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1869 manual

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            \/ TYPED BY SHARD -=A((eSS=- 4th AUGUST 1993 
      PROUDLY PRESENTS   -    1869   -  FULL MANUAL


We  have  always been friends of two years of the sailing sport.  Around
two  years ago we came across a book about clippers of the 19th century.
The  elegance of the fast yachts and the atmosphere of the turbulent era
captured us totally.

The  real work began after we spontaneously decided to use this theme as
a  story for a trade simulation.  We spent weeks in University libraries
and  museums collecting all available material of that era.  The more we
found  out the more fascinated we became.  In our research the year 1869
seemed to appear most frequently.  It was the year of the opening of the
Suez  Canal  and at the same time the turning point in shipping history.
1869 had to be the title of our simulation.

The  time  for research and material collecting was over.  The examining
and  sorting  of the material and the first thoughts on the shape of the
game drafts on paper and the programming started.

Right  from  the  start  our  intention was to create a wide history and
trade  simulation,  which  was  as  accurate  as possible including true
events, and also be graphically superior to previous trade simulations.

After  spending  approximately  three  man  years,  we look back over an
interesting  and  sometimes  hectic  time.  Through the program we had a
look  into  a piece of history and experiences varied from war and death
to the splendour and greatness of marked times.

1869  is  dedicated not only to the proud ships which sailed the seas in
the  last  century,but  also  to  the countless men who lost their lives
while performing their hard work.



The World in the 19th Century

Story from 1854 to 1880
 World politics
 World Economics
The Colonial Powers
 The Era from 1800 to 1882
 The Role of the British Empire
 The Colonial Realm of France
 Other Colonial Powers
 Events and Conflicts
The Wave of Immigrants

Shipping in the 19th Century
The Development of Shipping
 The Blackwall Frigates
 The Baltimore Clippers
 The Early Clippers
 The Heyday of the Clippers
 The American Schooners
 The Steamships
 Wood as a Building Material
 Ships of Iron
 The Clipper Layout
 Shipyards and Shipbuilders

Fates of Famous Ships
 The Passage around Cape Horn
 The Great T-Race
 The Thermopylae
 The Last Witness, The Cutty Sark
 The Unlucky giant

Principals of Ship Building
Life on Board
 Work on Mail Ships
 Sailors on Land
 Last Anchorage
 The Life of the Captains
 Travel in Luxury Class
 Pilot on Board
 Catastrophes at Sea
 The Lifeboat Pioneer
 The Pioneer of Steam Shipping
 The Great Fire

The Hand Book for the successful Shipbuilder
Operation of 1869
 Installation of 1869
 Start of the Game
 The Ship Auction
 Fast Entry for the Impatient
 Game Aims
 The Main Chart
 Dialogue Operation
 The Shipyard
 In the Tavern
 Branches and Registered Offices
 Buying and Selling in the Offices
 Route Planning
 Ship Status
 Crew Status
 Historic Connections
 The Bank
 Tax Demands
 The Balance
 List of Records
 Options (Load & Save)

Tips & Tricks


The Story from 1854 to 1880 

The  19th  century  was  the age of change and progress.  It was an era for
political  reform  which, step by step, involved more people taking part in
political  decisions  and  was an era of advance.  The threshold of the age
ofindustry  promised  better production methods, stronger trades and a more
promising  future.   Natural  science  added  to  progress, as new findings
promised longer and healthier lives.
The  growing importance of new raw materials like oil and cotton, and the
discovery  and  increased production of mineral resources gave the economy,
especially in the second part of the 19th century, a tremendous boost.

World Politics

The  second  half  of the century was a quiet time.  Wars did not last very
long  and were limited to the smaller regions.  A short summary should give
us the most imporiant political events from 1854 to 1880.

1854  The  Crimean  war  between  Russia and Turkey is still in full swing.
France  and  Britain  enter  the  war on Turkeys side.  Two years later the
Paris  Peace  talks  ended  the Crimean war, the Black sea became a neutral

International  maritime  law  forbade  privateering  and guaranteed private
ownership  in  naval  warfare.   In  the  same  year  the  Buren Free State
Transvaal was founded and later the Republic of South Africa.

Two  years later the East India Company lost its power over India and Great
Britain, who had put a Viceroy into India.

Claims  on  surrounding  South  China territories kept leading to wars with
France  and  Great Britain against China.  A long-lived era of tension with
many sealed and broken peace treaties was born.

1860 Abraham Lincoln became the first republican president of the USA.

He  was  for  the  abolition of slavery, which meant eleven Southern States
leaving  the  USA  in 1861.  The creation of the confederacy was the marked
beginning  of  the  American  Civil  War  between the Northern and Southern
States.   After  4  years of bitter fighting the Northern States won due to
their technical superiority.

In  1867 the USA acquired Alaska for a mere 7.2 million dollars from Russia
which  was  the best business deal of all time.  South Africa experienced a
boom era with the discovery of the diamond fields in the Orange Free State.

The  opening  of  the  Suez  canal in 1869 marked one of the most important
milestones  in  the world economy.  The sea route to Asia was nearly halved
when  the  dangerous  trip  around  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope was no longer
necessary.   Just as important was the opening of the Pacific Railway which
connected the West coast with the East coast.

France  became  Independent  in  1870  after a war with Prussia, and a year
later the German Reich was born with Otto von Bismark as Chancellor.

The World Economy

The  second  half of the century presented itself as the time of prosperity
and  technical  revolution.   The building of Railway Lines had an enormous
boost  which  in  turn  increased  the demand for steel.  The length of the
International railway network increased two fold every ten years.

In  1854  England  lifted  the  last prospected duty and so the era of free
trading  began.   Through  the  opening ofthe Suez Canal in 1869 goods from
Europe  reached  India  much  quicker.   At the same time bigger and faster
ships  came  into  use  and  pushed  out  more and more sailing ships.  The
importance of raw materials, like oil and cotton increased.  The demand for
cotton  in  Europe  was  greater  due  to the lack of production during the
American Civil War.

The  finds  of gold in America and Austrailia, and Diamonds in South Africa
attracted no end of Europeans to the places of discovery.

Improvement  in  the steel production enabled expansion of the vechicle and
machine building industries.

Loading   capacity  was  increased  greatly  by  the  steamships  in  1870.
Agriculture  was  heavily  influenced  with  production  being  intensified
rationalised and increased.

Sugar trade improved greatly and cane-sugar was prefered to sugar-beet.

The  increase  of  the  world population and the colonization in the nearly
uninhabited   parts  of  the  continents  of  America  and  Australia,  the
development  of  natural  resources,  the  transition  of production to new
techniques  and unimaginable expansion in industry, made the world not just
bigger and greater but also brought it closer together.

Steamships  and  the  Railways bridged distances and brought trade partners
closer.  World trade increased 4.7 times between 1850 and 189O.

Bigger  distances, investments and concentration were the foremost signs of
the new industrial and technical production expansion.  Trade kept pace and
increased  strongly.   The  introduction of Industrial and agriculture duty
through the German parliament in an era of free trade meant an economic war
declaration, and the beginning of the pre war period, a time of potentially
high tension and open aggression.


Imperialism  is  defined  as  the  striving  for international standing and
power.   An  Imperial  state  would try to affiliate as many territories to
their own political and economic influence.  Starting in the mid- seventies
ofthe  19th  century in Great Britain, it spread to all great world powers.
Besides  the  traditional  colonial  powers  of  Great  Britain, France and
Russia,  the  USA,  German  empire,  Belgium,  Italy and Japan also strived
towards  imperial  power.   The  race  for the division of the world lasted
until the beginning of the first world war in 1914.

Imperialism  is today more of an emotional and negative term, but not so in
the  past.   It was the utopia of a World Power with international standing
if  not  World  domination.   The  politics  were  always of a global type.
Strongly  linked  with  national prestige, it led to excessive Nationalism.
The  white  race  and  its  civilisation  were  regarded as superior.  That
mentality  became  more  popular, influenced by Darwins theory.  The Darwin
theory  rested  on  the conception of the natural elite.  With his help all
ofthe brutality against natives and colonial tribes seemed justified.

The  actual motives for Imperialism cannot be traced back conclusively.  In
1852,   Benjamin   Disraeli  who  later  became  the  speaker  for  British
Imperialism,  described  the  English  colonies  as  "millstones around our
neck".  But in 1875 the British minister Edward asked "Who is talking about
giving  up  the  colonies?   No demand is as popular as the one to keep our
colonial  empire!"  With  this  change  of  mood,  a  new era became easily
recognised.   The  motives  were  power, prestige and political competitive
thinking.   Many  people  saw it as an important and honourable mission, to
teach  primitive  people  the  European  culture and way of life.  But many
economic interests could have been the founder of Imperialism.

Since  the  mid  19th  century,  Europe produced more buying power than the
European  was  allowed.   The goods could no longer be sold on the domestic
market.   This  increased  during the depression years of1873 to 1876.  The
industrialists  and  buyers  were  forced  to  look  for  new  outlets  and
investment  possibilities.   The  government  supported this, as they could
acquire  foreign  territories  which  provided  useful  raw  materials  for
domestic industry.

After  England had been in the process of building a gigantic empire, other
states  began  to  desire  world  power.   As  the realisation of this goal
involved  the use of force and the building of railways and roads, only the
great Powers with accordingly big war and trade fleets could be involved.

Through the acquisition and economic exploitation of foreign territory, the
Imperial  states  increased  their  power  and  wealth.   It used any means
available  from  the  commercial  activity of single settlers in contracted
trade-connections  to forceful oppression of the natives.  The raw material
of  the colonies was exploited and shipped to the mother country.  There it
was  manufactured  into end-products and partly resold to the colonies at a
great  profit.   A  most  profitable cycle for the colonial powers' economy

The Colonial Powers

Europe  had  several  colonial  eras  during the 16th century, with it also
colonial  powers.   In the beginning it was Spain and Portugal who were the
leading  powers,  but  in the 19th century it was Great Britain, France and

The  heyday  of  Imperialism began between 1870 and 1880, and finished just
before  the 2nd World War.  The world became divided under the few colonial
powers.   Approximately  72  million square kilometres and over 560 million
people  were  under colonial rule in 1914.  That made up more than half the
total land surface of the earth and nearly a third of the worlds population

The Time Between 1880 until 1882

After  Latin  America's  independence,  the  European  possessions overseas
became  smaller.  Generally the colonial empire shrank in the first quarter
of the 19th century.

Several reasons didnt allow for amn increase in colonialism, Because of the
withdrawal of mercantilism through the free trade, the foundation was taken
away,  especially in America.  Through defensive politics and further trade
preferences,  it  was  advantageous to own as many colonies, trade stations
and  most  of all ports.  The beginning of free trade led to the freeing of
restrictions.   England  opened  its colonies to foreign ships and traders.
So  England contributed greatly to the success of free trade politics, even
before  it  finally abolished the trade monopoly between the mother country
and the colonies in 1849.

By  then  free  trade  was already happening.  The reorganisation of Europe
after  the  Vienna  congress  and  the  following 5 year peace, reduced the
military  and  strategic value of many possessions.  Many of them were only
dead   pledges   or   diplomatic  exchange  objects.   Thanks  to  Englands
overpowering   fleet,   it   managed  to  acquire  significant  territorial
possessions,  England  was  in  the  position  to lay claim to all overseas
regions  and  enforce it.  As the British didn't seek further expansion, no
systematic  political  expansion  took  place  in  Europe.   It  wasn't the
anti-imperialist attitude that stopped them.  As Canada, Australia and also
the  United  States were freely available to Immigrants, England as leading
industrial power, was not dependent on the colonial market outlets.

Most European states were skeptical over new acquisitions of colonies until

One  assumes  that  because  of  the  colonial  and  expansion policies, no
overseas  acquisitions were made.  Local interest and the wish for securing
borders  around  possessions, were the main reasons for further occupation.
The  impetus  came from the colonies themselves.  The industrialisation and
the  great technical advance brought a vast widening of trade connection to
the  whole world, The development of the steamship gave International trade
an enormous boost.  This increased political interference.  The development
of  military  technique  and  the power structure benefited Europe.  No non
European  country,  with  the  exception  of the USA, had resistance to the
military  power.   A small English expedition corps was able, through their
advanced  weapon superiority and the efficient use of their means, to bring
China  to it's knees between 1839 and 1842.  The conquest of India was also
due  to  the military superiority of the English.  Great empires fell apart
after  confrontations  with Europes super power.  The ease of occupying new
colonies  led  to  a  strengthening  of  colonial expansion as never before

The Role of the British Empire

The  British  Colonial  Empire differed through its size and diversity, and
free  trade  differed  greatly  from  other  colonial powers.  At it's peak
around  1933,  the  British Empire had extended to a hardly imaginable 31.6
million square kilometres and a population of 502 million.  That was nearly
the  equivalent  of a quarter of the land surface of the earth and nearly a
quarter of the population.

In  300  years  of  colonial  politics,  the  British had built an enormous
empire.  Every adjoining region, with the exception of the USA was included
in the Empires federation.

India  was  regarded by the English as the foundation pillar of the empire.
The  securing  and  controlling of the sea route was, therefore, a priority
task.  In particular the Suez Canal played a decisive role.  The opening of
the  canal  in  1869  was  the  most important occurance for the history of
modern  India  and  for the trade in Europe and would become of fundamental
importance as trading volume doubled in susequent years.

And  yet  Great  Britian had initially opposed the building of the canal as
she  suspected a hostile move by the French.  One year after the opening of
the  canal  the British government even rejected the acquisition of a share
package  offered  by  Egypt.   The  change  in  British  canal politics was
demonstrated  in 1875 by Benjamen Disraeli, an ardent representative of the
new  imperialism,  when he ordered the acquisition of the share package.  A
furthur  demonstrative  step  to  manifest  the  interest  in India and the
connecting  routes  was  the proclamation of Queen Victoria, the Empress of
India.   On  the 1st January 1877.  Through her interest in the Suez Canal,
England  became  more  and  more  involved  in the affairs of India and the
country finally came under British rule in the year 1882.  Of equally great
strategic importance for the securing of the sea routes was the acquisition
of Cyprus in 1878.

Originaily  the  conquest  of  India  was not planned, the intention merely
being to protect British trade and to create strong points.

Only  when  the  real  importance  of  the  Indian  market became apparent,
Englands  interest grew.  Politically too, India was important for England.
Although a poor country, India was a great military empire.  England placed
herself  in an already feathered nest so to speak and became herself one of
the  two  main  powers  of the East.  At one stroke, therefore, the British
Empire  had  under  its  control  an  additional  population of 200 million
inhabitants.  No other European colony was of such political and economical

More  than any other.  the Indian army increased the political and military
might of Britian.  One has to bear in mind that although Britain had at her
disposal the strongest naval force, her regular army which numbered 250,000
men   distributed  in  garrisons  throughout  the  empire,  was  militarily
superior.  With the aid of the Indian army deploying over 150,000 men and a
huge  mobilisation  reserve,  Britain  was  able to establish itself as the
greatest  landforce  of  the East.  Moreover the Indian army was completely
maintained by India.  Thus Britain was able to play a leading roll in world
politics  which  could  never  have  been paid for by the British taxpayer.
Only  in this way was it possible for the British to play a leading role in
the apportioning of East Africa and South East Asia.

Possessions  in  the  Mediterranean  were  strategically  important  strong
points.   Gibraltar, Malta and the Ionian Islands had already been acquired
before  1815.   Cyprus  and  Egypt  joined in 1878 and 1882 so that the sea
route  to  India through the Suez Canal was completely secured.  Up to 1880
the  expansion  in  Africa  proceeded very slowly.  It was only in the last
twenty  years  of the 19th century that this process was accelerated by the
race  of the colonial powers.  At first the African colonies appeared to be
without  importance  economically  but  changed  subsequently  due  to  the
increasing  significance  of their products for world trade.  In particular
the diamond and gold finds of 1868, 1869 and 1886 in the Transvaal drew the
British  to  Africa  So  in 1871 the diamond fields belonging to the Orange
free  state  and those in the Transvaal (1877) were annexed.  At the height
of  imperialism  the  British  dreamt of an Africa British from the Cape to
Cairo.   On  British  territory  a  railway  line was to cross the whole of
Africa from North to South.  However this dream of the British was never to
be fulfilled.

