A-Train ON BOARD TUTORING The following tutorial will get you up and running your trains and provide the groundwork for understanding some of the financial intricacies of the game. You'll find detailed explanations of menus, commands, investment suggestions and general game play advice in the Reference section of the manual. The tutorial assumes that you have a mouse. The left button is the default mouse button for selecting actions and commands, unless otherwise stated. If you're playing without a mouse, see the Addendum for keyboard procedures. Please refer to your Addendum for procedures to install and start A-Train. Once the program is running, you are ready to begin your training. After the title screen and credits for the game have been displayed, the SYSTEM menu will open. When the SYSTEM menu is opened, the game clock stops. The menu has a number of commands, but for tutorial purposes, just click on NEW GAME. A submenu will open. The six numbers represent the choices of map landscapes upon which you can build your train empire. Click on #1 and then click on LOAD. You will now see the lovely map of your new railroad operation, surrounded by the "picture frame" of menu choices. The running clock in the upper-right corner indicates the fiscal term (from April 1 to the present), and the month, day and hour. The clock is the measure for train scheduling, which will be discussed later in this Tutorial. The passing of time is illustrated by the changing patterns of light as day fades and night falls (VGA only). The light changes can be turned off if you wish; see your Addendum for details. There will also be seasonal changes, such as the appearance of winter snow, as the game progresses. All of the maps provide you with at least one operating railroad, and some amount of cash. See the Cities chapter in the Reference section for amplification on the challenges each map presents. Map One is one of the most open and undeveloped of the six scenarios, providing space for experimentation and risk. One of the goals will be to develop the "bedroom community" of its new town. Take a few moments to "mouse around" on the map to get a sense of your territory. You can make incremental movements by clicking in the arrow boxes on the right side of the frame, which will cause the map to scroll a small amount in the direction of the arrow. You can orient yourself to the overall map boundaries by clicking on SATELLITE (on the right edge of the frame), which will display a small image of your complete map. (All picture frame menus will highlight when the mouse pointer is positioned on the menu title. and they then can be opened with a mouse click. ). The rectangle on the Satellite map captures the current territory displayed on the large map. You can drag the box on the Satellite map to any area and click, and the corresponding terrain will be displayed on the big map. Take careful note of the hills, rivers and lakes; terrain plays a significant part in your rail setup. The land is divided into small squares that we'll refer to as "blocks." The block is the measure for a number of A-Train procedures. Use the Satellite rectangle to return to the existing train station on the map, then leave the window by clicking on EXIT. There is both a freight and a passenger operation on your established lines, both running on the same track, both going off the map. Note that the freight train returns from its excursions outside laden with materials, which are deposited in the large pile at the station ;if the storage place is full, it will pick up materials to be sold to the outside. Those are the construction materials from which commercial properties and other holdings are developed. Their placement and train transport play an integral part in your city development. And city development is one of your goals. Click on REPORT 4--the Urban Growth chart--and note the statistics on your city's status, particularly the population total. It is wise to periodically check these facts to see how rapidly your city is evolving. These figures give you quick feedback on how your moves affect the city scale. Click on EXIT to leave the report window. Track laying can be a trifle tricky at first, so we'll experiment a bit. Scroll to one of the undeveloped areas on the map, so that you can put down and remove some track without destroying existing development.Open the TRAlNS menu. This menu provides you with the functions you'll need to build and schedule your railroad. Click the LAY TRACKS command. Make sure that LAY is highlighted. Click the mouse and you will see a terrain block highlight; these blocks are the units of measure in the survey of your terrain. Drag the mouse in any direction and you will see a highlighted line follow your movements. The highlight will reflect any curves when you deviate from a straight line. You can see that by slight manuvering with the mouse,the display of your proposed line will change its angle and course. Drag a straight line from left to right about six blocks and then click. A strip of track will be put down in place of the highlight. Click on REMOVE (in the LAY TRACKS submenu), and click on either end of the track and drag to its other end. The beginning block will highlight, just as when you place track. Click again and the track will be removed and replaced by cleared land. You can see that the figure in the COST box changes with each block over which you lay track. This number reflects the purchase price of the land, and the track laying/removing charges. You will still own any land from which you remove track. Hint: If you are trying to put down some lines and your track tactics don't result in the desired direction, you can cancel the LAY command by clicking the right mouse button. Then try to lay the railroad by clicking first the destination point and then the beginning point. The railroad should turn to the opposite direction. For curved track, if you can't achieve the desired angle with a single drag of the mouse, you can lay piecewise segments of straight track, connect the curved joint, and then connect additional segments. Of course, it's more expensive if you mistakenly put some down, only to remove it later. THROWING YOUR TRACK A CURVE Curving track can require some wily maneuvering,but it's a skill that will serve you well in future track laying.Try running a line from east to west and then have it veer sharply up or down. Also try a few wide, looping curves. If you haven't established a practical line position, you'll get a nasty message from the track layer or construction manager. You can see that controlling the curve isn't always easy, but small mouse motions can usually establish the desired angle in a highlighted planned line. If you have difficulty getting a curved lengthproperlypositioned,doitinshortone-ortwo-blocksegments. Try removing curved track as well. Hint. When trying to place a line segment, its easier to get a block to highlight if you click directly in its center. If a track removal path won't follow any curves that might be on your line, you will have to remove piecemeal sections. It is expensive to rip track, so in the real game, plan carefully before you lay your line. Experiment with curved and straight track laying and removal until you have a more natural feel for it. GETTING BACK ON TRACK When you've untangled this track-tying rope, scroll the map so that your original station is near the top and center of your screen. We're going to run a new line from here to the east and then south, so that we can use the existing commercial market of the town, without having to schedule trains around the existing lines. We'll establish two new lines on a connected track near the established lines. These will provide us with a small passenger market, and let us acquire some construction materials to spur development around our new lines. The schedules and routes of the original line are fixed and can't be adjusted, but any additional trains can be laid down separately or integrated and controlled. Click at a spot a couple of blocks below and a couple blocks to the right of the station. Move the highlighted planned line from west to east about five or six blocks, and click to place the line. You can add to existing track by clicking the mouse at track end (the initial block will be highlighted), and dragging. Click at the eastern end of your line and move it east a block or two and then draw it down, straight south, to a few blocks from the bottom of the screen. The curve southward should be indicated in the highlighted planned line. You might have to do some wiggling to place it so that it "sets," but when you have positioned the line to your satisfaction, click at its end. This will establish the track (or you will get a message informing you if you have laid a line in an unsuitable position). When you are laying track you often have to make many adjust- ments for geography--avoid hills and try to use fairly straight segments, since curves are more costly. You can click the right mouse button to cancel a planned line if you haven't yet clicked the left button and placed it. Look at your new track in the Satellite view to see it in relation to the original map. (You must exit the LAY TRACKS submenu to use the Satellite view.) Let's lay a second line that connects on a spur from the first. It is actually easier at the beginning of games to lay two close-but- separate lines, freight and passenger, so that you don't have to be concerned with switches, but we'll get your switchin' feet wet early, so you won't be fearful of those complex waters later on. Connecting track must be first established on a diagonal line from existing track. Position your mouse so that it is about two-thirds of the way down the first section of your track.Highlight the first block and drag the mouse down so that your second line runs parallel and one or two blocks to the west of your first track. Drag until you reach the terminus of your first line and click to set your dual line. The result should look like the Second New Line diagram; minor var- iations in placement aren't important. TRAI N I NG YOU R Fl RST TRAI N There are a number of approaches you can take to or- ganizing your initial railroad, such as buying and plac- ing the stations first and then arranging your trains, but we'll get a train up and chugging right away so you'll have something to brag about. Exit the LAY TRACKS menu and click the BUY TRAIN command in the TRAINS menu. You will see a Rolling Stock Market display of all the available train models, a chart detailing the statistics of the chosen train, and a train registry showing what trains are already in oper- ation. Other maps that you develop will show all your purchased trains by their highlighting on the calendar chart,but you cannot adjust Map One's existing trains, and thus the entire chart is open. To buy a train for your new line you must first choose an unused train number from the registry(#1 has a lovely ring) by clicking on it, and then assign the number to a particular train chosen from the train chart.As you click on the various small pictures of the trains,a larger picture of the selected train will appear at the bottom of the window along with its vital statistics (model, capacity, cost, etc.). Your first line should be a freight line. We recommend the dashing GP 40, the bottom unit in the second column, with the crisp Maxis Lines logo. (You may want to start with a cheaper, lower-capacity freight in a real game. ) Once you have chosen a train, make sure the BUY command is highlighted and then click CONFIRM. The train is now yours, registered by its number, which is highlighted and underlined on the registry chart. Click EXIT to close the Rolling Stock Market. Then click the PLACE TRAIN command from TRAINS menu. You'll find that the new train number has already been chosen in the calendar chart, with its train stats displayed. (From this menu you can click other numbers if you want to make changes to future existing trains.) Make sure that #1 is highlighted and then place the train near the bottom edge of your eastern line by positioning the pointer over a spot on the track, which will display the highlighted box. The train will appear on the place clicked. If the place isn't appropriate, a message box will appear to scold you. The new train will have two arrows, one in front of the train and one at the back. The white arrow represents the train's direction. You can click on these arrows to toggle the direction; for now, point its travel up the line towards the original railway. The train starts moving after you click on EXIT. You got yourself a railroad! Hint: Whenexpanding fufure lines, it might be convenient for you to place Several trains at one time--multiple track placements--using the SATELLlTE view scrolling, which lets you move around the map very quickly. GIVE YOUR TRAIN A HOME You'll see your train making its merry path from north to south without relent, on the outside line. Let's give it a place to pull over and stretch its wheels. and also pick up some business in the meantime. All maps will start you with a least one station on a line. One solid approach for a line with only one station is to establish another on the same line some distance(at least 15 or 20 blocks)awaypreferably near some development--if there is any--so as to provide both materials transport and some passenger income. (Passenger fare increases with distance traveled.) We're dealing with freight right now, but we're going to put a passenger line down as well. There isn't a preset ideal" distance between stations for running passengers. Dependent on development factors, set the stations close early in the game to reduce track laying expenses, and when there is more passenger traffic, remove close stations to get the increased fare received for longer trips. There are many strategic gambits concerning station development; refer to the Trains chapter in your Reference section for details. For simplicity's sake. Iet's establish a station at the southeast end of our new line. You can add additional stations to your original line later. The large stations, the ones with tall buildings attached, are more expensive, but their larger passenger processings provoke the simulation into faster city and urban road development. Scroll to the the southern end of your line and click on the BUILD STATION command on the TRAINS menu. Trains will stop running when this menu is opened. You are given a choice of four small and four large stations in various orientations. Click on a small station that will face the tracks from the west and then position the mouse at the southernmost edge of the track. (Station orientation is a factor in city development; see the Crossroads section in Reference.) Stations can only be placed on diagonal segments of track with no curves. You'll see the station outline in highlight, which will occupy at least three blocks. Click when the position is right, and the building will settle nicely into place. When lines are this close, they can share a single station. It's necessary to immediately make an area for materials storage near the station,so that your can pave your kingdom.You need to buy some land adjacent to your station for this storage. It's actually a very sound move to buy up a lot of land around your stations quite early in the game, because this land's value skyrockets in relation to later development. If you truly have an eye for the long-term, buy land in areas where you might concentrate development later; it's sure to bulge your future wallet.You prohably shouldn't spend too much too soon, though. because startup rail costs are high. Open the subsidaries menu. This menu provides the commands to buy and place your land, income properties and commercial developments. Click on REAL ESTATE. A submenu will