armed with double-handed axe,  long 
shields,  helm  and knee-length chain mail) rushed north to  intercept  the 
Norsemen.   As  Harold raced up Ermine Street (the ancient road  stretching 
from London past Lincoln and York to the far north) he collected his  shire 
levies (known as The Fyrd).   These levies were comprised of free men  that 
owed  a feudal due of two months military service per year.   Though  often 
well ed by their local thanes the Fyrd was armed with an odd assortment  of 
spears, axes, stone slings, javelins and scythes.

On  September  20,  before  Harold and his army were able  to  arrive  with 
reinforcements,  the  Norsemen  soundly defeated the Earls  of  Mercia  and 
Northumbria at Fulford,  just south of York.   In a lightning march  Harold 
reached  the  now  victorious  Hardrada and  immediately  attacked  him  on 
September  25  at  Stamford Bridge which  crossed  the  river  Derwent.   A 
vicious,  desperate  battle  ensued  stretching from  dawn  to  dusk,  that 
ultimately  ended  with  the deaths of Hardrada and the  would-be  Earl  of 
Northumbria, Tostig, and the complete route of the Norsemen.

Three  days later,  William Duke of Normandy,  landed at Pevensey,  in  the 
south  of  England  at  the head of 1,000 boatloads  of  troops  and  began 
devastating  the  countryside.   On  October  2,  word  reached  Harold  of 
William's  invasion and with his surviving Housecarls he turned  about  and 
rode hard back down Ermine Street, calling for fresh levies along the way.

The  Fyrd  was ordered to rendezvous at a prominent hoar apple  tree  which 
stood just south of the ancient forest of Andredswealk,  60 miles southeast 
of London.  Harold arrived on the evening of October 13/14 with most of his 
troops  stretched out along the road behind him.   William and the  Normans 
spent the night resting in camp at Hastings.  

The narration of Robert Wace,  a Norman poet, continues the next morning as 
William addressed his troops,  " 'For God's sake spare not;  strike hard at 
the beginning;  stay not to take spoil;  all the booty shall be in  common, 
and there will be plenty for everyone.   There will be no safety in  asking 
quarter  or  in  flight;  the English will never love or  spare  a  Norman.  
Felons they were,  and felons they are; false they were and false they will 
be.   Show  not weakness towards them,  for they will have no pity on  you.  
Neither  the coward for running well,  nor the bold man for  smiting  well, 
will be the better liked by the English, nor will any be the more spared on 
either account.  You may fly to the sea, but you can fly not further.'
"...Then all went to their tents,  and armed themselves as they best might; 
and  the  duke  was very busy,  giving every one his  orders;  and  he  was 
courteous to all the vassals,  giving away many arms and horses to  them... 
Then  he crossed himself,  and straightway took his  hauberk,  stooped  his 
head,  and put it on aright,  and laced his helmet,  and girt on his sword, 
which  a varlet brought him.   Then the duke called for his good horse -  a 
better could not be found.  It had been sent him by a King of Spain, out of 
very great friendship.   Neither arms nor the press of fighting men did  it 
fear, if its lord spurred it on.

"...The barons,  and knights, and men-at-arms were all now armed; the foot-
soldiers  were well-equipped,  each bearing bow and sword;  on their  heads 
were caps, and to their feet were bound buskins.  Some had good hides which 
they  had  bound round their bodies;  and many wee clad in frocks  and  had 
quivers  and  bows hung to their girdles.   The knights  had  hauberks  and 
swords,  boots of steel and shining helmets; shields at their necks, and in 
their hands lances.  And all had their cognizances, so that each might know 
his  fellow,  and Norman might not strike Norman,  nor Frenchman  kill  his 
countryman  by mistake.   Those on foot led the way,  with  serried  ranks, 
bearing  their bows.   The knights rode next,  supporting the archers  from 

"Harold  had  summoned his men,  earls,  barons  and  vavasours,  from  the 
castles and the cities,  from the ports,  the villages,  and boroughs.  The 
peasants were also called together from the villages,  bearing such arms as 
they found; clubs and great picks, iron forks and stakes... The English had 
built  up a fence before them with their shields,  and with ash  and  other 
wood, and had well joined and wattled in the whole work, so as not to leave 
even a crevice.

"Meanwhile the Normans appeared advancing over the ridge of a rising ground 
(Telham hill);  and the first division of their troops moved onwards  along 
the  hill  and across a valley.   And  presently  another  division,  still 
larger,  came in sight,  close following upon the first,  and they were led 
towards another part of the field,  forming together as the first body  had 

"And while Harold saw and examined them, and was pointing them out to Gurth 
(his brother),  a fresh company came in sight,  covering all the plain, and 
in the midst of them was raised the standard that came from Rome (William's 
standard was sent by the Pope).  Near it was the duke, and the best men and 
greatest strength of the army were there.

"...The  Normans  brought  on three divisions of their army  to  attack  at 
different places.   They set out in three companies, and in three companies 
did they fight.

"As soon as the two armies were in full view of each other, great noise and 
tumult arose.  You might hear the sound of many trumpets, of bugles, and of 
horns; and then you might see men ranging themselves in line, lifting their 
shields,  raising their lances,  bending their bows, handling their arrows, 
ready for assault and defense.

"...Then  Taillefer,  who sang right well,  rode mounted on a swift  horse, 
before the duke,  singing of Charlemagne and of Roland and of  Oliver,  and 
the  peers  who  died in Roncescalles.   And when they drew  night  to  the 
English,  'A boon,  sire! cried Taillefer; 'I have long served you, and you 
owe me for all such service.   Today, so please, you shall repay it.  I ask 
as my guerdon and beseech you for it earnestly,  that you will allow me  to 
strike the first blow in the battle!'  And the duke answered, 'I grant it.'  
Then Taillefer put his horse to a gallop, charging before all the rest, and 
struck  an  Englishman dead,  driving his lance below the breast  into  his 
body,  and  stretching him upon the ground.   Then he drew his  sword,  and 
struck another,  crying out,  'Come on!  What do ye, sirs? lay on, lay on!'  
At the second blow he struck,  the English pushed forward,  and  surrounded 
and slew him.  Forthwith arose the noise and cry of war, and on either side 
the people put themselves in motion.

"The Normans moved on to the assault,  and the English defended  themselves 
well.   Some were striking,  others urging onwards; all were bold, and cast 
aside fear.  And now, behold, that battle was gathered, whereof the fame is 
yet mighty.

"Loud  and  far  resounded the bray of the horns;  and the  shocks  of  the 
lances, the mighty strokes of maces, and the quick clashing of swords.  One 
while the Englishmen rushed on, another while they fell back; one while the 
men from over seas charged onwards, and again at other times retreated.

"...When the English fall,  the Normans shout.  Each side taunts and defies 
the other,  yet neither knoweth what the other saith;  and the Normans  say 
the English bark, because they understand not their speech.

"...The  Normans press on the assault,  and the English defend  their  post 
well;  they pierce the hauberks, and cleave the shields, receive and return 
mighty  blows.   Again,  some press forwards;  others yield,  and  thus  in 
various ways the struggle proceeds.   In the plain was a fosse,  which  the 
Normans  had  now  behind  them,  having passed it  in  the  fight  without 
regarding  it.   But the English charged and drove the Normans before  them 
till they made them fall back upon their fosse, overthrowing into it horses 
and men.   Many were to be seen falling therin, rolling one over the other, 
with their faces to the earth,  and unable to rise.   Many of the  English, 
also,  whom the Normans drew down along with them,  died there.  At no time 
during the day's battle did so many Normans die as perished in that  fosse.  
So those said who saw the dead.