During  the  course  of this time the importance of many colonies underwent
change.  Especially the Island colonies that had been annexed initially for
purely  strategic reasons.  Due to the increasing demand for their products
such  as  rare  wood  and  rice  on the world market, the colonies acquired
economical  gain.   Many  colonies supplied valuable raw materials and thus
improved  the British Balance of trade.  The richer colonies were also good
markets  for  British goods.  Many colonies however.  produced and consumed
very  little.   With  strictly  economic  profitability  considerations the
British would have dispensed with many of their colonies.

The Colonial Empire of France
The  French colonial empire was similar to that of Great Britain because of
its  diversity and geographical scattering.  However France did not possess
colonies of the importance of India or the British dominions such as Canada
and  Australia.   France  too did not pursue planned colonial policies from
the  19th  century  up to the year 1871.  Local interests and lawsuits were
the  main reason for new acquisitions although the protection of missionary
stations and trading bases were further considerations.

Compared  with  England  the essential difference was that France owned few
colonies  at  the  start  of  the  19th century which could have led to the
starting  point of further expansion.  Also French overseas trading was too
unimportant  to  make  further  acquisitions  of  colonies meaningful.  For
French  colonial  thinking the economic aspects were decisive.  In order of
interest the colonies had to yield profits for the mother country.  Further
more,  France  continued  to  adhere  for a long time to mercantilism since
France  was  inferior to Great British as far as industry and shipping were
concerned.   Up until 1860 the colonies were only allowed to trade with the
mother  country  and  French  traders.   However,  since  France  sought an
improvement  in  its relations with Great Britain and its colonies depended
on British goods, it introduced free trading for a period of time.  In 1860
the  colonial markets were opened and customs duties lowered.  Free trading
was  extended  to  include  the West Indies in 1861.  Guyana and Senegal in
1864 and Algeria in 1867.

In  the  main  French Imperialism concentrated on the development of Africa
and  on  the  conquest of Indochina.  To this end friction frequently arose
with  the  British.   In Africa the evident goal was a compact territory in
the  shape  of  a  West  East belt.  Following much fighting with China the
French  were  able  to  secure  their  influence  and  their  possession of
Tongking, Annam and Laos.

After  1871  French Imperial politics were greatly influenced by the defeat
inflicted by Germany.  France lost the war against Germany during the years
1870 and 1871.  Consequently the French had to relinquish their position of
priority  in  Europe  to  the  German  empire  and  they  feared  political
isolation.   In  order  to  be  recognised once again as a world power, the
French  intensified  their  endeavours towards new colonies with the aim of
once more extending their sphere of power.

The Other Colonial Powers

The  colonial  territories  of  all  other  countries were relatively small
compared  with  those  of  England and France and they were sharply defined
geographically.   The  crucial points of Portugal, Germany and Belgium were
in  Africa.   The  Russians colonies were of considerable size but formed a
geographical unit with the mother country.

Hollands colonial empire streched across Indonesia and some smaller islands
in  the  West  Indies.   As the only modern colonial empire the Netherlands
stopped  expanding  during  the period from 1815 to 1945 and were satisfied
with occupying and developing the already existing territories.  The island
world  of  Indonesia  was indeed one of most valuable European possessions.
It  was  typical  plantation  colony  and  yielded considerable profit with
exported  goods such as sugar tobacco.  rubber, coffee, copper, mineral oil
and  tin.  The colonial government in Batvia possessed similar authority as
granted to Calcutta by the British.

Although  Portugal  belonged  to  the first colonial powers it acquired the
majority  of its possessions only after 1884.  In spite of being a poor and
martially  weak country it was able to keep its colonies longest.  By 1884,
however, the Portuguese colonial empire was marked by disintegration.  From
1580  to  1882  it lost one colony after the other.  Only with the colonial
division of Africa at the end of the 19th century the empire was once again
enlarged.   Its  gains  were  due  to  the rivalry of the other states.  So
territories  such  as  Angola  and  Mosambique  were  practically  given to
Portugal  as  a buffer zone against British expansion.  Portuguese colonial
politics,  however,  could  not compete with the other states and failed to
yield the expected profit.

The  Belgian  colonial  empire  consisted  of just one territory-the Congo.
However  this  colony was practically the private property of King Leopold.
By  cunning  and  shifty  moves  he  succeeded,  aided by misled humanitary
organisations  to  make  the  Congo  his  possession.   He  exploited  this
territory  in  an  unyielding and drastic manner and caused many critics to
protest.   It  was only in 1908 that the Congo became the possession of the
Belgian  state.   Due  to  the  rigorous  exploitation  and because of rich
mineral resources this colony was especially profitable.

Germany's  colonial  politics  started as late as 1884 under Bismarck.  The
few colonies were a product of colonial apportioning and yielded only small
economic profit.  By 1919 the brief era of colonialism ended for Germany.

Events and Conflicts

One  of the most important events for International trade was the abolition
of  the Navigation Act 1849.  This law decreed by England in 1651 said that
only  English  ships  could call at ports in the British colonies.  Equally
all  merchandise  whether  for  import  or export had to be distributed via
English  ports even when the goods were destined for another country.  This
form  of  trading  restriction  coupled with often high prospective duty is
regarded  as  mercantilism  and  was  also practised by other states.  Free
trade  as  a mutually open system was also introduced during the first half
of  the  19th  century  by England and also by the United States.  With the
abolition  of  the Navigation act in 1849 all British ports were opened for
foreign  dealers  and ships.  Considerig the size of the British empire and
its  preeminent  economical  standing  this  was of enormous importance for
trade.  Equally great was its model function for other states which were no
longer able to resist the free trade.

In  1859  the construction project of the century and milestone in shipping
was  started.  Based on the drawings of the Austrian Negrelli and under the
management  of the Frenchman Lessops the Suez canal was built over a period
of ten years.  The opening in 1869 marked one of the most important turning
points of International trade.  The lockless canal cuts through the Isthmus
of  Suez  between  the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.  With a length of
173  kilometres  and  a  depth  of some 14 metres it connects Suez and Port
Said.   Due to the canal the sea route from Europe to Asia is almost halved
and  also  the  dangerous  and time consuming route around the Cape of Good
Hope  became  unecessary  for  the  Far  East  traveller.  British colonial
politics were greatly influenced by the Suez Canal.  In order to secure the
sea  route  many  territories were annexed including Egypt in 1882.  To the
present day the Suez Canal has remained a political bone of contention even
though its political importance has diminished.

The  most  important  events  from 1853 to 1884 were; the occupation of the
Danube  principalities  by  the  Russians leads in 1853 to the start of the
Crimean  War.   Russia  fights  against Turkey and France and Great Britain
enters  the  war  on  the  side  of  the  Turks.  In 1854 an American naval
squadron  forces  the  opening  of Japanese ports.  In the following era of
1855  Alexander  II  becomes the Czar of Russia and the famous explorer and
missionary  David  Livingstone  crosses  Africa  and discovers the Victoria
Falls.   His  travels and those of other explorers arouse great interest in
Africa  throughout  Europe.   In 1856 the Paris Peace Treaty terminates the
Crimean  war,  paris  of  Besarabia  go  to  Turkey  and  the  Black Sea is
neutralised.   Russia loses its pre-eminence to France.  In Africa the Boer
freestate  off Transvaal is founded.  One year later the British and French
start the Lorcha War against China and occupy Canton.  Following rebellions
the East India Company is wound up in 1858 and a Viceroy appointed by Great
Britain  takes  over  British  rule  in  India.  Due to the Peace Treaty of
Tientsin,  China  is  forced  to open several ports for European ships.  In
1859  France  conquers  Saigon  in  Indochina  and  Russia  subjugates  the
Caucasus.   Mineral  oil production begins in the United States and Russia.
One  year  later England and France occupy Peking and force China to ratify
the Treaty of Tsientsin.

France  and  Great  Britain decide to abolish the protective duty by way of
trade  treaty  and  introduce  a  most-favoured clause.  After secession of
eleven  southern  states and the formation of a confederation the Secession
Civil  war breaks out in 1861 between the Northern and Southern States.  In
1864  the  Northern  states  win  the  war due to their great technical and
industrial  superiority.   Slavery  is  abolished in the United States.  In
1866  Prussia  goes  to  war  with  Italy  against  Austria  and the German
confederacy.  With Austria losing the war, this means the end of the German
confederacy.   Austria  separates  from  Germany and Venice becomes part of
Italy  In  1867  Canada becomes a British dominion Maximillian, Archduke of
Austria  and  emperor of Mexico since 1864, is captured and executed by the
former  president  Juarez  after  his retreat of the French troops.  Mexico
once  more  becomes  a  republic  under  President Juarez.  In 1868 William
Gladstone,  the leader of the Liberals, becomes British Prime Minister.  In
Japan  the power of the shoguns ends and the newly appointed Emperor starts
the  'europeanization' of Japan.  In 1870 war breaks out between France and
Germany.  Germany wins the war in 1871 and occupies Paris.

In  Versailles  the  German Empire is founded under Chancellor of the Reich
Otto  von  Bismark and Emperor Wilheim 2nd.  Due to its defeat France loses
its  preeminent  position  to  the  German Reich.  During the same year the
neutralisation  of  the Black Sea is cancelled.  The famous meeting between
Stanley   and  Livingstone  takes  place  in  East  Africa.   In  1874  the
conservative  Benjamin  Disraeli  becomes  British  Prime  Minister.  Annan
Tonkinh became a French protectorate.  In 1875 war breaks out between Egypt
and Abyssinia which is won by Abyssinia in 1879.  In 1876 Queen Victoria of
England  is  proclaimed Empress of India.  In the following year war breaks
out  again  between  Russia  and  Turkey.   The  Russians advance as far as
Constantinople.   Great  Britain  annexes Transvaal Freestate.  In 1878 the
Balkan  states gain independence.  Turkey cedes Cyprus to England.  In 1879
the  Saltpeter  War  between  South  America  and  China  commences  and is
eventually  won  by  Chile in 1884.  One year before the death of Disraeli,
William  Gladstone  becomes  British  Prime  Minister  for the second time.
Tunis becomes a French possession and Italy begins the conquest of Eritrea.
In  1881  Italy  conquers  Somaliland  and  during the following year Egypt
becomes  a  British  Protectorate.   In  1884 the first German colonies are
established  in  South  West  Africa  including  the  Cameroons, Togo, East
Africa, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archpelago and the Marshall Islands.
From  1871  first  Reichs  Chancellor  of the German Empire founded by him.
Dismissed by Emperor Wilheim II.  in 1890.

The Flood of Immigrants

From 1846 to 1855 over two million people sailed across the Atlantic to the
West.   This  amounted  to nearly half as many as in the seventy years from
the time of the Independence declaration to 1845.  Most of these immigrants
were  impoverished  people  without civil rights.  They fled from political
upheavals  and famine in the hope of starting their new life in a homeland,
worthy of human beings.  But business people and tourists made this journey

For  most  of  the passengers this sea journey was to become a time of hard
tests  and  great  misery.   On  the  mail  boats there were so many people
pressed together that undernourishment and illnesses occurred more and more
frequently.   This  state of affairs improved only with the introduction of
the  steamships  which  with  effect  from  the  middle of the 19th century
enticed the passengers away from the mail boats.  As long as the immigrants
crowded on the mail boats the crossing became a real nightmare for many.

On  average  such  a journey took 35 to 40 days, but often twice as long in
bad  weather.   The immigrants were accommodated between decks, normally up
to  800  people  on  a 1000 ton ship.  One has to imagine the steerage as a
dark  smelly  room which due to the large number people caused agoraphobia.
The  ships  bottom  was  sometimes positioned so low within the cargo space
that  water  ingressed  through the planks.  Rats were a familiar sight and
fresh air came only through the hatches.  However bad weather these hatches
were frequently tightly closed causing stench due to lack of ventilation.
the  generation  of  the  smell.  The hygienic devices, of which there were
hardly any or very few, became even worse.

Even  whilst  asleep,  the  steerage passengers were not able to forget the
daily  inconveniences.   Sleep hardly came into consideration on 1.80 metre
long  bunks,  which  were arranged in two or three tiers, one on top of the
other.   The  bunks  were  45  centimetres  wide, or also 1.80 metres wide,
whereby  more than four passengers often then had to be accommodated in one
bunk.   As  the  main  deck  was  off  limits  during  stormy  weather, the
conditions  became  even  more aggravated.  To make matters worse, clothing
and  the  bedding  was, for the most part, wet through, as the hatch covers
were  not  closed  in  time when the storms began and waves lashed into the
steerage  area.   Generally,  nothing dried until the end of the voyage, so
everything remained damp and smelt accordingly.

After  the  conditions  in  the  steerage  area  and  the  situation of the
passengers  leaked  out to the public by various investigations.  parliment
felt  compelled  to  pass  the Passenger Ship Law of 1848.  A minimum space
requirement was now stipulated for each passenger.  However, shipowners and
captains took no notice of this law for economic reasons.
Precisely  at  a  time  when  rigid  rules were laid down for relationships
between  sexes,  on  the  majority of the emigrant ships there was not even
separate areas for men and women.

With  crowds  of  people  pushed  together in small spaces, smells and dirt
could  not  be  avoided.   On  one occasion a Canadian government inspector
found  during  investigations  on the mail boat "Lady MacNaughton" that the
few  vacant  spaces between decks were filled with ,ship biscuit leftovers,
bones, rags and all types of rubbish, all rotting and full of maggots.  The
stench  was  considered  to  be worse than the filth as one could shut ones
eyes  in  order  not to see the dirt, but the stench was ever present.  The
smell  of  rotting wood and that of earlier and new cargo intermingled with
the odour of hundreds of people producing an unbearable stench.

Hermann  Melville.   the  author  of Moby Dick remembers his time as a crew
member on a transatlantic ship.  When one week after sailing "one put one's
head  through  the front hatch one could believe that one was placing one's
head into a suddenly opened cesspit.

But  not  only  stench  and  dirt  caused the passengers between decks much
trouble.   For  their health the completely inadequate food was surely more
detrimental with which they had to exist for weeks and months.

A  shipowner  admitted  openly that the normal diet was adequate to prevent
dying  of starvation but not to survive and thrive." Small wonder therefore
that  on  some  ships  ten  percent of the passengers died on the sea.  The
surviving  passengers  were  almost always undernourished when they finally
set foot on land.

At  the  beginning  of  the flood of immigrants the passengers had to bring
their  own  food  for  consumption  on board, but later a law was passed to
ensure  minimum  rations  were  available.   The  shipowners  and captains,
however,  found  many  ways to evade such legislation.  It was for instance
customary  to  have the required provisions on board at the time of sailing
but  to  send  back to land after sailing a large part of the provisions on
with  the  help  of escort vessels.  It also happened that food was sold to
the  immigrants  at  cut throat prices instead of being distributed free of
charge as prescribed.

A  further difficulty was the preparation of food.  On nearly all ships the
cooking  facilities were totally insufficient for the number of passengers.
Often  the  facilities  could not be used at all in bad weather.  It can be
taken  from  a  contemporary  report that often only six cooking facilities
were available for 400 passengers.

A constant battle raged over the preparation of meals.  Women travelling on
their own often had no choice but to starve for days on end.  Sometimes the
ships  cook  would  prepare meals for the immigrants but demand payment for
the  privilege.   Thus  bribery  became the only means of acquiring several
meals  per day.  Poorer passengers without the required financial resources
had to make do with one warm meal per day or even one meal every other day.
An  equally  big  problem was the drinking water supply.  A law stated that
each  adult  passenger  was  entitled to three litres of fresh water daily.
Many  ships.  however.  obtained their water from rivers and this was often
not  fresh.   Furthermore  the storage of water in barrels left a lot to be
desired.   According  to  legislation water was to be kept in clean barrels
provided  for  the  purpose,  but  in  actual  practice this did not occur.
Consequently  the  water  was often putrid and practically undrinkable upon
distribution, and led to diseases such as cholera, smallpox and typhoid.

On  some  ships  these  diseases  spread  to  such an extent that a captain
recorded  the  following:-  "it is a miracle, indeed, that so many survived
the journey." Of course the immigrants were medically examined before going
on  board  the ships, but these examinations were more than superficial and
correspondingly  useless.   Feared  more  than  other diseases was typhoid.
This  disease  was  widespread  whenever many people stayed together and it
became  known  as "jail fever or camp fever".  When the wave of immigration
reached  its  climax and the number of typhoid cases on the ships increased
dramatically, the disease was called "ship fever".