open with buy and sell I commands. a figure revealing your current holdings and a cost figure that will tally the price of prospective land buys.The prices for the individual blocks of land will be revealed when you move your pointer over them. Land without buildings on it is cheaper; buy accordingly. Click the Bl IY command; the mouse pointer will become a highlighted block. Click on several blocks of land in a line near your western station.You can buy more later if the traffic's hopping. You can also buy property in the general periphery of the station. Leave any residences and buildings be.You can see that when you purchase the land,its surface is cleared. Cleared land with a black highlight around it is owned by another company. Exit the subsidaries menus. Scroll (if necessary) up north near the map's original station and open the BUILD STATION menu. Place a station at the northern end of your line, which should be just a few blocks below, parallel to, and a touch east of your original station.You will have to build over some existing buildings. This station's placement allows you to feed" off of some of the existing materials brought in from the outside and to transport them down to your southern stations for city develop- ment. Buy some land near this station for materials storage. Now your train's all dressed up with a place to go, but you need to tell it where and when. Exit the build STATION menu. DON'T FIGHT; SWITCH! Go back to the TRAINS menu and click on SChedule. You will see the calendar chart with your highlighted train number and a route map that displays the operating trains. their tracks and stations in miniature. Clicking on the number of each purchased train will highlight its image at its current position in a small white box on the route map. Info on the selected train is underneath this map. This map can he a particular asset when you have many trains running and their respective numbers are not so fresh in your mind. We'll set schedules when we place your passenger train,so ignore the DEPARTURE TIME command; click on SWITCH. A small diagram of a switch will be shown in the box below the command. Move the mouse so that the pointer is near the junction of your southwest line and click.A highlighted box appears on the map at the switch's location and the switch display shows its current position. Click on CHANGE SWITCH to direct your freight to your southwest track. The switch will be redirected on the route display and the game map. Click on the TEST RIJN command and you will see the altered route on your route map, with your train represent- ed by a swiftly moving dot. You must click on END TEST to halt the manic pace of the test demonstration. Exit the SCHEDULE window and watch the movement of your train. You'll see that it will soon start transporting materials to your southern storage place, or dependent on availability of materials near your original station-- taking them away.You can redirect the course of your train through the PLACE TRAINS menu. Clicking on its number will scroll the screen to your train. which will display its directional arrows.Sometimes materials won't be available and your freight will begin to take materials away from your southern stations. You can use the arrows to send your freight back to deposit materials it was going to take away. Switches, scheduling and all their intrigues are discussed in more detail in the Trains chapter in the Reference section. You will need to become a competent switchmaster and scheduler when you place your passenger train. For now, let #l run freely, as long as it is depositing construction materials at your southern station. Those blocks are the flagstones on your road to fortune. This part of the tutorial will guide you through the basics of the building trade in A-Train. There are many stratagems regarding development around your stations and subsequent city expansion. All situations are variable according to the existing level of map development, your cash resources, and your approach to growth, be it devil-may-care or cautious. For tutorial purposes, we'll just give you some fundamentals on property development, its effect on the population, and how the simulation responds to your decisions. All of these matters, including a chart of development expenses for each subsidiary, are expounded upon in the Cities chapter of the Reference section. Of critical need now are those construction materials, the stuff your dreams--and buildings--are made of. Construction materials are the "flour and water" from which all buildings are constructed and from which the simulation builds. You will see them start piling up near your station not long after it's built(as long as your outside lines are bringing them in). The pile will shrink and grow dependent upon the movement of your new freight line and the materials use of your initial trains. When you've built up a storehold of materials you can do some property development. Of course, you can rather cleverly relieve some of these materials anxieties by making some of your own. Why not build a factory nearby to produce the little devils for you? ( It is better early on to rely on materials brought in from the outside and not to build an expensive, high-maintenance factory, but we'll do it here to demonstrate how they work.) Open the SUBSIDIARIES menu and click on FACTORY. A submenu will open that displays an image of the factory and BUILD and REMOVE commands. Click on BUILD and position your pointer in the territory south of your northern station, but within about eight blocks of the track. You will see the land costs change as you move your mouse. Click when you've found a spot to your liking. You can't utilize these materials unless they are first transported by your freights to your storage place, so keep that in mind--the direction of utilization is towards your southern stations. You can, however, use materials directly from the factory if you build within 10 blocks of the factory storage place. You can remove the factory when you have sufficient materials; the maintenance costs are high, and are charged to you even when the factory isn't producing. Factories do, however, also provide employment for your citizens. If there are placement problems for any property development, you might have to face the Construction Manager, who will inform you of difficulties in a message window. Change the site selection if you can't immediately place the factory. It takes 20 materials to build a factory, but that sacrifice is softened by your realizing that all A-Train factories are non-polluting. Right now, the only things your train is picking up are construction materials and flies, so let's do some developing-- environmentally conscious, of course--with your passenger train in mind. Open the APARTMENTS submenu. There are no differences in operating expense or income among the three styles, but their initial purchase increases inexpense from left to right. Choose one,and find a good site on the map near a station to house some hard-working families. All of your initial property developments should be close to the station, since it increases their value, surrounding property values, and centralizes initial development. You might want to place your first apartments near your eastern track, if you don't want them to have to see the factory out their front window. Click on a block to place their new homes. You will get advisory messages from the simulation if your placement is unsuit- able or if you don't have enough construction materials. (Apartments require eight materials.) Building apartments indirectly 'primes" the simulation to develop other buildings around yours. Early rapid buying and selling of apartment houses does not in itself provoke more rapid development by the simulation, though you can parlay the income from sales to buy more companies and land, which brings up population totals, which does provoke the simulation to build. Build a few apartment complexes near the station. You can see from the SUBSIDIARIES menu that you can truly fill the landscape with properties galore, but all these decisions must be made in the shrewd light of company benefit and profit, so don't go hog-wild. You should put down some commercial or rental property nearby so your residents will have someplace to work.Avoid building or buying land directly behind your station without later selling it, because that is where the simulation will build roads when your city expansion is really cooking (if you have built with large stations). Now that you have acquainted yourself with all of the TRAINS and SUBSIDIARIES menu functions, you can open the SYSTEM menu and click on QUICK MENU. This will display the icons for all of those menu functions without the large title windows, so that the display area is larger. Clicking on any of the icons will open the submenus you have already seen. You can toggle the QUICK MENU on and off through the SYSTEM menu. ESTATES AND THEIR REELINGS The simulation will produce additional residences as soon as you reach a certain developmental scale; you might see the program clear some land first, and then fill it with houses after a materials deposit. You can make this happen more rapidly by buying real estate near your stations and then selling it not long after. Clearing land by purchasing it removes one step in the simulation building process by making it easier for the program to build after you sell the land. The program can also be kick-started by selling all old subsidiaries and buying new, but don't buy anything like golf courses or sta- diums until you have an urban base. However, constant speculation in subsidiaries will eventually result in a "There are no buyers" message. Check the "Look At Your Report Card" section below for details on buying and selling assets. You might have to take an initial loss on these sales, but once you have developed the area around your station a bit, and there are available materials, the program will start popping out houses and small commercial buildings, often where you've just made a transaction, and you'll have that warm glow only a mother knows. You can't expect your new residents to walk to work, and what about when Grandma wants to visit from the Great Beyond outside the map's borders? It's time to be a prime mover in the ecologically conscious (and hopefully, logically profitable) world of mass transit. We'll place a train on the outer ribbon of your existing line so that your passenger train enjoys the same rights (and rites) of passage as your freight. Open the BUY TRAIN command and buy one of those sleek little numbers you've always coveted. The AR 111, fourth from the top in the third column, is recommended for its efficiency, but it might be a touch expensive now, so you may want to buy a cheaper, lower capacity train (perhaps the handsome CF Lines FP 45 right above it) while your town's still in its infancy. You can always replace existing trains with faster, higher-capacity ones when the going's good. Anyway, risk some dough: name your risk #2, buy it, and place it on its line. Make sure the switch directs it down the eastern route. Now that you have two trains with a shared line, scheduling becomes a bit more dicey. Periodically check the number of passengers in the Satellite view by train number once your train is running. (The display will center on the selected train.) TIME AND CHANCE One of the central profit maxims of A-Train is that your departure time must be set at 8:00AM in the residential areas and at 6:00PM (18:00) in the urban areas in order to suck up -I those happy commuters and their happy dollars. As you can see from this map, it isn't exactly a bustling urban community yet, but let's plan for your future. Exit the PLACE TRAIN menu and click on SCHEDULE. Click on #2 in the chart and select DEPARTURE TIME under MODE. A chart of times will be displayed. Move the mouse toward the image of the southern station. Cross-hairs will converge near the station. Click to establish this as the initial departure site. Click on 8:00AM. Click on #1 and set your freight's southern departure time for 18:00. For now, leave the northern station at one-hour stops for both. These settings will make your trains travel to these stations, wait until the designated time (picking up or dropping off passengers and freight and not using expensive fuel for those down times) and then push their cargoes. Were you to run separate lines, it wouldn't be necessary to set a schedule for your freight, since it can perform constant pickup and drop off without losses in profitability. You might have to remove and replace your trains several times or set their directions differently so that the schedules are synchronized. You may experience a few collisions at first, but they only result in frozen trains and a delay in service, with nary an injury to worry about. Later, you can adjust schedules for more map-specific events, such as increased development in one area, which hikes passenger totals (or make the switch to a larger-capacity train). Check on running passenger totals in the train stats boxes in the Satellite window; you'll probably see many more passengers from your northern station if you also set it at 8:00 am, but you'll have to fuss with your freight's schedule in order to coordinate both. For now, this schedule just keeps the trains out of each other's way. Also, if your construction materials just begin piling up and you haven't the funds for much building, replace your freight train with another passenger train to try and pick up some extra passenger profit. Test different schedules and periodically check each train's capacity in the Satellite view at different station times to collar the biggest payload. Later, you can boost profits by increasing track length and adding another station on the line (larger stations stimulate greater urban expansion), and by pushing sound commercial development. Build a factory near your southern stations if materials movement is too slow and those houses aren't hatching. You must, of course, wait until your territory and budget can support pushing your frontiers. It's time to start attending to profits, Iosses, and that eternal bugaboo, the bottom line. A-Train has a host of financial chartings and investment possibilities: let's look at your rail operation and maybe even manipulate some markets. The "fine print" of all these money managings and manglings can he found in the Money And Its Management chapter in the Reference section; we'll just look at the elementary aspects here. As mentioned before, it's nice and useful--to know what the population of your city is and how rapidly it is growing before you even touch those nastier numbers. Click on REPORT 4 and you'll see a window that displays some city statistics, a graph of population change over time, and a radar" chart that reveals the industrial orientation of your city. The Primary Business is your rail operation, the Secondary is your city's main income subsidiaries (factories,buildings for rent), Other Business refers to things like amusement parks and hotels, and Residence is the ratio of your city area taken up by your residents. It is wise policy to check the population tally frequently to determine the pulse of development. You can see how the erection of certain buildings affects residential numbers, and how much internal build- ing by the simulation boosts these figures. Your city's successful expansion is how you win" in A-Train, so keep fiddling with your properties and trains--go West (and East, North and South), young engineer. THE RHYTHM OF THE RAILS You can get a station-to-station broadcast" of your railroad's fiscal health by clicking on REPORT I. The report's first level shows your cash on hand, your total debt and the estimated taxes (after March 31) for your