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Gunship 2000 manual

 GUNSHIP 2000 HINTS ON PLAY FOR VERSION 469.07

CONTENTS
~~~~~~~~
    Flight:                            page 1
    Tactics:                           page 2
    Scoring:                           page 8


FLIGHT
~~~~~~
    Control:
    --------
       Although it is best to start out in "easy" flight mode,
    you should try to progress to "realistic" flight as soon as
    is possible. Realistic flight gives a much more precise
    control of the helicopter. You should strive to control your
    altitude with just the cyclic (joystick) control, and stay
    away from using the collective for in-flight altitude
    adjustments.
       Try to use the dual joystick, joystick/keyboard or
    joystick/rudder pedals control options. These options enable
    you to control the tail rotor. This additional control
    greatly enhances flight control. It is much easier to use the
    tail rotor to make quick turns than the cyclic. Hard cyclic
    turns can result in an altitude loss; a problematic situation
    when near the ground.

    Altitude:
    ---------
       Try to avoid overflying mountains (except near your base)
    unless you wish to get a high view of the countryside. The
    altitude gain is just not worth the exposure. Stay low, but
    not too low as the discovery of the enemy at extremely low
    altitudes gives you little time to react to incoming threats.
    It real combat, helicopter pilots seldom fly below 100 feet.
    If you are searching for the enemy, an altitude of about 225
    feet is probably about right. If you know where the target or
    objective is located, go in low and hot to avoid as many of
    the enemy defensive units as is possible.

    Gauges/Indicators:
    ------------------
       Keep your eye glued to the radar altimeter (the one
    located in the HUD - the altitude gauge in the console is
    the barometric or pressure altimeter). This indicator shows
    your true height to the ground immediately below the
    helicopter. As the ground rises up to meet you, this
    indicator shows the loss in altitude. The low altitude
    warning also sounds when your altitude enters the red zone
    (this zone is player adjustable by the "c" or "v" keys).
       These subtle altitude changes can mean the difference
    between life or that fatal crash. One particular area to
    watch is the coast in the Persian Gulf. As you near the
    shore, flying from inland, the terrain rises slightly - pay
    attention to the altitude change.
       It may seem obvious, but pay close attention to the threat
    display - give it a glance every so often. Threats can pop up
    on the periphery or to the rear that your CP/G can not see to
    call out. In those situations, maneuver towards or away from
    the potential threat. Keep in mind that as you move towards a
    target, the dead (or safety) zone is reduced - this is a
    combination of range and altitude.
       In general, fly "out of the cockpit" only taking periodic
    glances at the console. The HUD provides the key flight data,
    and the console should be used only as a backup.

    Friendlies:
    -----------
       Upon reaching the rank of 2nd Lieutenant, you are given
    the responsibility of multi-helicopter command. These guys
    can accomplish a great deal if you utilize them with care.
       With fresh-faced rookies, do not expect them to take on
    the enemy single handedly - they just do not have the skills.
    Just as you had to learn the ropes, these guys also improve
    with time. Rank and decorations are the best measure of their
    competence.
       Their degree of competence is applicable to three
    different areas: offense, defense and flight skill. The best
    pilots hit the targets with the fewest shots and at the
    greatest range; avoid taking damage; and hit their waypoints
    right on the mark. Those new guys and less experienced pilots
    fall somewhere short of this optimum.
       With these limitations in mind, give them something
    attainable. Pick-ups, cargo missions, small target groups or
    moving targets are a good place to start. They are skilled
    enough to always fly to a drop-off or pick-up point if their
    last waypoint is somewhere near the location. They even let
    you know if they spot a pick-up by communicating "Objective
    Sighted!". Position their final waypoint or assign a new
    flight path on the location, and they will fly directly to
    the point. Of course, they always fly directly to the base or
    FARP (accessed by a second press of the "to base" key).
       Once they have developed a certain degree of experience,
    there is not a single mission they can not handle. Take care
    of them, and they will take care of you.

TACTICS
~~~~~~~
    S-2 Report:
    -----------
       Pay attention to the unit sightings information in the
    report. The order of the four units listed indicates the
    frequency of the number you could expect to meet in this
    mission. The unit listed first has the greatest frequency,
    the second a lesser frequency, and so on.

    Toughest Primary/Secondary Targets:
    -----------------------------------
       Headquarters, Depots, Fixed Emplacements, Infantry Groups,
    and moving helicopter formations provide the greatest
    challenge.  They all have a large and diverse mix of
    potentially dangerous units. They also require a high degree
    of destruction to achieve the mission. This combined with the
    deployed enemy defenders, makes for a tough assignment. 