"...Then  Duke  William's brother,  Odo,  the good priest,  the  bishop  of 
Bayeux, galloped up and said to them, 'Stand fast! stand fast! be quiet and 
move not!  fear nother,  for if God please we shall conquer yet.'  So  they 
took courage,  and rested where they were;  and Odo returned galloping back 
to where the battle was most fierce,  and was of great service on that day.  
He  had put a hauberk on,  over a white aube;  wide in the body,  with  the 
sleeve tight,  and sat on a white horse,  so that all might recognize  him.  
In  his hand he held a mace,  and wherever he saw most need he held up  and 
stationed  the knights,  and often urged them on to assault and strike  the 

"From nine o'clock in the morning, when the combat began till three o'clock 
came,  the battle was up and down,  this way and that,  and no one knew who 
would  conquer and win the land.   Both sides stood so firm and  fought  so 
well, that no one could guess which would prevail.  The Norman archers with 
their bows shot thickly upon the English;  but they covered themselves with 
their shields,  so that the arrows could no reach their bodies,  nor do any 
mischief,  how true so ever was their aim, or however well they shot.  Then 
the Normans determined to shoot their arrows upwards into the air,  so that 
they  might  fall on their enemy's heads,  and  strike  their  faces.   The 
archers adopted this scheme, and shot up int o the air towards the English; 
and  the arrows in falling struck their heads and faces,  and put  out  the 
eyes  of  many;  and all feared to open their eyes,  or leave  their  faces 

"The  arrows  now flew thicker than rain before the  wind;  fast  sped  the 
shafts the English called 'wibetes".   Then it was that an arrow,  that had 
thus been shot upwards,  struck Harold above his right eye, and put it out.  
In  his  agony he drew the arrow and threw it away,  breaking it  with  his 
hands;  and  the  pain to his head was so great,  that he leaned  upon  his 

"...The Normans saw that the English defended themselves well, and were  so 
strong in their position that they could do little against them.   So  they 
consulted together privily,  and arranged to draw off, and pretend to flee, 
till the English should pursue and scatter themselves over the  field;  for 
they saw that if they could once get their enemy to break their ranks, they 
might be attacked and discomfited much more easily.   As they had said,  so 
they  did.   The Normans by little and little fled,  the English  following 
them.   As  the  one  fell back,  the other pressed  after;  and  when  the 
Frenchmen  retreated,  the English thought and cried out,  that the men  of 
France fled, and would never return.

"...The Normans were playing their part well,  when an English knight  came 
rushing  up,  having in his company a hundred men,  furnished with  various 
arms.   He wielded a northern hatchet, and with the blade a full foot long; 
and  was  well armed after his manner,  being  tall,  bold,  and  of  noble 
carriage.  In the front of the battle where the Normans thronged  most,  he 
came bounding on swifter than the stag, many Normans falling before him and 
his company.   He rushed straight upon a Norman who was armed and riding on 
a war-horse,  and tried with his hatchet of steel to cleave his helmet; but 
the  blow miscarried,  and the sharp blade glanced down before the  saddle-
bow,  driving  through the horse's neck down to the ground,  so  that  both 
horse and master fell together to the earth.

"I know not whether the Englishman struck another blow; but the Normans who 
saw  the stroke were astonished,  and about to abandon  the  assault,  when 
Roger de Montgomeri came galloping up,  with his lance set,  and heeding no 
the long-handled axe,  which the Englishmen wielded aloft, struck him down, 
and left him stretched upon the ground.   Then Roger cried out, 'Frenchmen, 
strike!  the day is ours!'  And again a fierce melee was to be  seen,  with 
many  a blow of lance and sword;  the English still  defending  themselves, 
killing the horses and cleaving the shields.

"...And  now  might  be heard the loud clang and cry  of  battle,  and  the 
clashing  of  lances.   The English stood firm  in  their  barricades,  and 
shivered  the lances, beating them into pieces with their bills and  maces.  
The  Normans  drew their swords,  and hewed down the  barricades,  and  the 
English  in  great  trouble  fell back  upon  their  standard,  where  were 
collected the maimed and wounded.

"...Duke  William pressed close upon the English with his  lance;  striving 
hard  to  reach  the standard with the great  troop  he  led;  and  seeking 
earnestly  for Harold,  on whose account the whole war  was.   The  Normans 
followed their lord,  and pressed around him; they ply their blows upon the 
English;  and  those defend themselves stoutly,  striving hard  with  their 
enemies, returning blow for blow.

"...Loud  was now the clamour,  and great the slaughter;  many a soul  then 
quitted the body it inhabited.   The living marched over the heaps of dead, 
and each side was wearing of striking.  He charged on who could, and he who 
could no longer strike still pushed forward.  The strong struggled with the 
strong;  some failed,  others triumphed;  the cowards fell back,  the brave 
pressed on;  and sad was his fate who fell in the midst,  for he had little 
chance  of rising again;  and many in truth fell,  who never rose  at  all, 
being crushed under the throng.

"And now the Normans pressed on so far,  that at last they had reached  the 
standard.   There Harold had remained, defending himself to the utmost; but 
he was sorely wounded in his eye by the arrow,  and suffered grievous  pain 
form the blow.   An armed man came in the throng of battle,  and struck him 
on  the  ventaille on his helmet,  and beat him to the ground;  and  as  he 
sought to recover himself,  a knight beat him down again,  striking him  on 
the thick of his thigh down to the bone.

"...The standard was beaten down, the golden standard was taken, and Harold 
and  the best of his friends were slain;  but there was so much  eagerness, 
and throng of so many around,  seeking to kill him,  that I know not who it 
was that slew him.

"The  English were in great trouble at having lost their king,  and at  the 
duke having conquered and beat down the standard;  but they still fought on 
and  defended themselves long,  and in fact till the day drew to  a  close.  
Then  it clearly appeared to all that the standard was lost,  and the  news 
had  spread throughout the army that Harold for certain was dead;  and  all 
saw that there was no longer any hope,  so they left the field,  and  those 
fled who could.

"William fought well;  and many an assault did he lead,  many a blow did he 
give, and many receive, and many fell dead under has hand.  Two horses were 
killed under him,  and he took a third at time of need, so that he fell not 
to the ground;  and he lost not a drop of blood.  But whatever any one did, 
and whoever lived or died, this is certain, that William conquered..."

So  ends  the narration of Robert Wace and with it  Anglo-Saxon  rule  over 

                              ORDER OF BATTLE

                                The English
                          King Harold commanding

The House-carls   (flagnames)
    Carls 1, Carls 2, Carls 3, Carls 4, Carls 5, Carls 6

The Fyrd   (flagnames)
    Fyrd 1, Fyrd 2, Fyrd 3, Fyrd 4, Fyrd 5, Fyrd 6, Fyrd 7, Fyrd 8

                                The Normans
                          Duke William commanding

    Norman1, Norman2, Norman3, Norman1, Norman2, Norman3, Norman1, Norman2

The Bretons   (flagnames)
    Breton1, Breton2, Breton1, Breton2, Breton3, Breton1, Breton2

The Allies   (flagnames)
    Allies1, Allies2, Allies1, Allies2, Allies3, Allies1, Allies2

2 July 1644
Parliament - Charles I

After  two years of chess-like opening maneuvers the English Civil War  had 
come  to that inevitable mid-game point where the first great clash was  to 
take place.   The Royalist army, under the command of Prince Rupert, son of 
the   Elector  Palatine,   needed  a  major  decisive  victory   over   the 
Parliamentarian   forces  if  Charles  I  was  to  maintain  any  hope   of 
every regaining control over England.  The Royalist forces,  the weaker  of 
the  two  opponents,  were further hampered by a lack of  supplies  that  a 
blockading English navy loyal to Parliament kept from crossing the Channel.

June, 1644 found five armies in the fields of York; two Royalist (one under 
Newcastle besieged at York, the other under Rupert marching to his aid) and 
three  Parliamentarian (those under Manchester,  Fairfax and Leven  leading 
the Scottish allies).   Upon Rupert's approach the parliamentarian  forces, 
wary of being trapped between the besieged and the rescuers, drew off.  Six 
days  of maneuvering led the five armies to the wet rye fields  of  Marston 
Moor  seven  miles west of York city.   Since the War of the Roses  no  two 
larger armies had faced each other on English soil.

Rupert's forces were arrayed on the mile and a half long moor facing  south 
across  a  drainage ditch stretching between the villages of  Tockwith  and 
Long  Marston where the combined Parliamentary-Scottish armies  stood  with 
their backs to the 150 foot hill.   Both armies filled the center of  their 
lines with masses of pikemen while cavalry guarded the flanks.

