KAMPFGRUPPE TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction..................................2 2.0 General Description...........................2 3.0 Starting the Game.............................2 4.0 Deployment....................................3 5.0 Orders Phase..................................4 6.0 Weapons.......................................5 7.0 Combat Phase..................................6 8.0 Line Of Sight.................................7 9.0 Historical Scenarios..........................8 10.0 Game Length and Victory Conditions............9 11.0 Weapons Notes (not included).................11 12.0 Strategy Notes...............................12 Appendix 3: Terrain Numbers/Type/Levels...........13 Kampfgruppe Scenario Disk One.....................14 Kampfgruppe Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION KAMPFGRUPPE is a platoon-level tactical game of combat on the Eastern Front from 1941 to 1945. 1.1 Description of Action: Each game turn consists of two phases. In the orders phase, the players, one at a time, give orders to the units which they control. In the joint combat phase all units carry out these orders, one unit at a time. The combat phase represents two minutes of action, broken down into four 30-second pulses. 1.2 Talking to the Computer: To enter a response to the computer that consists of numbers, type the number into the computer and press the
key. To select a routine from a menu or answer a Yes/No question, just press the desired key. WHERE THE EXIT COMMAND IS NOT SPECIFIED, PRESS TO EXIT THE MENU. 1.3 Saving a Game: At the end of the DEPLOYMENT PHASE and at the end of each COMBAT PHASE, the computer will allow the player(s) to save the game in progress. You will need a scratch disk to store the save game data. Save game disks may be initialized for SSI use during a game by following Instructions included in the game program. Each save disk with hold approximately 4-6 games. Warning: the program will not prompt you when you have exceeded the disk space on your save game disk. Once a game is saved you with be able to restart it at the point you left off. WHEN RESTARTING A SAVED GAME YOU MUST SET THE CORRECT NUMBER OF PLAYERS ON THE OPENING MENU. 1.4 The Map: The KAMPFGRUPPE map is a 60 X 60 square grid with each square measuring 200 yards across. At the start of each game the terrain is randomized in accordance with parameters determined by the player. 1.5 Starting the Game (Apple): To begin the game, boot side one and the game will begin automatically. If you are using an Apple II with Pascal you must first use your BASICS disk. If you are using an Apple III you must first go into Apple II emulation mode. if you elect to play a historical scenario, the computer will ask You to insert side two of the disk so that it may read in the scenario data. when this is complete the computer will instruct you to reinsert side one for the remainder of the game. 1.6 Starting the Game (Atari): To begin the game, boot the Scenario side of Your disk. Before beginning remove all cartridges from your computer. Owners of the 8OOXL will have to hold down the OPTION key when they turn on their computer to boot the game. After you have deployed your forces (or after you have selected to play a historicaL scenario) , the computer will ask you to insert the Game side of your disk. 1.7 Starting the Game (Commodore): To begin the game, insert the game disk into Your disk drive. Type LOAD "*", 8 and press . When READY appears, type RUN and press . 1.8 Sound: During the combat phase, players may toggle the sound ON/OFF by pressing the 'S' key. 2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 2.1 Parts Inventory: a. Game box c. 5 1/4" game disk b. Rule book d. Data card 2.2 Abbreviations: Abbreviations used in the game are listed below: BDE brigade DET detachment CO company BN battalion MOT motorized PZG panzergrenadier PZ panzer JPZ jagdpanzer (tank destroyer) STUG sturmgeheschuttz (assault gun) INF infantry RIF rifle ART artillery AT anti-tank MOR mortar ENGR engineer IG infantry gun HOW howitzer HMG heavy machine gun SMG submachine gun VG volksgrenadier 3.0 STARTING THE GAME 3.1 Determining Conditions of Play: At the start of the game the player(s) must determine the conditions under which the game will be played. On the Apple version the conditions may be changed by entering the following numbers: (1) NEW GAME or SAVED GAME (2) 1 DISK DRIVE or 2 DISK DRIVES (3) SOLITAIRE or TWO PLAYERS (4) HANDICAP LEVEL (5) DELAY LENGTH (6) SELECT SCENARIO On the ATARI and C-64'" versions: (1) NEW GAME or SAVED GAME (2) SOLITAIRE or TWO PLAYERS (3) HANDICAP LEVEL (4) DELAY LENGTH (5) SELECT SCENARiO 3.2 Player Determination: KAMPFGRUPPE may be played by either zero, one, or two players, and this is determined by the option selected on the menu. For example, if you wished to watch a computer controlled German force face a computer controlled Russian force, you should select the option BOTH COMPUTER. 3.3 Handicap Level: At the start of the game the players must determine the handicap level (1-5) . The effects of handicap levels are listed below: Level 1: German strength reduced 50% Level 2: German strength reduced 25% LeveL 3: No reduction Level 4: Soviet strength reduced 25% Level 5: Soviet strength reduced 50% EXAMPLE: At level 1 the number of weapons in German platoons would be reduced by approximately 50%. 3.4 Delay Length: The delay length affects messages displayed during the Combat Phase. The greater the delay length, the longer these messages will remain displayed during the Combat Phase. A delay length of 1 will speed up the game, but will cause the messages to be virtually unreadable. A delay length of 9 will slow the game considerably, but will allow the player maximum time to study the various reports provided during the Combat Phase. Any integer between 1 to 9 may be entered. 3.5 Selecting a Scenario: You may select one of 4 historical scenarios (see section 9.0), or you may elect to build your own scenario. If you select a historical scenario, the computer will skip the deployment phase and go directly to turn 1. If you elect to build your own scenario you will be asked several questions (see sections 3.6-3.9). New players are advised to begin by playing scenarios they have created. Creating and playing a small meeting engagement is recommended. Do not attempt to play historical scenarios until you are completely familiar with the game. 3.6 Building the Map: At the start of the game the computer will generate a new map. Prior to generating the map the computer will allow the player(s) to input parameters that influence the nature of the terrain: (1) INCLUDE RIVER Y/N (2) COVER TERRAiN DENSITY (O-9) If option (1) is answered "Y" then the map will include a river. Option (2) allows the players to control quantity of woods and broken terrain included on the map. A "0" would allow no woods/broken terrain on the map; a "9" would mean heavy woods/ broken terrain density. Any number between 0 and 9 may be entered. 3.7 Selecting the Time Period: The player(s) may select from eight different time periods. The time period will affect the type of forces/equipment that may be used in the battle as well as the command control capabilities of the two armies. 