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                 PC LARN version 12.3 for IBM PC Compatibles

     Table of contents

        1.  Introduction
        2.  System requirements
        3.  Files Supplied
        4.  Installation
        5.  Configuration
        6.  Command line options
        7.  TERMCAP
        8.  WIZARD mode
        9.  History and other Information

     1. Introduction

     LARN is a dungeon type adventure game similar in concept to HACK, ROGUE 
     or MORIA, but with a different feel and winning criteria.  LARN was 
     released for the UNIX environment in 1986 by Noah Morgan.  It was 
     subsequently ported to the MS-DOS environment by Don Kneller.  Kevin 
     Routley has been working on enhancements to LARN on and off for the
     past two years.

     2. System requirements

     PC LARN requires:

       - MS-DOS or PC-DOS 2.x or above.

       - at least 256K of RAM.

       - disk storage capacity of at least 360K, although twice that much is
         preferred if you want to "checkpoint" your game to prevent
         accidental lose due to a system failure.

       - the ANSI.SYS device driver must be installed (although the NANSI.SYS
         driver is *strongly* preferred and has been included in this
         distribution).  You should install either ANSI.SYS or NANSI.SYS, but
         not both.  To install NANSI.SYS, put the line "device=NANSI.SYS" in
         your CONFIG.SYS file.  See the TERMCAP section for further details.

     3. Files supplied

     The following files should be included in this LARN123.ZIP file:

       LARN123.DOC       This documentation.

       LARN123.FIX       Changes made between LARN V12.2 and V12.3.

       LARN123.EXE       The executable file.

       LARN.FTN          Fortune cookie messages.

       LARN.HLP          A help file, which can be read with the "?"
                         command in LARN.

       LARN.MAZ          Some maze levels are pre-calculated and
                         stored here.

       LARN.OPT          An example LARN.OPT file (see the CONFIGURATION

       TERMCAP           A file describing the escape sequences to send
                         to the terminal.  The supplied TERMCAP file is
                         for monochrome systems.  See the TERMCAP section
                         for details on changing TERMCAP.

       NANSI.DOC         The documentation for NANSI.SYS.

       NANSI.SYS         A new ANSI.SYS that is *much* faster than
                         ANSI.SYS and supports the line insert and line
                         delete escape sequence that LARN uses.  This
                         excellent product is written by Daniel Kegel.
                         See the TERMCAP section and NANSI.DOC for more

     4. Installation

     NANSI.SYS or ANSI.SYS must be installed as a device driver on your 
     system in order for LARN to work (see System Requirements above).

     For a hard disk system I suggest creating a \GAMES\LARN directory and
     placing LARN and the provided support files in that directory.  Following
     that, you would place \GAMES\LARN in your PATH.

     LARN will create several other files (LARN.SCR, LARN.PID, LARN.LOG)
     in that directory.  Also, save files (LARN.SAV) and checkpoint files
     (LARN.CKP) will go in there by default.  You will want to set the
     'larndir:' option in your LARN.OPT file (see the Configuration section
     below) to point to this directory.

     For two-floppy systems, I would suggest the following:

         o place LARN123.EXE, LARN.OPT and TERMCAP. on disk one.

         o place LARN.FTN, LARN.MAZ, and LARN.HLP on disk two.  This will
           be the 'larndir:' disk (see the Configuration section below).
           LARN.SCR, LARN.PID, LARN.LOG, save files, and checkpoint files
           will go on this disk.

     5. Configuration

     PC LARN is configured by options placed in the file LARN.OPT.
     When PC LARN starts up, it looks in the current directory for
     this file, then in directories along your PATH.  Here are the
     options that can be put in LARN.OPT.

     Options that are followed with a colon, ":", take at least one
     argument.  Options without a colon are boolean, meaning you select
     that option merely by mentioning it.