The Royalist right wing was composed to two lines of three regiments  each; 
the first under Lord Byron,  the second under Lord Molineux,  Sir John Urry 
(also Hurry), second-in-command under Byron, placed companies of musketeers 
between  the cavalry squadrons.   Rupert's personal cavalry  regiment,  the 
finest in the army,  was stationed echeloned in the right rear.  The center 
was composed of three masses of infantry;  Rupert's Bluecoats,  Newcastle's 
Whitecoats  and  Byron's foot.   Posted directly behind the  center  was  a 
tactical  reserve of approximately 1,000 of Rupert's Life-guards.   On  the 
Royalist left Sir Charles Lucas commanded the front  three  regiments;  Sir 
Richard Dacres the back three; all under the direction of Lord Goring.

Across  the  ditch the Parliament-Scottish army  was  similarly  stationed.  
Their left,  commanded by Cromwell, consisted of three lines; the first two 
comprised  of  cavalry  from the eastern association,  the  last  of  David 
Leslie's  Scottish  regiments.   The left center was held  by  manchester's 
three brigades of foot under Lawrence Crawford; the center consisted of two 
brigades  of  Yorkshire  foot and three Scottish  brigades  all  under  the 
command  of  Lord  Fairfax.   The  main body  of  Scottish  infantry  under 
Lieutenant-General  William  Baillie was stationed to the right  of  center 
while  the right flank was held by 2,000 cavalry troopers under Sir  Thomas 
Fairfax with three regiments of Scottish horse in reserve.

The  better  part  of  the day had been spent uinder  a  sky  of  desultory 
thunderclouds.   By  seven  o'clock Rupert had become  convinced  that  any 
chance  of battle had passed for the day and gave the order for his men  to 
stand  down  and prepare the evening meals.   It was now  the  moment  that 
Cromwell and Leven - well aware of the long midsummer days and pending full 
moon - had been waiting for.

The battle opened with Cromwell's horsemen,  the Ironsides,  charging  down 
the slopes by Tockwith towards Rupert's right flank.   Rupert responded  by 
removing  his own cavalry regiment from their reserve position and  ordered 
them  to  attack  the Parliamentary horse.   While  Colonel  Fritzel's  (or 
Fraser) dragoons engaged the Royal horse, the Ironsides plunged on into the 
mass  of  Byron's  cavalry and in the  words  of  Cromwell's  scout-master, 
"scattered them like dust".

However,  as Byron's horse broke and fled,  they revealed Molyneux and  the 
Royalist second line counter-attacking.   Cromwell's attack splintered  and 
dissipated  like surf on the breakers before them.   While  the  Ironside's 
second line was still crossing the ditch, the first line was turning around 
and  beginning  a retreat.   A pistol ball grazed Cromwell's neck  and  the 
muzzle flash blinded his eyes.   Route seemed imminent when David  Leslie's 
800 Scottish horse appeared to attack the Royalist right flank.

The fleeing first line of the Ironsides steadied and then was wheeled about 
by the still dazed Cromwell.   The momentum changed again and the  Royalist 
horse dashed in panic for Wilstrop Woods,  hotly pursued by Leslie's Scots.  
Panic enveloped the Royalist right as all fled to the road to York.  Rupert 
barely escaped with his own life; a fate not shared by his poodle, Boy.

However,  the further east that one traveled from Cromwell's great  victory 
on the left the greater Parliament's troubles became.   The nearest mass of 
infantry,  Crawford's  pikemen  in the left-center,  were  driving  Byron's 
regiment of foot before them.   But, in Parliament's center, Lord Fairfax's 
foot had been stopped cold by the Royalist's Whitecoats and put to a  route 
that also rolled up his reserve of two brigades of Scots.

Next in the Parliament line came Baillie's Scots,  whose left flank was now 
completely  exposed due to Fairfax's defeat.   The left-most  regiments  of 
Buccleuch  and Loudon were caught up in the route of the center  while  the 
right-most  regiments  of  Lindsay and Maitland stood  firm  against  three 
charges  of  Lord  Goring's  Royalist horse  and  took  Sir  Charles  Lucas 

On  the  extreme right all was chaos.   An  irresistible  Royalist  cavalry 
charge  swept Sir Thomas Fairfax's cavalry before them;  only the  Scottish 
regiments  of Dahousie and Eglinton making a stand.   Fairfax,  sporting  a 
sword wound on his cheek,  removed the white Parliament badge from his  hat 
and  snuck through the Royalist lines to rejoin Manchester in  the  center.  
Meanwhile,  the Parliamentary generals,  Lord Fairfax and Leven,  fled  the 
battlefield  while  elements  of Goring's horse  looted  the  Parliamentary 
baggage camp.

By  8:30,  Cromwell on the left had advanced as far north as Goring had  to 
the south.  The two armies were engaged in a macabre "pas de deux" with the 
pivot point five beleaguered Scottish regiments in the center.  The battle, 
and ultimately the fate of Charles I, hung on that point.

Cromwell,  in practical command of the most cohesive fighting force left in 
the  Parliamentary army,  ordered a wheel in line eastward  and  southward.  
Now,  curiously,  the  positions  of the two armies were almost  the  exact 
opposite  of  where they had been but one and a half  hours  earlier;  with 
Cromwell  charging  south against the Royalist Whitecoats  who  had  turned 
about to face north.

While  the Scots pushed north against the Royalist center and Baillie  hung 
on  for  dear life against Goring,  the Ironsides attacked  the  previously 
victorious Royal horse en flank.   The Whitecoats were pushed,  herded  and 
forced  back  yard  by yard,  surrounded on  all  sides;  and  refusing  to 
surrender were slaughtered almost to a man.   It was 10 o'clock before  the 
Parliamentarian victory was complete.

The Royalist army of Newcastle had ceased to exist.   Within two weeks York 
surrendered  to  the victors of Marston Moor and the north of  England  was 
lost forever to Charles I.

                              ORDER OF BATTLE

                             The Royalist Army
                         Prince Rupert commanding

The Right Wing  - Lord Byron commanding
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Under Lord Molyneux   
                           Leveson               250       Leveson
                           Lord Molineux         300       Milineu
                           Tyldesly              250       Tyldesl
     Under Lord Byron
                           Sir John Urry         250       Urry
                           Lord Byron            450       Byron
                           Vaughan               400       Vaughan
                           Rupert's Horse        500       Rupert
                           Musketeers            500       Musket1
                           Trevor                400       Trevor
                           Tuke                  200       Tuke
The Center  - Lord James Eythin commanding
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Lord Byron's Foot                         3,125
                           Byron                           Byron
                           Warren                          Warren
                           Tyldesly                        Tyldesl
     Rupert's Bluecoats                        3,125
                           Broughton                       Brghton    
                           Cheater                         Cheater
                           Erneley & Gibson                Erneley
                           Tillier                         Tillier
                           Chisenal                        Chisenl
        Whitecoats         Mackworth           3,000       White 1
                                                           White 2
                                                           White 3
                           Rupert's Life-guards  140       Lifegrd
                           Widdington            400       Widding
                           Blakeston             400       Blakest
                           Derbyshire Foot       220       Derby
The Left  - Lord George Goring commanding
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Under Lord Goring
                           Frescheville          160       Fresch
                           Eyre                  225       Eyre
                           Langdale              700       Langdle
                           Musketeers            500       Musket2
     Under Sir Richard Dacres
                           Sir Charles Lucas     400       Lucas
                           Sir Richard Dacres    400       Dacres

                       The Parliamentarian-Scottish Army
                           Under the joint command of
                         Manchester; Fairfax and leven