3.8 Selecting the Type of Battle: The player(s) may select from five different types of battle: (1) GERMAN PURSUIT A small Soviet force fights a rear-guard action against a large German force. (2) GERMAN ASSAULT A large German force attacks a medium Soviet force. Both sides may use off-map artillery. (3) MEETING ENGAGEMENT Opposing forces of equal strength advance on the same objective. (4) SOVIET ASSAULT A large Soviet force attacks a medium German force. Both sides may use off-map artillery. (5) SOVIET PURSUIT A small German force fights a rear-guard action against a large Soviet force. The player(s) must also determine the size of the battle: (1) LARGE (2) SMALL In a "small" battle the quantity of units on both sides will be reduced by approximately 50%. 3.9 Selecting Forces: The Soviet player may select either a Tank or an Infantry type force. The German player may select a Panzer, Motorized or Infantry type force. If the AUTO-SELECT routine is used then the computer will select a force to suit the type of battle. The players have a limited number of selection points (SPs) that they may use to "buy" various types of companies or battalions. The computer will only allow the selection of formations that are appropriate for the type of force selected. The player(s) will receive 20 victory points for each SP that is not used to buy combat formations. A maximum of 250 points may be received in this manner. 4.0 DEPLOYMENT: When creating a new scenario, the player(s) may arrange their units on the map before the game begins to optimize their attack or defense. Soviet units may not be deployed west (left) of their "start line" and German units may not be deployed east (right) of their "start line ". If the AUTO-DEPLOY routine is used then the computer will automatically deploy the units on the map. AUTO-DEPLOY will not provide the best possible deployment; it represents a "hasty" deployment. If the AUTO-DEPLOY routine is not used, the players will find their units at the top of the map. 4.1 Combat Formations: All units in the game are organized into combat formations (CFs). CFs consist of a headquarters (HQ) unit with from 1 to 8 attached combat units. CFs are each assigned an identification letter (A-U) . The units attached to a CF are each assigned an index number (0-9) . The formation letter and the index number are combined to form the unit ID. EXAMPLE: the 3rd unit in formation C would have C3 as its UNIT ID. The HQ unit in all CFs will be assigned index number "0". 4.2 The Map Display: The map display used in KAMPFGRUPPE is a 60 X 60 square grid. Only a fraction of the map (20 squares wide by 10 squares high) may be viewed at one time. By pressing the keys 1-8 the cursor can be moved around the map (1-N, 2-NE, 3-E, 4-SE, 5-S, 6-SW, 7-W, 8-NW). If the cursor is moved to the edge of the display then the map will scroll to reveal the hidden portions of the map. When playing an assault type battle, the map is reduced to 60 X 30 (60 spaces east-west by 30 spaces north-south). 4.3 Unit Symbols: All units on the map are identified by symbols that describe their function and nationality. SOVIET VEHICLES are represented by vehicle silhouettes facing west. SOVIET INFANTRY is represented by symbols of two men underlined. SOVIET ARTILLERY is represented by an underlined weapon symbol. SOVIET STACK is represented by two overlapping white squares. GERMAN VEHICLES are represented by vehicle silhouettes facing east. GERMAN INFANTRY is represented by symbols of two men (no underline). GERMAN ARTILLERY is represented by a weapon symbol (no underline). GERMAN STACK is represented by two hollow overlapping squares. CONFLICT (opposing forces on same square) is represented by an SU/GE symbol. 4.4 Map Display Menu: The map display menu lists the following routines: (1-8) Move cursor. (9) Build entrenchment (only before ASSAULT type battles). (0) Use auto-deploy routine. (A-T) Select unit. Press formation letter followed by unit index number computer will shift to UNIT ORDERS MENU. (U) Change terrain in square (see appendix 3 for terrain key). (V) View. Inverses all squares with a line of sight to the cursor location. (W) Move cursor to OBJECTIVE AREA (see 4.6) then START LiNE. (X) Exit deployment phase. (Y) Clear units from screen to view terrain. (Z) Examine friendly units at cursor location. 4.5 Unit Orders Menu: The unit described at the top of the text Window is the "current unit." The following routines may be used to adjust the starting location or inspect the status of the current unit: (1-8) Move cursor. (9) Change weapon type of armored vehicle. (D) Disembark unit. If unit is a vehicle then it will unload all of its passengers; if the unit is a passenger then only that unit will unload. (E) Embark unit. Order must be given to a vehicle unit- the computer will request the ID of the unit to be embarked. (L) Look for unit. The cursor will move to the unit's location. (M) Move unit. The unit will move to the cursor location. (N) Next unit. The next higher numbered unit will become the current unit. (P) List passengers. Will list the units embarked aboard the current unit. (Q) Quit the orders menu. Return to the map display menu. (V) View. Inverses all squares that may be seen from the cursor location. (X) Exit the unit orders menu. Return to the map display. 4.6 The Objective Area: The objective area may be located by pressing the (W) key on the map display menu. The cursor will move to the CENTER of the objective area. The objective area is a 19 X 19 square area. In some scenarios the players will score points for each infantry man, gun or vehicle that ends the game in the objective area. 4.7 Saving the Set-Up: At the conclusion of the deployment phase the computer will allow you to save the set-up on a disk initialized for SSI use (disks may be initialized at this time). 4.8 Entrenchments: If the type of battle is a SOVIET ASSAULT or GERMAN ASSAULT then the players may "build" entrenchments for their units. Entrenchments are built by moving the cursor over a clear terrain square and pressing the "9" key when the computer is in MAP DISPLAY MODE. Entrenchment squares will look like and have the same effect as BROKEN terrain squares. Players may build a maximum of 50 entrenchments. Entrenchments may only be built on the friendly side of the start line. 4.9 Off-Map Artillery: Off-map artillery may be available only during assault type battles. Off-map artillery will be designated only as LIGHT, MEDIUM or HEAVY ARTILLERY. When selecting forces the player will receive off-map artillery by taking the German ARTILLERY DETACHMENT or the Soviet HOWITZER BATTALION, MEDIUM ARTILLERY BATTALION or LIGHT ARTILLERY BATTALION. Off-map artillery will never be displayed on the map. Available off-map artillery may be inspected after the game has started by using the BOMBARDMENT routine. If AUTO-SELECT is used when playing an assault type battle, both sides will receive off-map artillery. 4.10 Changing the Map: During the deployment phase, players may use the U key to create any terrain desired on any square of the map. This allows players to create any map desired. Move the cursor to the square you wish to change, type U, and then type the number of the terrain (see appendix 3 for a list of terrain types). When designing a map, keep in mind that often the computer intelligence cannot deal with river terrain. 4.11 Changing Weapon Types of Armored Vehicles: Players wishing to create their own scenarios may change the weapons of any of the armored vehicles except halftracks. To change a unit's weapons go to the unit orders menu, type "9", and then type the number of the weapon desired for the current unit (see section 6.0 for weapon numbers). 