company. Clicking again brings up the report's second level. which displays the first figures and the constantly updated rail sales and suhsidiaries income numbers for the day. the month and the fiscal term. The costs for these periods are calculated onscreen also, as well as the profit loss figures for those times. These costs include initial train purchases and initial track laying costs. which call he quite dear. Click yet again and you can see all this plus your station, switch. cars and track length totals, as well as a graph showing your money (vertical axis) over time (horizontal axis). You will undoubtedly see a negative ' spike"--the dreaded red--for your initial months. because of your operation's developmental costs. Naturally!, you want to try to keep those money lines a healthy black color. but it's typical not to see a profit in your daily operation for some time. Exit REPORT 1 and click on REPORT 2. This chart reflects your overall holdings: rail, subsidiaries, stocks, and real estate, and also provides you with the values of these properties and their associated taxes. There is a revenue column for all these holdings that includes market dividends and taxes on all the incomes. Your expenditures for all your holdings, including commission paid on real estate deals and interest on your loans, are found in the second column. There are two income tax figures, one the taxes on your assets, and the second a tax on your profits. Refer to the income tax infor- mation in the Money And Its Management chapter in the Reference section for the maneuverings to escape the pinch of those prongs. You should refer to this chart periodically to get a fix on the areas of weakness in your empire, to decide whether you should dump subsidiaries if they are unprofitable or buy them up to avoid heavy profit taxes, and in a general way to oversee your real estate investments. There is a more detailed breakdown of this Balance Sheet in the Money section. From this window you can buy and sell these assets. If you click on APARTMENTS and then on SELL, a window will emerge that pro- vides the stats on the term sales, profit/loss and market value of all of your apartments, plus the commission charged you for their sale. Click on one of the lines of information and the Apartment Manager will appear, giving you the opportunity to proceed by clicking on the YES or NO button. Select one of your apartments and sell it.You will see your cash figure rise and the ownership figures update. Selling and buying new subsidiaries increases population and employment opportunities, creating competition to propel development. The selling off of subsidiaries is also one of the game's best fundraisers for quick cash infusions.After you exit this menu, note that the properties that were once yours no longer have the little box on their roofs. This indicates that your company no longer owns them. (This is also one of the ways you can verify that new commercial properties have been built by the simulation.) Click on STOCK MARKET--open only from 9-5 and you will see a graph charting the fortunes of a selected stock over the past 30 weeks, along with the stock board, which can be scrolled to display the 24 stock | brands. The two numbers after the company name represent its trading value and the amount by which it has dropped or risen since the day before. In addition, you'll often see a window with a securities advisor who will inform you about the current market conditions. You probably have a little spare time, since you're merely a CEO, engineer, property developer, and city planner--why not dabble in the market a bit? It's not necessary to do any stock trading to develop your city, but it is a means to diversify your holdings, give your income an occasional kick, and remind yourself of what a genius you are. when you click on any of the stocks, the graph will update to display that stock's trends. For now, search the board for a stock that seems to have a fairly consistent rising trend, but that currently is in a flat or lull state. Click on BUY and you'll see a chart that identifies the stock, its price per units chosen and the brokerage fee for the sale. You can increase or decrease your totals in units of 1,10 or 100 by clicking on those buttons and using the plus or minus signs. Buy 100 units of your selection. You can return to your train operation, but be sure to periodically check the board for your stock's performance. If it shoots the moon, sell, or if you have a canny touch, wait out your hunches (but don't say I didn't warn you). When you click on the SELL command, your portfolio will appear, showing your stock type, number, original purchase price and current market value. Click again on SELL and your investment advisor will ask you to verify the transaction. Be advised that slumps can occur where the value of some stocks will bottom out rapidly, no matter how well the rest of the economy is doing.Stay on top of your stocks; you can make some pretty coin this way,but you can also look like an absolute lunkhead at nosedive time. Stock investment is also a good means to channel your profits when the taxman comes around. Check the Money section in the Reference chapter for specifics about stock types and investment. BANK ON IT You might find that your visions of sugarplums will remain blurry unless you can do some developing right away, but every time you want to place a property or buy something nice, that sour old Accounting Officer pops up to tell you you can't afford it. There is a way to escape his tight fists: credit! Go to the BANK menu and click. You will see a window that reveals your credit limit and the current term rates from 1-3 years. Your limit is 30% of the company assets. You can adjust your loan amount by units of 1,000, lO,OOOor lOO,OOO by clicking on the plus or minus signs. Decide what amount would satisfy you and click on BORROW. You will see the CASH figure tally your fresh funds. Debts have an interest charge if they are not paid by the end of the loan term; the longer the term, the higher the interest. The management chief will warn you that your debt is due two weeks in advance. Debts are automatically deducted from your company funds on the appointed dates; you can go bankrupt if you don't have the cash on hand. Click on DEBT TOTAL to see your loan list and the repayment dates. Be sure to shop for the best interest rates. If you plan to take out a sizable loan, these charges can kill you over time. But then again, living dangerously can be rather stimulating. Now you are armed with the whys and wherefores to make your mark on a map. However,these procedures are but a single scamper- ing of your mouse across a room, barely looking at the furniture. The A-Train landscapes are fertile soil for many plantings--go dig in the Reference chapter for a while to get a sense of the program's depth, particularly the fiscal model, and then try to take over a territory. Or just jump right in and wing it. Each map has a thousand success stories waiting to happen. (Or a thousand bankrupt railroad owners, but hey, why be negative?) The following material will provide in-depth details about all aspects of the program, including specific situational strategies. Refer also to the Q&A section at the end of this section for answers to some broad overview questions and some detailed game play techniques. A mouse is recommended when playing A-Train. All instructions in this manual assume that you have a mouse. If you do not, see the section of the Addendum entitled, "Playing A-Train Without A Mouse." The slight variations for monochrome monitors will also be discussed in the Addendum. A-Train is a game that lets you wear several hats: you can simultaneously be a CEO,engineer,industrial magnate, cityplanner, stock market speculator and big-shot financier. And you have the opportunity to fail miserably or shoot the moon in all of these enterprises. Your goal, of course, is shrewd management of all of these linked components, which are constantly affected by the dynamic forces of the simulation, mimicking the roller coastering of forces in any developing landscape. Developing landscapes are the shapeable clay of A-Train. You are given six different maps, all of which present varied, demanding challenges to contend with--but the basic issues are identical. How do you operate and expand a successful railroad? Where do you build factories, apartments, offices? When is the best time to sell them? How do you balance out killing taxes and piling profits? What's a strategic approach to bank loans and the stock market? And of critical import, how do you manage the day-to-day (often hour-to-hour) details of all of these concerns, while asking your guardian angel to pull you up above it all to get a look at the big picture, and your company's future years down the line? And you thought this was just a game. "WINNING" THE GAME If you reach $50 million dollars in cash, you get the keys to the city and your favorite locomotive, and a chance to start all over again-- your game is won. But the money measure is just one of many targets of game success to aim for. One significant notch on the ladder is the upgrading" of the size of your city to the next notch on the city scale; see the Cities section for details. What you need to do is craftily develop your railroads and properties, jack up the population. and stack up some dough. Los I N G Aside from winning, there is only one condition that stops the game play--if you go broke. If you don't have enough money to pay taxes or debts on the appointed dates (the game will inform you), or if your cash resources dwindle to a nub at any time. the game is over. To avoid a game-over, secure enough money for your immediate taxes and debts by getting bank loans or by selling off the company assets. TH E MAI N Wl N DOW Most of A-Train takes place in the Main Window. This window is surrounded by a "picture frame" of menu choices. Click on any of these choices to open various menus, windows and reports. The central part of the Main Window is a display of the current map. This is where you view your city, as well as lay tracks, place train stations, and buy and sell land, buildings, businesses and resorts. The map is divided into squares, or blocks." In this manual, distances are often given in blocks, i.e., "You should build an apartment no more than 10 blocks from a station." Syslem Menu In the lower right of the picture frame are scrolling arrows. Click on these to scroll the map in the display area. THE SATELLITE VIEW One of the most useful views of your city is the SATELLITE view, which is accessed by clicking on the SATELLITE section of the picture frame. The SATELLITE view opens up a small window with a small map of your total landscape. In the small map is a highlighted rectangle that demarks the area that is visible in the Main Window. Move the rectangle in the Satellite map with your mouse and click to quickly move to any place on the map. At the bottom of the Satellite window is a "calendar chart" for tracking the active trains in the current map. Each train is assigned a number from this chart. If no train is assigned to a number, it will be "ghosted" or greyed out. When you click on the number of a train, both the highlighted rectangle in the small map and the display area in the Main Window center on that train. Below the calendar chart is a display of the vital stats of the active train, including: train model, formation, current passenger total and operating status. TH E MAPS There are six different maps you can develop, each of which consists of a mix of urban and rural landscapes and at least one operating rail line. It is a good idea to explore each landscape thoroughly; you'll need this working knowledge of your kingdom in order to rule over it with a deft touch. M E N U S The A-Train interface provides you with a "picture frame" matrix to access the menu commands. The periphery (frame) of the display screen contains the main menu headings, which will highlight when the mouse pointer is positioned on them, and they then can be opened with a mouse click. The exposed commands can then be executed with your mouse. Most menus stay open until you click on the EXIT button. Many menu choices open submenus. When a submenu is open, you can cancel a command by clicking the EXIT button. After the credits for the game have been displayed, the SYSTEM menu will open. When this menu is opened, the game clock stops. The menu consists of the following commands: NEW GAME Lists available maps so you can begin a new game fresh or quit the present game for a "green" one. You can select the same map with which you began a game to play the same game from its beginning. ù Choose a number from 1-6. ù Click the LOAD command. Quits the present game and loads a saved file. See your Addendum for details. SAVE Saves the current map and game conditions. See your Addendum for details. QU ICK M EN U Provides a small, icon-based menu strip along the left side of the picture frame that replaces the standard TRAINS and SUBSID- IARIES menu windows to provide more map display area. ù Click on QUICK MENU to toggle on and off the standard and Quick Menu windows. OPTIONS Lets you set some options for graphics, sound, and printing. See your Addendum for details. SPEED Adjusts the clock speed in the game. You may wish to set the speed according to your computer type. The speed rate can be increased when you want to jumpstart your city, and slowed when you are reflecting on city developments or doing some complex work like laying railroads There are lO speeds that are set up or down one level at a time by clicking the corresponding hox or the LAH switch. The clock goes fastest when all boxes are clicked. Click EXIT when you are done setting the speed. Quits the game. Be sure you save the game before quitting so that you can continue the game later. Executing the EXIT command does not save the game. This menu is composed of commands associated with the railroad constructionoperation,suchaslayingrailroadsandbuildingstations. The clock doesn't stop when this menu is opened, but does as soon as a submenu is opened. LAY TRACKS This command lets you lay or remove track using the LAY command and the REMOVE command. PLACE TRAIN Lets you put a purchased train on a track or removes a train that was in operation (using the PLACE, REMOVE, and TRAIN REGISTRY commands). There is a "calendar" chart for selecting a train number below the TRAIN REGISTRY heading. After you choose a train number, the model, the number of coaches and the seating capacity are displayed. If it's in operation, the map will center on the active train. To place a purchased train, first click the PLACE command.Next,use the calendar chart to select the number of the train that is to be put into service. Trains that are "in storage," i.e., not in service. can be returned to operation by selecting their number. Then click on the track where you want to place the train--it will appear there on the map. Your train will have a set of arrows on its roof,one dark and one light, pointing in opposite directions. The train travels the direction of the light arrow. You can toggle the direction of train movement by clicking on the arrows. Statistical information on the train and its current operating conditions will be displayed under the registry. To remove a train that is in operation, first click the REMOVE command. Next, select the train number. When the number is clicked, the map will scroll to display the train on the center of the map. Click on the train and it will be removed from the map, i.e., placed in storage. The train can be placed again, or if you choose, you can sell it. B UY TRAI N Lets you purchase or sell a train using the BIJY, SELL and CONFIRM commands. To purchase a train, click the BUY command, then