Despite  all  the  difficulties, migration continued across the Atlantic to
the  land  of  promise.   America.   without  diminishing.  Fortunately the
journeys  were  not  always  difficult.   On some mail-boats the immigrants
formed  selfhelp  groups  in  order  to  cope  with  the adversities of the
journey.   They cared for the sick, attempted to protect themselves against
theft  and helped women who travelled alone to resist encroachment from the
crew and other passengers.

Around  the  middle  of  the  19th  century some 250,000 people crossed the
Atlantic on average and up to half a million during peak periods.  The mail
boats  transported  ambitious  cargoes  ranging  from rails for railways to
French  wine.   With  the introduction of steam ships to the traffic across
the Atlantic mail boats became less viable.  By 1863 steam ships had gained
a  45%  share of the passenger traffic and by 1866 the percentage had grown
to 81%

The  mail  boats  managed  to remain competitive for a while carrying heavy
cargos  such  as  grain  and coal.  By 1878 however three of the five major
lines  had  been  shut down, namely the Red Star Line, The Blue Swallowtail
Line  and  the  Dramatic  Line.   The  trail blazing Black Ball Line ceased
trading  after  the  summer  of  1878  and most ocean-going mail boats were
turned  into  cash.  On the 18th May 1881 the last mail boat arrived in New
York.  She was appropriate named "NE PLUS ULTRA" - No Further."


The Development of Shipping

As  strange  as  it may sound the development of the proud clippers was not
the  only  product  of the 19th century.  These fast sailing ships were the
last  link  in  a  long history of development which began in pre-christian
times.    The  ancestors  of  the  clippers  were  not  the  ships  of  the
Phoenicians,  Egyptians  or  Romans  but  the  narrow and fast boats of the
Vikings.   Many  centuries  of  shipbuilding led finally to that perfection
which helped to create the last and best sailing ships.

From  the 17th century one can trace the theory of the construction of fast
ships.   From  the  middle  of the 18th century water tank experiments were
carried  out  with  various  models  and around 1840 the brothers James and
William  Hall were engaged in model tests in a three metre long glass tank.
A  three  centimetre layer of turpentine which was coloured red, was poured
onto the water surface.

A  scale  model  of  a boat was pulled through the water by a weighted line
running  over  a reel.  Based on the movement of the red turpentine one was
able  to  arrive  at  conclusions  regarding the effects of various bow and
stern shapes.  By the use of different models with equal transaction weight
it  was  possible  to carry out efficiency comparisons.  Today's drag tests
are  carried out in large plants and they are fully computer aided.  But in
the  end  this is merely a perfection of the test method which was used 300
years ago.

The Blackwell Frigates

After  the shutdown ofthe East Indian company in 1833 and the advent of the
steamships  it  became  necessary to build faster ships.  The ships used to
date  had  simply  become too slow and thus uneconomical.  The shipbuilders
were  forced  to  change  their  views  and  to  adapt their designs to the
requirements  of  the time.  The Blackwell Frigates, a newer faster type of
ship  were  created  and  derived their name from the Blackwell dockyard of
Green  and Wigram.  In 1837 the Seringapalam left the dockyard as the first
ship  of  the  new  type.  Although she had virtually the same length width
ratio as the East Indian Vessels, there were clearly sharper lines and only
a  small  poop.  With the launching of the 1200 ton Prince of Wales in 1842
the  new  construction desighn had been used for the first time on a larger

Blackwell  frigates  were  also  built  on  the  Thames and in the North of
England  on the Wear and Tyne.  The two most successful ships were built in
the  years  1846 and 1848 in the dockyard of T & W Smith on the Tyne.  They
were  the  Marlborough weighing 1402 tons and a length of 53 metres and the
"Blenheim"  1314  tons.  Both ships had flush decks without raised poop and

Compared  with  the  clippers  the  Blackwell Frigates were still heavy and
showed  round  lines.   They were used for carrying passengers and cargo to
India.  Following the striking of gold in Australia and the correspondingly
increased  demand  for  passenger  ships,  the  building  of  the Blackwell
Frigates  especially  for  the  passenger traffic to Australia was started.
The  first  clippers  took  away  the importance for the fast passenger and
cargo  traffic  from  the  Blackwell Frigates.  Later they would become the
preferred conveyance for cargoes where speed was of lesser importance.
The Baltimore Clippers 

During  the Era of the Blackwell frigates, the Baltimore Clippers had their
heyday.   These  schooners,  built  on  the  East  coast  of  America, were
considered  during  the first quarter of the 19th century to be the fastest
ships  in  the  world.   During the war between the United States and Great
Britain  they  were,  therefore,  preferentially  used  as  privateers  and
blockade runners.

A  typical  privateer schooner possessed very sharp lines and a long outrun
towards   the  stern.   The  continuous  deck  was  almost  free  of  super
structures.   Because  of their superior speed they liked to invade British
trading  convoys.   plunder  them  and  sail away from the warships without
great  difficulty.  It was only when unfavourable wind conditions prevailed
that they could be captured by the ships of the British Navy.

After  the  war the Baltimore Clippers were used for the slave trade.  From
1820  onwards  the  slave trade was classed illegal and opposed by the most
important  states.  British ships cruised the coasts of Africa under orders
to  capture and seize slave ships.  Thus.  Baltimore clippers were used due
to  their  great  speed  and ability to avoid these patrolling vessels.  In
fact  due  to  their success rate, schooners of this type became the chosen
vessel of the slave traders.

The British Navy made great endeavours to foil the Baltimore Clippers.  New
ships were built to incorporate many construction features of the Baltimore
Clippers,  and subsequently they became more succesful in their role.  When
slave  trading  was  outlawed  in  1850,  the Baltimore Clippers lost their
importance .  They were unsuitable for use as normal merchant ships because
of their limited loading capacity.

The Early Clippers

The  name  Clipper  for  fast-sailing  ships is still controversial.  It is
often  misunderstood  as  a  name  for  a definite type of ship.  Generally
speaking  one  may  consider  the  fast  sailing ships dating from the 19th
century  onward as clippers, independent of their construction and rigging.
Primarily  they  were  rigged  and  sailed  with  speed  in  mind.  Loading
capacity, running costs, comfort and safety were of lesser importance.
The  demand  for  clippers resulted in enormous profit due to their fast
and specialised transportation capabilities.

In the first half of the 19th century this was offered by the opium and tea
trade.   The  first  landing of one season's tea yielded great premiums and
the  importers  paid  high freight rates for the first loads.  Also for the
gold  finds  in  California  and Australia around the middle of the century
fast  ships  were  needed.  They were to take gold diggers and materials as
quickly  as  possible  to  the  places  of discovery.  The clippers did not
represent  a  completely  new  concept  but  formed  part of a tradition of
continuing development and adaption to market requirements.  Especially the
shape  of  the  hull  of  the  ship  was  improved.   The American shipping
historian  Howard  I.   Chapelle  wrote that on the clipper not one special
feature  was  incorporated  which would have been completely new.  "Thus it
was  the  combination,  and improvement of proven elements which made these
ships so fast and successful.

During  the  period  from  1840 to 1850 the American shipbuilders led their
European  competitors in the development of fast sailing ships.  In America
it  was  customary  for the clippers to take gold prospectors to California
around  Cape  Horn,  to  sail across the Pacific with Ballast and start the
homeward  journey  to  New  York  or  Boston with tea from China.  The fast
clippers  were  especially suited for this journey.  After the abolition of
the  Navigation Act 1849 American clippers were also used for the tea trade
with England.

The  best  ships were built on the North East coast of the United States of
the  United  States.   They  were in most instances built completely out of
wood  and  lined with copper plate below the water line.  A large number of
these  ships had three fully rigged masts.  They had a greater length/width
ratio than the ships of that time.

Due  to  the great demand for fast ships and the reputation of the American
shipbuilders  many  British  shipowners  ordered  clippers  from the United
States yards.

In  Great Britain the reorganisation of tonnage dimensions led in 1836 to a
rethink  concerning  ship construction.  One thought was to keep the rudder
action  as low as possible by corresponding construction of the ships hull.
James  and William Hall from the Alexander Hall & Sons dockyard in Aberdeen
developed a type of ship which according to the new dimensioning rules even
resulted  in a saving of steering action.  The most outstanding feature was
the  so-called Aberdeen bow, an extremely wide stern which jutted out.  The
first  ship  of  this new design was the "Scottish Maid" built in 1839.  By
and  by  the proven Aberdeen Bow also influenced by the construction method
of  the  other  British  shipyards and many smaller excellent clippers were

However,   when   in  1854  another  system  of  tonnage  dimensioning  was
introduced, the Aberdeen bow lost its importance and was ousted by the less
extreme  clipper  bow.   The British clippers around 1850 were smaller than
the  American ships, but they represented the English fast sailing ships of
the next quarter of a century.

The Heyday of the Clippers

Around  1850  the  need for the shortest possible delivery times emerged in
all  trading  areas.  Therefore fast ships could obtain high freight rates.
Resulting  from  thi  was  a correspondingly great demand for fast clippers
with adequate loading capacity.  Even when in most publications the peak of
the  clippers  is  considered  to have occured during the time from 1860 to
1870  more  extreme  clippers were built from 1850 to 1855 for the greatest
number  of  application  ranges  that  would ever happen again.  During the
Crimean  war  a  record number of new ships were built and in the year 1855
steam  ships  and  sailing  ships  with  a  total  tonnage  of  323200 were
constructed.   But  only  a  low  percentage  of  this applied to clippers.
Towards  1860 the number of newly built clippers decreased greatly although
an exception to this rule were the tea clippers.
The  gold  finds  in  Australia  had great influence on the development and
distribution of clippers, particularly in England.  A letter by G.H.Heaton,
captain  of the "Thomas Arbuthnot", points to the conditions in the port of
Sydney.  The letter was printed in the "Times" on the 10th September 1851.

It Read as follows:- 
"Gentlemen,  i  assume  you  know  of  the  rumours  about the discovery of
extensive gold fields in New South Wales which brought about an upheaval of
a kind which in my opinion can afflict a country.  The colony is completely
paralysed  Each man and each boy as far as he is able to hold a shovel goes
to  the  gold  fields  if  he  is not there already Many places of work are
completely  deserted.  The consequence of this is that sheep and cattle are
abandoned.  The prices of almost all foods have risen by about 200% in some
cases and when one thinks of the next grain harvest which will greatly fall
off  because  of  the  lack  of  labour  then it is clear that the means of
subsistence for man and beast will become very scarce and dear.  No doubt a
wave  of  immigration  will  commence in all parts of Europe as soon as the
news has gone round.

We have Australian gold aboard to the value of �800 which is the first gold
shipped  out  of  the  colony  it was purchased by four gentlemen, managing
partners of different merchant firms in Sydney , on site.

The  gold  consisted  of lumps of almost pure gold and the largest lump was
just short of four pounds by 2 ounces.  When this lot was taken to the ship
much  more  gold was lying in Bathhurst awaiting a military escort which it
was  hoped  would be authorised by the Government.  The gold we have abroad
was brought here by four gentlemen armed to the teeth.

I  had  great difficulties getting away from Sydney, Although I had doubled
the  wages of the crew, six or seven men left as soon as this matter became
known.  Anticipating what would probably happen I arranged for a tugboat to
tug the ship to the "Heads".

Day  and night I positioned an armed policeman at each and every end of the
ship.   Nevertheless  the  swimmers still managed to get off.  All measures
taken  caused  great  expense.  When I put to sea, the Lady Clarke remained
behind  ready sail.  Without a soul on board but the captain.  I think that
-  carrying  his  mustering  roll  in  his  pocket  -  he was on his way to
Bathhurst thinking that he would be able to persuade some sailors to return
to the ship to be mustered.

The  sailors  who had stayed on in Sydney demanded �80 for the journey back
and  the guarantee that a ship would be provided for their immediate return
to  Sydney.   I  paid  five  to  six  pounds  per  month for the men that I

Yours very faithfully,
sgd . G . M. Hamilton."

A  huge  migration  wave  to  America  commenced and the shipowners foresaw
business opportunities.  In the following year the most extreme clippers to
leave  the  dockyards  of  Britain  were  built.  These Australian clippers
required  fine  lines for the journey across the Atlantic but they also had
to permit the use of sails during storms in the "Roaring Forties".  At this
time  the first clippers appeared.  The length-width ratio was increased to
7:1.   The masts became higher and amounted to almost two thirds of a ships

Usually  they  were  equipped  with  fully square sails and provided a sail
expanse  of up to 3,000 square metres with three masts.  Towards the end of
the  century  fully  rigged  ships  with  up  to five masts appeared and in
exceptional  cases had even six or seven masts.  From 1860 onwards the best
ships hulls were made of Iron.

The  end  of the big time of the clippers came with the opening of the Suez
Canal.  Due to the "stinking ditch" as the canal was unkindly called by the
sailors  the  Eastern route became also profitable for the steamships.  The
same consequences emerged due to the opening of the Panama Canal.  Although
it would still take until the end of the 19th century before the steamships
would  outnumber  sailing  ships, the end of sailing vessel shipping was in

A final upsurge in sailing vessel shipping was experienced at the beginning
of  the  seventies but the sailing ships could no longer keep pace with the
rapid  development  of the steamships.  The only clipper to survive was the
"Cutty  Sark" and she can still be seen as a relic of a past epoch in a dry
dock in London.

The American Schooners

Around  the  middle  of the 19th century an increasing number of steamships
were  used  by  America  for  coastal  trade.   The sailing ships were then
utilized  for  the transportation of heavy and bulky cargoes such as grain,
building  timber,  coal,  cotton  and  various  building  materials.   This
resulted in an increased demand for bigger schooners able to transport this
merchandise economically.  Up to the year 1870 mainly three- mast schooners
with  a  tonnage  of 1,000 were used.  Their construction was influenced by
the  American mainyard clippers.  Since they had been designed specifically
for  special  routes  and  cargoes,  with  low  building  and running costs
compared with the steamships and necessitating a small crew only, they were
quite capable of competing with the steamships.

From   1870   onwards  shipbuilding  switched  to  large  schooners.   Most
frequently  four-masters  up  to 1,500 t were built.  Five-masted schooners
above  2,000  t also proved popular and were built mainly with the overseas
trade  in  mind.   Barring a few exceptions these schooners were completely
made of wood.

The Steamships

The  combined  steam/sailing  ship  "Savannah" managed in 1819 to cross the
Atlantic  for  the  first  time under steam.  Oddly enough this machine was
operable  for  only 88 hours due to its heavy fuel requirements.  The glory
of  the  first  crossing  of  the  Atlantic  with the aid of a steam engine
belongs to the small steam ship "Sirius".  After she had put to sea at Cork
on  4th  April  1838,  she  arrived  at  New York on the 22nd April with 40
passengers  on  board.   She  nearly  failed to reach America when her coal
stock  ran  out  and  as  a  result  the captain ordered the burning of the
interior  equipment  and  the rigging.  This proved to be necessary since a
few  hours after the "Sirius" arrived, her rival the "Great Western" docked

The  struggle  for  power between sail and steam lasted virtually until the
turn  of  the century.  Although the steamships were largely independent of
wind  and  weather,  they  had  numerous shortcomings.  One of the greatest
problems was their enormous fuel requirement.  Due to the large quantity of
fuel needed the running costs of the steamships were much higher than those
of  the  sailing ships.  The opening of the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal
substantially reduced this disadvantage.

Power  derived from paddle wheels was a further weakness of the steamships.
Due  to  the consumption of combustable materials the ship rose even higher
out  of  the  water.   The paddle wheels then failed to reach their optimum
immersion  depth and the ship noticably lost more power.  In heavy seas the
paddle  wheels  dipped  irregular  and the controllerbility of the ship was
impaired.   Often  the  paddle wheels were severly damaged by the action of
waves.   It was common place for steamships to drift along on the high seas
for days in such a condition.

The  introduction  of  the  propellor which eliminated the disadvantages of
paddle  wheels  proved  to be a great step forward in nautical development.
But  even  this  new  innovation  there were still obstacles to be overcome
until mature conditions were completely attained.

For  a  long time the steamships were mainly used for coastal trade.  It is
true  to say that there were some well-known atlantic- crossing steamships,
but the majority only navigated short distances near the coast.

Only  after the opening of the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal the big hour
had struck for the steamships.