    Easiest Primary/Secondary Targets:
    ----------------------------------
       Moving vehicle platoons, and to a lesser extent moving
    mech groups, are the easiest targets. This assumes that you
    have found the target. Only a few of the units in the platoon
    or mech group stop to engage you - the others try to escape
    and continue on to their objective. This makes for a limited
    number of enemy shots. As an added benefit, the enemy
    defenders must spread out along the path of movement,
    thereby, limiting their concentration.

    Toughest Single Targets:
    ------------------------
       This is probably all infantry targets (SAM Teams are
    easier to eliminate, but usually are equipped with superior
    SAMs), the 2S6 (found only in Central Europe), and the Rapier
    (found only in Antarctica). The infantry are tough to destroy
    and they have a number of weapons to throw back at you. M261
    and M255 rockets can make short work of the infantry. 
    Hellfires can also be effective, but it may take more than
    one to do the job. When in close, blast them with your
    cannon. The Rapier's laser missiles, and the 2S6's laser
    guided missiles and accurate cannon make them extremely tough
    adversaries.
         Radar guided missiles also pose a unique threat in their
    ability to damage multiple systems on your helicopters with a
    single hit. Theses units should be eliminated with all
    expediency. Like laser missiles, once the firing unit is
    eliminated, the missile no longer tracks (don't forget to
    move out of the way). The SA-11 (found only in Central
    Europe) and the Roland and Crotale (found only in Antarctica)
    are the toughest weapon system in this category.
         Fire-and-forget weapons are the best choice as you can
    not "spoof" its laser guided missiles. Guiding a TOW-2 or
    Hellfire-A into the target can be a dangerous prospect. The
    preferred tactic is to fire a Sidearm, Hellfire-B or M247
    rockets and immediately fly away from the target. Even if a
    laser missile is in flight, when the Rapier or 2S6 is
    destroyed, the missile automatically drops its lock (this is
    also true of radar guided missiles - eliminate the source and
    the missile no longer tracks). This tactic should also keep
    you out of its cannon range. The Fixed Guns, the ZSU-23(4)
    and towed guns can also be a tough nut if you come upon them
    within their cannon range. Their high rate-of-fire
    (especially at the higher enemy quality levels) enable them
    to throw out a large number of shots in a short period of
    time. 

    Easiest Single Targets:
    -----------------------
       Aside from the various structures, buildings and trucks,
    these would be all tanks and machine-gun armed recon units,
    such as the BRDM-2 and EE-9. These units are pretty much
    sitting ducks and can be destroyed with impunity. Even if you
    fall within range of their machine-guns, it is rare that you
    take a hit. These are all good candidates for cannon fire; do
    not waste limited ordnance on these targets. 

    On-line Data Base:
    ------------------
       Until familiar with the various enemy targets and units,
    you are encouraged to use the on-line data base (alt-p keys
    with a target lock) to secure important information.

    Weapons:
    --------
       You really need to tailor your choice of weapons to the
    nature of the targets. This knowledge comes from experience,
    the manual and the on-line data base. Try different
    combinations on different target types - best done while in
    the training mode. Keep in mind that the damage inflicted can
    vary; it is not a fixed amount. A target could be destroyed
    with one hit on one occasion, but may require two hits on a
    second occasion.
       Before you reach the level of command access to a Longbow
    Apache, rockets can substitute as a poor man's fire-and-
    forget weapon. While they take a certain degree of finesse to
    utilize, they do have the advantage of flying directly to the
    target if launched in constraints. As an added bonus, you can
    usually carry a whole passel of them, and set the number to
    fire in a salvo. With three different types, choose carefully
    and pay attention to the S-2 report.
       Sidearm is also a good weapon to consider, as it is a true
    fire-and-forget weapon system. While the number that can be
    carried is limited, it is a good choice for the wing tips on
    Apaches when light air activity is expected. It is more than
    capable of silencing most radar sources with the exception of
    ships.
       Mavericks or Penguins are a must when dealing with ships.  
    They have the capacity to destroy a ship with a single hit;
    not guaranteed with Hellfires or TOWs. Maverick, if
    available, is the preferred choice over Penguin since it has
    a dual role against ground targets.
       A mistake some players make is changing the weapon type
    while a guided missile is still in flight to a target. For
    example, if you have a Hellfire-A in bound to a target, do
    not change the weapon selector to another weapon type. The on
    board computer becomes confused, and the Hellfire no longer
    tracks the target.