4.12 Visibility Level: At the beginning of the first turn of each game, the computer will randomly determine the visibility level. The visibility level will be set between 7 and 20 and will remain constant throughout the game. The visibility level is the maximum range at which units may spot and direct fire at enemy units. 5.0 ORDERS PHASE During the orders phase the player(s) may review the status of their units and assign movement, bombardment and targeting orders. 5.1 Map Display Menu: The map display menu used during the orders phase is similar to the one used during the deployment phase. (1-8) Move cursor. (0) End game. (A-U) Select unit. Press formation letter followed by unit index number - computer will shift to UNIT ORDERS MENU; the selected unit will be the "current unit". (V) View. The computer will inverse all squares that can be seen from the cursor location. (W) Move cursor to center of objective area. (X) Exit orders phase. (Y) Clear units from screen to view terrain. (Z) Examine friendly or visible enemy units at cursor location. 5.2 Unit Orders Menu: Upon selecting a unit from the map menu it will be displayed beneath the map showing its composition (number and type of vehicles or weapons), ammunition (shown as A, in pulses of firing remaining), facing (shown as a compass direction), speed (In movement point rate, it is also miles per hour), and whether it's loaded (an L is displayed when loaded). The following routines may be used to assign orders to or inspect the status of the current unit: (1-8) Move cursor. (A)* Advance. This command is only used when the computer is in all-units mode; the formation HQ will move to the cursor location, other units in the formation will move in such a way as to retain their current position relative to the HQ. (B) Bombard. The cursor location is the target square; the current unit is the spotter; the computer will list the artillery units eligible to bombard the target (see section 5.6) . (C) Center. The map is centered around the cursor. (D) Disembark. If the current unit is a vehicle then it will unload all of its passengers; if the current unit is a passenger then only that unit will unload; unloaded passengers will have a suppression level of 80. (E) Embark. Order must be given to a vehicle unit - the computer will request the ID of the unit to be embarked (see section 5.4). (F)* Change unit facing. (H) Find unit's HQ. Cursor moves to unit's HQ location; computer determines if a "command control" link exists between the current unit and the HQ; the HQ becomes the new current unit. (I) Inspect. Allows the player to inspect all enemy units that can be seen by the current unit; allows the current unit to designate a priority target and/or request a bombardment (with the current unit as the spotter). Assigning a priority target with the (I)nspect order will cause a range order to be given if the target is outside of the set maximum range, with the maximum firing range being set equal to the distance to the new target (see section 5.8). (K)* Cancel all orders. Allows the current unit to cancel all movement and bombardment orders. (L) Look for unit. Moves the cursor to the current unit's location. (M)* Move unit. Orders the unit to move to the cursor location (see section 5.5) (N) Next unit. The next higher numbered unit will become the current unit. (O) Check movement objectives. Moves the cursor to the movement objective location(s) of the current unit; also lists the command control delay (see section 5.5). (P) List passengers. Lists all units embarked aboard the current unit. (Q) Quit the unit orders menu. Return to the map display menu. (R) Set maximum firing range at which the current unit will select targets (see section 5.7). (S) Set movement speed for the current unit. (T) Inspect the target that the current unit has selected. (V) View. The computer will inverse all squares that the current unit can see with its current facing. (X) Exit the unit orders menu. Return to the map display menu. (Z) Shift to all-units mode. 5.3 All-Units Mode: Certain orders may be given to all of the units of a particular formation. These orders are followed by an "*" In the listing in 5.2. The computer may be placed in "all-units mode" by pressing the letter "A" instead of the unit index number when selecting a unit from the map display menu. From the unit orders menu the player may shift to "all-units mode " by pressing the (Z) key. EXAMPLE: If the current unit is C4 and the (Z) key is pressed, then the computer will shift to all-units mode for formation C. C-ALL will be shown at the top of the text window and C0 will become the new current unit. When the computer is in all-units mode then the current unit will always be the formation HQ. The computer may not be placed in all-units mode if the formation HQ has been destroyed. 5.4 Embarking Units: All vehicle units may embark infantry type units. Only halftrack and truck units may embark artillery type units. Each vehicle may carry a maximum of 10 transport points. Listed below are the transport costs for each type of passenger: SMG, RIFLE1 HMG2 81MOR, 82MOR3 12OMOR5 IG, HOW, FLACK, AT GUN 10 EXAMPLE: A platoon with 30 RIFLEs would require 3 vehicles to transport. EXAMPLE: A battery of six 76AT guns would require 6 trucks or halftracks to transport. After giving the (E)MBARK command the player must enter the ID of the unit to be embarked. If the embarking unit is in the same square as the vehicle then it will embark immediately. If the embarking unit is not in the same square as the vehicle then the vehicle will move to the square and load the unit during the COMBAT PHASE. It is possible to instruct a vehicle to embark all of the units in a formation. Type the letter "A" instead of the index number of the passenger unit. The vehicle must be assigned to the formation it is loading in this manner. The vehicle will immediately embark the units in the same square and then move to the locations of the other units (In numerical order) and load them during the subsequent COMBAT PHASES. If a vehicle unit receives new movement (or embark) orders, then it will cancel any previous embark orders that have not been completed. 5.5 Movement Objectives: Movement objectives may be assigned to the current unit by moving the cursor to the desired objective location, pressing the (M) key and then entering the desired speed. Each unit may store up to 2 movement objectives. The FIRST OBJECTIVE will always be the first objective assigned and the SECOND OBJECTIVE will always be the LAST one assigned. When a unit completes its move to the first objective location then the second objective will become the NEW first objective. If a new objective is assigned to a unit that already has two objectives, then the new objective will replace the old second objective. Command control movement delays are imposed each time a new movement objective is assigned. Delays are not cumulative; the new delay will replace any existing delay. Movement objectives for the current unit may be reviewed by pressing the (O) key. Movement objectives for the current unit may be cancelled by pressing the (K) key. 5.6 Requesting Artillery Bombardments: Indirect fire artillery bombardments may be performed by all mortars, off-map artillery, and the German Hummel and Wespe units. Any unit on the map may REQUEST a bombardment. To request a bombardment move the cursor to the desired target square and press the (B) key. The computer will list units that are in range and capable of performing bombardments. If you wish to assign the displayed unit to the bombardment mission press the (A) key. If you wish to skip to the next unit without