At  last  they  could  be  profitabley used for the Eastern voyages and for
shuffle  traffic along the Western and Eastern coasts of the United States.
In  spite  of  everything  there  was  only  a  tonnage  of 3.5 millions of
steamships  compared with an 18 million tonnage worldwide in the year 1880.
The  demise  of  the  sailing  ships loomed but did not actually take place
until  the end of the 19th century.  In the year 1900 the turning point was
reached  and  compared  with 16,000 steamships with a registered tonnage of
more  than  22  million worldwide there were only 12,000 sailing ships left
with  a  total  registered  tonnage of 6.5 million.  Within a century steam
power  had  ousted  the  sailing ships which had dominated for thousands of

Wood as a Burning Material

For   centuries   wood   had   been  the  material  traditionally  used  in
shipbuilding.   The  art  of  wood  processing  for  shipbuilding  had been
perfected  based on long tradition and experience.  Oak wood was considered
most  suitable  for  ships.   For the building of a ship huge quantities of
wood  were  required.   At the beginning of the 19th.  century one tonne of
wood  was  used  per  ship's  tonne.   In  the  case  of  warships the wood
requirement  was  double.   Half  of  the  wood,  however,  was lost during
processing.   Especially  in  Britain  good  wood  for  ships  became  very
expensive  in  the  19th  century  as the native forests had been depleted.
Therefore,  the  British  were forced to import oak wood from Canada or the
Adriatic  countries.   It  was,  therefore,  not surprising that Iron ships
increasingly gained importance in Britain.
For  large  ships massive wood thicknesses were required in order to obtain
the necessary strength of the hull.

The  larger  the  ship,  the  bigger the "forest" of spatial supports, side
keelsons  and  suspension  elbow  braces.   Stowing of the cargo, therefore
became a considerable problem.  Accordingly it was soon decided to use Iron
for  elbows, beams and spatial supports.  Due to the higher strength of the
material  it was possible to save space, This nmethod was mainly applied in
Great  Britain  whilst  the Americans continued to build their ships nearly
exclusively  out  of  wood.   As  a  result the American ships tended to be
somewhat larger than the British ones.  Whilst the English built few wooden
ships  over  1,000 t around the middle of the century, so many large wooden
ships  were  launched  in  America  that the launching of a such ships were
hardly  taken  notice  of.   The largest and most sensational ship built in
America  was the "Great Republic".  She was originally designed for 4,555 t
but following a fire shortly after completion she was modified to provide a
tonnage of 3,357.

Many  English  shipbuilders  bought  ships from the United States or Canada
during the time of the boom around 1850.

The English dockyards had the advantage that they did not have to cater for
larger  ships  so  that  there  was  still a demand for their similar ships
during the subsequent depression.

Ships Made From Iron

As with any other technical innovation, iron needed some time to prevail on
the  market  as  a  material for shipbuilding, Iron had been used in wooden
vessels  for  supports,  elbows and beams.  Regarding the fully rigged iron
ships  most  shipowners were very scepical in the beginning.  Moreover, the
manufacture  of  ships  from iron required re-thinking and traditional wood
shipbuilders  were  not  suited  to  the  task.   Accordingly  the  art  of
shipbuilding was mainly developed by former mechanical engineers.

The  advancement  a  of  the  iron  ships proceeded slowly but irresistably
around  1850.   More and more shipowners allowed themselves to be convinced
regarding   the   advantages   of  this  novel  construction  method.   The
shipbuilder  Alexander  Stephens  Jr.   described  in  1858  the  essential
advantages of an iron ship in listing the following five points:-

1. Prime cost lower than that of a ship made of wood of the same class.

2. In many ranges of voyages iron ships offered the advantage of ensuring 
   safer transportation.

3. Considerably greater loading capacity.

4. Durability.

5. Efficiency in maintenance. Elimination of high bills due to wood rot.

A  great  advantage was the increased loading capacity.  Due to leaving out
of many supports and beams which were required to give strength to a wooden
ship  more stowing room remained for the cargo.  Also it was easier to stow
the  cargo  than in the tangle of wooden hull supports.  The wall thickness
of a wooden ship were considerably thicker.

Estimates  revealed  that compared with a 500 t capacity of a wooden ship a
similar ship made of iron could carry 600 t.

A  further  considerable  argument  in  favour  of  iron  ships  was  their
stability.   An  iron  hull  could withstand greater stresses than a wooden

But  iron ships had their disadvantages, too.  Bilge water within the cargo
space  caused  corrosion.  A layer of Portland cement or asphalt was needed
to  prevent  this.   Difficulties  with  the ventilation of the cargo space
contaminated many a cargo in the early years.

A  special problem was the deflection of the compass caused by the quantity
of  iron  in  the hull.  Only the endeavours of scientists would eventually
solve this problem.

An especially annoying and persistant problem was the fouling at the bottom
of  the ship.  The iron of the hull seemed to attract sea pocks.  Often sea
pocks  were  removed  by  the  tonne from the bottom of a ship in dry dock.
Excessive  fouling  reduced the speed of a ship by three to four knots.  In
order  to  avoid this and to prevent more extensive damage an iron ship was
put  into  dry  dock  once  or  even twice a year so that the hull could be
scraped and provided with an anti-foul coat.

Due  to  the more easily attainable strength of the hull it was possible to
build  larger  ships.  In the case of iron ships the length width ratio was
increased  to  7:1.   Although iron could never replace wood in the case of
the  sailing ships, it finally made the breakthough in steamships from 1870

The Composite Clipper

An  extremely unpleasant characteristic of the iron ships was as previously
pointed  out  the  fouling  of the hull.  Especially in tropical waters the
iron  skin was particularly badly affected.  With wooden ships such fouling
was  largely avoided by copper plate protection.  From the year 1840 copper
was  substituted  by a copper zinc alloy which remained free of fouling for
up  to  ten  years.   Iron ships, however, could not be mounted with copper
since in salt water a galvanic corrosion occurs between iron and copper.

These difficulties resulted in the first trials of a composite construction
which was to combine the advantages of both construction methods.

The  identity  of  the  first  composite  ship  can  no  longer  be  safely
established.   In  general the steamship "Assam" completed in India in 1839
was  considered  the  first composite ship.  During the course of the years
many  patents existed in this field.  Each shipbuilder had his own designs.
Such  a  ship  consisted  mainly  of  iron  and  only the outer planks were
manufactured  of  wood.  The wooden planks were lined with copper or brass.
The  bar keel was made from wood.  A special skill was the fastening of the
wooden  planks  with  copper rivets which were not allowed to be in contact
with the iron.

From  1860  onwards  many excellent ships of this design were built such as
the "Taeping", the "Ariel", the "Sobraon", the "Thermopylae" and the "Cutty
Sark".   In  1861  the  Lloyds  Register  Committee  even  granted a higher
classification  for composite ships which further contributed to their high
reputation.   They were excellent ships but they did have one disadvantage.
They  were  so  expensive to build that not every shipowner could to afford
them.   Thus they remained much noticed and praised but they could not oust
either wooden or iron ships.

Shipyards and Shipbuilders

Shipbuilders  and  shipyards  were as well-known in the 19th century as the
automotive   manufacturers   of  today.   Their  products  were  noted  and
discussed.   One  must  not  forget in this connection that for practically
every  shipyard  the main business consisted of the building of small ships
well  below  1,000  tonnes.  Although we tend to read today about the large
and fast sailing ships, the daily bread for each shipyard was earned by the
building of normal small ships for the average shipowner.

One  of the most well known shipbuilders of his time was Donald McKay.  His
shipyard in Boston produced above average many famous and successful ships.
McKay was not only a gifted shipbuilder but he was also one of the first to
introduce  machinery  such  as steam-driven tilting saws and lathes.  These
machines  enabled him to reduce building time and keep his production costs
low.  His ships were well-known and respected everywhere and they were sold
throughout  the  world.   On  the  McKay shipyard the largest mainly wooden
construction ship "The Great Republic" was built.

Some of the best known ships of Donald McKay
were the following:-

GREAT   REPUBLIC   (4,555   t   and   3,357   t   respectively),   LIGHTING
(1,468t),JAMESBAlNES  (2,275t),  CHAMPION  OF  THE  SEAS  (1,947 t) and the
DONALD MCKAY (2,408 t).

Great  Britain's  most famous shipyard was that of Alexander Hall & Sons in
Aberdeen.   In  1830 the brothers James and William Hall took over the firm
from  their  father.   Their  fame began with the building of the "Scottish
Maid" in the year 1839.

She was completed in 1866 and sailed the seas until 1941.

She was the first ship with the exemplary Aberdeen bow.  The new hull shape
was  to  influence  a whole generation of fast sailing ships.  The ships of
this  design  were  very  fast  and  yielded  tax  advantages since the new
dimensioning  ruling  in  1836.   During many drag tests with true-to-scale
models  in  large  glass  tanks  the Hall brothers perfected their new hull
shape.  The ships painted in the traditional "Aberdeen Green" enjoyed great
popularity  all  over  the  world.   During  the  second  half of the 19th.
century  some  of  the  best iron sailing ships also came from the Aberdeen
shipyard.     Well-    known    ships   from   this   dockyard   were   the
following:-STORNOWAY  (527  t),  CHRYSOLITE  (440  t),  CAIRNGORM  (939 t),
SCHOMBERG  (2,284  t), REINDEER (965 t) SOBRAON (2,131 BRT) and the CALYPSO
(1,061 BRT).

In the port of Galveston in Texas one can still admire to this day the only
intact  sailing  ship of the Hall brothers.  This is the iron bark "Elissa"
with 430 BRT built in 1877.

This  ship was restored at a cost of one million dollars and since 1982 has
been sailing the seas in its original condition.

It  would  be  too  difficult  to mention here all good shipbuilders of the
19th.   century.   But  one  must  not forget the Alexander Stephens & Sons
shipyard in Scotland.  With the fully-rigged iron ship "Storm Cloud" a ship
was  launched  in  1854 which caught all eyes.  She was built in accordance
with  the  plans  of  Alexander Stephens at the shipyards own risk.  With a
long,  sharp  and  concave bow she was practicaily the transposition of the
wave theory by Russell.  In 1855 her sister ship "White Eagle" put to sea.

Another  well known shipbuilder was William Rennie.  He was co-owner of the
shipyard  of  Rennie,  Johnson & Rankine in Liverpool Among his other ships
the  "Sappho"  (359  t)  and  the  "Fiery Cross" (688 t) set speed records.
Despite these fast clippers the shipyard went bankrupt in 1855.

Some  of  the  best  clippers  originated  from  the  Robert  Steele  & Co.
shipyard.   These  tea clippers were built especially for the China voyages
and  they  achieved  some  of the fastest passages to and from China.  They
offered  the  advantage  of  sailing  quickly  in light winds as well as in
strong ones.  A tea race of "Taeping" against "Ariel" (both built by Robert
Steele)  made history.  The best ships from this dockyard were TAEPING (724
t),  ARIEL  (853  t), SIR LANCELOT (847 t) and TITANIA (880 t) all of which
were composite ships.

Fate of the Famous Ships

Ships  and  especially  sailing  ships, were credited with all possible and
impossible  characteristics, but never was a ship regarded by sailors as an
inanimate  object.   Many  stories about the proud sailing ships were told,
some  true  and  others  invented.   Each  ship had a special fate, often a
tragic  one.   Even  though the ships themselves have disappeared long ago,
their  stories and fame live on.  The life stories of some well-known ships
are descibed in more detail as follows

The Flight around Cape Horn

In  the  year  1848  the  whole of America was alarmed by the news "Gold in
California".   Within  a  shortest  possible  time  the  gold  fever seized
everybody  in  America.   Numerous  sections  of the population of the East
coast  dreamt of quick riches waiting for them on the West coast.  The only
obstacle,  however,  was  the  journey to the West.  Since the Journey over
land was not a practicable, this left only the sea voyage around Cape Horn.
At  the  time  of  the  gold  rush  innumerable  ships  were  built for the
transportation of people, equipment and provisions.

Such  a voyage promised enormous profit and it was, therefore, small wonder
that the shipyards were almost unable to cope with the orders.  For exactly
this  purpouse the 1,783 t "Flying Cloud" was built in 1851 in the dockyard
of Donald McKay in Boston.

She  put  to  sea  on  the  2nd, June 1851 at New York under Captain Josiah
Perkins  Creesy.  Heavy storms caused the ship problems.  With fine weather
restored,  she  reached  a run (the distance covered per day from midday to
midday  )  of  an  incredible  325  nautical miles at a maximum speed of 18
knots.  No other ship had sailed so fast up to that day.  With the absolute
and  unbeaten  time  of  89  days and 21 hours she put into the port of San
Fransisco under full sail.  As the gold a diggers and the sailors, who also
wanted  to  try  their luck in the gold fields were in a special hurry, the
sails were not reefed as usual upon entry in the harbour.

Some over-hasty people even jumped off board in order to avoid losing time.
The "Flying Cloud".  then crossed the Pacific Ocean, took on a cargo of tea
in Canton and returned to New York as a proud record holder.

The Great Tea Race

The  British had always been enthusiastic supporters of bets.  This betting
passion  was  also  practised  on  the  tea clippers and enormous sums were
placed on certain ships.  Generous premiums for the first cargo of tea of a
new  season  brought  ashore were paid for by the tea merchants and sold at
especially  high prices.  Thus real tea races took place every year between
the  fastest  ships.   The  last and most well known tea race took place in
1866.  Referred to in the history of shipping as the "Great Tea Race".

In May of this year 16 clippers were at anchor in Fu Tschou.  Five of these
ships  were  classed  as  favourites for the imminent race, namely the four
times winner "Fiery Cross", the "Taeping", the "Serica", the "Taitsing" and
the "Ariel"

With  great haste the first crates of tea were stowed away and on the 28th.
May  the  "Ariel" put to sea first with 1,108,000 pounds of tea aboard.  It
was  the  bad  luck  of  the ship that she had taken an unreliable pilot on
board.   She,  therefore,  lost  her  lead  and was overtaken by the "Fiery
Cross".   During  the  crossing  of  the Equator "Fiery Cross", "Ariel" and
"Taeping"  were  equally  placed even though they were out of sight of each

On  the 5th.  September "Ariel" and "Taeping" reached the coast of Southern
England  almost  at  the  same  time.   The  "Fiery Cross" had already been
beaten.   At  Dungerness the "Ariel" was the first ship to ask for a pilot.
The  captain of the "Taeping" was going to snatch away the pilot and only a
daring run in front of the bow on the pact of the "Ariel" prevented this.

But she was unlucky once again, this time with the tugboat which was to tow
her  up  the  Thames.   Helplessly the crew had to look on as the "Taeping"
went past.  She reached the London dock a few minutes before "Ariel"

According  to  the  rules however, the race was only then finished when the
last  crate  of  tea  was  brought ashore.  Tension was maintained.  In the
meantime  the  price  of  tea had dropped sharply in London.  Therefore the
owners  of  both  ships  agreed to share the premium before it was possibly
cancelled,  and  although  the  "Ariel"  had  unloaded  her cargo first the
"Taeping"  was  declared  the  winner.   During  this year over ten million
pounds  of  tea  were  brought  ashore  within a few days.  This caused the
prices  to  drop  to such an extent that a regular tea race was never again
staged.   However,  the  competitions  of  well-known ships for the fastest
voyage home were still held as before.

The  "Thermopylae"  was  designed by Bernard Waymouth and built in the year
1868  in  Aberdeen  by  Walter  Hood & Co.  She was a composite ship with a
length  of 64 metres and 947 t.  As an extreme clipper she reached a run of
348 nautical miles with a maximum speed of 26 knots.  She was planned to be
used as a China clipper for tea passages.

On  her  maiden voyage she broke all records in all sections.  She achieved
the  voyage from Fu Tschou to London (the famous tea run) in 91 days though
the  "Sir Lancelot" lowered this record two weeks later.  On her voyages to
Australia  she  normally  managed  in  69  days  and on her tea voyages she
reached  an  excellant  average  of  106.5  days.   This made her a typical
example of the beautiful and efficient clippers of composite design.

In  1887 her masts were shortened and in 1892 she was re-rigged to serve as
a  bark.   After  serving  as  a Portugnese training-ship she was sunk by a
Portuguese torpedo.

The Last Witness - the "Cutty Sark"

It  may  safely  be  said  that  the best known clipper today is the "Cutty
Sark".   She  is  also the only surviving clipper of the big time and tells
the  story  of  the  good  old days of the sailing ships in her dry dock in
Greenwich.   As an active ship she achieved the record, for her voyage from
Sydney to London in only 79 days.

She  was built in 1869 as an extreme clipper with a length of 64 metres and
921  t.  Towards the end of the second clipper boom she was one of the last
ships  built  for speed.  Although she was never brilliant during the China
voyages  her  trips  to  Australia were still remarkably fast.  In order to
reach full capacity, however, she still needed strong and constant winds.