       The effectiveness of ripple fire can not be emphasized
    more, when engaging closely grouped targets with guided
    weapons. Launch one missile, wait a few moments, launch a
    second, wait a few moments more, and then launch a third, and
    so on. This tactic greatly reduces the total engagement time
    over the target, and therefore your total exposure time. It
    has the added benefit of eliminating the threats in short
    order. Technically, all of the missiles are targeted on the
    first target. But after the first target is destroyed, the
    targeting system automatically shifts to the next target -
    locking the next missile on to that target. This process
    continues until all of the targets are destroyed or the
    missiles have all hit their targets. If the target was not
    destroyed by the first hit, you have another missile
    following closely in its wake to finish the job.

    Mast Mounted Sight
    ------------------
       The AH-64C Longbow Apache, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior and the
    AH-6G Defender are each equipped with a mast mounted sight
    that enables these three helicopter types to peer over
    intervening terrain. The "F2" key is pressed to access the
    mast view. The controller is then used to move the mast view.
    Targets can be observed at a longer range than normal
    sighting. The mast sight is most effective when employed from
    behind terrain. While it can be utilized in normal flight, it
    is less effective.
       The best tactic is to stop behind a mountain and assume
    hover mode (auto-hover is very handy in this case) and slowly
    gain altitude until the mast sight just clears the top of the
    mountain. At that point stop the ascent and scan from side to
    side for enemy units. If enemy units are spotted, assuming
    you are not too high, you will see them, but they can not see
    you. The only thing you have exposed is the mast sight - not
    a very large target at any range. At this point you may
    engage the target(s) or by pressing button 2, designate the
    target to any accompanying helicopters. Assuming they have
    the appropriate weapons they will engage the target. They are
    also masked from view since they are utilizing your
    designation. Keep one thing in mind, your helicopter and your
    wingmen's helicopters must be facing the enemy units to bring
    the weapons into constraints.
       As you gain altitude, do not forget that enemy units could
    be behind you or to the sides, so scan in those directions.  
    Also periodically check the threat display for any other
    sightings. If an enemy unit sights you, the best bet is to
    quickly drop altitude and relocate to a new position.

    Moving Targets:
    ---------------
       Moving targets are not all that difficult to find, if you
    keep a few key points in mind. They move at a speed of about
    25 knots - so less than 1/4 of your average speed. This gives
    you an idea as to where they may be along their path. They
    always move in the indicated direction, but modify their path
    based upon intervening terrain (they avoid mountains, valleys
    and rivers). You may discover them off of the path due to
    these terrain types. However, they generally move in the
    direction indicated.
       Moving units that appear to start on a road will more than
    likely follow the path of that road, including movement
    through road canyons.

    Search & Destroy (or Rescue):
    --------------------------
       These can be one of the most frustrating mission types.  
    Just keep in mind that the target is out there, and your
    intelligence data relating to the suspected location is
    fairly accurate. The target should be no more the a few map
    units from the indicated location (the mission map is divided
    into a 16 by 16 grid - therefore it is divided into 16 x 16
    map units). The challenging part is that the target could be
    in any direction from the indicated location.
       A good clue to the location can be the discovery of enemy
    defenders. If you start to encounter these defenders, the
    target can not be far away. After all, the defenders are
    there for a purpose.

    Sea Targets:
    ------------
       Enemy ships can be a bit of a challenge, especially if you
    come across them at short range. Freighters can be especially
    tough to eliminate; you may need a Penguin or Maverick to
    assure a one-shot kill. The Reshev Patrol Boats (found only
    in Antarctica) are also larger than the run-of-the-mill tub
    found in most area; care should be taken against these units.
         If you are to engage known ship targets, approach them
    from the seaward side and pick up altitude to about 300 or so
    feet. This should give you enough range to deal with anything
    they may throw at you. 

    Air Targets:
    ------------
       Now these guys can give you some real trouble. Pay very
    close attention to the S-2 report's section on enemy
    aircraft. If it states "extremely heavy", you best be
    prepared for some heavy action. Stingers and Sidewinders are
    the weapons of choice in this case. Stingers are more than
    capable of dealing with most of the enemy helicopter threats
    with a single shot. There is no doubt when firing a
    Sidewinder. Your cannon is also more than capable of taking
    out an enemy helicopter. It this case, you will have to get
    in close.
       Enemy high-performance aircraft definitely require
    Sidewinders; in most cases, Stingers just do not have the
    punch to take one out with a single hit. It is a truly lucky
    shot if you are able to get a hit with your cannon. Keep in
    mind, that these guys must be dealt with, since they keep
    coming back until they are damaged or destroyed. The good
    thing is that you do not see them all that often - after all,
    helicopters just do not tangle with fast movers all that
    often.