assigning the displayed artillery unit then press the (N) key. If you wish to exit the bombardment routine press the (Q) key. For each artillery unit displayed during the bombardment routine, the computer will display the DELAY required before the artillery can start firing. The delay is dependent on the relationship between the requesting unit and the artillery unit: (1) If the requesting unit is an HQ and the artillery unit is part of the same formation, then there will be a 2 pulse delay. (2) If the requester is a non-HQ but the artillery is part of the same formation, then there will be a 4 pulse delay. (3) If the artillery is in the same formation as the COMMAND HQ, there will be a 6 pulse delay. If none of the above cases apply, then there will be an 8 pulse delay. If more than one of the above cases apply, then the one with the shortest delay will be used. Off-map artillery is considered to be in the same formation as the COMMAND HQ. When a unit is ordered to bombard, or when a mortar unit begins to fire, the unit's maximum firing range is set to zero. Do not change this until the bombardment is completed; otherwise the unit may cancel its bombardment. 5.7 Setting Target Selection Range: Units will automatically select direct fire targets during the combat phase. The players may prevent their units from selecting targets at extreme ranges by adjusting the unit's target selection range. The target selection range may be adjusted by using the (R) routine. EXAMPLE: A Panther tank unit has its selection range set to 5; the unit will only select targets at ranges of 5 or less even though the Panther's weapon has a maximum range of 15. 5.8 The Inspect Routine: The (I)NSPECT routine may be used to review all enemy units that can be seen by the current unit. The cursor will move to the position of each sighted enemy unit and the player will be allowed to request a bombardment or designate the enemy unit as a PRIORITY TARGET for the current unit. The priority target feature allows the player(s) the option of controlling the target selection of their units. If the priority target feature is not used then the units will automatically select targets during the combat phase. 5.9 Ending the Game: The player(s) may use the (0) routine on the map display menu to end the game at any time. The computer will automatically end the game after turn 30 for assault scenarios and after turn 20 for all other scenarios. Players who wish to continue playing a game beyond its normal limits may do so. 5.10 Time: During the combat phase, 2 minute of actions are resolved. The combat phase is divided into 4 PULSES of 30 seconds each, 5.11 Execution Delays: When units receive new movement or bombardment orders there will be a delay, expressed in PULSES, before the orders can be executed (see 5.5, 5.6, 5.12). Units that use the (K) cancel routine will have a 1.pulse delay added. A delay will be added to a carrier that disembarks units (1 pulse per unit disembarked). 5.12 Command Control: Both players will start with a COMMAND HQ unit. For the Soviets this will be a corps unit with a "xxx" symbol ("xx" on the Atari). For the Germans this will be a regiment unit with a "III" symbol). A unit is considered to be "in command control" if an unbroken "chain of command" exists between the unit and the COMMAND HQ. To determine command control the computer will examine each link in the chain of command. To establish a command control link between a non-HQ unit and its formation HQ, the unit may not be more than 10 spaces from the HQ. If the unit cannot" see" the HQ, then the maximum distance is 5 spaces. To establish a command control link between an HQ unit and its next higher HQ, the higher HQ need only exist somewhere on the map. EXAMPLE: For an infantry platoon to be in command control it would have to establish a command control link with its company linked with its battalion HQ and the battalion linked with its battalion HQ and the battalion HQ would have to be linked to the command HQ. To determine the chain of command for any unit, use the (H) routine from the unit orders menu. Continue pressing the (H) key until the cursor moves to the command HQ. Units that receive new movement orders will be delayed a number of pulses before they start moving. The length of the delay varies with the time period, nationality, and command control status of the unit. Listed below are the movement delays for each nationality, time period and command control status (IN COMMAND CONTROL/OUT OF COMMAND CONTROL) . TIME PERIOD GERMAN SOVIET 11/55/9 21/55/9 31/54/8 41/54/8 51/53/7 61/53/7 72/63/7 82/63/7 6.0 WEAPONS The weapons used in KAMPFGRUPPE are listed below. Armored vehicles are rated for gun maximum range (MR), gun maximum penetration (MP), gun shell size (SS), gun accuracy (AC), speed (SP), machine guns (MG), front armor (FA), back armor (BA), silhouette (SL), and periods of availability (YR). RUSSIAN # WEAPON MR MP SS AC SP MG FA BA SL YR tanks 47 T-70 5 5 2 2 14 1 5 2 2 2-8 28 BT-7 6 6 2 2 21 2 3 1 3 1 29 T-26S 6 6 2 2 12 2 3 2 2 1 30 T34/76A 8 7 4 4 21 2 11 6 3 1-4 31 T23/76C 10 8 4 6 21 2 11 6 4 2-8 32 T34/85 12 15 4 6 20 2 11 7 5 6-8 33 T-28C 6 7 4 2 12 3 5 2 5 1 34 KV-I 8 7 4 4 10 3 12 8 5 1-3 35 KV-II 8 0 6 4 8 2 11 7 6 1-2 36 KV-IC 10 8 4 6 10 3 12 8 5 3-6 37 KV-85 12 15 4 6 10 3 11 7 5 6-8 38 JS-II 15 20 5 6 12 4 16 10 5 6-8 39 JS-III 15 20 5 6 12 4 30 12 5 8 tank destroyers 40 SU-76 10 8 4 6 14 1 5 2 3 4-7 41 SU-85 12 15 4 6 20 0 9 5 3 5-8 44 SU-100 15 19 5 6 20 0 14 5 5 7-8 45 JSU-122 15 20 5 5 12 1 18 8 5 7-8 assault guns 42 SU-122 10 0 5 6 19 0 9 5 3 5-8 43 SU-152 12 0 6 4 10 0 12 5 5 5-7 46 JSU-152 12 0 6 4 10 1 18 8 5 7-8 carrier HALFTRACK 5 0 1 50 16 0 1 1 3 1-8 non armored weapons are rated for MR, MP, SS, AC, AP, SL, defense(DF) and YR. WEAPON MR MP SS AC SP SL DF YR TRUCK 0 0 0 0 11 3 1 1-8 45AT 8 10 2 6 0 1 3 1-8 76AT 10 11 4 6 0 1 3 1-8 76H 15 0 4 6 0 1 3 1-8 50MOR 2 0 3 8 5 1 8 1-8 82MOR 16 0 4 8 4 1 7 1-8 120MOR 28 0 5 9 2 1 5 1-8 HMG 5 0 1 50 5 1 8 1-8 SMG 1 0 1 40 6 1 9 1-8 RIFLE 2 0 1 10 6 1 9 1-8 GRENADE 0 25 1 25 - - - 1-8 FLAMETH 0 30 4 8 - - - 1-8 L-ART 99 0 4 8 - - - 1-8 M-ART 99 0 5 8 - - - 1-8 H-ART 99 0 6 8 - - - 1-8 GERMAN # WEAPON MR MP SS AC SP MG FA BA SL YR tanks 0 PZ-IIF 5 4 1 6 12 1 3 1 2 1-5 1 PZ-IIL 5 4 1 6 16 1 3 2 2 4-8 2 PZ-38T 6 5 2 6 12 2 5 2 3 1-2 3 PZ-IIIF 7 6 3 6 11 2 3 3 3 1-4 4 PZ-IIIG 7 6 3 6 12 2 4 3 3 1-4 5 PZ-IIIJ 8 10 3 8 11 2 6 3 3 2-5 6 PZ-IIIL 8 10 3 8 11 2 7 4 3 3-5 7 PZ-IVF1 8 2 4 6 12 2 5 3 4 1-3 8 PZ-IVG 12 13 4 8 12 2 7 3 4 3-5 9 PZ-IVH 12 14 4 8 12 2 8 4 4 5-8 10 PANTHER 15 18 4 8 17 2 15 5 5 5-8 11 TIGER 15 15 4 8 12 2 11 5 5 4-8 12 K TIGER 15 22 4 10 10 2 23 6 6 7-8 tank destroyers 13 SG-IIIB 8 2 4 6 12 0 5 3 3 1-3 14 SG-IIIG 12 14 4 8 12 1 10 4 3 3-8 15 MARDER 12 14 4 8 12 0 3 1 4 3-7 16 NASHORN 20 22 4 10 14 0 4 1 6 4-6 17 ELEFANT 15 22 4 8 6 0 23 8 6 5 18 JPZ-IV 15 18 4 8 9 0 13 3 3 6-8 19 HETZER 12 14 4 8 9 1 14 2 3 6-8 20 JPZ-V 15 22 4 10 16 1 16 5 5 7-8 21 JPZ-VIB 20 27 5 6 8 1 25 9 6 8 assault guns 22 STU-H42 12 0 5 6 12 1 8 4 3 3-8 23 SIG33 10 0 6 6 12 0 3 1 4 4-8 self propelled artillery 24 WESPE 12* 0 5 6 9 1 2 1 3 3-8 25 HUMMEL 12* 0 6 6 12 1 3 1 6 4-8 armored cars 26 SK231 5 4 1 6 22 1 2 1 3 1-8 27 SK234/2 7 10 3 8 22 1 4 1 3 6-8 carrier HALFTRACK 5 0 1 50 16 0 1 1 3 1-8 * Maximum range of 99 when using indirect fire. non armored weapons are rated for MR, MP, SS, AC, AP, SL, defense(DF) and YR. WEAPON MR MP SS AC SP SL DF YR TRUCK 0 0 0 0 11 3 1 1-8 37AT 6 6 2 6 0 1 3 1-4 50AT 8 10 3 8 0 1 3 2-5 75AT 12 14 4 8 0 1 3 