In  1895  she was sold to Portugal and re named "Ferreira".  Captain Dowman
bought  her in 1922 and refurbished the rigging which had been altered.  In
1954  she  went into her own dry dock in Greenwich once again under her own
name  "Cutty  Sark"  and  she has been preserved as a national monument for
admiring future generations as the only surviving extreme clipper.

The Unlucky Giant

The  steamer  "Great  Eastern"  was  to impress the world.  Designed by the
famous  Sir Isambard Kingdom Brunel this ship was ahead of its time by over
forty  years.   The  building of this "Giant of the Seas" began in 1854 Her
length  came  to a ledgendary 211 metres.  She had two paddle wheels with a
diameter of 17 metres and a 7.3 metre propellor at the stern.  Five funnels
and  six  masts  with  a sail expanse of 5,400 square metres.  Based on ten
watertight sections and a double bottom the ship was to be made unsinkable.
Indeed  she  never  sank  despite  all the misfortune she suffered the only
thing the "Great Eastern" did not have was good luck.

Misfortune began when one day a riverter and an apprentice disappeared, The
workers  believed  that  both  had  been  encased  in  the double bottom by
accident  where  the  riveting hammers drowned their cries for help.  Their
request  to  open  up  the bottom once again was rejected for cost reasons.
From  that  time  onward  the  ship  was  hounded  by  bad luck.  The first
launching took three months.

All  manner  of  things  happened until in the end the giant floated on the
Thames.  The first company were declared bankrupt because of increased iron
prices  and  the  second  was  ruined by the cost of the fittings.  The day
before the ship sailed Brunel collapsed with a stroke during a photographic
session.   He  died  a  week  later at the age of 53.  On the same day five
people  died  when  a  funnel  exploded  during the transfer trip.  Besides
everything  else  the  captain drowned when his boat capsized on the way to
the  landing  stage.   Since  such  an accident before or during the maiden
voyage  was  a bad omen the reputation of a jinxed ship stuck to the "Great
Eastern".  The third company also pulled out.

The  famous  shipowner Sir Samuel Cunard then took over the ship as the new

At last on the 16th June 1860 the "Great Eastern" started her maiden voyage
with  only  38  paying  passengers  and  a  crew  of  418 men aboard, not a
profitable undertaking.  However, her arrival in New York was celebrated by
thousands  of  enthusiastic  people.   An  outing was arranged and enormous
prices  were  charged  but  only  300  beds  were  available  for  the 2000
passengers.   The  outing  was  eventful  with  a  burst  pipe spoiling the
provisions  and  due to a navigational error the "Great Eastern" went badly
off course.

On  the  return voyage to England the series of mishaps continued.  A drive
shaft  broke  down,  two  people  drowned  when  "The Great Eastern" became
entangled  with  the  hawser  of  a small ship and as a conclusion she also
rammed  the "Blendheim".  She crossed the North Atlantic for four years and
was involved in accidents again and again causing enormous repair costs.

In  1864  Cunard gave up as well and auctioned the ship off at a ridiculous
price  which did not even cover cost of the last repair.  She was converted
to a cable-laying ship for the first undersea cable from Europe to America,
but  when  special  cable-laying  vessels  were  built in 1874 she was sold

In  1888  she  was  finally  scrapped  with  the  aid of specially designed
tooling.  To the horror of the workers the skeletons of the riveter and his
apprentice  who  had  disappeared  were, indeed found in the double bottom.
Everybody  was  now convinced that the dead were the reason for the lasting
bad  luck of the "Great Eastern".  It was not until 1899 that a larger ship
was built again.

The  layman  often  looks  upon  sailing  ships as untidy vessels which are
burdened  with useless ropes and undefinable rigging.  In reality extremely
strict  order  prevails.   Even  the  smallest  part has its place and each
manual  function  has  to be carried out in a certain manner.  Only in this
way was it possible to carry out vital manoeuvres practically blind, in the
night  or  in  heavy  seas.   Even  on  ships with dubious crews, order was
maintained  since  every  sailor  knew  that  his life could depend on such
order.   He  had to be able to rely on everything being in the proper place
in  the  same  way that he relied on the man before him having fixed a rope
properly  when  he  balanced at giddy heights above stormy seas.  It was no
problem  for the sailor to recognise and name the innumerable elements of a
sailing  ship  right off the bat.  Also the non seafaring population of the
19th  century  was  quite  able to tell the difference between a bark and a
fully  rigged  ship.  One could tell sailing ships apart in the same way as
nearly everybody can make a distinction between leading car makes nowadays

Life on Board

There  is  much to report on about life aboard a ship even though there are
not  many  authentic  contemporary  reports  available.   Additionally  the
reports of that time are romantically coloured and exaggerate or understate
the  dangers  and joys of life aboard One has to bear in mind that shipping
in  the  19th century and everything connected with it was very much in the
centre  of public interest.  Departure schedules were always issued and the
deeds of famous captains were constantly talked about.

Work on Mailships

Nowadays  it  is often presumed that the profession of a sailor required no
qualifications,   but   in   actual  fact  it  was  a  very  demanding  and
instructional profession in which one had to learn everything from scratch.
Captains  especially,  who  in  most cases started their career as ordinary
sailors, were extremely respected persons.

To  work  on  mail ships men of special calibre were required.  They had to
carry  out  hard  work even in bad weather, put up with bad food and little
sleep and often suffer rough treatmnent from a strict captain.

To  run  a  mail  ship  required two to three dozen such men.  The crew was
responsible  to  the  captain,  the  first coxswain and the second coxswain
Additionally  a  carpenter,  a cook a boatswain, some cabin boys and one or
two  stewards belonged to the crew.  A capable sailor had to be well versed
in many a trade.  He had to be able to handle sails, booms and ropes, forge
hooks  and rings and work as a carpenter or weaver during repair jobs.  The
sailors  work, therefore, was in no way limited to setting and hauling down
The crew was split into two watches taking turns.  In charge was always one
of  the  two coxswains.  One sailor had to be at the helm at all times.  In
stormy  seas  it  was  often  necessary for two sailors to hold the rudder.
They had to brave the waves beating over board and sometimes they faced the
danger  of  being  washed  over  board.  The crows nest too, at the bow was
constantly  manned.   This was a pleasant job in fine weather but pure hell
in  bad  weather.   Part of the crew was continually busy doing maintenance
work.   To  knock  rust off the anchor was frequently a punishing job.  The
most monotonous of all work, however, was the scrubbing of the deck.  Every
morning  this work was carried out at the commeucement of the morning watch
at  04.00 hours.  It was considered to be a matter of honour to execute all
work   without  objections  and  grumbling.   In  order  to  ease  frequent
monotonous  work  the  sailors  sang  appropriate songs.  For each activity
there  was a rhythmic shanty which exactly sited the rhythm of the work and
was  often  over  one  hundred years old.  Especially popular and respected
were the sailors who were able to incorporate in the words of the songs the
char- acteristics of individual crew members.

Normally  the  watch  was  relieved  every four hours.  In his leisure time
there  was hardly any diversity for the sailor.  When there was a storm the
rest  period  was  often  interrupted  by the shout "All Men".  In spite of
hardship  and  danger  the sailors on mail ships earned very little.  Since
most  of  them  spent  there  money  on alcohol and women, only few sailors
managed  to provide for old age.  Therefore, in most cases sailors ended up
as dossers in some seaport town.

Few  were  offered  the  possibility  of promotion from sailor to coxswain.
Most  officers  on  mail  ships  were  ordinary sailors before.  The second
coxswain  could  possibly  be  promoted  to  first  coxswain,  Usually such
promotion  was effected at the age of thirty years.  The first coxswain was
responsible  for  navigation  and cargo.  Beyond that he had to have a wide
all  round  knowledge  in  order  to  take  the  place of the captain in an
emergency.   Approximately  every third coxswain could hope to be given the
position  of captain, but whoever was not a captain by the age of 35 years,
remained  third  coxswain  and  normally  turned  out  to  be a very strict

Old Salts of the Land

After  months of hard work and having been cooped up on a ship, the sailors
craved for any kind of fun.  One voyages pay was nearly always spent in one
day   on   alcohol   and  prostitutes.   The  seaport  towns  offered  many
opportunities  to spend money.  Around the harbour the place was alive with
inns, cheap and nasty theatres and brothels.
Numerous  public  houses invited you to indulge in enormous drinking bouts.
The  different  entertainment  places  outbid  each  other in an attempt to
promote  business  with  the  sailors.   It is mentioned in reports about a
famous  Liverpool  establishment  that  their  patrons  could  inhale  from
containers  filled  with  laughing gas in order to get them into a euphoric
and generous mood after a few puffs.

Among  the  entertainment  establishments  there were the pawnbrokers shops
easily  recognisable by three golden-coloured balls by the door.  Often the
last  pair  of  trousers were pawned here in order to obtain money for last
drink.  Tattooing salons also offered their services.  The sailors liked to
have  their  upper  bodies and arms decorated with all imaginable pictures.
Especially  popular  was  a big cross which was to take care of a Christian
burial in the event that the corpse was washed up on some heathen coast.

As  soon  as money ran short the pleasures came to a sudden end.  Often the
insolvent  sailors  were  handed over by the pub landlords to agents.  When
once  sober the sailor found himself on a strange ship putting to sea.  The
landlord and the agent received a payment for this which was later deducted
from the sailors wages.

Last Anchorage

Most  sailors  failed  to  manage  to provide for their old age.  The purse
strings  were  far  too  loose during stays on land with alcohol, women and
pleasures  too  tempting.   The  sailors  finished up as dossers in seaport
towns  and  often  died  on the street.  With effect from 1833 a protective
haven  was  offered to sailors by the Sailors Snug harbour which provided a
chance  for  pleasant and Secure retirement.  This Sailors home was founded
on Staten Island and it was financed with the estate left by the ship owner
John Randall.  Its objective was to take care of old and needy sailors.

"They  took  me  in  because I am a cripple.  They washed and shaved me and
gave  me  a  room which was as clean as the captahis cabin on a warship and
they  said' Here you will be well and safely looked after for good!".  Thus
wrote a sailor in his memoirs who found refuge in Snug Harbour.

The  destitute  sailors were accommodated in comfortable rooms and provided
with  good  food.   A  doctor  and a nurse looked after their physical well
being.   With  different  kinds  of work the sailors were able to earn some
welcome  pocket  money.   Alcohol  was  absolutely  taboo for the residents
inside  and outside the home.  Violation of this rule was punished with the
withdrawal of the chance to work, house arrest or smoking ban.  There was a
similar  punishment  for  non-  attendance of church services.  Most people
accepted  their obligations willingly since it secured for them a protected
and pleasant retirement.

The Life of the Captains

As  no  other, the profession of a captain was surrounded by romantic charm
during  the 19th.  century.  The representatives of this profession enjoyed
a  high  social prestige and associated with well situated circles.  It was
quite  customary  to invite captains to social gatherings of the so- called
high  society.   For  especially  fast crossings or other achievements, the
captains  as  well  as their ships received praise in the newspapers.  Many
people  sought out their company and some passenger planned their voyage in
such a way that they could be at sea with their favourite captain.

The captains of mail ships led a pleasant and luxurious life on land.  Many
of  them were the owners of magnificent mansions and they stayed at elegant

Even  their  attire  displayed  a certain elegance.  The mail ship captains
earned  especially  good  money  as they shared in the considerable profit.
For  example  they  received  prime  money  amounting  to 5 % approx of the
freight  charges  as  well  as  25  % of the fares of the passengers.  Some
captains  even  received  the  whole  charge  of mail consignments.  It was
customary  on  many ships to place at the captains disposal a small part of
the  cargo  space  to  enable  him to conduct his own business.  Therefore,
their earnings were often thirty times as much as those of a sailor.

But  such  money  has  to  be well-earned in the first place.  Although the
captain  could delegate such tasks to his coxswains, the responsibility was
always his.  In order to adhere to sailing times or to break the reeords of
other  ships  and captains, each bit of sail had to be raised.  In doing so
the ship was not to be seriously damaged.  Frequently daring decisions were
called for which verged on the narrow edge between irresponsibility and the
pleasure  in  taking risks.  The necessity to get the ship ahead all of the
time  was  such  an ordeal for mail ships' captains that hardly any captain
stood  the  pace  of transatlantic routes longer than five years.  Upon the
first  signs  of  a drop in performance a captain would be dismissed by the
shipowner.   Therefore,  many  captains  left voluntarily before it came to
this.  If savings sufficed, a captain could go into retirement.

Many  captains took on new activities such as ships inspector for insurance
companies or advisor to shipbuilders.

Captain  H.   Marshall  was the proverbial exception to the five year rule.
The  gruff and cantankerous captain spent altogether 27 years at sea and he
was  a  mail  ship  captain for 12 years.  He was born in the son of an old
whaler family Nantucket.  At the age of 24 year he was already appointed as
captain  of  the 350 t ship "Julius Caesar ".  During his course of duty he
distinguished himself as a great go getter.  In 1822 he commenced duty as a
mail  captain  with  the  Black  Ball  Line.  In 1834 he acquired the major
portion  of  shares within the company, settled in New York and managed the
business  from  there.   He was a famous example of how far a captain could

Another  famous  captain  was Samuel Samuels.  So many passengers wanted to
sail  with  this  infamous man that tickets for his ship had to be booked a
season  in  advance.   With his 1,400 ton luxury mail ship "Dreadnought" he
sailed the transatlantic route

Samuels  made  the  shipping agents a unique offer.  He was so convinced of
being  able  to adhere to the running times that he offered to pay back the
freight charges in case the cargo was not delivered on time.  Supposedly he
never  faced  the  embarrassing  situation  of having to fulfill his offer.
Sailors  often  rumoured  that Captain Samuels probably knew a secret route
between New York and Liverpool.

Another famous captain was Nathaniel Brown Palmer affection- ately known as
Captain  Nat.  The man from Connecticut went to sea for the first time when
he was 14 years old and he became captain of the mail ship "Garrick" at the
age  of  38.  Furthurmore he was a partner of the Dramatic Line which owned
this  ship.   When  in  the  harbour  of  New  York he liked to display his
nautical skills.

Whilst  all  the  other ships arranged for the putting into and leaving the
port  to  be made easier by using tug boats, he insisted on sticking to the
old  method of sailing into and out of the harbour under his own power with
great  public  interest.  In 1840 he managed the crossing from Liverpool to
New  York  in only 15 days with the "Siddon".  This record was never broken
by another mail ship.

Travel in The Luxury Class

Cabin  passengers  could  expect  the sort of luxury on their travels which
compared  with the better hotels.  So reports an enthusiastic journalist in
1843  after  inspecting  a  mail ship's facilities.  No salon or boudoir on
land  displays  better white and gold colours, as in the time of Ludwig XIV
or  XV,  the  dining  room of the "Marco Polo" as follows:- "The ceiling is
panelled  with  maple  wood and the square support columns are encased with
decorated  and  silver-plated glass on which coins from different countries
represent a novelty".

Both the furnishings and the meals were lush and extravagant.  According to
a  contemporary  report  the  breakfast served at nine o'clock consisted of
"Black  tea,  coffee,  biscuits,  fish,  chicken,  lamb  and  eggs".  Lunch
consisted  of a large selection of cold meats.  The main meal was served at
four o'clock in the afternoon and often lasted hours.

On  the  menu  were  "Soups,  fresh  lamb,  beef,  pork and sometimes veal,
chicken,  bacon,  plum pudding, preserves and cakes".  For desert different
nuts  and  frits  were  served  and  drinks such included Madeira, Port and
Bordeaux,  Frequently real champagne was put onto the table.  On some ships
dinner  was  served  again  at seven o'clock.  In the period between meals,
which  must  have been short for some passengers, there were different ways
to  pass the time.  A popular pastime was chasing rats and also shooting at
bottles  with  rifles  or pistols.  Sometimes daring passengers, would jump
overboard  and  swim  around  the  ship.   On  some  ships  there were even
orchestras,  Then  of  course  there  were  popular games such as draughts,
dominoes,  chess,  backgammon, whist and poker.  At that time the custom of
placing  bets  on  the  number  of  kilometres  sailed  per  day  was  also
introduced.   If famous actors were on board, for instance Tyrone Power who
crossed  the  Atlantic  often,  private  performances  contributed  to  the
entertainment of the passengers.  The fun and the pleasure was spoiled only
during dead calm or storm.