choose a train number from the calendar chart. Click on CONFIRM to seal the purchase. To sell a train, click the SELL command. Next, choose the train number. Only the trains that have been put in storage can be sold. The model, statistics and value of a train in storage will be displayed after you click the train number. The train will be sold and its value added to your cash as soon as the CONFIRM command is clicked. BUILD STATION This command lets you build or remove stations using the BUILD and REMOVE commands. To build a station. click the BUILD STATION command, choose the station type. then click the place where you want to erect your station. A station can only be built adjacent to track Iying on a straight, diagonal line. You can't place your station near vertical, horizontal or curved track. Also, keep in mind that if you build a station on land that you don't already own, you will be charged for the land when you build. To remove a station, click the REMOVE STATION command and then click the station on the map. SCH EDU LE Use the schedule to determine the stopping time, the departure time, and the routes for your trains. After you click on SCHEDULE, a window opens that displays the Train Registry, along with a map showing the route for the currently selected train, with that train's information and some command choices. The selected train is displayed on the route map by a small highlighted box. First, choose a train number. Then, under MODE, choose SWITCH or DEPARTURE TIME. (It's possible to set both for each train from this window.) Set the SWITCH as follows: Click on SWITCH. You'll see a small diagram displaying one of the switches for the train you've selected. The diagram is above the CHANGE SWITCH, TEST RUN and END TEST commands. Move the cursor on the route map so that the crosshairs shift to the nearest switch. Click to choose the switch. The small diagram will update to the chosen switch. When the CHANGE SWITCH command is clicked, the switch diagram will reflect the new direction that your train will assume at that switch. Use the TEST RUN command to see a model representation run of the new route. The train (dot) will keep running until STOP TEST is clicked. You can repeat the switch-changing commands to make the train run the desired route. Choosing DEPARTURE TIME displays the window to set the depar- ture time. Move the cross on the route map to the desired station and click. Then click on one of the eight choices: choose either ONE- HOUR STOP, NON-STOP, or one of the six departure times. You must set the departure time for each train, so that each train has its own schedule. This menu includes the commands associated with the building construction and real estate businesses. Using these commands, you can construct buildings on your purchased land or destroy (sell) the buildings that are owned by your company. FACTO RY With this command you can build or remove factories that produce construction materials to speed your building or to augment the importation of incoming materials from the outside. Click on FACTORY and the BUILD and REMOVE submenu will open. A highlight of the factory's outline will follow your mouse move- ment around the map. You can place the factory by clicking, as long as there are enough nearby construction materials and the site is feasible. You will be informed by a message window if there are any problems. Factories are good sources of employment for your population. COM M ERCIAL These are enterprises like department stores and furniture stores. Use the BIJILD and REMOVE command to site your companies. Be sure to locate them close to your stations in the early going. HOTEL Don't place hotels until you have a population base. They can be solid sources of income in flourishing cities, particularly during those seasonal periods when recreational facilities are operating. AM USEM ENT S Kl R ESORT STA D I U M None will be profitable until your city has enough traffic to support them. They are all subject to seasonal income variation as well as influenced by their proximity to stations. They are expensive--build them with caution, with the long-term in mind. APARTM ENTS Theplacementofapartmentsattheearlystagesofthegame is critical to city growth. The people who move into the apartments provide a labor force for local enterprise and passengers for your trains. You can place a number of apartments near your station and sell them fairly quickly, often at a profit, in order to produce funds to build more. Do recognize that your apartment dwellers need places to work as well. LEASE BU I LDI NG You can adjust the number of stories in units of five for each type of lease building by clicking on the various building icons. It takes time to finish constructing a building for rent--you'll see a crane on top of the unfinished building that will disappear upon completion. The building can be opened for business only after the completion of construction. R EAL ESTATE This command allows you to buy or sell land. When you click on REAL ESTATE, a submenu opens, showing the BUY and SELL commands. You will see a figure that tallies the number of blocks that you own, and an expense figure for land purchase or income figure for land sale that will update as you move the mouse from block to block. You can buy and sell (if company-owned) land where there are no buildings. Land owned by other companies is surrounded by a dotted line. This part of your display isn't really a menu, but a menu bar along the bottom of the screen that accesses all the business reports and financial information. REPORT 1 -- RAILROADS This window lets you read the financial status of your railroad and subsidiary operations--there are no commands in the menu. The clock keeps going even when the menu is opened. The window has a three-part display, which covers more of your screen display with each click on the Report 1 menu. REPORT 2--BALANCE SHEET This is an itemized report on the total assets and balances of the railroad branch, including real estate and stock investment. When the menu is opened, the clock stops. This window doesn't contain any commands. Assets Properties and real estate owned by the company. The taxes for each category are also displayed. Revenue Company sales and incomes as well as the one-year totals. Expenditures Company expenses are itemized, along with the yearly totals. Taxes All of your rail, real estate and subsid- iary properties are taxed, as well as your profits. REPORT 3--SUBSIDIARIES Use this menu to buy or sell buildings and facilities. The clock stops when the menu is opened. The number of buildings and facilities owned by your company and the number of buildings and facilities on the map owned by the other companies are displayed. Choose the BUY command or the SELL command. Next, choose the building type. A list of buildings available for purchase or sale will be shown. Move the cursor to choose the building and then click. The building that is available for sale will blink on the display map. Fees will be taken from cash assets for purchases: income from sales will be, added to those assets. ; REPORT 4--URBAN GROWTH This menu displays information on the town's character and environment. (You can regard the display map as a part of a larger administrative district.) The clock stops when the menu is opened. Size reveals which of the following scales the city belongs to: a small town, a small city, a moderate city, a big city or a metropolitan area. One of the primary measures of A-Train success is the developmental upgrade of your city to the next scale, as defined by a combination of population and facilities development numbers. See the cities section for details. There are six Types of cities: agriculture-based, balanced, industrial- based, residential, tourist-based and underpopulated. The Budget is a measure of public investment: more funding results in faster city development. A growing Population figure results in more pass- engers and income for your railroad and faster development. The 'RadarChart"graph displays the relative scope of the industry within the city. STOCK MARKET The menu lets you trade on the stock market. The business hours of the brokerage firm are 9AM-5PM, except Sundays and holidays. The menu can be opened only during business hours; the clock stops when the menu is opened. Click the up or down arrow to scroll the board that displays all the stock types. After you choose the company name, click the BUY command or the SELL command. When using the BUY command, decide the unit totals of stocks to be purchased by using +/- and the unit buttons, which allow you to buy in in- crements of 1,10, or 100. You are restricted to buying 2,000 units at any one time. There is a fee for purchasing stocks. To sell stocks, choose SELL and click on the stocks from the brand list. Stocks are sold in the same units as they are purchased. The display will reveal your credit limit, adjustable loan amount, interest rates for the chosen term, and the due date for repayment. Current interest rates for the 1-3 year periods are displayed, as well as your available cash and updated liabilities. Use this menu for borrowing money from banks. The business hours of the bank are 9AM-5PM, excepting Sundays and holidays. The menu can be opened only during the business hours. The clock stops when the menu is opened. Choose a repayment period for the debt from 1-3 years. Adjust the loan amount using +/- and the unit buttons, which let you borrow in increments of 100,000, 10,000 and 1,000. After you click the BORROW command, the loan is added to your company funds. You cannot exceed the credit limit. The debt is paid automatically from the company funds on the appointed date; you can't pay the debt before that date. To see your debts and their respective payment dates, click the DEBT TOTAL command. Clicking on SATELLITE brings up a window with an aerial overview of your map showing the layout of railroads and a train chart that provides the status of train operations for all your trains. The clock does not stop when the window is opened. A rectangle enclosing the cursor on the reduced map shows the current territory of the larger display map. By moving the cursor on the reduced map and clicking, you can quickly move the display area to the cursor position. If you select a train number from the TRAIN REGISTRY, the display area will move so that the train is centered on the screen, and pertinent train info will be revealed. RAILROADS ON THE INITIAL MAP The railroads on the initial map are part of your company assets. It is OK to relay these railroads, to remove a station, or to build a new station. You will be given at least one passenger train and one freight train that are connected to places outside the map. They belong to the company, but their timetables can't be changed. They go straight at switches, and stop one hour at stations. GETTING ON THE RIGHT TRACK The most basic type of railroad is a single line between two stations. At the beginning, the line should be as straight and as short as possible, but long enough to be a reliable source of profit. Lay the track straight toward its destination. Stations should be built far away from each other (relative to the length of the line), because the fare you receive increases with the distance between stations. Make the distance at least 15 blocks. A"belt line" is suitable for running several trains in the same direction. A belt line is a closed loop of track. Using a belt line, with its frequent, regulated scheduling, you can put many trains into operation at the same time. At the beginning of the game, you probably won't be able to bear the construction and engine expenses. After several stations have been built, a belt line will seem more feasible. When shy of cash, play only on a single line. The shortcoming is that only one train can be put on the line, although it's conceivable to put a loop on each end of a developed single line so that several trains can be run at the same time. It's also possible to design a double line segment in the middle of the single line so that two trains can run in opposite directions, but it can be somewhat costly. The merit of a double-line railroad is that you can run passenger trains and freight trains on separated lines without conflict. RAILROAD ENGINEERING Laying a railroad is simple, but you should pay attention to your expenses. Just click on LAY and move the cursor in the desired direction. A line of track will highlight and will be placed on the map when you click your left mouse button. Normally you can lay a railroad on any cleared place (except on a hill or on the ocean). You can't lay a railroad on land that you don't own or that isn't available for purchase; thus when track is placed, you've bought the land. When there are large facilities--lease buildings, parks, or roads--in the way, the track will have to be curved around them. Bridges will have to be constructed over rivers. If you start to lay some tracks and then change your mind, click the right mouse button to cancel the operation. ù Don't lay track any longer than necessary--the removal expense is two-thirds of the laying expense. ù You cannot destroy your company buildings to lay a railroad. But you may lay the railroad after the buildings have been removed through the REMOVE command in their respective SIJBSIDIARIES submenus. ù When you want to lay a railroad on areas where other companies have facilities, it's necessary to buy the facilities and then remove them before proceeding. (They are not always available for purchase.) Keep in mind that costs for projects such as these are tremendous. L I N E- LAY I N G N O- N OS In summary. a line can't he built if: 1.) A railroad is connected to an established railroad by a right angle. 2.) A railroad crosses over an established railroad. 3.) A railroad intersects a river in an improper way other than at a right angle. 4.) A railroad passes through a public place, like a park. 5.) A railroad passes through a company building. 6.) A railroad passes through buildings owned by the other companies. 7.) You lack construction funds. 8.) You place your cursor outside the map boundaries. 9.) Facilities such as skyscrapers, factories and amusement parks are in your path. CON N ECTI NG RAI LROADS TO EACH OTH ER Pay attention to the following issues when you connect one railroad to another: 1.) When the railroads are connected end-to-end, you can't set a switch. 2.) When a railroad is connected to the middle of an existing railroad, you can establish a switch. 