3-8 88AT 20 22 4 8 0 2 3 6-8 88FLAK 20 15 4 20 0 3 3 1-8 75IG 10 0 4 6 0 1 3 1-8 150IG 10 0 6 6 0 2 3 1-8 81MOR 13 0 4 8 4 1 7 1-8 120MOR 28 0 5 9 2 1 5 1-8 HMG 5 0 1 50 5 1 8 1-8 SMG 1 0 1 40 6 1 9 1-8 RIFLE 2 0 1 10 6 1 9 1-8 GRENADE 0 25 1 25 - - - 1-8 FLAMETH 0 30 4 8 - - - 1-8 PZFAUST 0 20 3 4 - - - 5-8 L-ART 99 0 4 8 - - - 1-8 M-ART 99 0 5 8 - - - 1-8 H-ART 99 0 6 8 - - - 1-8 6.1 Special Infantry Weapons: All infantry PLATOONS in the game are armed with one of the following Special Infantry Weapons (SIWs): GRENADE, FLAMETHrower, or PanzerFAUST. SIWs will only be used when firing at ZERO RANGE against ARMORED VEHICLES and will shoot at the back armor of the vehicle. SIWs will be fired instead of the platoons' normal RIFLE or SMG weapons. When using SIWs, the number of weapons firing is equal to NUMBER OF MEN in the platoon (except when using grenades in which case the number of weapons is equal to the number of men in the platoon divided by 10). When SIWs are used, the target unit automatically receives 50% suppression. PZFAUST and FLAMETH weapons may only fire once during the game after which they will be replaced by the GRENADE as the platoon SIW. 7.0 COMBAT PHASE The combat phase of each turn represents 2 minutes of real time. The combat phase is divided into four 30-second pulses. During each pulse units may search, select targets, fire their weapons and/or move. Before each pulse the computer selects one player's units to move and fire first during the pulse. The side with the lowest command control delay rating will be more likely to move first. 7.1 Searching: At the start of each pulse eligible units will attempt to spot enemy units within their "field of vision". The held of vision is determined by the unit's facing and its movement status. Moving units have a 90 degree field of vision in the direction they are facing. Non-moving units have a 180 degree field of vision in the direction they are facing. The enemy unit will be spotted if (1) It is within the searching unit's field of vision, (2) there is an unobstructed line-of-sight and (3) the enemy unit is within sighting range. The SIGHTING RANGE equals the enemy unit's SL rating plus 1. If the enemy unit is in cover terrain then the sighting range is divided by 3. If the enemy unit is moving then the sighting range is tripled. The sighting range may never exceed the Visibility Level (set at the start of the game). Units that previously selected a target will not search if they are still eligible to fire at that target. Units may be unable to search due to suppression. 7.2 Selecting Targets: After searching, a unit will automatically attempt to select a target. A target must be a sighted enemy unit that is within target selection range (see 5.7). If there is more than one available target then the nearest unit will be targeted. If the searching unit has an armor-piercing weapon (MP rating greater than 0) then it will select the nearest ARMORED VEHICLE, if one is in range. Tanks and infantry may fire on the same pulse they select a target. Assault guns, tank destroyers and artillery (mortars, anti-tank guns, infantry guns, flak, howitzers, self-propelled artillery) may not fire on the same pulse they select a target unless they are in the same square as the target. Units will select another target if their current target is an infantry unit with a suppression level of 200 at a range greater than zero. A unit will automatically change targets in order to shoot at an enemy unit that enters its square. 7.3 Direct Fire vs. Armored Vehicles: Direct fire may kill or suppress armored vehicles. Armor-piercing fire against an armored vehicle will not cause suppression unless the range is less than 6 and the firing unit is a vehicle with machine guns. Small arms fire from SMG and RIFLE platoons cannot kill armored vehicles. The effectiveness of direct fire against armored vehicles is determined by (1) weapon accuracy, (2) the number of weapons in the firing unit, (3) shell size, and (4) armor vs. penetration. ACCURACY: At zero range, accuracy will be (90 + (WEAPON ACCURACY x PULSE FIRED AT TARGET) SQUARED/100. At maximum range accuracy will be 1 + (WEAPON ACCURACY x PULSES FIRED AT TARGET) SQUARED/100. Weapon accuracy ratings are listed in section 6.0. The pulses fired at the target can never be greater than 4. Accuracy is HALVED if the target unit occupies a TOWN, WOODS or BROKEN terrain square and has its current speed set to 0. Accuracy is HALVED if the target is a MOVING vehicle. Accuracy is multiplied times the TARGET SILHOUETTE/4. When anti-tank fire is used against armored vehicles, the target silhouette may be adjusted due to range. The following formula is used to increase the target silhouette when the range is under 6: 6 - range. This adjustment is added to the normal silhouette of the target, but is not used when determining the accuracy of special infantry weapons. KILLS: Armored vehicles are rated for both front and back armor. Front armor (FA) protects the front 90 degrees of the vehicle (see diagram). Back armor protects the remaining 270 degrees of the vehicle. When firing at a range of zero, it is assumed that the fire is directed at the back armor of the target. Weapons are rated for maximum penetration (MP). MP ratings are modified by range and shell size (SS) into an ADJUSTED PENETRATION FACTOR (APF). The formula for APF is: (SS x SS) / 4 + MP - MP x (RANGE / MAX RANGE) / 2. The APF may not exceed 2 x ARMOR. If the APF is less than 1.25 x ARMOR then the ACCURACY is HALVED. If the APF is less than ARMOR then the ACCURACY is HALVED again. The number of KILLS equals (APF x ACCURACY x NUMBER OF WEAPONS FIRING) / (ARMOR X 1200). EXAMPLE: Let's assume that 5 PZ-IIIL tanks and 10 T-34/76C are in clear terrain exchanging fire at a range of 3, with each target's front armor facing the enemy. The ACCURACY of the PZ-IIILs is: = ((((5/8) x 90) + (8x1)) squared)/100 = (64.25 x 64.25) / 100 = 41.28 This accuracy is adjusted by the target silhouette which is equal to 7 (T-34C has a silhouette of 4 which is adjusted to 7 due to the range of 3) . So the adjusted accuracy is equal to 72.24 (41.28 x (7/4)). The APF of the PZ-IIILs is: =((3 x 3) / 4) + 10 - ((10 x (3 / 8)) / 2) = 9 / 4 + 10 - 15 / 8 = 10.375 Since the APF is not greater than 1.25 times the T-34C front armor of 11, the accuracy of 72.24 is cut in half to 36.12. Since the APF is not greater than the T-34C front armor of 11, the accuracy of 36.12 is cut in half to 18.06. The number of kills due to the fire of the PZ-IIILs is: = (10.375 x 18.06 x 5) / (11 x 1200) = .071 This means that there is roughly a 7.1 chance that one T-34C will be destroyed. If the same calculation was made for the fire of the 10 T-34Cs the result would be a kill number of .918 which would usually lead to 1 PZ-IIIL destroyed. Due to the thick armor of the T-34Cs, and the fact that they outnumber the PZ-IIILs by 2 to 1, an engagement of this type would quickly lead to a German defeat. If, however, the German player had 5 PZ-IVHs, they would fire with a kill number of .614 while the T-34Cs would return fire with a kill number of .937. This is a much better situation for the German player, although he would still need to bring up another platoon of tanks to win the engagement. 