The Left  - Under the command of Oliver Cromwell
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Ironsides             Oliver Cromwell     1,250       Iron 1
                                                           Iron 2
     Manchester's Horse                        1,100       Manches
     Fraser's Dragoons                           500       Fraser
     Under David Leslie
                           Leslie                975       Leslie
                           Kirkoudbright         500       Kirkoud
                           Balcarres             475       Balcarr
The Center  - Under the command of Lord Fairfax
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Under Major-General Crawford
                           Manchester's Foot   3,000       Manch 1
                                                           Manch 2
                                                           Manch 3
                           Yester                700       Yester
                           Livingstone           650       Livings
                           Coupar                650       Coupar
                           Dunfermline           650       Dunferm
                           Lord Fairfax' Foot  3,000       Frfax 1
                                                           Frfax 2
                                                           Frfax 3
     Scottish Infantry
        under Lt. Gen. Baillie
                           Rae                   750       Rae
                           Hamilton              750       Hamiltn
                           Maitland              750       Maitlnd
                           Crawford-Lindsay      750       Crawfrd
        Under Lumsden
                           Kilhead               750       Kilhead
                           Cassillis             750       Cassill
                           Buccleuch             750       Buccleu
                           Loudon                750       Loudon
        In Reserve         
                           Erskine               750       Erskine
                           Dudhope               750       Dudhope
The Right  - under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax
     troops                commander           # men       flagname
     Sir Thomas Fairfax                        2,000       Frfax 1
                                                           Frfax 2
     Lambert                                   1,250       Lambert
     Lord Dalhousie's Horse                      750       Dalhous
     Lord Eglinton's Horse                       750       Eglinth
     Balgonie                                    750       Balgoni

18 June 1815
Wellington - Napoleon

As  Napoleon,  returning from exile on Elba,  stepped off the gangplank  at 
Cannes  on March 1,  1815 a clock started ticking that would end  110  days 
later  on  the  hills  12 miles south of  Brussels  near  a  hamlet  called 
Waterloo.   There  were  90 days left on that timepiece  when  the  Emperor 
triumphantly  returned to Paris at the head of a mob of cheering  civilians 
and old veterans from his many campaigns.   The days had dwindled to 16  by 
the  time Napoleon had reorganized and re-equipped his armies and gave them 
what would be their last marching orders.

After detaching 78,660 troops to cover the frontiers and suppress  Royalist 
revolt,  the 115,500 man Armee du Nord remained as Napoleon's striking  arm 
against  the 800,000 soldiers of the  English,  Dutch,  Austrian,  Belgian, 
Prussian and Russian allies.   Obviously,  the Emperor's only chance was to 
strike  first and defeat the individual armies in detail before they  could 
unite  by  mid-July  for the impending invasion of  France.   On  June  14, 
Napoleon was poised to march northeast and drive a wedge between the Anglo-
Dutch army under the Duke of Wellington concentrating at Quatre  Bras,  and 
marshal Blucher's Prussians scattered to the southeast.

The  next  day  Napoleon  forced a crossing of the  Sambre  after  a  stiff 
resistance from the Prussian I Corps and split the Armee du Nord into three 
groups.   The  left wind under Ney was ordered to advance to the North  and 
push any Anglo-Allied units encountered down the Quatre Bras-Brussels  road 
while  Napoleon  and  Grouchy  would  crush  the  Prussians  at  Ligny  and 
Sombreffe.   The battle against Blucher was joined at 2:30 on the afternoon 
of  June  16.   Three  and  one-half hours later  the  Prussiahn  army  was 
retreating  leaving  17,000 casualties on the field  while  another  10,000 
Prussians  and Saxons deserted.   Napoleon returned to his headquarters  at 
Fleurus  that  night  convinced that the Prussian  army  had  been  utterly 
destroyed.   This  was  the Emperor's last  and  perhaps,  greatest  error, 
because Blucher and the Prussians would return 48 hours later; just in time 
to hear that clock started earlier on the docks at Cannes strike its  final 

Marshal Grouchy, with 33,000 men of the III Corps, IV Corps and part of the 
Cavalry Reserve,  was assigned the task of hurrying the defeated  Prussians 
down  the  road  to  Wavre and away  from  any  juncture  with  Wellington.  
Napoleon,  with  the  72,000 men of the Armee  du  Nord  remaining,  turned 
northwest to Quatre Bras and then north towards Waterloo.

After  a series of superb maneuvers,  Wellington had extricated the  Anglo-
Allied  army from Quatre Bras and stationed them some nine miles  north  on 
the last ridge line before Brussels with his back to  a great  forest,  the 
Bois de Soignes.   Years later,  from St.  Helena, Napoleon would criticize 
the British commander for placing his troops in a position that offered  no 
retreat.  Then again, the duke would have have no need to retreat.

A  hard  rain fell that night drenching the quarter of a  million  soldiers 
scattered about the plains and hills of south Belgium.  In the east Grouchy 
had already lost contact with the Prussians he was pursuing.   Before  dawn 
Wellington  would  receive a note from Blucher promising the arrival  of  a 
Prussian corps that day.

At 1:00 a.m.  the Emperor Napoleon left his bivouac and walked the line  of 
the  Imperial Guard stopping to share a soldier's simple meal and to  stare 
at the fires of his enemies that dotted the northern skyline.   At 2:30  he 
sent  a  group  of  staff officers to examine  distant  sounds  that  might 
indicate  troop movements.   They returned an hour later and reported  that 
Wellington  was still in place.   Napoleon went to seep at dawn only to  be 
awakened an hour later with news that the skies were clearing.

That morning,  after breakfast with his staff and senior officers, Napoleon 
declared,  "The  enemy  army is numerically superior to ours  by  almost  a 
quarter;  yet, we have no less than 90 percent of the chances in our favor, 
and  not 10 against us."  His orders for a scheduled assault at  9:00  a.m. 
were twice delayed as troops slogged through the mud and artillery officers 
requested more time to push and shove their field pieces into position.  At 
11:00 a.m.  Napoleon postponed the infantry attack to 1:30 p.m. and ordered 
it to be preceded by a massive artillery barrage.

The  Emperor's  optimism  notwithstanding,  the Armee du Nord  had  a  very 
difficult  task  ahead.    The  enemy  that  confronted  them  was   firmly 
established on a ridge line overlooking the Mont St.  Jean plateau.  On the 
Anglo-Allied  right was a marshy area now turned quagmire by  last  night's 
rains.   Their  left  extended past the French right and  terminated  on  a 
commanding  elevation  behind which were  stationed  ample  reinforcements.  
Though Napoleon possessed a mighty striking force it was confined within  a 
box 6,000 yards in width and 4,500 yards in depth.   With the enemy a short 
1,000 yards away precious little room was left for maneuver of finesse.

Napoleon's tactics were as simple as his options were few.   Flank  attacks 
on  the extreme left or the extreme right were not  advisable;  the  former 
because  any success on the French left would simply push the  Anglo-Allied 
army  closer to the approaching Prussians while the later plan  called  for 
the French to descend from the Mt.  St.  Jean plateau, expose the Waterloo-
Quatre Bras road,  descend into a valley and storm a  ridge.   Furthermore, 
any advance on Wellington's right would have met with a sharp counterattack 
from units he stationed as far west as Hal for that express purpose.

Instead  Napoleon opted for one massive blow to be delivered  by  d'Erlon's 
First Corps preceded by Prince Jerome's feint at Hougomont on the left  and 
a torrential artillery barrage from the massed cannons of the First, Second 
and Sixth Corps.

The  French batteries opened up at 11:30 a.m.  and received only  scattered 
counter-battery fire in return.  With Pire's lancers in support, the men of 
the  II  Corps rushed the country estate known as the  Chateau  de  Goumont 
(Hougomont).  The  thick walls of the courtyard and buildings provided  the 
Nassauer, Hanoverian, 1st, 2nd (Coldstream) and 3rd Guards defenders with a 
ready-made  fortress.   Napoleon's  feint which had been intended  to  draw 
troops  from the Anglo-Allied center to reinforce their  beleaguered  right 
had only the opposite effect.  Indeed, the 2,000 defenders had successfully 
repelled  numerous attacks by the French II Corps that outnumbered them  by 
over  ten to one.   Certainly a large part of the blame for failure on  the 
left belonged to the Emperor's brother,  Jerome,  who three his men at  the 
resolutely defended chateau one brigade at a time.   At 1:00  p.m.  Marshal 
Ney,  who  had been assigned the command of the main attack,  sent word  to 
Napoleon that the I Corps was now in position.

Before  the  Emperor  gave the command to start  the  pre-assault  barrage, 
however,  a  captured  non-commissioned officer from the  2nd  Regiment  of 
Silesia was brought to him.   The hussar was caught bearing a communication 
from Blucher to Wellington announcing the arrival in the east of the  first 
Prussian corps on the field.  There were now a scant ten hours left on that 
Imperial timepiece.