3.) You can't build a railroad that crosses over an existing railroad. Note the angle between a planned railroad and an established railroad. You must lay track on a diagonal from existing track--you can't make two railroads connect to each other on a right angle. A track-laying advisor will pop up with a discouraging message when your planned railroad can't he connected to an existing railroad. REMOVING A RAILROAD To remove a railroad, choose REMOVF, in the LAY TRACK submenu. Click the track's beginning point and follow the track to the desired removal point with the mouse. The line should be highlighted along its original path. Click the mouse button at your end point and the rail will be replaced with cleared land. Only the part over lapped by the highlighted line will be removed; any connected railroads traveling in different directions will remain. If there is a switch, only one line in a single direction is removed. To remove a curved railroad, make the highlighted removal line match the curve of the tracks, or, if the highlight won't follow the track direction, separately remove the straight segments that con- stitute the curve. The cleared land is still owned by your company. If you're not interested in keeping the land, you can sell it by using the REAL ESTATE command on the Sl JBSIDIARIES menu. The cost of removing railroads is not affected by the land price. When you click the beginning point of a railroad and then move the cursor over different blocks, you might find that the number showing the construction expense in the LAY menu varies. That figure represents the construction cost plus the purchase price of the land. Your construction expenses will be greatly increased if you choose to put in a switch or build a bridge across a river. When you are thinking of establishing a switch, consider the expense. An often-used line should be as straight as possible so that it's not necessary to make any directional change at switches, which can be expensive and impair efficiency. ù The railroad construction cost includes the track laying expenses and the purchase price of the land. The amount of money is dependent upon your route--long, curving tracks are obviously more costly. Some land may not be suitable for railroad construction, or may not be available for purchase. TRAIN "CALENDAR CHART" Facts The calendar chart (the TRAIN RECISTRY) is found in the Satellite view, the Place Trains window, the Buy Trains window and the Schedule window. If a number is highlighted black, there is a train assigned to that number. If the number is ghosted, there ain't no train assigned. The underline of the purchased train number is the same color as the train after its placement on the map. When a train is put on a line, the train number is enclosed within a frame (the same color as the number's underline), indicating that the train is in operation. The model and the coach number of the train can be confirmed by checking the data column at the chart bottom. Clicking on an existing train's number brings up that train on the map.lf you have just placed a train, it will start moving as soon as the menu is closed and the clock starts. All work such as placing/removing, buying selling and adjusting timetables of trains is done based on the train number. The same number can't be assigned to more than one train. You can assign trains their numbers in any order, whatever your preference. FlRST-TIME TRAIN BUYERS To purchase a train, click the BUY command under the BUY TRAINS submenu, then choose a train number from the TRAIN REGISTRY. It's easy to recognize a registered train--the train number is underlined. To buy a train, click a number that is not underlined. Click on any train image in the train list on the top of the window. Detailed information on the selected train will be displayed below the list. There are two types of trains: passenger trains and freight trains. There are 15 models of passenger trains and 4 models of freights. The high-speed trains move three blocks per hour and the low-speed trains two blocks per hour. After clicking the CONFIRM command, your train will be registered on the display by its underlined number.The train won't be put in operation until it is placed. To sell a train, click the SELL command. Next, choose the train number. Only the trains that have been put in storage can be sold. The model and statistics of a train in storage will be displayed after you click the train number. The train will be sold as soon as you click the CONFIRM command. ù You are limited to ownership of 25 trains. whether they are in storage or in operation; you can sell any of those in storage. The sale price is half that of the purchase price. Note:ARIII trains are a sound choice for a passenger train. They are a little expensive, but the investment can pay off. SMALL AND LARGE STATIONS There are two types of stations, a solitary station and a station with large buildings attached. The former is called a small station, and the latter a large station. Choose your place to build the station according to your budget. The game begins with an initial station on the map; a typical approach would be to lay a railroad from the initial station to a terminal station at the site of your choice (remembering that track laying isn't cheap, of course). However, this might mean integrating your new trains with the existing train's schedules,which can be a challenge.You can also lay independent lines near your initial station that will still collect passengers and freight without being connected to the original line. Your track must be within two blocks of the original station platform to pick up passengers, though you can build a new station near local development to share traffic. You can also site the station first and then lay a railroad to the new station. Of course, all construction decisions should be made to promote the future development of the city. Building a spate of stations early in the game before there are a lot of passengers might imperil your cash flow, your income and (shudder) your future. Both small and large stations are used for the boarding and departure of passengers, but they differ in construction expense, income and their effect on the city development. The construction charge is 120,000 dollars to build a large station, three times that of a small station. Both require the initial purchase price of three blocks of land.To remove a large station, it takes 12,000 dollars, again three times that of a small station removal. The most important difference between the two types of stations is how they affect the city development. It is much easier to develop a large city by building large stations. The large stations can handle bigger passenger totals, whose movement is an agent in game development. The simulation will not build a large, centralized road from your station--around which development flourishes--unless there is a large station with plentiful passenger totals. Smaller, residential areas will be built around the smaller stations, with consequently fewer and smaller buildings built by the program. If you want to develop a big city, it's better to build a large station at the beginning of the game, provided there's no financial problem. You need at least three blocks of land to build a station, plus a num- ber of blocks for materials storage. It is wise to reserve some land for laying another line in the future that will utilize that station, and advisable to build your station in a place where no nearby hills or seas would hinder city development. You can use construction materials from any place on the map to build the station(as long as your company owns them),but you must provide a place for storing materials around the station for future construction by purchasing nearby land. If there are no available materials on the map, you can't build your station. STATION STOPS A train stops at a station when the head coach of the train arrives at the middle of the platform. If the line is not parallel to the platform, e.g., the line turns at a switch, trains will not stop at the station. Two separate lines of trains up to two blocks (track distance) away can make station stops. Trains on lines passing at the back of the station cannot stop at the station. The train on the left line has priority to stop at the station over the train on the right line if the two trains have the same distance remaining to the station stop. When both trains are far away from the station, the train closer to the station has the priority. A mix of freight and passenger trains can use the single station. ù It's possible to build a station in a place where no railroad lines are in operation. You will be charged for station construction expenses, but the building will not func- tion as a station until a line is laid. They make rather expensive ornaments. THE END OF THE LINE Train length is important in relation to where tracks end at the station. Track ending at the middle of the station is suitable for two- coach trains, but not for three-coach trains. This is because the three-coach trains cannot stop at any station where tracks do not extend to the end of platforms. If the tracks at the station aren't the correct length, the construc- tion materials will not be unloaded, or the materials which have just been unloaded will be loaded again and carried away. When one of your trains reaches the end of the track, it will cleverly reverse its direction and set off back up the line. The direction of an operating train can be changed by choosing the train number via the PLACE TRAIN command and then clicking on its directional arrows. For trains that run on the wrong route, it's better to remove them and then rearrange them. When two trains have a possibility of colliding head-on, you'll probably have a traffic jam on your hands. The two trains will stop moving before they collide, gently stopping end-to-end. To prevent such occurrences, change the direction of a train or remove one train using the PLACE TRAIN command. When a train is removed from the line, the building materials on the train will disappear, but the passengers will go home--the popula- tion will not decrease. If a freight train is placed directly at the station,it will depart without loading materials. Place it just out of and toward the station if you want it to pick up freight. ù It is all right to put a train on any area of the track. But you can't put a train on a line that is shorter than the length of the train. (Not that it would provide a dazzling scenic excursion anyway.) ù If your designated placement isn't displayed on the map, click the scroll arrows on the right side of the frame or use the Satellite view to scroll the map. TRAINS AND THEIR CARGOES Trains are divided into two main types: passenger trains and freight Passengers board and disembark when a passenger train stops at a station. The more buildings there are around the station, the more passengers. However, the total of station passengers near facilities like amusement parks or ski resorts varies with the seasons. The fare is based on the distance between the stations: longer distance, more dough. Train operating expenses are consistent regardless of these matters. Passenger totals will often exceed the train capacity because they reflect the common practice of cramming cars full of people at rush hour. Don't worry, there's never been a fatality in A-Train. The stated capacity figure in the Rolling Stock Market is intended to represent the suggested multi-car capacity. Freight trains are used to transport the construction materials from which all buildings are made. At the beginning of the game there will be at least one original place to store the materials on each map; you must buy the land for this storage for additional stations. Freight trains transport the construction materials from the storage place to the first station stop. If there are construction materials deposited at a station, any empty freight trains will pick up and transport the materials to the next station stop. ù Construction materials can also be produced by the factories on the map. If the company has a storage place near the factory, the materials are piled up there by way of your freight. If there is no station nearby, the materi- als can't be carried away to build elsewhere. Obviously this makes it a good idea to build factories near the station, or to build a station near the factories. See the Cities section for details on materials movement. SCHEDULING SHENANIGANS The trial-and-error method will instruct you in the most profitable means of running your railroads for the specific conditions of each map. Each train's operation is controlled by setting its switches and departuretimes.You'll be charged lO dollars per setting.The income of a train depends greatly upon its departure scheduling. A departure time of 8:00. is very efficient: you can make the train depart at 8:00 in the residential areas and at 6:00PM (18:00) in the office districts so passenger load is maximized. Belt lines require more closely scheduled stops so that multiple trains can "play tag" at a succession of station stops. However, if you're running trains on single lines into areas that seem to be of equal growth or building type, e.g., both residential with a similar population, you can set the schedule at 8:00AM at both stations. so that the train is on a 24-hour "loop" service. The train would leave one station on Sunday at 8:00 and go to the other station, where it would wait until Monday at 8:00 Am to depart. The success of this venture is dependent on variables like distance between stations, speeds of trains, and game speed setting: you might not be able to make the distance between stations in the 24- hour frame if conditions aren't right. Frequently checking the passenger totals in the Satellite view will give you a sense of what times are most favorable for filling your cars. Once your lines are established, be sure to check periodically in the expanded Report 1 to see if you are getting closer to turning a profit. Remove the freight trains from the tracks when you have a big materials buildup. They drain operating expenses when they're running. All switches are set initially so that the train moves on a straight course; the departure times are set for one-hour layovers. To run trains efficiently, exercise care regarding the distance in blocks between two stations. A long-distance excursion is more profitable than a short one. Note that it is this block distance that affects the fare, not the length of the track between the two stations. However, in the beginning, it's good economics not to build stations a great distance--30 or 40 blocks or more--from each other because of track laying and operating expenses. They also can be so far away that you can't effectively use a 24-hour schedule. You can remove short-distance stations further along in the game when you're flush with cash. When the income from a station is small, let the trains have a long layover at the station so that the fuel costs can be economized and more passengers can be carried at one time. Conscientious sched- uling of freight trains might become necessary to insightfully control the amount of construction materials at a station, though they can often run simply on the one-hour stop schedule. Don't forget that personnel fees are charged when loading and unloading materials. When a train runs on a single line, a schedule is not absolutely necessary, though setting one can greatly increase income. When two trains run on a single line, schedule station departure and layover times so that trains can lead or follow each other without trouble. SCHEDULE MENU SPECIFICS ù When several trains need scheduling for a specified switch or a station, you can easily schedule them in succession by choosing the switch or station and then the trains' respective numbers, setting the departure time and then going on to the next train. without needing to leave the Schedule window or return to the game map. You can schedule trains in any order of their Train Registry numbers; you don't have to follow the 1-25 chart sequence. ù Since the train number is used to control the switch setting, trains coming from the same direction on the same line can be made to diverge in different directions. It's also possible to let trains that move on different lines stop at the same station by using the switch setting. ù The execution of the TEST RIJN command doesn't change the current position of the train. The new direction for a switch setting is easily confirmed by looking at the actual map. A train approaching the switch goes in the direction the switch is set. The branch direction of a switch is set for the chosen train--to have all trains turn in the same direction, it's necessary to individually set all train numbers. ù When ONE-HOUR STOP is chosen, the train departs by itself an hour after it arrives at the station. During the layover, passengers get on and off the train and goods are loaded and unloaded. ù When NON-STOP is chosen, the train will pass by the station. NON-STOP can't be chosen for a train