In  such  situations  the  sea  voyage  could  be  torture  for  even cabin

Pilot on Board

On  the  open sea countless dangers lurked for the ship.  But these dangers
were  not  over  when  approaching  a  port.   Entering port represented an
obstacle  run  between  shifting  sandbanks  and changing currents with the
constant  risk  of  running aground.  Especially demanding for the captains
was  the  port  of New York, a distance of 25 miles from the fireship Sandy
Hook  to the piers on the East river.  Therefore, most captains made use of
a  harbour  pilot to ensure safe entry.  These pilots knew everything about
shallows   and  currents.   They  managed  to  cope  well  with  the  often
temperamental  winds and they could tell a sandbank which had shifted after
a  storm  by  slight  changes  in the colour of the water.  Correspondingly
their judgment was highly appreciated.  With the subtle intuition they knew
how to guide the ships entrusted to them safely into the harbour.

With effect from 1837 the New York Harbour Authority made it compulsory for
ships to take a pilot aboard prior to entering New York harbour and imposed
a fine on every captain who entered without one.

As  soon  as the fireship "Sandy Hook" was sighted the captain called for a
pilot by using flare signals.  With up to eighteen pilot boats continuously
cruising  off  the  coast, three to four boats would immediately set course
for  the  ship  wishing to be put into port.  Races often took place as the
pilot who reached the ship first was always awarded with the assignment.

Depending  on the size of the ship, the pilot demanded 20 to 25 dollars for
his  work.   Many pilots brought along the latest newspapers, fresh laundry
for  the  captain  and  also  freshly  caught  fish The pilots did not take
command  of  the ship, but the captain based his instructions on the advice
of  the  pilot.   Slowly but surely they then proceeded in the direction of
the  port.   The  pilots  did  not  attach any importance to speed as their
reputation  depended  only on how safely they guided their ships into port.
A  voyage  from  Sandy  Hook to the harbour normally lasted 24 hours but it
could take days or even weeks in storms.

Catastrophes at Sea

Mail  ships  were  very  much endangered at sea.  This was not because they
were  built  badly,  but  because  the captains often had to take, risks in
order to adhere to the running times For a mail ship, bad weather was not a
reason to heave to, or to delay the start the voyage

On  the  1st April 1822 the 434 ton mail ship the "Albion" left the port of
New  York.  She was a robustly built and well-proved ship serving the Black
Ball  line,  sailing under the command of Captain John Williams.  He was 37
years old and at the height of his career.  He was the unofficial commodore
on  the  Black  Ball  fleet.  Within the excellent time of 21 days the ship
reached  the  Irish  coast  in  pleasant  weather  But  then the visibility
deteriorated  and  white  squalls  appeared.  Towards the evening the storm
changed  to hurricane conditions and the ship was seized by a huge wave and
slung to the side.  Many passengers were injured and the main mast, the top
of  the  mizzen  mast  and  the  front  of  the  Marsstenge broke off.  The
lifeboats,  the  deckhouse,  quarterdeck  equipment, compasses and all axes
were washed overboard.  Six crew members and passengers were swept into the
sea.   Without  the  rudder  the  ship  was no longer controllerble and was
carried  by  the waves.  At about one o`clock in the morning the end was in
sight.  The captain declared the ship lost.  The first coxswain said later:
"At  that  moment our situation was undescribable.  I dare not think of the
horror nor do I want to tell the details".

At  three o`clock in the morning the "Albion" crashed against some rocks on
the  shore.  The ship broke apart, the captain was swept overboard and came
to an end in gale-lashed sea.

Only  a  few  people managed to escape to the cliffs where they held on for
dear  life.  It was only after several hours that the storm abated and some
helpers  managed to free the survivors from their precarious situation with
the aid of ropes.

The  seas  proved  their power in other ways, too.  Some ships for instance
disappeared without trace on high seas.  In November 1844 the 650 t "United
States"  and  a  week  later  the  729  t "England" left Liverpool harbour.
Although  both  ships  were  considered  reliable they never arrived in New
York,  their destination.  On the 7th.  March 1845 they were finally listed
as missing.

On  the  24th  August  1848  the  1,301  t  "Ocean Monarch" put to sea from
Liverpool.   There were large quantities of cargo and nearly 400 passengers
on  board.  Still in the channel the ship met with the 1,404 t "New World".
A  race  between both ships was imminent.  But round about lunchtime a fire
broke  out in the rear section of the ship.  Within a short time the entire
aft  the rear of the ship was burning.  All attempts to extinguish the fire
achieved  nothing.  Two boats could be lowered into the water and the first
coxswain,  some  crew  members  and  some  passengers  were  able  to  save
themselves.  The other boats burned before they could be lowered But it was
a  blessing  in  disguise that the "Ocean Monarch" was still close to shore
where  many  ships  were  about.   The life boats of these ships fished the
survivors  out  of  the  water.  The ship was completely destroyed by fire.
Nearly half the passengers and crew lost their lives, but the reminder were

In most cases the insufficient number of life boats was responsible for the
tragic outcome of many a disaster at sea.  If one had secured a much sought
after place in the boat, this did not mean ultimate safety.  The boats were
often  overloaded  and liable to sink.  Often macabre fights developed in a
boat  promising salvation.  Especially horrible is the story of a life boat
on  the  "William  Brown" which collided with an iceberg in June 1841.  The
life  boat,  over  which  coxswain  Alexander  Holmes had taken command was
hopelessly overloaded.  Holmes ordered the crew to throw sixteen passengers
overboard.   The  first  to  go  over-  board  was a man called Frank Carr.
Despite his fervent pleas to have mercy on him, he was thrown into the sea.
Horrified,  his  youngest sister Mary called:  "If you throw him out, throw
me  out  as  well.  I want to die in the same way as my brother.  Please do
not  separate  me from my brother." Promptly she was taken at her words and
also  thrown overboard without hesitation, together with another sister.  A
little  later  the  life boat was sighted by a ship and the passengers were
taken  aboard.   The  witness  accounts  of  the  surviving  and  horrified
passengers later led to the conviction of Holmes for manslaughter

The Lifeboat Pioneer

Life  boats  were not built to withstand rough handling.  Many were wrecked
during  hectic  lowering  onto  the  water.   Furthermore,  they  were  not
seaworthy  on  stormy  waters.   They keeled over easily and high waves the
boats to sink quickly.

Joseph  Francis  from  Boston dedicated his life to the improvement of life
boats.   At  the age of eighteen he won a prize for designing an unsinkable
rowing boat, the bow and the stern of which were filled with cork.

He  went  to  New York to find buyers for his invention and to continue his
work  on  better life boats.  Up to 1837 his success was very modest but in
that year he introduced his newest invention to the public and the press in
a spectacular way.  His new boat had cork chambers at the bow and the stern
and  also  additional  air  chambers  made  from  copper  at  the sides and
underneath  the benches.  On the sides lifelines made it possible for up to
40 persons to hang onto the boat.  The boat was turned around and the water
drained  away  quickly through the perforated bottom.  Attempts to sink the
boat failed.  Following this demonstration and other similar and successful
ones, Francis was able to look forward to a secure future.  Already in 1840
it  was  compulsory  for  all American warships to have Francis' life boats
aboard.   During  the  following  years  he  perfected  his  life  boat  by
substituting metal for wood.

His next invention was a recovery vehicle.  It was to facilitate the saving
of  passengers  from  ships aground close to a coast.  To date it was often
not  possible  to  reach  these ships from the shore since the rescue boats
would have been destroyed in the stormy surf

The  new rescue vessel was an enclosed metal boat with space for up to five
persons.   By  means  of  a hawser harpooned from the shore to the ship the
vessel was securely pulled along above the raging sea.

The Pioneer of Steam Shipping

In the first years of mail boat shipping it was taken into consideration as
to whether steamships could fulfil their task in a better and more rational
way.   They  were  of  course  largely independent from the wind and it was
widely  believed  that  their  machines would not withstand the stresses of
such a voyage.

Junius  Smith  believed in steam ships and wanted to open a steam ship line
across  the  Atlantic.   He  travelled  across to New York in order to find
financial  backers  for  his  undertaking.   Greatly  disappointed,  by the
unwillingness  of New York financiers to take risks, he returned to London.
In  the  end  he  found financial backers for his project.  Subsequently he
founded,  in  1835, the British and Ameriean Steam Navigation Company.  The
first  ship  was  completed  in 1838.  She was the 1,850 t "British Queen".
But  competition  was  not  napping  either.   The  great Western Steamship
Company founded one year later also planned a crossing of the Atlantic with
the  "Great  Western",  Smith  had  to charter the small steamship "Sirius"
which  arrived  in New York on the 23rd April 1838 as the first ship having
crossed the Atlantic with steam drive only.

She arrived barely eight hours before the "Great Western"
Thereafter  the  "British  Queen" sailed on the London-New York route.  For
her  voyage  to  the  West  she  took  16  days on average and in the other
direction two days less.
Many  sailing ships took twice as long for this run.  The greatest coupe of
junius  Smith was the commissioning of the "President" in 1840 With 2,866 t
she  was  the  biggest  and  proudest  ship.  Subsequently Junius Smith the
daring  innovator, was showered with honours Rumour had it that he was even
to be knighted.

But  in  1871  the  "President"  sunk.  All 136 crew members and passengers
died.   Among  the  passengers  were such famous persons as the Irish actor
Tyrone  Power.  This disaster in shipping occurred and not on the seas.  On
the  16th  December  1835  a  fire  broke  out  in  the business quarter of
Manhattan.   Starting in a warehouse a devastating fire developed.  Due too
strong  winds  the  fire  spread  rapidly.   Additionally the hydrants were
frozen  so  that  the  fire brigade had to look on almost helplessly.  Most
captains  suceeded  in taking their ships to the open sea before the flames
reached the pier.  Only few ships caught fire.

On  land  the  owners of warehouses had to look on as their properties were
consumed  by  fire.   There  was  unimag inable chaos.  Within 24 hours 674
buildings  were destroyed.  It was only on the next day that the fire would
be brought under control.


Operations From 1869

Sucess  of  course does not come about by itself.  A ship owner of the last
century  had  to  be  well  informed in many areas.  Not only the knowledge
about the secrets of trading ensure success but also an excellent knowledge
in  the  field  of  shipbuilding,  types of ships, running a ship, nautical
science,  readiness  to  take  risks, and last but not least being informed
about  the  political and economical situation of the world were absolutely
essential for the running of a shipping firm.

As  1869 includes true historic events, it is important to spend one or two
hours  of your leisure time reading this handbook.  In so doing you will be
able to appreciate the finer points of 1869 and give you a competitive edge
over rival "shipowners".  For example at the time of the American Civil War
your  competitors  may  be trying unsuccessfully to buy cotton in Savannah,
you  may  have  long  seen the signs of the times and ordered your merchant
fleet to go to more profitable and safe ports.

In 1869, as in life generally, "Knowledge is Power"

Installing 1869
PC Version
The  PC  version cannot be played from floppy disk.  2.4 MB are required to
be free on the hard disk.

For  installing purposes please insert the disk in a disk drive.  Now start
the installation program INSTALL.  BAT.  from that drive.

During  the  installation you are given the possibility of entering another
index path.  As a standard 1869 is installed on hard disk C in directory C:

Disk A is in disk drive A and 1869 is to be installed on hard disk C.

- Enter A:/INSTALL
- Upon the question for the desired installation path press 
- Insert disk B on request.

Start the game with the following entry:-
C:\M-Design\ 1869 

AMIGA Version
If  you  wish  to play 1869 from the disk, insert disk A in the disk drive.
Now  switch  on  your  computer or call from the workbench the 1869 Icon by
double click.

You  may  also  install  1869  on  the  hard  disk.   For this purpose call
INSTALL-ICON from your workbench.  For the start of the game call 1869-Icon
from the work bench.

Start of the Game

Upon  the  start of the game you have the following possibilities regarding
selection and entry:

You can select whether you wish to play with the mouse or via the keyboard.
(Mouse operation is recommended).

New or Old Game
If  you  begin  a  new  game, press the space bar.  In order to load an old
game.  press J.  You can then select the game from previously stored games.

Number of Players
Enter the number of players.  Up to four players may take part

Name of player
Here  you  can enter your name.  You will also be addressed by this name by
the  layers  coming  up  in  the  game.   It  goes without saying that such
pseudonyms as Captn.  Hook are also permissible.

In  order to ensure that you are correctly addressed by merchants, dockyard
owners and bank directors you should state your sex here.

Name of Firm
Now you should give your rapidly flourishing and growing firm an attractive

Location of Firm
Select  where  the  principal town of your firm is to be.  In this town you
will  have your company office and also your first store.  Each of the five
towns  for  selection  have  their  advantages and disadvantages which will
become evident as you progress.
When all players have completed their details you will be asked whether all
details  are to your satisfaction.  If this is so, then there is nothing in
the way to begin a thrilling and entertaining game.

The Ship Auction

For  more than one player 1869 begins with a ship auction.  Many favourable
bargains  can  be  had here, but care is needed as many a player has ruined
himself at the start by aggressive over-bidding.

A  ship is called up by the auctioneer at a minimum price.  Each player can
now participate in bidding by clicking his players name.  Thereby the offer
increases  by  fixed  values.   The name of the player offering the most at
this  time  is  displayed.  If there is no more bidding for a certain time,
then the highest bidder receives the addition.

The  auction  can  be speeded up with the ESC key.  The highest bidder will
receive the addition immediately and the auctioneer continues with the next
ship.  If there are no bids for a ship then there is no sale.

An  auction also takes place when a player has ordered a ship but is unable
to  make payment.  The completely built ship which has not been paid for is
released  by  the  shipyard  for auction.  Some time before the date of the
auction  each  player  receives  notification  enabling  him  to  be at the
location of the auction in time.

You  may  only participate in an auction if you are present at the location
of  the  auction  either on a ship or in a branch office ensuring of course
that  on this ship or in this branch office sufficient funds are available.
Auctions  prove  again  and again to offer a popular opportunity to acquire
cheap and good ships.

Fast Entry for the Impatient

Successful  shipowners distinguish themselves by showing patience, control,
and  readiness  to take risks and the instinct to know the right moment for
action.   However,  for  the very impatient player we have a few tips for a
quick entry to the game.

First  go  to  the  shipyard  and buy a second hand ship.  When the ship is
yours, go to the tavern, not to drink of course, but to hire a Crew for the
ship.   The  landlord  of  the  tavern  is pleased to give assistance.  The
quality  of  the crew should match the quality of the ship.  It takes a few
days  for  the  landlord to drum up the crew.  In the meantime you may take
money  from  the  warehouse  to the ship since merchandise always has to be
paid  for  on  the  spot.  Since it is not your intention to go on pleasure
trips  you  are urgently advised to call at the office in order to purchase
goods.   Only  with  a  relevant  cargo in the ships hold does she become a
trading vessel.

Do  not  go  on  excessively long voyages to start with.  Call only at safe
ports  and  trade merely with safe goods.  Your ship should always be fully
loaded  since  half  filled  ships  can ruin a company in a short period of

Game Aims

In  the single-player mode it is the aim of your game to be included in the
"List  of  the Best" after a certain number of years.  In the multi- player
mode  there  is  the possibility of a "knockout" victory if all competitors
have  been  eliminated.   Winning can also be defined as the player who has
the strongest company after the end of playing time.
The  main chart is the central control element of the trading simulation in
1869.   From  here you manage your world-spanning company, direct ships and
enlarge your trade empire,

By simply clicking on sections of the chart you get comfortably and quickly
into  the  individual  action  screens.  The chart consists of a large main
field  which  depicts one of the four continents of the world and different
control parts, the importance of which are explained in the following.

Name of Firm
This  is  the  name  of the active firm which is taking its turn during the
present move of the game.

The actual date may be taken from this calendar.

Clicking  the  calendar  finishes one's current move.  With only one player
participation,  the  calendar  flicks  to  the  next event.  When there are
several  players  the  next  players  move  in turn.  When all players have
completed  their  moves, the calendar goes on to the next event.  Now it is
the turn of the player whom the occurring event concerns.  Subsequently all
the other players may participate in the game.

There  are  the  following events:- A ship has put into harbour, a ship has
been completely rebuilt or repaired, a hired crew has come aboard or a crew
is completely rested after a break in the harbour.
Ship's Control
If one clicks the ship with the left mouse key one enters the ship dispatch

If  one  clicks  the  ship  with the right mouse key the ship status screen
appears  with  the  information  and  sets possibilities with regard to the
condition of the ship, cargo and crew.