7.4 Direct Fire vs. Non-Armored Targets: The effectiveness of direct fire against non armored targets is determined by (1) weapon accuracy, (2) the number of weapons in the firing unit, (3) shell size, and (4) target defense strength. ACCURACY: Calculated the same as in 7.3 with the following exceptions: (1) when firing at MOVING non-vehicle targets the accuracy is DOUBLED instead of halved; (2) accuracy is QUARTERED if the target is DEFENDING IN WOODS, TOWN or BROKEN terrain irrespective of the unit's current speed setting; (3) accuracy is not affected by the target silhouette. KILLS: Number of KILLS equals (SS x SS x ACCURACY x NUMBER OF WEAPONS FIRING) / (DEFENSE x 1000). If the firing unit is in the same square as the target unit and the target's suppression level is greater than 99%, then the target will defend with a DEFENSE of 1, and the attacker s accuracy will be multiplied by 5. If the firing unit is an armored vehicle and the range is less than 6 then the attacker will add its MG strength to enhance the attack. Each MG is the same as the HMG listed in 6.0. If the firing unit is a German SMG or RIFLE unit, the effectiveness (accuracy) of the fire will be increased by 50%. 7.5 Indirect Fire: All bombardments and all mortar fire constitute indirect fire. Indirect fire will not yield reports of kills and suppression; however, it will report when a unit has been eliminated. The effectiveness of indirect fire is as determined by (1) the view of the spotter, (2) shell size, and (3) target defense strength or armor. For indirect fire, armored vehicles have ARMOR equal to BACK ARMOR + FRONT ARMOR / 3. ACCURACY: Calculated the same as 7.3 and 7.4 except for the following: (1) the range is always considered to be the weapon's maximum range for the purpose of calculating accuracy; (2) the pulses fired at target is equal to zero if the spotter unit does not have a line of sight to the target square; (3) the pulses fired at target is equal to 1 if the spotter unit cannot see an enemy unit in the target square; (4) the pulses fired at target is equal to 4 If the spotter unit can see an enemy unit in the target square. KILLS: Calculated the same as in 7.3 or 7.4. Indirect fire attacks each enemy unit in the target square. If a friendly unit is present in the target square then the indirect fire mission will be canceled immediately. If the spotter is unable to see the target square, or if there are no enemy units in the target square, then the fire will eventually "drift" into an adjacent square which will become the new target. Bombardment fire missions will normally continue firing for 4 pulses after which the firing units will become available for reassignment. 7.6 Suppression: Suppression will occur during most direct and indirect fire attacks. Non-armored targets may receive up to 200% suppression. Armored targets may receive a maximum of 50% suppression. If a unit is attacked more than once in a pulse then its suppression will be cumulative. Suppression will not occur if armor-piercing weapons fire at armored targets unless the firing unit is a vehicle armed with machine guns and the range is less than 6. The level of suppression added by an attack is equal to (SS x SS x ACCURACY x ACCURACY x WEAPONS FIRING) / 200. For suppression purposes the ACCURACY will always be at least 10. At the end of each pulse the suppression level of each unit will be halved. 7.7 Suppression Effects: Suppression may affect a unit's ability to search, fire or move. SEARCH: Units with greater than 99% suppression may not search. If suppression is less than 100% then there is a percentage chance, equal to the suppression level, that the unit will fail to search. Units will always search the square they occupy. FIRE: The effectiveness of fire is reduced by 1/3 of the level of suppression (i.e. a unit with a suppression of 180% will have its fire's effectiveness reduced BY 60% (180 / 3). MOVE: Units with greater than 50% suppression will be pinned down and unable to move. Note that armored vehicles will never have greater than 50% suppression. 7.8 Ammunition: All units will start the game with 40 units of ammunition. Units will expend one unit of ammunition each time they fire. Units will be unable to fire if their ammunition reaches zero. 7.9 Movement: At the end of each pulse, eligible units with movement objectives will move. Units that fired or were pinned during the pulse will not move. At the end of each pulse, moving units accumulate movement points equal to their current speed setting (see 6.0). Units will spend movement points to ENTER each square on their path. Listed below are the rounded off costs to enter each type of terrain for each type of unit: ARM-VEH TRUCK FOOT clear 13 13 13 road 7 3 10 town 10 5 12 road-slope 10 5 12 broken 20 27 17 woods 20 27 17 slope 20 27 17 ford 30 40 20 bridge 7 3 10 All non-vehicle units are considered to be FOOT units. The SP rating given to each unit is very close to being equal to the unit s maximum miles per hour speed in clear terrain (when setting speed for a unit you should consider the SP rating to be equal to miles per hour). 7.10 Disembarking Under Fire: When vehicles carrying passengers come under fire they may be forced to unload during the combat phase. Any vehicle that suffers 1 or more KILLS must immediately unload its passengers. If a vehicle other than a truck or halftrack suffers 50% suppression while carrying infantry then it must immediately unload. If a loaded vehicle suffers KILLS then some or all of the passengers may also be killed prior to unloading. 7.11 Combat Reports: During the combat phase the computer will describe the occurrence of direct or indirect fire. The computer will report the size and type of shell being fired and in most instances the KILL and/or SUPPRESSION results. Listed below are the criteria for describing the size and type of shell being fired: SMALL ARMS FIRE: RIFLE, SMG, HMG LIGHT ARTILLERY FIRE: IG, HOW, MOR, shell size < 5 MEDIUM ARTILLERY FIRE: IG, HOW, MOR, shell size = 5 HEAVY ARTILLERY FIRE: IG, HOW, MOR, shell size = 6 LIGHT ANTI-TANK FIRE: AT, shell size < 3 MEDIUM ANTI-TANK FIRE: AT, shell size = 3 HEAVY ANTI-TANK FIRE: AT, FLAK, shell size > 4 OVERRUN ATTACK: moving armored vehicles firing from zero range FLAMETHROW ATTACK: FLAMETH fired from zero range GRENADE ATTACK: GRENADE fired from zero range PANZERFAUST ATTACK: PZFAUST fired from zero range Armored vehicles with an MP rating of zero are assumed to be firing HOWitzer weapons. Armored vehicles with an MP rating greater than zero are assumed to be firing AT weapons. Halftracks are assumed to be firing HMGs. During direct fire any KILLS or SUPPRESSION will always be displayed. During indirect fire KILLS or SUPPRESSION will not be displayed. 7.12 Sighting Firing Units: Any unit on the map that employs direct or indirect fire has a random chance of being sighted. The chance of sighting is equal to 2 x TURNS FIRED AT SAME TARGET / RANGE TO TARGET. 7.13 Close-Combat Mode: Armored vehicle or infantry units that are currently moving and have their engagement range set to ZERO are considered to be in CLOSE-COMBAT MODE. If a unit in in CLOSE-COMBAT MODE is fired upon by a unit within 3 squares then the close-combat unit will attempt to move into the same square as the firing unit before continuing towards its planned objective. 