Undaunted,  Napoleon swung two light cavalry divisions eastward to  observe 
any  signs of an approaching enemy and moved the VI Corps to a position  to 
defend  the  right.   He also dashed off an urgent message to  the  missing 
Grouchy that concluded,  "A letter just intercepted indicates that  General 
Bulow  is going to attack our right flank.   We think that we can see  this 
corps on the heights of St. Lambert.  Do not lose one moment, therefore, in 
coming  closer to us,  in joining us and in crushing Bulow,  whom you  will 
catch  red-handed."  By the time Grouchy could receive this  communique  at 
7:00  p.m.  at  Wavre,  the Armee du Nord would have been  crushed  out  of 
existence on the plateau of Mt. St. Jean.

With  the Emperor's signal the 78 guns opened up at a range of  500  yards.  
Most  of Bylandt's Dutch-Belgian brigade that had the  misfortune to be  on 
the  southern  face  of the  ridge  were  blasted,  maimed,  mutilated  and 
terrorized.   At 1:45 p.m.  with the cry of Vive l"Empereur!  screamed from 
the  throats  of d'Erlon's I Corps the advance began.   On the  left  flank 
Jerome renewed his efforts to force an entry into Hougomont.

The  path of the attack crossed two valleys and an intermediary  ridgeline. 
The last half-mile lay inside the crescent of the Anglo-Allied  artillery's 
overlapping fields of fire.   The initial assault pushed the defenders  out 
of  an advanced position in a sandpit near the ridge crest and though  they 
made an orderly retreat, their exodus caused a panic among Bylandt's troops 
which ceased to exist as a fighting unit for the rest of the engagement.

It  was  at  this  moment,  when it seemed  that  the  Emperor's  breakfast 
prognostications  wee  about to come true,  that General  Picton  gave  the 
command,  "UP!  At  them!" and the Kempt brigade lept as one man  from  the 
ground on the reverse side of the Ohain ridge and poured a volley into  the 
French at 40 yard's range.   Then the English fixed bayonets and raced down 
the slopes into the shocked columns of d'Erlon's corps.   The forward ridge 
slope  was  awash in attacks and counterattacks that sputtered  and  flared 
fitfully until the epic charge of Ponsonby leading the Union and  Household 
Brigades tore into the French and decided the issue.   The Greys,  with the 
cry,  "Scotland  for ever!" leaped from their support positions and  chased 
the  remnants  of French attack back across the valley and up to  the  very 
cannon line on the next ridge.

In  the  melee  that followed the counterattack  by  Martique's  and  Bro's 
cavalry,  Lord  Ponsonby was run through by a lance and the British  attack 
was  turned and sent back across the valley.   Both armies now returned  to 
their  exact positions held two hours earlier and regrouped.   On the  left 
nothing  had  been  or would be accomplished by the  French  at  Hougomont.  
Napoleon's  diversion had no effect save depriving the army of the  service 
of Reille's II Corps for the duration of the battle.  Indeed, had Hougomont 
fallen  to  the French little tactical advantage would have  been  achieved 
because  the main part of the British right line was situated in  depth  on 
the ridgeline to the north.

Napoleon  now  ordered Ney to resume the attack in the center  and  on  the 
right.   Mistaking groups of wounded and prisoners that filed back  through 
the Forest of Soignes as the start of an Anglo-Allied retreat,  Ney  called 
for  a  massive cavalry assault preceded by another  bombardment  from  the 
great French battery.

With  the  heavy cavalry on the right and the light horse on the  left  Ney 
personally  led  the charge back up the slops  of  Mt.  St.  Jean.   There, 
waiting for them on the plateau, were the 5,000 English and German dragoons 
and hussars, Brunswick Black Lancers and Dutch and Belgian carabiners under 
the  command of Lord Uxbridge.   From Napoleon's vantage point at La  Belle 
Alliance  the  attack seemed to be on the verge of a  breakthrough  and  he 
committed  Kellerman  and the last of the cavalry reserve -  save  the  800 
troops of General Blancard.

Stationed  behind  Uxbridge's  cavalry  were  the  famed  British   squares 
interspersed  with field batteries.   The gunners would fire  their  pieces 
until, with the French cavalry charging down on them and less than 50 yards 
away,  they would race inside the protection of the squares.   The  typical 
square  was  composed of 500 men,  four ranks deep;  60  feet  square  that 
bristled  with  bayonets  and fired devastating  volleys  at  close  range.  
Wellington coolly commanded his troops from within the 73rd's square.

While  the  fighting  on the plateau had become a brutal  massacre  of  the 
French  cavalry,  the  van of the Prussian army began to press  the  French 
Imperial Guard on Napoleon's extreme right at Plancenoit.  By 6:30 p.m. the 
French were outnumbered three to one and the scales continued to tip in the 
favor of the Prussians as new corps arrived.   At this point the battle was 
already lost for napoleon for even if the Armee du Nord could blast a  hole 
in   Wellington's  line  it  lacked  sufficient  strength  to   exploit   a 
breakthrough.   Furthermore the Prussian army was now threatening to  sever 
Napoleon's line of retreat south back to Quatre Bras.

In an exceptionally pointless last effort Napoleon ordered the remaining 11 
Guard battalions to follow him north for another, and final, assault on the 
plateau of Mt.  St.  Jean.   South of La Haye Sainte the Emperor turned his 
Guard  over to ney who had already had four horses shot from under  him  in 
the last three hours.  Again a French attacking force struck off across the 
valley to mount the ridge.   As they neared the top,  Maitland's 1st Guards 
Brigade  which  had been lying in wait on the reverse slope of  the  ridge, 
rose with Wellington's command,  "Stand up Guards!  Make ready!  Fire!" and 
just  that  quickly 300 French Guardsmen fell.   A survivor  of  Maitland's 
brigade said,  "We formed a line four deep,  the first rank  kneeling,  the 
second  also firing,  the third and fourth loading and handling on  to  the 
front,  and  kept  us  such a continuous fire into the mass  of  heaped  up 
Grenadiers...and this was the bouquet to all slaughter!"

Anglo-Allied  artillery  cut great swaths in the  attacking  columns  while 
fresh troops counterattacked their flanks.   All was over and to the  never 
before head cry of, "La Garde recule!" the survivors streamed back down the 
plateau for the last time.

Now  Wellington and Blucher called for a general attack all along the  line 
and the Allied cavalry was let loose to run down the fleeing  French.   The 
Emperor  Napoleon was placed within a Guard's square and escorted from  the 
field.   Remnants  of  the Armee du Nord fought delaying actions  with  the 
Prussians  that  allowed  portions of the defeated army  to  escape  south.  
Field-Marshal  Blucher assembled his officers and ordered them to  commence 
an  "annihilating  pursuit."  His orders were carried out as  the  pursuing 
Prussians,  refusing  to  give quarter,  massacred at least  5,000  men  of 
Reille's corps on the road to Genappe.