Actual Capital in Cash
Here  you  see  at  a  glance  how  much  actual  cash  is at your disposal
currently.   This  includes  all  cash in branch offices and on ships, Each
player begins with a capital of $7,000.

By  clicking  the  relevant continent the view in the main field changes to
that desired continent.

There are four continents, namely North America/South America, Europe/North
Africa, Africa/ South Asia and Asia/Austrailia.  The views overlap a little
to permit optimum operations.

By  clicking  the  symbol  you can enter the Bank and take out new loans or
extend existing ones.

Clicking  this  symbol  leads  to  a  memorial  tablet on which the eternal
records  of  crossings  are retained.  It is the dream of every captain and
shipowner of course to see the name of his ship on this tablet.

Balance sheet
This  is  an extensive listing of the firms expenditure.  It offers a means
of drawing comparisons between individual firms.

Here  you are given the possibility to load or store positions in the game,
to switch on or off messages and to end the game.

This symbol indicates a ship lying in the port which is available.

Branch Office
If  one  has  a  branch office or head office in the port the relevant port
symbol is indicated by a flag.

If  there is no ship of one's own, branch office or head office in the port
clicking  of this symbol causes a view of the port to appear as well as the
information  window  showing  the name of the current town, its main export
goods and the political state of the country.

By  clicking  on  a port, with the mouse, where you have either a ship or a
branch office, you get to the office.

If  click  such  a  port with the right mouse key, a symbol listing appears
with up to four possibilities of selection.

The information panel belonging to the port appears.

Beer Jug
Enables  you  to  visit the tavern in the port where one can hire crews and
also pick up some useful tips

This  symbol leads to the shipyard.  The symbol only appears in the case of
ports with a shipyard.

Allows  you to go to the store or the head office.  The symbol appears only
in the case of ports where you have a warehouse or head office.

Dialogue Operation

With  1869  you  need  not make any entries via the keyboard.  All actions,
dialogues  and transactions can be made using the mouse.  During the course
of  the  game  you  conduct  discussions  and  negotiations  with different
persons.   You  may select from a number of sentences that which suits your
taste  and  intentions.  This means of communication applies throughout the
entire game.

On  some  occasions the dialogue concerns amounts of money or quantities of
goods.  Such sentences always begin with three dots (for instance "How much
would 200 crates of textiles cost me" ) Here you adjust the quantity or the
amount  by clicking.  If you click such a sentence with the left mouse key,
the  set quantity or amount is increased.  By clicking with the right mouse
key  the quantity or the amount is reduced.  Therefore, the rule is always:
Quantities  or  amounts  are  increased with the left mouse key and reduced
with the right mouse key.

In  order  to  confirm  purchases,  sales  or other transactions you always
select a sentence beginning with "OK".  For instance if you wish to confirm
a  purchase  you click the sentence, "OK load everything." The set quantity
of  goods  will  then be taken to the ship and the purchasing price will be

If  you  have several sources of money in a port (for instance a ship and a
warehouse,)  you  can  enter the money source from which the money is to be
debited  with  the following sentence:  "I have $3000 at my disposal in the

Here  again  the following rule applies:  up with the left mouse button and
down with the right button.

Since  this  kind  of  operation  remains  constant throughout the game you
quickly become competant in the games methodology.

The Shipyard

Your  first  steps  in the game should take you to a shipyard except if you
have  already  bought  a  ship  at  the  auction.   At the shipyard you can
purchase  a  second  hand  ship or order a new ship.  Remember, second hand
ships  are  somewhat cheaper than new ones and your budget is not very high
at  the  beginning.   Even  if  the idea of a new ship seems attractive you
should take into consideration that you have to purchase goods, hire a crew
and  that  your  competitors  may  already  be  making a profit during your
waiting time by using a second hand ship with a shorter delivery.

Ships  can  also  be  repaired  in  the  shipyard.   Depending on necessity
barnacle  growth  can  be removed from the hull (scraping), the hull can be
painted  and  sealed,  the  rigging or steam engine overhauled and the ship
generally  serviced this being the most expensive option.  Depending on the
extent  of repair work this will take a few days.  During a repair the ship
is not at your disposal and the relevant ship symbol disappears.  Also only
ships without cargo may be taken in for repair.

If  you  wish  to buy a second hand ship or choose to have a new ship built
you  can  select  the  desired  ship from the model catalogue.  Second hand
ships must be fully paid for immediately in cash and they will be placed at
your disposal after four days.

For  a  new  ship  a  down  payment  of  25%  of  the purchase price is due

The remainding 75% of the purchase price can be paid to the shipyard at any
time  prior  to completion of building.  If the total purchase price is not
paid  by  the  completion  date,  weekly interest will be charged.  In this
instance  caution  should  be  exercised  as  the  ship  is released by the
shipyard  for  auction  if  the  interest  exceeds  the  down payment made.
However,  up  to  the date of the auction the original purchaser is offered
the possibility at any time to pay the outstanding amount.

When  buying  new ships you can trade-in your old ships.  If you finds that
the  sales  price  for an old ship is higher than the cost of the new ship,
then  the  ship  yard  will  pay  the  excess into the next available money
source.   If  there  is  a  warehouse  in  the  town  it is paid into that,
otherwise it goes to a ship.

If  one  has  selected  a  new ship, she can be formally named.  A heraldic
figure  appears  on the screen in which you can enter the name of the ship.
The  first  letter of the name must not be a zero symbol.  If you press the
ENTER  key  without naming the ship the purchasing procedure is called off.
If the name has been entered the down payment is required to be made at the
office  immediately.  But it is also possible to withdraw from the purchase
at the office.

A  ship  which is no longer required can be sold to the shipyard.  However,
this can only be done when there is a second ship in the port or a new ship
ordered from the shipyard.

In  addition  to  large  and  famous  shipyards there are also some smaller
shipyards.   Some of these only carry out repairs or offer smaller types of
ship.  You can also sell ships to these yards.  These are kept on the books
as  second-hand  vessels  for  a period, after which they are scrapped.  As
happens  so  often  in  life,  repairs  at  the smaller shipyards are often
cheaper than the big and well-known dockyards which are over- burdened with

In The Tavern

As  a  respectable shipowner, one does not visit the tavern, to drink grog.
With  business  in  mind you can hire a ships crew from the landlord.  This
means that if you have the choice you also have the worry.  The question is
should you hire top people with correspondingly high wage requirements or a
normal  crew  or  even  a low-paid crew who mix up port and starboard?  The
scope  is  wide  and  this  is where your instinct comes in.  Generally the
motto  "The right crew for the right ship" applies.  Even a top crew cannot
perform  miracles with a ship that is half-wrecked and a lot of landlubbers
will  not achieve record times even with the proudest clipper.  But do make
sure  that you are able to afford the monthly wages as without pay even the
most reliable crew will revert to mutiny.

By  clicking  the  desired  crew  with the right mouse key the confirmation
sentence  "OK, I take the people" appears on the screen.  By selecting this
sentence you are hiring the crew.  The landlord will then inform you in how
many days the new crew will arrive on your ship.

The  landlord  also  provides  information  regarding  the cost of a branch
office  in  this  port.  If you wish to open a new branch office you may do
this here and now.

Additionally you can transfer money in the tavern from one ship to another.
For  this  purpose  you select first the source ship and then the receiving
ship,  enter  the relevant amount and confirm as follows:- "OK, I will send
the money to the..".

Since  many  people  from  all over the world call into port taverns and as
alcohol  makes  people  very talkative a lot of useful information comes to
the  landlords  ears.   For  a round of beers he might perhaps let out some
secrets to you.
Branch Offices and Head Office
In the town which you select as your starting point at the beginning of the
game the head office of your firm is located.  The head office and possibly
further branch offices are marked on the main chart by a flag.
At the head ofice or the branch offices goods can be stored and then loaded
onto  a  ship.   Money  can be transferred from a ship to the warehouse and
vice versa.

The  appearance  of  head  office,  depends on the value of a company.  The
bigger  the  firm  the more sumptuous the head office, but unfortuately the
same  applies  the  other  way  around.   The  head office of a company can
neither be moved nor closed.
You  may  establish branch offices in any, port.  However, a warehouse also
swallows  up  running costs.  The costs of establishing a branch office are
dependant   on  the  chosen  location.   At  stragically  important  points
establishing  and  maintaining a warehouse is very expensive in most cases.
But  a  warehouse  offers  the advantage that one is always informed of the
kind and price of the offered and required goods in the relevant port.

Every  warehouse  with  the  exception of head office can be closed down as

At  the  beginning  of  the  game  one  should  proceed  with  caution when
considering  the  opening  of  new  branches as the costs of them are high.
Consider  the  location  of  a new warehouse very carefully and observe the
cost/ yield factor.

Selling and Purchasing in the Office

Since  it  is certain that you are not sending your mercantile fleet across
the  oceans  of  the  world  for the fun of it, you should visit the office
frequently.  This is the place of transshipment of goods in a port and here
all purchases and sales of goods are dealt with.

You  will  see  on  the  board  which  goods are required or offered by the
dealer.  The price either which he demands or offers will vary as not every
dealer  pays the same for goods and a comparison is always worthwhile.  For
urgently  required  merchandise a high additional premium is often offered.
On  the other hand it can happen that a dealer does not need a full ship's.
cargo of a certain kind of goods.  This happens regularly in smaller ports.

When  you offer a dealer goods he will first tell you the required quantity
and  the possible premium.  This quantity is automatically entered with the
sentence  "How  much  do you pay for.....?" If you enter the sentence "OK I
will  sell  the  goods"  without  changing  the quantity, then you sell the
dealer  the  quantity he requires and for which he may pay the premium.  Of
course  one can also sell to him the rest as long as he offers a reasonable

Generally  you  can  sell  anything  to  a dealer.  He will, however, pay a
minimum  price for non required goods which is below the cost price in most
cases.  If possible you should avoid such loss-making business.

You  can also purchase goods from the dealer, but only the merchandise that
he  has  on  offer.  If you have several ships or one warehouse in the port
you  can  select where the goods are to be delivered to.  The dealer always
offers the quantity of goods first which corresponds to the maximum loading
capacity  of  the ship or to have maximum available capital.  Naturally one
can  buy less.  If you do not have enough money on the ship for the desired
goods  you  can also pay for these from a second ship in the port or from a
warehouse in this town, in some offices notes are displayed on the counter.
If  you  click  any  such note you will receive special orders or passenger
conveyance.   Some  of the special orders are very favourable but they also
entail great risks (For instance:  supply of arms to countries at war)

If  you  have a ship fitted with cabins you may convey passengers.  In this
case  1a group of passengers may want to be taken to a certain port.  These
people will disembark only in the port of destination.  Since costs will be
incurred  for  supplying  food  for  passengers, you should not arrange any
sightseeing  tours  but  head  for  the  port  of destination as quickly as

Route Planning

Once  the  ship  has  been  loaded  you  should  send  her  to  the port of
destination.   But what is the good of the most valuable cargo if it cannot
be  sold.  In order to send a ship to a definite port you have to enter the
ship  dispatch mode.  For this purpose you click the large ship on the main
chart by using the left mouse key

The  ship selection menu appears giving you the names of your ships as well
as the status symbol, the location and technicai conditions.

The  status symbols provide information regarding the avability of the ship
and crew.

Their meaning is as follows:

Ship under sail: Ship is available

Hammer: Ship is being repaired

Ship's hull: Ship is being built

Wave: Ship is in transit

Men with question mark: No crew on board

Men with luggage: New crew still to come

Only  available  ships  may  be  selected  The names of non-available ships
always  appear  in the selection menu in red print.  When you have selected
the  desired ship a wild rose is shown instead of the usual mouse indicator
(dispatch  indicator)  and  the  departure  port is indicated by a rotating
square.   Additionally  the  navigation  points  can be seen.  All selected
ports  and  navigation  points  are  always  marked  with a rotating yellow
rectangle.  Two of the sea navigation points are put on the land within the
chart, namely the navigation point at Cape Horn and the Suez Canal.

Dispatch indicator (click with upper left hand corner)

Navigation Point (not marked)

Selected Navigation Point

Selected Port or Port of Departure

If  you  click  the  port of destination by means of the left mouse key the
temporary   navigation   points   are   selected  simultaneously  they  are
recognisable  by  yellow  rotating markings.  In the case of some routes it
may  happen  that  other  ports  are  also  marked.   These  ports serve as
navigation points only as the ship will not put into port.  By clicking the
port  of  destination  with  the right mouse key you confirm the course and
send  the ship on her way.  If a ship is on route she cannot be manipulated
until she arrives at the port of destination.

The automatically set route, however will not always be the most favourable
one.   With  the  aid of weather and flow charts you will be able to make a
decision  regarding a better route.  By clicking the last valid route point
with  the  left  mouse key all following points are cancelled.  You can now
enter  all  desired  route  points  individually.   Please take note that a
longer route with more favourable current is better than a short route with
a strong counter current.

Steamships  have a limited range since they have to refill the coal bunkers
during  the  voyage.   Therefore,  you  can only map out their route within
relevant  reach.  On the other hand steamships are largely independent wind
and dead calms and they are also some what faster than sailing ships.

When  planning  the  route  always  take into consideration the weather and
current  charts  as  well  as  the seasons.  Excessively long voyages cause
reduction of the freight rates.

Furthermore,  you should reckon with the possibility that your ship may get
into a heavy storm resulting in serious damage or in the worst case she may
even sink.

The  extent  of  damage  is  shown  in  detail on the ship's status and the
dispatch menu in the form of a percentage.

You  must  check  on  the condition of your ships regularly.  Damaged ships
result  in  unsatisfactory  crossing times with correspondingly bad freight
rates.   In  the  case  of  iron ships you should check for barnacle growth
regularly  as  excessive growth considerably slows down a ship.  It is also
recommended  to arrange for a ship to be overhauled at a shipyard from time
to time.  The costs incurred are in most cases compensated by freight rates
increasing afterwards.  Do not attempt to save money unwisely.

Ships Status

You  access  the ship's status by clicking the large ship in the main chart
with  the  left  mouse  key.  Thus you can inform yourself of the technical
state and you can also control and manipulate the crew.

On  the  ship's status screen you will find information regarding the cargo
and the cash carried on the ship.  Furthermore.  you will be informed about
the current location of the ship.  By clicking the ship hull you can access
all your ships.

Check  your  cash  flow  at regular intervals.  For planned purchases there
must  always be sufficicnt money in the ship's cash account if for instance
you  want  to  buy  goods in Bombay, the money in the Liverpool head office
does  not  help.  Goods always have to be paid for from a ship or warehouse
in the port where the purchase is effected.

But  you  must  also  avoid leaving too much money on a ship.  The ship may
sink in a storm and then money would be lost.  It is therefore recommend to
transfer  the  excess  cash of profit-yielding ships from time to time to a
branch  office  or  to  head  office.  It is also possible in the tavern to
transfer the excess money to another ship.

Technical State

In order to obtain exact information regarding the technical condition of a
ship  click the state key.  You will receive detailed information regarding
barnacle  growth,  the  taking  on  of water, condition of rigging or steam
engine  etc.   You  should  take  special notice of this information before
planning  repair  work.   It  does  not make sense for example to generally
overhaul  an  otherwise  completely  intact  ship  with barnacle growth.  A
cheaper and quicker scraping job would suffice in this case.

Crew Status
You  access  the  crew  status  by clicking the crew key of the ship status
screen.   Thereby  you  can  check  and  manipulate  the crew of each ship,
however the latter is only possible when a ship is at disposal.

Each  ship  has  her own crew with their condition.  ability and motivation
directly affecting the ship's condition and speed.  Within the crew control
field  you  can obtain information regarding the vitality and experience as
well  as  motivation of the crew.  Furthermore, you can enter the amount of
wages, alter the captains order and forecast a success premium.

A  bar chart provides information indicating the vitality and experience of
a  crew.  The upper bar identifies the vitality and the lower bar refers to
experience.  The longer the bar the more rested or experienced the crew

The  more  vitality  a  crew has the better it performs.  Caution!  A badly
exhausted  crew  may  get  the idea of putting an end to their suffering by

Vitality  is  influenced  by  the  length  of  a  voyage, storms and by the
captain's  order.  Do not deprive your crew of a relaxing break in the port
after  a  long  and  stormy  voyage.   They  will  repay  you  by increased

The  experience  of  a crew plays a big role during storms.  An experienced
crew   will  master  dangerous  voyages  for  instance  around  Cape  Horn.
Additionally,  ships  with  an  experienced  crew  are less heavily damaged
during storms, The experience of a crew also affects the speed of a ship.