that is not permitted to pass by a station, as is the case for a number of train types. You can verify the type in the Train Catalog section at the end of the Reference section. ù When a departure time is chosen, the train stops at the station until that time. Multiple trains cannot be set to depart at the same time if there is only one line. (However, with careful staggering of train placement, multiple trains on a belt line can be set to the same schedule. ) SC E N A R I OS A N D STRAT EG I ES Here are the map numbers and the type of challenge each represents. There are six maps that have varying geographic features and degrees of development. It is easier to get familiar with the relationships between railroad operation and town development using a map with a smaller number. Naturally, all of the counsel offered here constitutes merely one particular slant to interpreting the maps. This is one of A-Train's beauties: there are many fuels for the engine of commerce--experiment with the mixtures! MAP NAMES AND FACES #1. New Town #2. Bay Area #3. Resort Development #4. Multi-City Connection #5. Reconstruction #6. Downtown Reorganization There are also six basic types of cities: an agriculturally oriented city, an industrial city, a "balanced" city, a residential city, a tourist- oriented city and a "underpopulated" city. Plan your development or try some free-form experimentation to move from one type to another. There are five city scales; your map's current scale can be read in ù--- Report 4 under "Size." They are Small Town, Small city, Medium city, Big city, and Metropolis. These scales are determined by the simulation, which assigns a point total to a combination of building types and building totals plus the population figures. A block of public buildings counts one point, and a block of lease buildings two points. Broad development of your subsidiaries holdings and related expansion by the simulation should eventually boost you to the next scale, which is one of the signal benchmarks of A-Train success. The Small Town population is usually under 24,000; the Small city, from 24,000 to 64,000: the Medium city, from 64,000 to 88,000; the Big city, from 88,000 to 150,000; and the Metropolis, 150,000+. If you reach the population figures without a scale upgrade, you need to build more and larger property holdings. such as the large lease buildings. The Bullet Train (Shinkansen) will run through middle- sized or bigger cities when the population and building point totals have been attained. New Town Map One has the most basic geography. Besides an old railroad line and a station,there are only small residences and ranches. This "new town" is in the suburbs of a big city off the map, and its population needs increase. It can be built up as a"bedroom"community when it has a good transportation network. One problem is that there are no facilities (such as department stores and lease buildings) in the town. You can build practically anything. but to do well isn't so easy. You should absolutely master the technique of how to lay a profitable line. The simplest way to do so is pick a nice site, lay straight double lines, and buy two AR 111 trains. Build the large stations at each end of the lines, and set all the departure times for 8:00AM. After finishing the train scheduling,wait to see changes ensue.You'll find that the number of passengers increases to about 100. If you build two to three apartment houses around the station. passenger numbers will increase more rapidly. The key point is buying the AR IIIs and setting that old 8:00 AM departure time--and logical development thereafter. Bay Area Map Two isn't so difficult if you've mastered the basic technique of laying profitable lines. There is already a large population. Rapid development could be stimulated by active, broad expansion of the railroad company and its holdings. The problem here is how to effectively use the old railroad line at the top of the map and how to transport the materials to develop the bay area at the bottom of the map. (The harbor is used as a site to store the materials unloaded from ships at the end of the reclaimed land; the ship is the Bonhomme Richard. ) Doing nothing with the old line will land you a deficit because of the expenditures you face in leaving it unat- tended. To avoid the deficit, just apply the basic techniques: First, check the freight train near the factories on the upper-right part of the map. If there are only small amount of materials to be transported, remove it from the line for a while. Next, check the second train to see if the departure time is 8:00AM. Reset it if necessary. If passenger load increases to more than 1,000 passengers, it's also OK to set the departure time at 6:00PM. You can also change the trains on the line into AR IlIs to spank some profits. Of course, experimentation is always fun. Try to make an industrial strip near the harbor. Bring the people amusement parks and hotels, and bread and circuses a little further away. Be the master mogul of the map. Resort Development There is nothing here in Map Three except the rich natural surroundings. Don't worry too much about the airport in the bottom-right corner of the map. (If you're interested, the airplane is a DC-10.)Like Map One,this map is wide open, but you haven 't much cash . Don't rush into development, or your company will go bankrupt soon. Because the old railroad line is very short and the materials-storage place is too easily filled with materials,the first recommendation is to extend the materials-storage place to keep more materials. Next, make your lines profitable. Buy AR IlIs and lay a railroad that can be expanded into double lines in the future. The departure time is, of course, set at 8:00 AM. After making some money, set up a double-line railroad. Choose a good site, and concentrate on its development. Don't forget that the best use of your money for this map is for resort development. Sculpt your city around the mountains and lakes to build a handsome, livable environment. Taking out some bank loans is one way to make quick cash. Try to work with one-year debts. From this map, you can learn the loan and payback process. Rising development will draw the population from outside the map. Keep in mind that the population will not increase suddenly. Multi-City Connection Map Four looks quite similar to Map One, but they are different. When you have a look at Report 4, you'll find that the scales of the industry and residences are very small. Besides, there's no cash. The first thing to do is to borrow money for laying railroads. Make as many three-year debts as possible. It's very important to concentrate on industrial development. Don't build commercial yet, but construct a factory in a proper place, and lay a short railroad with an AR 111 locomotive that serves it. Now it's time to encourage residential growth. Since there is little,pay attention to the whole balance:number of worksites, other buildings, etc. that develop the residential population. If the program is slow in building residences, sell the factory, even if at a loss, and build another factory. You can also sell the new factory and build only apartments. When the city has been developed to some scale, apply the techniques of profitable railroad operation to develop the land in front of the station. If everything goes smoothly, enlarge your apartment holdings to make some rental cash. To avoid a high profit tax, you can invest in trains. Don't forget that you'll have to pay back any debts. It's a good idea to connect the scattered cities and villages by rail- roads to stimulate growth. Focus on expanding types of businesses. But keep in mind that a rash of thoughtless development may bring a state of chaos to the local business community. Reconstruction Although Map Five already has an advanced city, its progress will stop if the transportation network lags behind the development. The railroad is now on a belt line, but it's running at a big deficit. Your company will go bankrupt if no action is taken. The first task is to reconstruct the railroad to reduce the deficit. Your expenses are now twice your income, and lack of cash is a big concern. To cut down on expenses, get in there and manage that railroad.Check the schedules.You'll find all trains have been set to one-hour stops. Reset the departure time of each train to 8 :00 AM. You'll want to buy the AR 111 engines (not that - we're trying to suggest anything), but cash flow is nil. What to do? Determine if there are any freight trains that aren 't doing a bang-up job. (Hint: You'll find there's such a culprit at the bottom- right corner of the map. Remove that train immediately.) By doing so, you'll find that your expenses and income begin to equalize, although there might still be a small deficit. From this point the real game starts. Make some loans and build apartment complexes. When you observe that the whole city is thriving, buy some good land and sell it soon after. Cash will increase, and so will the population. When you're flush with funds, change all the trains into AR IIIs step- by-step. After only AR IIIs are on your lines, your railroad operation should become profitable. The next stage would be to develop the area around the lake. People will leave the city if they have no alternative. Keep a balance between costs and progressive construc- tion to invigorate the city. Downtown Reorganization Map Six already has a fairly developed city. There are a lot of buildings, and the business is active. There isn't a lot of cash on hand, but it will increase. Your belt line is profitable and the city is already on a large scale. Where's the challenge? As time passes, you might see the industrial center deviating from the city center. Traffic jams--like a chronic disease in the transportation network--mightappear. It's necessary to reconstruct the transportation network in order to keep the city active. Here you should carefully study the map and fine-tune the situations. Learn how to make a steadily profitable belt line. Develop the area in front of each station. Be playful: you might try repositioning a number of stations, try different types of recreational facilities, new track sidelines...enjoy your prosperity or create dangerous financial threats--it's all yours. DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT The basic process of the city development can be illustrated as follows: At the beginning of the game, you lay railroads, build a station and provide materials-storage places. Dependent on variable conditions, some residences may appear around the new station, but there will be few passengers for your startup rail operation. Then you construct apartments near the station to increase residents. The program will gradually respond by building residences, providing more passengers for the railroad. Repeat the procedure of purchasing and selling off lands to increase this building of lots and residences. Only the subsidiary companies of your railroad company can be directly constructed. Their purpose is to produce profits. (Commie insurgents are found off the maps.) Facilities around the station also lead to the development of the city. Choose the optimum sites to construct facilities that will produce the most profits. There is a list of building expenses for all properties--that includes advice for their utilization--at the end of this Cities section. MAKI NG HAY WH I LE TH E SU N S H I N ES The initial conditions vary with each map. It is to your advantage to learn the details of company capital and property and to examine the weak points of the company management. The debt limit, as well as your expenses and your tax owed, depends on the company assets. Study and confirm operating train incomes on the map. and pay attention to the town population and to the fluctuations of stock prices to find opportunities for growth. On each map, there are lines connected to the outside areas. These lines play an important part in transporting construction materials from outside. At the beginning, schedule the train run once a day (for those trains that you can schedule), and increase the number of runs as the town grows. I N DUSTR I ES DEPEN D ON YouR INDUSTRY If the population doesn't increase naturally any more, you have to create employment opportunities. You can build factories, depart- ment stores, etc. Stunted population growth is rare, but sometimes it may happen. The balance between supply and demand of the labor force has a great effect on the economy of the city. For example, if there is a surplus of labor force, factories will increase production, and consequently so will the incomes of other subsidiary companies increase. But the construction of new residences slows down. You should keep a sufficient labor force--by building of apartments and work sites to stimulate the program's building--to ensure the development of the city. Besides working, the residents carry on with their daily lives. They play golf and ski on holidays. The recreation facilities provide places for their leisure and their work. Secondary business You can check the concentrations of your city's industrial economy in the ' radar chart" scale in the Urban Growth window. By secondary industry, we mean the fundamental infrastructure of the city, as opposed to your primary industry, the railroad. Factories and lease buildings are the basic elements of the secondary industry. The income of a lease building depends upon the number of tenants. The companies using the building will provide employment oppor- tunities for your residents. Factories produce materials that are essential to the city development. They are also large sources of employment. They don't pollute the surroundings. If :; there is no need for materials, the materials will pileup.Your map's initial railroad will export them for sale if you don't use them. Other Business The elements of the Other Business consist of golf courses, amuse- ment parks, ski resorts, stadiums and hotels. The income of each depends on its location. Don't construct two large-scale facilities of the same type near each other. Different facilities can be built in each neighborhood. It's better to build hotels near recreation facilities. When you have a substantial level of development and ready cash, build each of the four leisure- type facilities and several hotels around a station. The entrance fees for the recreational facilities and the incomes of the hotels will symbiotically boost profits. At optimal sites, other companies will attempt to do the same business. In order to avoid competition, it is better to buy all the land around the station early in the game. Competition can spur development, however. Besides being a source of profits, these commercial developments supply the ornamentation for a colorful, scenic map as well--one vote for style. EFFECTS OF SPECIAL BUILDINGS Certain businesses produce high concentrations of people, which can increase the passenger totals of the station nearby. At the end of a year, customers of department stores (commercial buildings) greatly increase, while in winter, people crowd the ski resorts. People often visit amusement parks on Sundays and holidays. Take measures (such as reduced scheduling or longer station stops) to deal With the situations when there are few passengers. Most maps have a lot of facilities belonging to the other companies. Competition among the same types of businesses will contribute to the development of the city. When the city has several of the same types of enterprise, the city becomes larger. There's no limit on land purchase, but there is a restriction on the number of commercial properties that your company can erect. MATERIAL SUPPLY Materials are essential to the city development. All buildings are constructed with materials, whether by