The  time  was now 11:00 p.m.  and the sands had run out of  the  Emperor's 

                              ORDER OF BATTLE

                             Anglo-Allied Army
                              Field Marshall
                     the Duke of Wellington commanding

                                    I Corps
               His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange commanding

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
     1st Corps Artillery   Lt-Col Adye                         1 Corps
                           Lt-Col Williamson
                           Maj von Opstal
                           Maj van der Smissen

1st Division - Major General Cooke
     1st British Brigade   Maj-Gen Maitland            1,997   Maitlnd
     2nd British Brigade   Maj-Gen Sir John Byng       2,064   Byng
3rd Division - Lt-Gen Sir Charles Alten
     5th British Brigade   Maj-Gen Sir Colin Halkett   2,254   Halkett
     2nd King's German 
        Legion             Col von Ompteda             1,527   Ompteda
     1st Hanoverian        Maj-Gen Count
        Brigade               Kielmansegge             3,189   Kielman
2nd Dutch-Belgian Division - Lt-Gen Baron de Perponcher
     1st Brigade           Maj-Gen Count de Bylandt    3,233   Bylandt
     2nd Brigade           Prince Bernhard of
                              Saxe-Weimar              4,300   Bernhrd
3rd Dutch-Belgian Division - Lt-Gen Baron Chasse
     1st Brigade           Maj-Gen Ditmers             3,088   Ditmers
     2nd Brigade           Maj-Gen D'Aumbreme          3,581   D'Aumbr
                                    II Corps
                          Lt-Gen Lord Hill commanding

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
     2 Corps Artillery     Lt-Col Gold                         2 Corps
                           Lt-Col Hawker
2nd Division - Lt-Gen Sir H. Clinton
     3rd British Brigade   Maj-Gen Adam                2,625   Adam
     1st Brigade King's
        German Legion      Col du Plat                 1,758   Du Plat
     3rd Hanoverian Brig   Col Halkett                 2,454   3rd Han
     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
4th Division - Lt-Gen Sir Charles Colville
     4th Brigade           Col Mitchell                1,767   Mitchel
     6th British Brigade   Maj-Gen Johnstone           2,396   Johnstn
     6th Hanoverian Brig   Maj-Gen Sir James Lyon      3,049   Lyon
1st Dutch-Belgian Division - Lt-Gen Stedmann
     1st Brigade           Maj-Gen Hauw                3,109   Hauw
     2nd Brigade           Maj-Gen Eerens              3,280   Eerens
        Indian Brigade     Lt-Gen Anthing              3,583   Anthing
     Reserve Artillery     Maj Heisse                  1,225   Reserve
                           Lt-Col Brouckmann
                           Maj Mahn
5th Division - Lt-Gen Sir Thomas Picton
     8th British Brigade   Maj-Gen Sir James Kempt     2,471   Kempt
     9th British Brigade   Maj-Gen Sir James Pack      2,471   Pack
     5th Hanoverian Brig   Col von Vincke              2,514   Vincke
6th Division - Lt-Gen Hon. Sir L. Cole
     10th British Brigade  Maj-Gen Sir John Lambert    2,567   Lambert
     4th Hanoverian Brig   Col Best                    2,582   Best
Brunswick Corps - H.S.H The Duke of Brunswick
     Advanced Guard
        Battalion          Maj Von Rauschenplatt         672   Adv Grd
     Light Brigade         Lt-Col von Buttlar          2,688   Light
     Line Brigade          Lt-Col von Specht           2,016   Line
Nassau Contingent - General von Kruse                  2,880   Kruse
                                 Cavalry Corps
                    Lt-Gen the Earl of Uxbridge commanding                      

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
British and King's German Legion
     1st Brigade           Maj-Gen Lord E. Somerset    1,286   Somerst
     2nd Brigade           Maj-Gen Sir W. Ponsonby     1,181   Ponsnby
     3rd Brigade           Maj-Gen Sir W. Dornberg     1,268   Dornbrg
     4th Brigade           Maj-Gen Sir J. Vandeleur    1,171   Vndelur
     5th Brigade           Maj-Gen Sir Colq. Grant     1,336   Grant
     6th Brigade           Maj-Gen Sir H. Vivian       1,279   Vivian
     Horse Artillery       (Six batteries)             1,275   Hrs Art

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
     1st Brigade           Col von Estorff             1,682   Estorff
     Brunswick Cavalry                                   922   Brnswck
Dutch Belgian
     1st Brigade           Maj-Gen Trip                1,237   Trip
     2nd Brigade           Maj-Gen de Ghigny           1,086   Ghigny
     3rd Brigade           Maj-Gen van Merien          1,082   Merien

                                 Armee du Nord
                     Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte commanding
               Imperial Guard - Marshall Mortier, Duke of Treviso

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
     Imperial Guard        Lt-Gen Desvaux de
        Artillery             St. Meurice              3,175   Imp Grd
     Imperial Guard    
        Cavalry            Lt-Gen Lefebvre-Desnouettes
                           Lt-Gen Guyot                3,590   Imp Grd
     1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
        Grenadiers         Lt-Gen Friant
                           Lt-Gen Roguet               4,377   Grnandr
     1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
        Chasseurs          Lt-Gen Morand
                           Lt-Gen Michel               3,970   Chsseur
     1st, 3rd Tirailleurs  Lt-Gen Duheame              2,255   Trlleur
     1st, 3rd voltigeurs   Lt-Gen Barrois              2,775   Vltgeur
I Corps d'Armee - Lt-Gen Count D'Erlon commanding
     1 Corps Artillery                                 1,066   1 Corps
     1st Division          Lt-Gen Alix                 4,100   I Inf
     2nd Division          Lt-Gen Baron Donzelot       4,050   II Inf
     3rd Division          Lt-Gen Baron Marcognet      4,175   III Inf
     4th Division          Lt-Gen Count Durutte        3,775   IV Inf
     1st Cavalry Division  Lt-Gen Baron Jaquinot       1,400   I Cav
II Corps d'Armee - Lt-Gen Count Reille commanding
     2nd Corps Artillery                               1,385   2 Corps
     5th Division          Lt-Gen Baron Bachelu        4,775   V Inf
     6th Division          Prince Jerome Napoleon      5,550   VI Inf
     7th Division          Lt-Gen Count Girard         4,875   VII Inf
     9th Division          Lt-Gen Count Foy            4,975   IX Inf
     2nd Cavalry Division  Lt-Gen Baron Pire           1,729   II Div

VI Corps d'Armee - Lt-Gen Count Lobau commanding
     6th Corps Artillery                                743    6 Corps
     19th Division         Lt-Gen Baron Simmer         2,275   IXX Inf
     20th Division         Lt-Gen Baron Jeannin        2,575   XX Inf
Reserve Cavalry - Marshal Grouchy commanding
     Reserve Horse
        Artillery                                      1,185   Reserve
     3rd Corps             Lt-Gen Kellerman            3,245   3 Corps
     4th Corps             Lt-Gen Milhaud              2,556   4 Corps

Strengths  taken  from  D.  Gardener & Dorsay's  "Quatre  Bras,  Ligny  and 
Waterloo",  London  1882,  W.  Silborne's  War  in France  and  Belgium  as 
corrected by Colonel Charles C.  Chesney's "Waterloo Lectures:  a Study  of 
the  Campaign of 1815",  London 1868,  and Colonel  Jean-Baptiste  Charra's 
"Histoire de la Campagne de 1815":  Waterloo,  Brussels,  1851 as cited  as 
references in "Yours to Reason Why; Decision in Battle" by William Seymour, 
St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 1982 pp. 292-298.

N.B.  The entire Prussian army and the right wing of the Armee du Nord  has 
been removed from this Order of Battle and The Universal Military Simulator 
Waterloo scenario in the interest of play balance.   Neither the  Prussians 
nor Grouchy's forces made an appearance on the battlefield until after  the 
issue had been well decided.
1-3 July 1863
Meade - Lee

After  defeating the Union Army of the Potomac under the command  of  Major 
General Joseph Hooker at Chancelorsville, Virginia (April 28 - May 5, 1863) 
General Robert Edward lee knew that he had perhaps one last chance to bring 
the  war  to  the  North  and  restore  European  confidence  in  a  viable 
Confederate States of America.   The American Civil War,  now in its second 
year,  had seen a string of brilliant Southern defensive victories -  First 
Bull Run,  The Seven Days,  Second Bull Run,  Frederiscksburg,  and now the 
most  crushing  Union defeat,  Chancelorsville - but  Lee's  only  previous 
attempt at invasion,  Antietam, had ended in disaster.  Now, as Union Major 
General U.S.  Grant held confederate Lt.  General Pemberton's army and  the 
key  to  the Mississippi River in the bag at besieged  Vicksburg,  and  the 
Union  Navy had all but blockaded the southern cotton industry out  of  the 
European  market,  Lee  must strike a decisive blow into the heart  of  the 
North.   On June 9, 1863, screened by General 'Jeb' Stuart's cavalry, Lee's 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia  started  north  on  its  journey  that  would 
ultimately end at the high water mark at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

The Army of the Potomac left its bivouac under the orders of General Hooker 
but would arrive in Pennsylvania with a new commander: Major General George 
Gordon Meade.  President Abraham Lincoln,  disgusted by Hooker's ineptitude 
at Chancelorsville,  had made Meade "The hard luck army's" fifth commanding 
general in two year's time following a tradition of firing losers in search 
of  a  winning  general.   Meade would be the Army of  the  Potomac's  last 
commander.  In his General Orders 67, issued on June 28, a scant three days 
before  the great conflict that awaited them,  Meade  wrote,  "The  country 
looks  to  this army to relieve it from the devastation and disgrace  of  a 
foreign invasion."