8.0 LINE OF SIGHT The ability of a unit to see another unit on the map is affected by the terrain that lies between them. To determine if one unit can observe another the computer will follow the procedures listed below: (1) Determine the straight line path from the sighting unit to the target unit. This path is the "line of sight" (LOS). (2) Determine if the range to the target unit is greater than the visibility level, in which case the unit cannot be seen. (3) Determine if the LOS is blocked (Preventing observation) or clear (Permitting observation). If any square on the LOS path contains "blocking" terrain then there is a possibility the LOS will be blocked. (4) There are two types of blocking terrain: ELEVATED terrain and COVER terrain. Elevated terrain is any terrain on the LOS path that has a higher altitude level than both the sighting and target units. Cover terrain consists of TOWN, WOODS or BROKEN terrain squares. (5) Elevated terrain will always block the LOS. Town terrain squares will always block a line of sight. A LOS may be traced through 1 woods square that would have otherwise blocked the LOS but will be blocked by a second woods square. A LOS may be traced through 2 broken squares that would have otherwise blocked the LOS but will be blocked by a third broken square. A LOS may not be traced through one forest and one broken square. (6) If the LOS is not blocked and the two units are on the same altitude level, then they may observe each other. (7) If the LOS is not blocked by ELEVATED terrain and the two units are at different altitude levels, then the following formula is used to determine if a LOS exists: LOS is clear if [h - ( d x H / D)] * >= p. * Rounds off number to nearest integer. H = height of higher position minus height of lower position. D = distance from higher position to lower position. h = height of higher unit. d = distance from potential obstacle to higher position. P = height of potential obstacle. Each square on the path from the higher unit to the lower unit is a potential obstacle. Cover terrain will increase the altitude level of a square by 1 additional level when calculating the value of "P" in the above formula. The following diagram shows the heights of various terrain types on a typical map. The computer is the final judge in determining LOS. Players may use the (view key to determine which squares are visible from any particular square). 9.0 HISTORICAL SCENARIOS 9.1 Meeting Engagement East of Bryansk (July 7,1942): This is a meeting engagement with a game length of 20 turns. The German player begins with 60 victory points, and the Soviet player begins with 0 victory points. As part of a major attack toward the Resseta River, the German 11th Panzer Division ran into a large reserve tank force which was able to inflict severe losses on the German advance guard. 9.2 Attempted Relief of Stalingrad (December 17, 1942): This is a German assault with a game length of 30 turns. The German player begins with 250 victory points, and the Soviet player begins with 60 victory points. The Germans are attempting to break through Russian mobile formations in order to relieve the beleaguered German 6th Army in Stalingrad. The Russians have established a strong position around the town of Verkhniy Kumskiy using tanks from the Third Tank Army. Elements of the 6th and 23rd Panzer Divisions were repulsed on the 16th but eventually succeeded in taking the town on the 17th. 9.3 Attack Toward Kiev (November 30 1943): This is a Russian assault with a game length of 30 turns. The German player begins with 20 victory points, ant the Soviet player begins with 250 victory points. After crossing the Dniepr River northeast of Kiev, the Russian units in the bridgehead turned south and attacked the German 68th Infantry Division. Although successful in clearing the woods of germans, a last-minute counterattack by German armor prevented the Russians from reaching Kiev. 9.4 Attack Toward Berlin (March 22, 1945): This is a Russian assault with a game length of 30 turns. The German player begins with The German player begins with 250 victory points, and the Soviet player begins with 180 victory points. After having achieved bridgeheads over the Oder River both north and south of Kuestrin, the Russians ordered a tank corps to advance down the main highway to Berlin. Facing the Russians was a newly formed Panzer division which could only scrape together 55 Panther and Tiger tanks. Fighting over flat terrain, the German tanks were able to get the better of the uncoordinated Russian armor attacks, despite being outnumbered by 2.5 to 1. The Panther tank once again proved that it was the best tank of World War II. 10.0 GAME LENGTH AND VICTORY CONDITIONS 10.1 Ending the Game: The game will automatically end after 20 turns (30 turns if an assault battle is being played). Players may also elect to end the game early if they both agree (use the 0 key), and they may also elect to continue a game that has ended. If they elect to continue a game that has ended, the computer will never again end the game as this must be done by the players. 10.2 Victory Conditions: At the end of the game victory points (VPs) will be awarded as follows: EACH UNUSED SELECTION POINT........................20 (maximum of 250 due to unused selection points) FORCES IN THE OBJECTIVE AREA: ARMORED VEHICLE..................................20 ARTILLERY/TRUCK..................................10 INFANTRYMAN.......................................5 EACH KILL: INFANTRY..........................................1 HMG...............................................2 50,81,82MOR.......................................3 120MOR............................................5 OTHER ARTILLERY..................................10 TRUCK............................................10 ARMORED VEHICLE..................................10 (Plus FRONT ARMOR) Only the attacking player receives points for units in the objective area. When playing a meeting engagement type battle both players receive points for units in the objective area (both players are considered to be the attacker). After the victory points have been totaled the defender's points will be doubled (points for unused selection value may be doubled to a value no greater than 500). The computer will divide the total German victory points by the total Russian victory points to arrive at a victory ratio. Compare this ratio to the following chart to determine the victor: 2.00 and above ..German Decisive Victory 1.50 - 1.99 .....German Substantive Victory 1.10 - 1.49 .....German Marginal Victory. 0.92 - 1.09 .....Draw 0.67 - 0.91 .....Russian Marginal Victory 0.51 - 0.66 .....Russian Substantive Victory 0.50 and below ..Russian Decisive Victory 12.0 STRATEGY NOTES Deployment When deploying on defense you should entrench your infantry near the forward edge of the objective area in company size positions. Position your anti-tank guns and some of your armored vehicles behind this line by 3-5 squares. Place your mortars and main HQ 5-15 squares behind the infantry on hilltops which have clear fields of vision of probable enemy approach routes. You are attempting to create a situation in which enemy tanks first encounter your infantry positions, and then almost simultaneously receive medium range anti-tank fire. Try to keep at least one company of tanks in reserve, committing them only once the axis of the main enemy attack is determined. When attacking place your infantry in halftracks or on tanks and then set up in a tight formation no more than 5-10 squares wide. Consider splitting off a task force of one tank company and one infantry company to flank the enemy defensive positions. Command Control. Be sure to protect your main HQ by placing it in the rear, but keep it on a hilltop if possible so that it can call in off-board artillery with a minimum delay. Keep your HQ units 1-2 squares behind the units they are commanding. Russian tank brigade and infantry battalion HQ's and all German battalion HQ's should only be committed to combat