you or the hand of the A-Train simulation deity.When building a station,purchase the land that will be used as the materials-storage place when you build the station. As you expand your city, materials are gradually consumed, so you have to use your freight trains to carry in materials from factories or from the stations outside the map. The materials piled up at the factory sites need to be transported once by one of your trains before they can be used. You can, however, directly use the factory materials when you construct buildings adjacent to the factories. The materials-storage place should be located within eight blocks of the station--otherwise it can't be used to load or unload materials. When the factory materials are directly used, you can erect buildings within 10 blocks of the factory storage place. BUILDING AN EMPIRE If there are construction materials available, you can construct buildings around the station within an eight-block radius. With materials available, residences will begin to appear a short distance away from the station. The residences should reach enough numbers to constitute a residential town--a bedroom community. These residential inhabitants are the labor force needed for the construction and operation of various facilities. If there are no more new building sites, the population won't increase, and residences won't be naturally constructed by the simulation. The reason that residences are rapidly built when there are only two stations right after the start of the game is that the cities outside the map need a labor force. The needed labor force varies from one map to the next. After awhile,when a number of residences and public buildings have been built, the construction speed will slow down. When it does, build department stores and other commercial income property to increase employment. If you develop these kind of building lots, the construction of new residences by the simulation will continue. It's all right to develop property outside the town if you have a strategic overview of future connectivity. You can also construct leisure facilities such as stadiums and amusement parks if your population can support them. Other companies will also build hotels and commercial properties around stations. Residences and public buildings are constructed more quickly by the simulation on land that you have sold after purchase. There is no fee for purchasing/selling land, but there are expenses for the develop- ment of building lots if it is necessary to clear the land. Residences are rapidly built by the simulation if the blocks are vacant lots. If there are farms, ranches or woods on the blocks, the blocks are first changed into vacant lots, and then residences will appear. This can take a good deal of time. When farms and ranches are destroyed by the program, that agricultural industry is on its gradual decline, and won't recover. When woods are destroyed, they cannot be planted again. Thus it's important to make a good city plan that recognizes these contingencies and allows for them--if you want to retain an agricultural flavor, for instance--before you begin the development of building lots. After awhile, a street begins to extend from the rear of the big stations at a right angle from the track. Buildings will be constructed along the street by the simulation. (The street will not be built up by the program with skyscrapers and big buildings unless you build the large stations.) Buildings naturally constructed by the simulation are usually about 10 blocks from the station. After the residential development around the station has been completed, the demand for materials decreases. The simulation will then begin the street construction, and local rentable buildings will become taller, all of which may consume a lot of materials. Building-expansion by the simulation will occur if there are materials within 12 blocks. PUBLIC FACILITIES Besides the residences and the urban street, the simulation will also build small office buildings, stores, schools, hospitals and public parks. All of the facilities built by the simulation are a natural consequence of growth. The roads and parks belong to the public, so you can't buy them or construct facilities on them. Occasionally, depending on how you develop the map, the town will not naturally grow to become more than a bedroom community. If this is the case, it's necessary to create additional opportunities for employment by building factories, etc. However, make sure that you have enough cash flow to cover new and old debts. When the land in back of a station is owned by other companies and they have erected large buildings, or there are buildings other than residences and public buildings on the land, the urban road can't be built by the simulation--it won't appear. You can buy the land in back of the station, but don't develop it with any facilities; if conditions are right, the road should appear soon after you sell the land. When a road appears, big commercial projects and lease buildings of considerable size can be constructed by the program. C ROSSROADS-- THE ULTIMATE SHAPE OF A CITY In the map below, there is a crossroads where two roads intersect. Designing your city center around a crossroads like this has a great effect on the city development. The city center will move from the station to the crossroads. Around the crossroads, various buildings will be built by the simulation, just as they are around the station. If the station materials-storage place is also near the crossroads, those materials can be used for this development. The price of the land around the crossroads will greatly increase. High-rise buildings are easily constructed by the simulation under these prospering conditions. To develop a big city with many large offices, the crossroads is essential. The city outline shown in the bottom figure displays an optimum shape for successful expansion. There are four stations around the belt line. If there are materials at one station, they can be used to construct buildings almost everywhere in the area. Your rail passengers will increase as you develop the city. If you have built according to these suggestions, you should be able to jump to the next city scale goal. After the development around your first stations has been settled, repeat the above procedure in a new place. You can build flourishing cities--your empire-- everywhere on the map! GENERAL BUILDING GUlDELlNEs ù The BUILD and REMOVE commands are on all the menus. ù The building area varies with the type and the scale of the build- ing to be constructed. ù To construct a building on land not owned by the company, you must have the money for both land purchase and the construction expenses. Sometimes the land may not be for sale. In such a case, you can't build. ù The buildings that don't belong to your company can't be removed unless you buy them. ù A signboard (small square) representing ownership by your railroad company is put on the top of each building. It will be removed if you sell the property. ù The building materials must be near the construction site for successful erection. Residence Materials: 2 Expense: O Labor force: N/A The player cannot build residences--they are a natural consequence of certain game conditions. There are 8 families in one block, each family having 7.5 members. There are 16 types of residences, but every residence has the same number of members and a similar economic state. There are about 60 people living on one block. Apartments Materials: 8 Expense: 340,000 dollars Labor force: 10 people There are l50 families in one apartment complex, each family having 3.5 members. The operating expense of a complex is l,500 dollars to 2,000 dollars per day. Income is over 3,000 dollars if it is in front of a station, but apartments will produce a deficit if they are located far away from the station. If there are lease buildings or amusement parks nearby, income will moderately increase. There are three types of apartment complexes, and there are no differences between them in operating expenses and income. Factory Materials: 20 Expense: 250,000 dollars Labor force: 500 people Factories produce construction materials, which should be transported from the factory by freight trains to areas outside the map if you don't use the materials yourself. The operating expense is 2,000 dollars a day,even when the factory stops working(after your materials-storage place has been filled with materials). Each material is sold for 2,500 dollars, and a three-coach freight train can carry four materials in a time. If you need a lot of materials, factories can be linked together to increase production. Public Buildings Materials: 4 Expense: O Labor force: 60 people Built by the simulation in the residential areas, public buildings may represent schools, hospitals or shops. There are eight types, which vary with your city's development process. The more public buildings, the bigger the city. Lease Buildings Materials: 10 for the first 5 stories; 8 for each additional 5 up to 40 Expense: 240,000 dollars Labor force: 120 people and up The tallest lease building can be up to 40 stories; every five stories takes up a block. There can be 1,000 people working in one building. The operating expense is 400 dollars to 450 dollars per day. The income is from 800 dollars to 900 dollars a day for a building near a station, and 500 dollars to 600 dollars if the building is far away from the station. The income may increase when there are hotels in the neighborhood. Commercial Buildings Materials: 12 Expense: 1,200,000 dollars Labor force: 550 people To gain a profit, build your department stores and offices near a station. The operating expense is 23,000 dollars to 26,000 dollars per day, increased by 30% for holidays. The income is 22,000 dollars to 27,000 dollars if the store is near a station, and less than half that if the station is far away. Income increases by 50% on holidays. If there are many residences, apartments, lease buildings and hotels nearby, the income can increase by at most 5,000 dollars a day. Income rises by 20% to 30% in December, and decreases by 10% to 20% in February and August.lncome will also decrease by 20% to 40% when there is a rival store. Hotel Materials: 12 Expense: 1,000,000 dollars Labor force: 550 people The income of a hotel varies greatly with the location. The operating expense per day is 17,000 dollars to 19,000 dollars. The income per day is about 14,000 dollars if the hotel isn't close to a station. and 16,000 dollars to l8,500 dollars when near a station.The income can be increased by at most 2,000 dollars a day on working days if there are factories and lease buildings nearby, and to 5,000 dollars at most on holidays if there are residences and apartments nearby. The presence of recreational facilities can also boost income. Your income can decline by 10 % to 30 % when other competitive hotels open. Stadium Materials: 20 Expense: 1,000,000 dollars Labor force: 150 people The operating expense of a stadium is 2,400 dollars to 2,600 dollars per day. The income per day is 800 dollars when it is not close to a station, and 1,400 dollars when a station is nearby. Income will rise by 10 dollars per 1,000 stadium occupants, and increases by 50% on holidays. If there are residences, apartments, lease buildings and hotels nearby, your income may rise by up to 5,000 dollars daily. But income will decline by 20% to 30% when there is a competing stadium within 14 blocks. Ski Resort Materials: 8 Expense: 900,000 dollars Labor force: seasonally dependent To construct a ski resort, you need a mountain that has a wide slope. (Map Four has no such mountains.)The opening period is December through February. The operating expense per day is 500 dollars in the off-season, about 9,600 dollars when open, and double on holidays. The income is 13,000 dollars when the resort is not close to a station, 16,600 dollars when it is close to a station, and three times that on holidays. The income increases by 1,600 dollars for each hotel nearby, and drops by 20 % to 40 % when a rival resort opens nearby. Amusement Park Materials: 24 Expense: 1,900,000 dollars Labor force: 200 people The operating expense per day is 7.50() dollars to 10,000 dollars. The income is 3,900 dollars when it is not close to a station, 5,500 dollars to 7.200 dollars otherwise. The income rises 10 dollars for each 1,00() patrons, and rises by 50% on holidays. If there are residences, apartments and hotels nearby, the income increases by up to 2,000 dollars daily.Revenues decrease by 20% to 40% when arival appears. There are fireworks shows on Saturday nights. Golf Course Materials: 8 Expense: 2,050,000 dollars Labor force: 200 people The operating expense of a golf course doesn't depend much upon the station. It takes 22,210 dollars to 24,420 dollars per day, and increases by 50% on holidays. The income per day is 23,100 dollars on working days and double on holidays. If there are hotels, resi- dences and apartments nearby, the income increases. If the course is near a station, the income is up by 10% . When there is another golf course, the income can be reduced by 20% to 30%. The course doesn't open in winter. Small station Materials: 4 Expense: 40,000 dollars Labor force: 150 people The small stations have red roofs. Residential areas with up to eight apartment complexes and two hotels will be built by the simulation near the station if development conditions are right. Of course, you can construct as many buildings as you like in proximity to the station. The operating expense per day is 50 dollars. The income is zero when there are less than 100 passengers, 20 dollars for 101 to 300 passengers, 40 dollars for 301 to 500 passengers, and 60 dollars for more than 500 passengers (per trainload, station-to-station). Fares are calculated separately as part of rail company income. Both small and large stations receive additional income from gift shops and other tenant sales dependent on passenger numbers. Big station Materials: 8 Expense: 120,00() dollars Labor force: 150 people Urban roads and skyscrapers can be built by the simulation only behind big stations. The operating expense of a big station is 90 dollars per day. The income is zero for less than 100 passengers, 70 dollars for 101 to 300 passengers, 100 dollars for 301 to 500 passengers and 120 dollars for more than 500 passengers. Park Materials: 4 Expense: O Labor force: O Parks are built by the simulation according to the local budget. But they cannot be built when the figure representing the local budget in Report Four is less than 20,000. They are usually built at the final stage of city development. When a road extends though a park, the park will be destroyed. Road Materials: 2 Expense: O Labor force: O Theconditionsforwhicharoadisbuilt(by the simulation)vary with the number of apartments,hotels,leasebuildings,railroad passengers and station size. For each block, two materials are needed for the road and six materials for a bridge. LAND CLEARING Expenses AND TERRAIN INFORMATION Cleared Land Blocks encircled by dashed lines represent the plain land on which residences and public buildings can be constructed directly without land-clearing expenses. The land is owned by somebody besides you until you shell out the dough. Wood Blocks with only a single tree as well as true forestlands are called "woods." (It's a sign of our optimism. ) To turn a wood into cleared land takes 100 dollars. Farm To turn a farm I into cleared land takes 200 dollars. Ranch To turn a ranch into cleared land takes 200 dollars. Hill There are some hills where ski areas can be built on slopes. River A river has little effect on the city development,but a railroad or a road can't go through the river without a bridge being built. Sea and Lake Nothing except Shinkansen can be built