July 1,  1863, found both armies scattered about southern Pennsylvania with 
their respective commanders' having only a vague notion of their opponent's 
positions.   Ironically, the Confederate forces were arrayed north and west 
of  the  Union  troops.   The three-day battle would begin  at  5:00  a.m., 
Wednesday,  July  1  (the first day of the fiscal year  -  many  regimental 
officers were still busy completing their payrolls) when units of  Archer's 
Brigade,  Heth's Division,  A.P.  Hill's III Corps of the Army of  Northern 
Virginia  began receiving withering volleys from Union cavalry  pickets  of 
Gamble's brigade stationed west of MacPherson's Ridge.

First  brigade  commanders,  then  division commanders  and  finally  corps 
commanders  of  both sides issued urgent orders for reinforcements  as  the 
conflagration consumed more troops and more senior field officers.   By the 
end of the first day's fighting five successive Union generals had been  in 

Daylight,  Thursday July 2, saw 68,000 Union troops stretched along a fish-
hook shaped series of hills and ridges south and east of Gettysburg  facing 
Lee's  60,000.   The  northeastern-most point on the line was  Culp's  Hill 
where after the battle two brothers,  one who fought with Meade,  the other 
with  Lee,  would be found,  both dead and only a few scant yards from  the 
farm  on  the hill where they grew up.   The Union line  extended  west  to 
Cemetary Hill,  where artillery batteries dug emplacements among the graves 
and  then curved south to Cemetary Ridge;  a north-south chain of  hillocks 
that  ended  in  the  twin Round Tops.   Bbig Round  Top  was  by  far  the 
commanding peak on the battlefield,  but was thickly wooded and  unsuitable 
for troops or artillery.   Its sister,  Little Round Top, had recently been 
deforested  and  would  become  the southern  anchor  of  the  Union  line.  
Currently,  however, the only troops on its summit were a small observation 
and signal station.

Lee's army ran along the perimeter of the Unio fish-hook extending over six 
miles  from  Longstreet's I Corps in the south to Ewell's II Corps  on  the 
northeast.   Meade,  in a textbook case of the use of interior lines, could 
pace a short two miles from Sickle's III Corps on the left to Slocum's  XII 
Corps  on  the right.   Against the advice of Longstreet  who  counseled  a 
defensive  battle,  Lee  had decided to force the Union left  and  roll  up 
Meade's line while advancing north.  Furthermore, Ewell on the extreme left 
was  to  attack Culp's Hill when he heard the sound  of  Longstreet's  pre-
assault artillery barrage six miles away.   It was a plan doomed to failure 
that  almost succeeded due to the incompetence of a tragicomedic Union  Maj 
General;  Dan  Sickles,  who would later be elected to the Congress of  the 
United States, invent the temporary insanity plea to win his acquital after 
murdering his wife's lover,  and in later years often visit the Smithsonian 
Institute  to  view  the  amputated leg that he  would  lose  this  day  at 

Against orders and traditional military dictums,  Sickles had stationed the 
two  divisions  of the III Corps a half mile in front of the  rest  of  the 
Union  line  in a peach orchard and in a boulder strewn area known  as  the 
Devil's Den.   At 3:30 p.m.,  the first opening salvos from the Confederate 
batteries alerted Meade to trouble on his left.   He arrived and watched in 
horror  as  Longstreet's  attack began to crumple the  III  Corps  and  the 
wounded and terrified streamed to the rear.

At  this moment Brigadier General Gouverneur K.  Warren,  Meade's Chief  of 
Engineers,  realized  that  Little  Round Top was "the  key  to  the  Union 
position" and on his own initiative ordered two brigades and a battery from 
the  newly  arrive  V Corps to race to the summit.   They  arrived  as  the 
Confederates  were  still scaling the western slopes and  flung  themselves 
into a vicious hand-to-hand fight that left both Union brigade dead.   Four 
hours later Longstreet's Corps,  now in possession of the peach orchard and 
the Devil's Den, had stalled short of its objective.

On the other side of the field Ewell's batteries had opened up on  schedule 
but were quickly silenced by the effective return fire of the Union  cannon 
stationed among the tombs and headstones on Cemetary Hill,  The Confederate 
attack finally stepped off at sunset and though vigorously  pressed,  ended 
in  failure.   The fight on the graveyard's slopes continued late into  the 
night  before recall was sounded and the two armies hunkered down to  await 
the inevitable final clash on the next day.

Both sides were still receiving reinforcements, almost hourly, until by the 
morning  of  July  3,  the  stage was set  with  97,000  Union  and  75,000 
Confederate players.  The positions of the Army of the Potomac and the Army 
of  Northern  Virginia had remained substantially unchanged for  two  days; 
only  Sicle's salient had been pushed in and the Union line extended  south 
to  the  Round  Tops.   Strategically,  the  situation  for  Lee  was  also 
unchanged,  though perhaps a bit more urgent.  his army, outnumbered and in 
hostile  territory,  had  been  living off the  land  and  had  practically 
stripped the surrounding countryside bare.  Again, Longstreet counseled Lee 
to place the army south and east of the Round Tops astride Meande's line of 
communications,  and force the northern general to attack.   Lee would have 
none of this and ordered a coup de main on the Union center spearheaded  by 
Pickett's  division who had arrived during the night,  Longstreet  replied, 
"no  15,000  men  ever  arrayed for battle can  take  that  position,"  and 
reluctantly began the preparations for the charge.

At 1:07 p.m.,  two guns of Captain Miller's battery stationed in the  peach 
orchard  fired  signal shells into the clear Pennsylvanian  sky.   At  1:08 
p.m.,  the 140 guns assembled by Lee's chief of Artillery,  Colonel  E.  P. 
Alexander, began the barrage; many at a distance of only 800 yards from the 
Union center.  Brigadier General Henry J. Hunt, meade's Chief of Artillery, 
withheld fire until the Confederate positions were located and then let fly 
with his batteries.  They then commenced to hammer away at each other, with 
no visible slackening, for almost two hours.

By  1863 the Art of the Artilleryman had made but one small advance to  the 
science in the last many centuries:  grapeshot;  a coffee can sized package 
of  little round iron balls that were fired out of the  smooth-bore  cannon 
like a giant shotgun.   An infantry division would find it quite impossible 
to  charge across a mile of open wheat field,  into the muzzles of over  50 
batteries firing double loads of grapeshot, and survive.

Colonel  Alexander's  assignment was to eliminate the Union  batteries  and 
inform  his superiors it was time to attack.   A little before  3:00  p.m., 
Brigadier General Hunt passed the order for the Union cannon to cease  fire 
and let the muzzles cool while ammunition was brought up from the rear.  At 
this point Alexander,  now desperate to see some signs of the effectiveness 
of his fire and almost out of shells, sent a message to Pickett, "For God's 
sake  come  quick;  the 18 guns are gone,  unless  you  advance  quick,  my 
ammunition  won't  let me support you properly."  Pickett in turn  rode  to 
Longstreet  to seek final approval.   Longstreet,  opposed to this  assault 
from the beginning, could only nod an ascent.  Pickett saluted and replied, 
"I am going to move forward, sir," turned, rode back to his troops and into 

The Army of Northern Virginia quite possibly possessed the finest  fighting 
troops  on  the North American continent in July,  1863.   The  15,000  men 
gamely moved out to the command.  "Forward, guide center, march." towards a 
small  clump  of trees on Cemetary Ridge pointed out by  General  lee  from 
astride his warhorse, Traveler.  The Union batteries in the center reloaded 
with canisters of grapeshot and waited for the infantry to get within range 
while  the batteries on the flanks continued to lob exploding  shells  into 
Pickett's neatly ordered lines.