    Jammers, Chaff & Flares:
    ------------------------
       Jammers should be activated at the first notice of an
    enemy inbound threat. The jammer either "spoofs" the enemy
    missile or it does not - there is no grey area in this
    regard. If you do jam the missile make sure to move out of
    its flight path. Jammed missiles do not disappear, they just
    continue on a straight flight path. That is why it is a good
    tactic to keep targets on the periphery rather than flying
    directly towards the target. With this approach, the jammed
    missiles miss to the left or right. The IR jammer has an
    equal chance of jamming a missile each time it is attempted.  
    The radar jammer is a different story. The enemy unit's
    frequency hops until it is able to defeat, or "burn through"
    your jamming signal. That is why initial missiles are jammed
    and later missiles can not be jammed. Turn off the radar
    jammer after use; remaining active reduces its effectiveness.
       Chaff and flares are close-in defenses. Launching chaff or
    flares when the missile is still 2 km away is very
    ineffective. It is purely a matter of timing. Allow the
    missile to approach and then launch the decoy. If you launch
    too soon the chaff cloud will have dissipated or drifted off
    or the flares will have hit the ground or burned out. If you
    launch too late, the missile will not be fooled, and will
    still track your helicopter. If possible, break left or right
    after you launch the decoy; this enhances the effectiveness
    of the decoy. You can lose constraints or even drop the lock
    while targeting for guided weapons (Hellfire-A and TOW-2).
    The missile continues to fly in a straight line. If you
    re-acquire the lock before the missile flies by the target or
    it is able to turn quickly enough to maneuver to the target,
    it will still impact.
       Another effective tactic to avoid enemy missiles, is to
    drop down or fly behind hills. If you can mask your signature
    to the missile, it loses its track. That is why it is
    advisable, when possible, to approach targets from terrain
    rather than over flat ground.
       As a last ditch choice, it is also possible to "dodge"
    missiles by making quick last minute breaks to the left or
    right. You do not have the quickness and sharp
    maneuverability of a fighter aircraft. As a result, this
    maneuver is a real challenge as it requires precise timing,
    but at times may be your only hope of escape. The maneuver is
    much more effective against radar guided missiles than IR
    guided missiles. Radar guided missiles have a much larger
    turning radius then IR missiles, and are less able to respond
    to quick breaking turns. IR missiles are designed to engage
    fast breaking targets.
       Training is a good place to test these tactics and
    maneuvers. You can get your timing down and locked without
    any damage to get in the way of your tests.


SCORING
~~~~~~~
       Your main purpose in life is to destroy the primary and
    secondary targets. You are not rewarded for missing those
    objects, even if you manage to destroy everything else out
    there. The really successful pilots are rewarded for hitting
    the targets and getting back in less than thirty minutes.  
    This may mean that you may have to set your sights to just
    the primary or the secondary on certain missions. Make sure
    that you get at least one of them, preferably the primary,
    and get that helicopter back to base. They are too expensive
    to leave littered about the battlefield.
       To maximize your score, and consequently your success and
    rewards, destroy all of the targets in the primary and
    secondary. Even though you can achieve the mission by
    destroying less than the total number of targets - get all of
    them while you are there. If possible, eliminate all air
    targets encountered. If you have to make a choice, skip the
    buildings, recon units and tanks, and concentrate on the
    missile armed units and anti-aircraft guns. After all, how
    many points do you expect to score for torching houses,
    churches and mosques.
       You are definitely recognized for eliminating the bad guys
    while flying smaller and less well armed helicopters. It is
    especially apparent if you fly one of those helicopters
    yourself. You have probably noticed that the Longbow Apache
    is an extremely powerful helicopter. Well, the Task Force
    Commander has also noticed this fact. He is impressed with
    the guys that fly Defenders and Comanche Scouts.
       If you started with a pilot that has suffered a number of
    setbacks, i.e. did not get either the primary or secondary on
    a series of missions or consistently has walked back to base,
    you may be further ahead to start over with a new pilot. That
    guy probably has too many reprimands in his file to achieve a
    high rank before forced retirement gets him first.
       If you can avoid it, never decline missions or abort a
    campaign. These are big black marks on your record. And by
    all means, try not to lose any pilots. It is your
    responsibility to take care of them. If you lose too many,
    you may find yourself in civilian clothes flying a traffic
    helicopter.
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