Once  a  crew  has  mastered  a storm or another difficult situation, their
experience  is enhanced.  In this way a modarately reasonable crew can turn
out to be a top crew.

When  hiring  a  new  crew  the following rule should be applied:  The more
experienced  a  crew  the higher are the wage demands.  Therefore, you must
make sure to select a crew to suit the ship.

With  the  aid  of  the  portrait  you  can  determine  the  contentment or
motivation  of  a  ships  crew.   A smiling face indicates a happy crew.  A
grim-  faced  crew  is perhaps already thinking of mutiny.  If instead of a
portrait the window is closed then there is no crew on board.

Payment of Wages
The motivation of a crew is affected by the payment of wages.  If one would
rather  fire  a  crew  than  remotivate them one simply sets the payment on
zero.   Without  payment  of  wages  even the most loyal crew will not stay
aboard.  Members of the crew, however, who are still waiting to be paid off
will not leave until the dues have been paid

Captain's Order
With  the aid of the captain's order you can determine how hard the captain
drives  the crew and how fast sailing is to proceed.  These settings affect
the vitality.

If  you set an order on "EASY" it means that the crew is fairing well, they
can  take  their  time  and  have  sufficient  breaks.   This  humanitarian
viewpoint will not affect the vitality.

With  the  setting  "MEDIUM.'  the  crew has to achieve more, any breeze is
used,  additional  sails  are  used so the work is hard.  Sailing times are
reduced  but  with  the  adoption of this view point vitality is decreased.
Treat your crew to a break now and then.

If  the ship sails under the order "HARD" the crew have to do their utmost,
Sailing  goes  on  day  and  night and the sails are not reefed even during
storms.   With  this  sweat  and  strain  the  crew's vitality is of course
greatly  affected and therefore, you should keep an eye on your ill treated

In order to make sure that the men really drive the ship forward to achieve
record  times  you  can  put up a premium.  Every sailor can use additional
money  and  they will make an almighty effort correspondingly.  In the case
of voyages with deadlines premiums are very high.

Always bear in mind that in order to achieve an optimum speed the condition
of the ship and crew is decisive.  Even the proudest clipper will not bring
about record times when damaged nor can a completely exhausted crew achieve
peak performances.

Historic Connections

Since  1869  incorporates  actual historic events messages regularly appear
they  may  bear  a  direct  influence  on  the happenings of the game.  The
historic  section  of  this  handbook,  therefore,  may give you a decisive
advantage  over  your  competitors.  Whilst your uninformed competitors may
get  entangled  in  the troubles of the American Civil War you will already
have  shifted  your  interests  toward  safer  areas.   Of course as a fair
shipowner  you  should  allow  your co players to gain an insight into this
handbook.   Astute  business  people,  however,  will  mercilessly keep the
handbook under lock and key.

Not all events have the same effect on the course of the game.  The opening
of  the  Suez Canal in 1869 causes a shortening of the voyage times to Asia
which  is  a  positive  event  indeed.   On  the other hand there was a sea
blockade  near  Odessa  during the Crimean War around 1854 coupled with the
risk  that  ships  may  be  captured.  Accordingly this is a negative event
which  perhaps  is  only  Positive  for  the risky arms trade within crisis

Due  to crisis and wars ports maybe closed temporarily.  During a civil war
there  is the danger that warehouses will be raided and burned down.  Above
everything  however,  wars and crises affect the production and consumption
of goods in a country.

Some  newspapers reports concern technical developments or even inventions.
Not  all  wars or clashes are reported in the papers as some of them are of
local  interest  only.  Prior to putting into harbour you should, therefore
inform  yourself  about  the  active  state  of  the  country  by using the
information panel.

Options  also  offer  the  possibility  to  exclude  newspaper reports.  As
before, the events will take place but they are no longer registered.

1869  represents a very accurate trade simulation as never seen before.  We
would,  therefore, advise only historically well informed players to switch
off  the  newspaper  reports.   Do  not  underestimate the effects of daily
historic happenings on world trade.

The Bank

By clicking the coin symbol of the main chart you may visit the bank at any
time.  It is located in the town of the firms head office.

At  the  bank  you  may  take out loans or pay back already existing loans.
However  you  became credit worthy only when you provide securities such as
ships,  warehouses  or  cash.   In  the  case  of loan applications without
adequate  security  bankers react very unfriendly.  The maximum extent of a
loan depends on the value of your securities.

You  may pay off loans at any time before the due date.  Since this enables
you  to  save  considerable interest you should, if possible repay loans as
soon  as possible.  Loan repayments must always be effected by head office.
Therefore  you  must  make  sure  under  all  circumstances  that  there is
sufficient money in the kitty of the head office.

Settlements  of  accounts are always dealt with On the 31st December of the
current  year.   If  a  player is not solvent at this point in time then he
must declare bankruptcy and is eliminated from the events of the game.

Therefore,  be  very careful with loans.  The Balance Sheet screen provides
an overview of existing loans.

Tax Regulations

As  you  might  expect  1869  also includes unpopular tax regulations.  The
state requests you to pay up and you have to follow.

Taxes  depends  on the total tonnage of your merchant fleet and is based on
the  tax  regulations  of  Great  Britain in the 19th century.  The Balance
Sheet screen constantly provides an overview of the tax due for repayment.

Taxes  become  due  for  a whole year on the 31st December of the following
year.  For instance the taxes for the year 1854 have to be paid on the 31st
December 1855.  Debiting is effected automatically from the cash account at
the  due date.  If you are unable to pay the taxes your firm has to declare
bankruptcy and you will be eliminated from the game.

The Balance Sheet

The  balance  provides  a  survey  regarding  due dates of taxes and loans.
Furthermore you can check your stock of goods and cash flow.

Keep  an  eye  on  turnover  and development of the firm, You are given the
choice to either quickly look at a graphical representation or a listing of
figures.  The representation of turnover and company development assists in
a  very  good  way  to  recognise economic tendencies.  Moreover it permits
direct  comparisons  with  your competitors and you are able at any time to
see  how  you  are  placed  in  the  race  for  the distinction of greatest
shipowner of the century.

Using  cunning,  dexterity  and by knowing the tricks of the trade you have
the chance to become the best shipowner of the century in history and to be
included in the list of the elite.

The List of Records
If  one  of your ships manages to achieve a new best time for crossing on a
record  route  it  will  be  immortalised in the list of the fastest ships.
This  not  only lifts the mood of the proud shipowner but it also increases
the  sales  value  of  the  ship.  Providing circumstances are good one may
possibly  be  able  to  sell  the  ship at a price which is higher than her
original price.

Record times are also reported in the papers.  These record times relate to
all stored games.

Options (Loading and Storing)

The  option  screen offers possibilities such as loading, storing, new game
or  finish.   In  order to load a game status you have to click the desired
name and select "LOADING".  You can also cancel a game status.

In order to store a game status you click initially the first empty stop of
the stairs.  Now give the game status a name and click "Storing".

In  this  connection,  too, you can exclude or include newspaper reports or
leave 1869.


In  real  business  life  and  in this game too there are some golden rules
which  should  be  observed under all circumstances.  Only in this way will
one  achieve the success hankered and way hoped for.  Beyond that of course
there are numerous tricks which help a business man on the road to success.
Every successful trading tycoon has his own speciaI tricks and knacks which
he  will  not  disclose.  For all budding shipowners we want to reveal here
some golden rules and tricks.
1869 makes available a wide field for experiments and strategies.  Find out
your  own personal tricks and try out these to see which is the best way to

Ten Golden Rules

Rule No1
Always  load  ships  fully.   It is better to have a ship fully loaded with
cheap goods than to have a ship half-loaded with expensive merchandise.
Rule No2
Undertake  as  few  profitless voyages as possible Especially avoid voyages
with no cargo.

Rule No3
Always  keep  ships  in  good  condition.   The advantage of an intact ship
offsets repair costs

Rule No4
When purchasing a ship leave enough money to buy goods.

Rule No5
Always pay taxes on time and keep money for this in reserve.

Rule No6
During  route planning current and weather charts help to save time, and of
course time is money.

Rule No7
Leave  only as much money on a ship as required for purchasing goods, wages
and  repair costs.  Surplus money should go to the warehouse or even better
to head office.

Rule No8
Watch political conditions in ports.  Unsafe ports mean high risks.

Keep an eye on the crew and select the crew to suit the ship

Rule No1O

Do not miss good business.

Where do I purchase the right goods?
This trading simulation is based on the economic system of imperialism (see
chapter  "Imperialism"), Raw materials are imported from colonies and under
developed  countries then they are processed.  The finished products are in
part sold back to the colonies with high profits.

Many products such as fruit, cotton, and tea depend on harvests and are not
always  readily available.  This means you have to be in the right place at
the right time.  Produce that depend on harvests can be contaminated during
a long voyage and become useless.  If one has perishable goods on board one
should  try to reach the port as soon as possible.  Produce deteriorates at
the  same rate for instance fruit spoils much quicker than tea.  One should
also bear in mind that naturally such goods can get spoiled in a warehouse.
The  motto  should  therefore  be  to  get perishable goods to the buyer as
quickly as possible.

You  can  learn about the main export goods of a port using the information

It  provides  information  regarding the goods and their largest quantities
kept  in  storage ports.  Thus harvest bound goods are also indicated since
they  are  the  main  export  article.  During harvest time when accurately
observing  the  relevant  information  panels  one  can  be  fully informed
regarding the relevant harvest times.

With  harvest  dependent  goods  it  is  absolutely  necessary to reach the
relevant port in good time.  In most cases the product is available for two
to  three  months only.  Therefore plan your arrival in such a way that you
arrive  at the right time.  You should take into consideration the possible
duration of the trip.

At  the  beginning  of the game it is best to restrict yourself to trade in
nearby ports, Only with sufficiently large financial reserves, may one dare
to venture to such far away markets as Asia.

Second Hand Ships at the Beginning

At  the  beginning of a career one should if possible - refrain from having
new  ships  built  or  buying expensive second hand ships.  When purchasing
ships  make  sure that sufficient money is left for the cargo.  What is the
use of the nicest and fastest clipper if it is used for futile voyages only

No Risky Freight at the Beginning

Keep your hands off risky freight at the beginning of the game for instance
arms  deliveries  into  territories  at  war.   Even  when the profit seems
tempting  the  risk  of losing perhaps your one and only ship is simply too
high.   If,  on the other hand, you have several ships later on in the game
it could turn out to be a most lucrative business even though it may not be
exactly honourable, to load arms onto a second-hand ship and sell them at a
high profit to a territory at war.

Taking into Consideration the Political State

It  is  extremely  important  at  all times to keep an eye on the political
state  of  a  country.   If  a  country is in a stable state then it is not
dangerous  to  put  into  its  ports  and conduct trading.  But if there is
unrest  it may happen occasionally that roaming gangs raid and plunder your
warehouse  or  ship.  The cautious trader takes little or no cash at all on
voyages  to countries where there is unrest.  If uprisings are the order of
the day in a country it can happen that your warehouse or ship is plundered
completely  so  that  you  have  to  put  to  sea  without  money or goods.
Therefore, without very good reason one should avoid such ports.

Under  no circumstances should you put into port in territories where civil
or  other  wars  are being waged.  If one is unlucky the ship might be sunk
without  warning  or explanation.  That is the risk with which arms dealers
have  to  live.   It is true of course that a large profit can be made when
delivering  arms  to  territories  at  war  but  in the worst case the ship
complete with cargo is sunk.

Ship to be Loaded Fully at all Times

Always  ensure  that  your  ship is fully loaded It is far better to load a
ship  fully  with  cheap  goods  than  to  half  load  her  with  expensive
merchandise.   Try  to make as few empty voyages as possible otherwise your
budget  will  be  consumed  by  running  costs.  Take only as much money as
needed  for  trading.  Surplus money is best kept at head office It is safe
there  and  prevents  you  from getting embarrassed when loan repayments or
taxes become due.

Repairing Old Ships

The  older  a ship the more expensive the repairs.  With the same extent of
damage  the  repair to an old ship costs more than for a new ship.  At some
time  the point will be reached with each ship when the repair costs exceed
the  purchasing  costs.   Meaning that repair work is no longer worthwhile.
Therefore sell old ships in good time

The Right Crew at The Beginning

To  begin  with you should not burden yourself with the wages required by a
top  crew.   As  in all probability you will own an average ship, therefore
you should also hire an average crew.  Proven to be reliable and dependable
men, they do not cost too much and they are not landlubbers either.

It  can  happen  that  you are stuck in a port without money or goods.  The
crew  refuses  to  work  as  they are not paid wages.  In this case you can
dismiss  the  old  crew  and  hire another one.  The new crew expects wages
after their first voyage.

This  very unkind method will only work, however, when there is no cargo on
board.   Otherwise one would be forced to sell a part of the cargo at a low
price so that after paying the crew one can convince to carry on working

Breaks for the Crew

Since  the  speed of a ship is considerably affected by the crew you should
always keep an eye on the vitality of the crew.  If their vitality sags the
ship  will go slower.  Therefore, it is an advantage not to go on stop ovcr
long  distances  but  to  call at a port in between and let the crew have a
short  period  of rest Thus the men can replenish their strength.  vitality
is  increased and with it the speed of the ship.  The time lost in the port
is compensated by an increased sailing speed.

Use Breaks for Repairs

Whilst  the  crew recuperates in the port you can use the time to have your
ship  overhauled  quickly.   This  is  advisable  especially  after  stormy
crossings  which can often cause severe damage.  A damaged ship loses speed
and  by  having  her repaired you effectively gain time.  When planning the
route  for long voyages bear in mind that during the voyage you will not be
given  the  possibility  to  act,  meaning that even after heavy storms you
cannot simply take your ship to the next dockyard.  Therefore, to be on the
safe side stop on the way when you are making a long voyage.

Save Repair Costs

It  need  not  always be one of the best known or famous shipyards.  Give a
small dockyard for instance in Bombay or Kapstadt a chance and you will see
that these shipyards carry out the quality of work at a lower price.

Terms of Loans

When taking out a loan you should agree such terms so that the loan expires
at  the  beginning  of  a  year.   The  bank  always settles up on the 31st
December.   This  means  that if loans are unpaid by this date and interest
for  delay  to be paid, then bankuptcy procedure is introduced at a time of
maturity.   If the terms finish at the beginning of the year then one still
has  time to raise the sum at the end of the year.  However, this is not an
easy undertaking when one thinks of the very high interest on delay.

Observe Due Tax Dates

Taxes  for one year have to be paid at the end of the following year.  This
means  that the tax due is automatically debited from head office accounts.
On the 31st.  December,

Bankruptcy Even in the Case of a Firm Doing Well

If  there  is  not  sufficient  money in the head office account bankruptcy
procedure  is  introduced.   Even  a  busy  firm with sufficient capital or
assets can become bankrupt when at the tax due date there is not sufficient
money  in  the  office  account or when due loans are to be repaid.  If the
value  of a firm drops below a certain limit a bankruptcy procedure is also

Delivery Times for the Purchase of Ships

Take  note of the delivery time of a ship since you have to pay the tonnage
tax  due  retroactively for the whole year.  Therefore, one should plan the
purchase  in  such a way that the ship is delivered at the beginning of the
year.   Thus it is ensured that one does not pay taxes needlessly.  For the
same reason you should sell ships at the end of the year.

Locations of Warehouses.

Think  carefully  about  the  location  of a new warehouse.  Each warehouse
costs  money and after closing a warehouse this money is lost and the value
of the firm's assets are reduced.

Warehouse at Strategic Points.

Wherever  possible  establish  your  warehouse  at  strategically important
points to enable you to control and cover the market.

Tea Races and Special Orders

Tea races and special orders placed with your office is good business.  For
tea  races  you  should  aim  to  arrive  in  good time in India during the
harvesting  period  with  a fast ship and a good crew.  The newly harvested
tea  is  to  be  loaded  and  the port of destination headed for as fast as
possible.   For the first cargo of tea one receives a good premium.  If you
are  too  slow  then  someone  else will snatch the premium from under your

End of Civil Wars and Wars

After  the  end  of civil wars and wars there is usually an enormous demand
for  goods from the reopened trade merchants.  Putting into such ports will
certainly bring about some good business

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