when absolutely necessary. Getting Your Units To Move A unit will not move as long as it is firing at an enemy unit. In order to get the unit to stop firing you must lower the unit's target selection range. Stop! It is essential that you understand this concept, as your setting it too high may keep the unit from moving as it fires ineffectively at distant targets, but setting it too low may cause the unit to continue moving into an ambush even as enemy units may appear dangerously close. Firing on the Move While moving, a unit may begin to fire on an enemy target. If you wish to keep firing at the enemy while taking advantage of cover terrain in the unit's square, but you also want to keep the unit s current movement objective, set the unit's speed to 0. Even if you don't want to keep the current movement objective, it is better to set the speed to 0 than to use the (K)cancel command, since the cancel command will eliminate any pulses fired at target that may already have accumulated. Trucks Never drive loaded trucks within range of enemy fire, as this is the quickest way to lose your guns and infantry. Keep them in cover terrain or behind hills where they cannot be spotted by enemy artillery observers. Weapons At least 50% of the strategy in Kampfgruppe is derived from the differences between weapons systems. It is essential that you study your weapons when beginning a scenario, as well as attempt to predict which weapons you will face. Try to establish at what range you will attempt to engage enemy tanks. For example if you have PZ-IIIJ tanks and expect to face T-34/76A tanks, it would be foolish to close to 400 yards, stop and exchange fire. The sound strategy would be to obtain back armor shots, or close to 0 range. However, if you have some 75 or 88 AT guns, it might be wise to lure the Russian tanks towards your tanks and then open up with the AT guns at medium range as you charge forward with your tanks. The key is understanding under what conditions your weapons have an acceptable chance of defeating the enemy. Special Infantry Weapons Infantry defending in cover terrain cannot be seen until either an enemy unit enters its square or the infantry unit opens fire. For this reason it is often wise to set the target selection range of defending infantry to zero. This will allow the infantry to ambush enemy units that enter its square. The weakness of this strategy is that each defending square, once discovered, can be attacked piecemeal. When attacking against the 0 range strategy, it is best to send Infantry one square ahead of the attacking tanks, as it is much better to have your infantry ambushed than your tanks. If you don't have time for a slow infantry advance, be sure to put infantry on your tanks, for if your tanks are ambushed, at least your infantry will dismount and fire back in defense of the tanks. Do not allow infantry with grenades to continue firing at your armored vehicles, for with an accuracy of 25, their ability to hit will triple. This represents the ability of unsuppressed infantry to eventually climb on enemy tanks and destroy them with light weapons. Grenades represent Infantry close assaulting tanks, in which case the thickness of the armor of the defending tank becomes insignificant; thus grenades have been given a penetration value of 25. Suppression In Kampfgruppe, once a unit has been fully suppressed (100+), it may easily be destroyed by a unit entering its square. The key is to identify soft-targets, keep them suppressed, and then send in at least one unit to close assault the defender. Using small arms and artillery fire to suppress armored vehicles can also be useful, as it can help keep the vehicles from acquiring new targets. The Combined Arms Concept Kampfgruppe rewards those who are able to use combined arms tactics. On the attack, artillery should be used to suppress and destroy enemy anti-tank guns, as well as suppress enemy mortar positions. Infantry is needed to suppress and then assault defending infantry positions, as well as help in suppressing enemy vehicles. Tanks can be used to destroy enemy vehicles and overrun suppressed enemy infantry and gun positions. Armored cars and light tanks should be positioned several squares ahead of the assault elements in order to spot enemy positions and draw fire from anti-armor weapons, thus exposing them to the fire of your artillery. On defense, use infantry to ambush tanks and suppress any units that come too close. Artillery can be used to keep attacking infantry pinned down, while anti-tank guns attack vehicles that are mixing it up with the defending infantry. Tanks should be used as a mobile reserve, fighting off major armored thrusts, or counterattacking unsupported infantry attacks. APPENDIX 3: TERRAIN NUMBERS/TYPES/LEVEL 0 Clear (Level 1) 1 Road (Level 1) 2 Road (Level 1) 3 Road (Level 1) 4 Road (Level 1) 5 Road (Level 1) 6 Road (Level 1) 7 Road (Level 1) 8 Town (Level 1/2) 9 Woods (Level 1/2) 10 Broken (Level 1/2) 11 Slope (Level 2) 12 Slope (Level 2) 13 Slope (Level 2) 14 Slope (Level 2) 15 Slope (Level 2) 16 Slope (Level 2) 17 Road/Slope (Level 2) 18 Road/Slope (Level 2) 19 River (Level 0) 20 River (Level 0) 21 River (Level 0) 22 River (Level 0) 23 River (Level 0) 24 River (Level 0) 25 Bridge (Level 1) 26 Bridge (Level 1) 27 Ford (Level 0) 28 Ford (Level 0) 29 Clear (Level 3) 31 Road (Level 3) 32 Road (Level 3) 33 Road (Level 3) 34 Road (Level 3) 35 Road (Level 3) 36 Road (Level 3) 37 Town (Level 3/4) 38 Woods (Level 3/4) 39 Broken (Level 3/4) 40 Slope (Level 4) 41 Slope (Level 4) 42 Slope (Level 4) 43 Slope (Level 4) 44 Slope (Level 4) 45 Slope (Level 4) 46 Road/Slope (Level 4) 47 Road/Slope (Level 4) 48 Clear (Level 5) 49 Road (Level 5) 50 Road (Level 5) 51 Road (Level 5) 52 Road (Level 5) 53 Road (Level 5) 54 Road (Level 5) 55 Road (Level 5) 56 Town (Level 5/6) 57 Woods (Level 5/6) 58 Broken (Level 5/6) KAMFGRUPPE SCENARIO DISK ONE Bridgehead Time Period: 1 Barbarossa has begun. Advance units of the Wermacht are striking swiftly and deeply into Soviet territory. In this scenario, advance German units are converging to cross the river, capture the road hub in the town on the opposite side, and save the last unblown bridge, which the Soviets will destroy after turn 20. Note the bridge hexes already blown. This is a German pursuit scenario - but do not take this to mean the Soviet side is weak. We recommend that the computer play the Soviet side. Berlin Time Period: 8 This scenario recreates April 28, 1945, when Soviet elements of the 3rd Guards Tank Army made an assault on Berlin's perimeter defended by units of the 20th Motorized Division. The defensive perimeter is evident, with a clear field of fire for the defenders. Also note there are strategic areas and a blown highway that have been flooded by the defenders. Beware of areas with high-rise buildings. This is a Soviet assault, and we suggest that the computer play the German side. Panzer Thrust Time Period: 4 This is a small meeting engagement in which the German commander is attempting to capture the town in the middle of the map. A Soviet blocking force has already reached the town and they are expecting armored reinforcements. We recommend that the computer play the Soviet side. Eagle's Nest Time Period: 5 This is a Soviet assault on a fortress-like Nazi bastion. We recommend that the computer play the German side. Inferno Time Period: 6 This is a German assault on a Soviet urban center. We recommend that the computer play the Soviet side.
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