Then,  when only a few hundred yards of wheat field separated the attackers 
and  the defenders,  every cannon along the Union line slashed  out.   Less 
than  one percent of those who started off made those  yards.   Confederate 
Brigadier General Armistead actually reached the stone wall that marked the 
Union position,  and with his cap on his sword yelled,  "Follow me!" before 
he was shot down.   There is a monument there now that marks the high water 
mark of the Confederacy;  the closest Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia 
ever came to an offensive victory on northern soil.

Over  7,000 lay dead,  wounded or captured;  the rest recrossed  the  field 
still under continuous barrage, to be greeted by a devastated Lee who said, 
"All this has been my fault.   It is I that have lost this fight,  and  you 
must help me out of it in the best way you can."

The  next day,  during a torrential storm,  the Army of  Northern  Virginia 
started back south in a wagon train that stretched for 17 miles.   It would 
now  be  on  the defensive for the rest of its existence  until  the  final 
surrender on April 9, 1865.

                              ORDER OF BATTLE
                          The Army of the Potomac
                  Maj-Gen George Gordan Meade commanding

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
I Army Corps - Maj-Gen John F. Reynolds commanding (killed July 1)
               Maj-Gen Abner Doubleday commanding
               Maj-Gen John Newton commanding     
     1st Corps Artillery   Col C.S.Wainwright                  1 Corps
     1st Division          Maj-Gen J.S. Wadsworth      3,400   Wdsworth
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen John C. Robinson   3,200   Robinson
     3rd Division          Maj-Gen Abner Doubleday     3,300   Dbleday
II Army Corps - Maj-Gen Winfield S. Hancock commanding
                Brig-Gen John Gibbon
     2nd Corps Artillery   Capt J.G. Hazard              950   II Corps
     1st Division          Brig-Gen John C. Caldwell   4,300   Caldwell
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen John Gibbon
                           Brig-Gen William Harrow     4,500   Gibbon
     3rd Division          Brig-Gen Alexander Hays     4,400   Hays
III Army Corps - Maj-Gen Daniel E. Sickles commanding
                 Maj-Gen D.B. Birney
     3rd Corps Artillery   Capt George E. Randolph       950   III Corp
     1st Division          Maj-Gen D.B. Birney
                           Maj-Gen J.J.H. Ward         6,200   Birney
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen A.A. Humphreys     6,100   Hmfhreys
V Army Corps - Maj-Gen George Sykes commanding
     5th Corps Artillery   Capt A.P. Martin              770   V Corps
     1st Division          Brig-Gen James Barnes       4,500   Barnes
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen R.B. Ayres         4,300   Ayres
     3rd Division          Brig-Ben S.W. Crawford      4,400   Crawford
VI Army Corps - Maj-Gen John Sedgwick commanding
     6th Corps Artillery   Col C.H. Tompkins             900   VI Corps
     1st Division          Brig-Gen H.G. Wright        5,200   Wright
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen A.P. Howe          5,150   Howe
     3rd Division          Brig-Gen Frank Wheaton      5,250   Wheaton
XI Army Corps - Maj-Gen O.O. Howard commanding
     11th Corps Artillery  Maj T.W. Osborn               875   XI Corps
     1st Division          Brig-Gen F.C. Barlow
                           Brig-Gen Adelbert Ames      3,500   Barlow
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen A. von Steinwehr   3,500   Steinwhr
     3rd Division          Brig-Gen Carl Schurz        3,200   Shurz

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
XII Army Corps - Maj-Gen H.W. Slocum commanding
     12th Corps Artillery  Lt. Edward D. Muhlenberg      575   XII Corp
     1st Division          Brig-Gen Alpheus Williams   4,300   Williams
     2nd Division          Brig-Gen John W. Geary      4,250   Geary
Army Artillery Reserve - Brig-Gen R.O. Taylor commanding
                         Capt John M. Robertson
     1st Regular Brig    Capt D.R. Ransom                600   1st Reg
     1st Volunteer Brig  Lt-Col F. McGilvery             550   2nd Vol
     2nd Volunteer Brig  Capt E.D. Taft                  575   2nd Vol
     3rd Volunteer Brig  Capt James F. Huntington        560   3rd Vol
     4th Volunteer Brig  Capt R.H. Fitzhugh              550   4th Vol
                         The Army of Northern Virginia
                        General Robert E. Lee commanding
     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
I Corps - Lt-Gen James Longstreet commanding
     1st Corps Artillery   Col J.B. Walton               550   I Corps
1st Division - Maj-Gen John B. Hood
     1st Division
        Artillery          Maj M.W. Henry                300   Henry
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen D.R. Anderson      2,700   Anderson
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen H.L. Bennings      2,500   Bennings
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen E.M. Law
                           Col James L. Sheffield      2,200   Law
     4th Brigade           Brig-Gen J.B. Robertson     2,100   Robertsn
2nd Division - Maj-Gen Lafayette McLaws
     2nd Division
        Artillery          Col H.C. Cabell               250   Cabell
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen W. Barksdale
                           Col B.G. Humphreys          2,200   Barksdal
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen J.B. Kershaw       1,900   Kershaw
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen W.T. Wofford       2,000   Wofford
     4th Brigade           Brig-Gen P.J. Semmes        
                           Col Goode Bryan             1,900   Semmes
     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
3rd Division - Maj-Gen George E. Pickett
     3rd Division
        Artillery          Maj James Dearing             350   Dearing
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen J.L. Kemper        2,750   Kemper
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gem A. Armistead
                           Col W.R. Aylett             2,800   Armisted
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen R.B. Garnett
                           Maj George C. Cabell        2,750   Garnett

II Corps - Lt-Gen Richard S. Ewell commanding
     2nd Corps Artillery   Col J. Thompson Brown         450   II Corps
1st Division - Maj-Gen Jubal A. Early
     1st Division
        Artillery          Lt-Col H.P. Jones             350   H. Jones
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen William Smith
                           Col John s. Hoffman         2,750   W. Smith
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen R.F. Hoke
                           Col Isaac E. Avery          
                           Col A.C. Godwin             2,850   Hoke
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen Harry T. Hays      2,400   H. Hays
     4th Brigade           Brig-Gen J.B. Gordon        2,200   Gordon
2nd Division - Maj-Gen Edward Johnson
     2nd Division
        Artillery          Lt-Col R.S. Andrews           450   Andrews
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen John M. Jones
                           Lt-Col R.H. Dungan
                           Col B.T. Johnson            2,450   J. Jones
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen James A. Walker    2,250   Walker
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen George H. Stewart  2,400   Stewart
     4th Brigade           Col J.M. Williams           1,600   Williams
3rd Division - Maj-Gen R.E. Rodes
     3rd Division
        Artillery          Lt-Col Thomas H. Carter       350   Carter
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen E.A. Neal          2,500   Neal
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen S.D. Ramseur       2,600   Ramseur
     3rd Brigade           Brig-Gen George Doles       2,250   Doles
     4th Brigade           Brig-Gen Alfred Iverson
                           Brig-Gen S.D. Ramseur       2,150   Iverson
     5th Brigade           Brig-Gen Junius Daniel      1,875   Daniel

     troops                commander                   # men   flagname
III Corps - Lt-Gen Ambrose P. Hill Commanding
     3rd Artillery         Col R.L. Walker               450   III Corp
1st Division - Maj-Gen R.H. Anderson
     1st Division
        Artillery          Maj John Lane                 350   Lane
     1st Brigade           Brig-Gen William Mahone     2,750   Mahone
     2nd Brigade           Brig-Gen A.R. Wright        
                           Col William Gibson
                           Col E.J. Walker
                           Col B.C. McCurry                         
                           Col C.H. Anderson           2,500   Wright
     3rd Brigade           Col David Lang
                           Brig-Gen E.A. Perry         2,400   Lang
     4th Brigade           Brig-Gen Carnot Posey       2,200   Posey
     5th Brigade           Brig-Gen C.M. Wilcox        1,000   Wilcox
2nd Division - Maj-Gen William D. Pender
               Brig-Gen James H. Lane
     2nd Division
        Artillery          William T. Poague             350   Pague