on a sea or a lake. Mysterious FLYING OBJECTS You might occasionally see some the migratory birds flying in group formation on your map: they are red-crowned cranes. They fly south October 1-2, north April 5 6. They appear at 5:00AM and take about one day to cross the map. How TO MAI NTAI N TH E COM PANY At the beginning, it's foolish to build long, lavish railroads with the initial company assets. For some maps you will need to secure some bank loans to open business lines based on the original holdings. It is a good idea to lay short, cheap railroads in your initial phases of development. You can take out a loan anytime.Your loan limit is about 30% of the company assets-- The greater the company and its assets, the greater the limit. There are one-year, two- year and three-year loans; the rates rise with the term length. The management chief will inform you in a message window when to pay the debts two weeks in advance, but you can see dates anytime by clicking the DEBT TOTAL button in the BANK window. If you can't pay at that time, your company will go bankrupt. You are limited to 8 loans outstanding. Large loans should be made when the interest rates are low. The rates are variant according to the terms. The lowest rates are 2% for one-year debts, 3% for two-year debts and 4% for three-year debts. Frequently check the sales of your rail operation. Extended rail lines have increased expenses, and require a longer time period to turn a profit. Make sure that you have enough insurance capital in case expenses become greater than your income. The land prices rise as the city grows. Be aware that land previously purchased is taxable. Keep in mind the dates when your taxes and other debts are due. If the company operating funds are negative, the company will go bankrupt and your trains will run no more. STOCKI NG U P Watch the current (and constantly changing) financial circumstances of the city to seize every good opportunity to make a killing by getting good bank loans or by selling off stocks. You can play the game without doing any stock trading. but if you're careful, it can be a valuable source of surplus funds. However, as many sad traders know, it's not an absolutely reliable way. There are 24 stock brands. You can scroll the board to view them all. The two numbers after the company name represent its trading value and the amount by which it has dropped or risen since the day before. After you select a particular stock name, a graph appears to show the price variations of the stock over the past 30 weeks.You may find that the stock prices change considerably over two-month periods for many brands. There are also brands whose stock price won't change much over several months. The fluctuations don't depend on the brands, but vary with each game. Try to discern a fluctuation pattern for stocks you're interested in and buy when the price is at the bottom of the curve and sell when the price at the top of the curve. (Mama didn't raise no fool.) Of course, it can be difficult to know just when the top of the curve has occurred. The stock price of a brand might display a trend of increasing value over a six-month to one-year period. But a stock slump may also happen once every year and a half or so. Be alert to trends by checking the stock board frequently and paying attention to the advisors in the message windows. If a slump occurs, the stock price will drop to one- half or one-third of its past price in a day. STOC K B RAN DS Do-Beeus Trading: a worldwide general trading company. Twisstad Metal: a company that manufactures metal materials used for cars, trains and ships. Pickupstik Construction: a construction firm skilled at building skyscrapers, halls and domed stadiums. Whozit & Whatzit Export: a general trading company that imports and exports various materials such as foods and chemicals. Mjollnir Products: a company that makes iron and steel products for building construction. Aahp-Yurs Building: a construction company that builds residen- ces, factories, etc. Tricks o' Trade: a general trading company. Big Iron: a big iron company. Radon Realty: a big real estate company that owns most office buildings in the big cities. Anything Goes Trading: a general trading company. Taffy Steel: an iron company. Brauny Construction: a construction company that builds mainly residences. Heavy Water Chemistry:a company that produces chemical fertilizers and chemicals. Raxsoft Lighting: a general household electric appliance company that produces lighting equipment, audio-visual equipment and computers. Artdink Estates: a real estate company that deals with residences and apartment complexes. Tesla Electric: an electrical company that makes wires and electrical equipment used in factories and buildings. Maxis Motors: a general electrical company that makes household appliances and motors. Slippery Stuff Chemical: a chemical company that produces lubri- cants, detergents and wax, etc. Sticky Disks: a company that produces various magnetic media such as cassette tapes and floppy disks. Spinnin' Wheels Auto: a big automobile company. IoeCo Gas: a city gas company. I.B.B~M.: a big communication company that has the second- largest share of the world market. JSmgmt: a company that is known for developing a new material with wide applications. JenSuz Power: an electric power company that supplies electricity to generators for big cities. TRACKING YOUR TRAIN COSTS The running expenses of the railroad company are your prime expenditures. Naturally, you can't get income without incurring some development expenses. Your profit, obtained by subtracting the expenses from the income, is added to the cash figure you see on your financial reports. If you have a minus profit, your cash is reduced by that figure. The expenses of the railroad branch are calculated by hours. A running train costs 90 dollars per hour. When passengers get on a train, the operations charge is lO dollars for each 10 persons. The train's income is relative to the travel distance, fare and the number of passengers. Use REPORT 1 to see your com- pany's profit and loss figures. If the balance is a negative figure, your company has a deficit. The menu has a three-part display that covers more of your screen display with each click. Level One This display charts the information on your available cash, debts and the estimated amount of tax for your company. Cash is the money used for purchasing and construction. Your company will go bankrupt--and your game lost--if your cash be- comes a negative figure. Debts are the total monies borrowed from banks. They must be paid on the appointed dates. The amount of tax is estimated on March 31, and is due on June 1. It's essential that you have a cash reserve to cover your tax expenses. Level Two The status of the railroad and subsidiary sales and expenses as well as Level One information is displayed. A figure will appear in the Taxes column after estimation. Today: sales, expenses and income for today are displayed. This Month: the business report from the first day of this month to yesterday is displayed. This Term: the business report from April 1 to yesterday is displayed. Level Three The railroad branch data as well as well as Level Two information is displayed. stations: the total number of stations on the map. Switches: the total number of switches on the map. Trains: the total number of trains owned by the company. Rail Length: the total length of railroads (in blocks). Balance Craph The strips in the graph show the difference between the income and the expenditures. If the color is red, the expenditure is greater than the income. If the color is black, the income is greater than the expenditure. The vertical axis represents money, and the horizontal axis time--the changes are recorded in one-month blocks. The income and expenses of the nine subsidiary companies can be viewed in Report 1 from 11:OOAM to 7:00PM. At 9:00PM, each station reports its daily business. All of your company funds are deposited in banks paying an interest rate of at least 0.1% . The company collects the interest once a month . Stock dividends are paid once a year on July 1. You will get an on- screen message: "You have received a dividend." Don't forget that you pay taxes on June 1--you MUST have enough money set aside for this purpose or the game is kaput. The most critical factor in your commercial success is the income of the railroad branch--it's the base of the company. The second most important is the income from subsidiary companies. You might find it useful to always display the first level of Report 1 on the screen during game play. Check your cash when you want to purchase something. BUSINESS FLUCTUATIONS The macro-economics of the game are complex. It's hard to antici- pate all business fluctuations, because some of the business condi- tions have random elements built in. When the business conditions deteriorate, the number of railroad passengers decreases by 10%. In April and December, when there is a great demand, your business is sure to be in good shape. But if there is a stock market slump, a recession will follow. Your income changes also have a small effect on business successes, and so does the balance between supply and demand of the labor force. There are two dominant expenses: temporary or fluid ones, such as the railroad construction/ removing costs, the cost for purchasing lands and the fee for purchasing trains; the on going expenses consist of personnel expenditures and everyday fuel costs. Your subsidiary companies, like factories and department stores, also incur expenses. To see the expenses of subsidiary companies, use REPORT 2. The subsidiary companies can make profits by expanding the city and helping to develop new stations and railroads. When the profits of a subsidiary company are poor, you should consider selling it. SETTLEM ENT OF Accou NTS The simulation will settle your accounts for the year by calculating the final income and expenses. The amount of taxes is also estimated. You must take measures to ensure that your cash figure isn't lower than your tax due. The tax and debts are paid on the following weekday if the corresponding due date is a holiday. Your term profits will be taxed at 50% and your assets at 5%. Thus the principal way to save on your tax bill is to spend your profits to purchase assets--subsidiary companies, lands, stocks, railroad facilities, etc.-before the March 31 tax estimate. (You can see the figure in the Taxes column in Report 1 and Report 2.) You can turn any profit into newly purchased subsidiary companies before the settlement of accounts, and sell them in the new year. since a subsidiary company can gain a profit by itself, in many cases it won't be a "loss" to purchase it. Besides, the appraised value of the subsidiary company may grow. But the money you get from selling the subsidiary companies will add to the profit of the new year, so the cycle of buying and selling might have to be repeated every year. It is sound--and necessary--policy to consider the development and/ or sale of subsidiary companies as an integral facet of your overall financial flowering. You are restricted to a total of 15 subsidiary sales for a single year. Within a limit of 18 for each category and 60 total, you can choose the following buildings and facilities for your company develop- ment: factories, commercial properties, hotels, golf courses, amusement parks, stadiums, ski resorts, apartments, and lease buildings. Your railroad company logo, in the form of a small box, will appear on top of the building or facility after purchase. (The logo will be removed after it has been sold.) Some buildings and facilities can't be bought or sold depending on how much speculating you have done and the development state of the game. Purchasing land is also a reasonable method of investing profit, hut it saves you less than buying a subsidiary company. because the price of one block of land is far cheaper. Purchasing stocks is probably the easiest way to divert the profit tax. But keep in mind that there may be a stock market slump. It's also possible to save taxes by laying railroads or purchasing trains. If you don't have enough time (or money) to make a plan for laying railroads, it is better simply to purchase trains and hold them for the future. READING THE BALANCE SHEET AND CALCU LATI NG You R TAXES Use the Balance Sheet (Report 2) to learn about the current financial management of the company,your assets, and as a basis for planning. You can find itemized information on assets, their appraised values and the corresponding taxes. There are three main parts: assets, revenue and expenditures. As mentioned, there are two types of tax: asset tax and profit tax. For assets, such as subsidiary companies, stocks and lands, the tax is 5% of their appraised value. The tax does not vary with the overall business balance of the company. The profit tax is 50% of the company profits, which are obtained by subtracting the expenses from the whole incomes. The minimum amount is lOO dollars, even when the company is operating at a deficit. The tax amount is calculated on March 31 , and paid on June 1 . Keep in mind the company will go bankrupt and the game will end if there is not enough money to pay your taxes on June 1. Railroad Assets The railroad track in one block is worth about 1,500 dollars, the switch 1,550 dollars. A small station is worth 48,000 dollars, and a large station 196,000 dollars. This is in addition to the valuation of purchased trains. Subsidiaries The appraised value is the total amount of market values of all subsidiary companies. Each appraised value varies with the income of each separate subsidiary company. Stocks The appraised value is the total market amount of the stocks you have at the time. Real Estate The appraised value is the total amount of the current market prices of your land holdings. Revenue Railroad Operation The total amount of the sales of the railroad branch from April 1 to the present. Subsidiaries The total amount of sales of all subsidiary companies from April 1 to present. You can find the sales of each subsidiary company in Report 3. Selling Subsidiaries The total amount obtained from selling subsidiary companies. Selling Stocks The total amount obtained by selling stocks. Selling Real Estate The total amount obtained by selling lands. Stock Dividends The dividends of all the stocks on July 1. Interest Income The total interest of this term (from April 1 to present). Expenditures Railroad Operation The sum of operating expenses of trains and stations. Subsidiaries The total operating expenses of all subsidiary companies. Acquisition of Subsidiaries The total price of purchased subsidiary companies. Stock Purchase The total price of purchased stocks. Real Estate The total price of purchased land. Commission The fee totals of this term. When buying stocks, there is a charge of 10 dollars for each stock and a basic fee of 50 dollars. To sell a subsidiary company, the basic fee is 500 dollars, in addition to a commission taking 2% of the appraised value of the company. Interest Paid The interest totals paid on all debts. Balance The difference between the total income and the expenses. Income Tax This tax takes 50% of the profits. When there is no profit, it takes 100 dollars. Cash The total cash at present. Total Tax The sum of the profit tax and the asset tax. It is estimated on March 31 and due on June 1. Railroad operation figures are calculated hourly. The consolidated figures of your subsidiaries for the hours between 11:00 and 7:00 are calculated daily, along with the station sales at 9:00PM. Interest income on your cash balance is the sum of your lowest balance multiplied by 0.1% once monthly. Stock dividends are distributed on July 1.
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