     Comments can be entered in the options file by using the '#'

     These options are only in PC LARN:

       cursor:        start-line     end-line
            Normally, LARN uses the standard DOS cursor (the flashing
            underscore) to show where your player is located.  This can be
            difficult to see.  This option results in a *BIOS* call to change
            the cursor size.  For a monochrome display, the normal value of
            start-line and end-line is 11 and 12.  Values of 4 and 9 give a
            larger cursor which is not too obtrusive.

            If "cursor" is not specified, no BIOS call is made.

            Put this in LARN.OPT if your computer is a DEC Rainbow and you
            want to use graphics characters for drawing the maze.  You can
            use any characters from the ASCII character set and from the
            "line-drawing" character set.  To use line-drawing characters,
            take the decimal value of the character and add 128 to it.  This
            makes the values of line-drawing characters lie between decimal
            128 and 255 and tells PC LARN you want a line-drawing character.

            Every attempt has been made with PC LARN V12.3 to maintain
            DECRainbow compatibility as provided by Don Kneller.
            Unfortunately, since I do not have access to a Rainbow, I cannot
            make any guarentees.

       graphics:      wallc     floorc
            In UNIX LARN, the wall character is a # and the floor character
            is a blank (which makes it almost impossible to tell where you've
            been).  In PC LARN, the default wall character is also a # but
            the default floor character is a period.

            This option allows you to change these characters to something
            you like.  Suggested characters are 176 (a graphic block) and
            249 (a central dot).

            Almost all ASCII (non-graphics) characters already represent
            objects in LARN, so you should only choose numbers that are
            in the graphics character set (i.e. those with decimal values
            greater than 128).

            This enables the keypad for use with LARN.  A *BIOS* call is used
            to read the keypad.  The correspondance between keypad and game
            command is:

                   Keypad                   Command
                   7  8  9         u+l(y)    up(k)    u+r(u)
                    \ | /                 \    |    /
                   4 -5- 6        left(h)   nothing   right(l)
                    / | \                 /    |    \
                   1  2  3         d+l(b)    down(j)  d+r(n)
                 Ins             inventory(i)

            The letter in () is the game command letter. "u+l" means up and
            left.  The keypad "7" is translated to the command for moving one
            space up and left.  With shift the commands are the same as the
            uppercase letters.

       larndir:       directory
            Sets "directory" to be the place LARN looks for files.  For hard
            disks set this to be \GAMES\LARN.  For 2-floppy systems, use B:

            If "larndir" is not specified, the current directory is assumed.

       ramlevels:     number
            This number is the maximum number of levels PC LARN will keep in
            memory.  The number can be between 1 and 14.  Normally, PC LARN
            will use as much memory as available, but you may want to use
            less so there will be enough memory to start up a second copy of
            COMMAND.COM with the LARN command `!'.  If there isn't enough
            memory for COMMAND.COM, LARN will clear the screen and prompt
            with "A>" until return is struck, then go back to the game.

            If "ramlevels" is not specified, a value of 14 is used.  If
            "number" is less than 14, LARN will use a swapfile to store the
            oldest levels.  Note that a level takes about 8K of memory.

            This option causes the input and output of your computer to be
            switched to "raw" mode.  The advantage of this is faster output
            and better handling of special characters ^S and ^P.

            ===========  WARNING ==========
            Some computers (eg. DEC Rainbows) hang if rawio is attempted.

       swapfile:      filename
            This is the name of the swap file that will be used if ramlevels
            is less than 14.  If all the levels fit in memory, no swap file
            will be used.  You may want to put the swapfile on a RAMdisk.
            If "swapfile" is not specified, LARN.SWP in directory larndir
            will be used.

     The following are options usable with UNIX LARN as well:

            Starts you out in 'automatic pickup' mode.  Whenever the player
            moves onto an object, it will be picked up.  This mode can be
            toggled with the '@' command while in the game.

            By specifying this option, all objects in the game will be
            highlighted.  The 'highlight-objects' and 'inverse-objects'
            specify which highlighting method will be used.

            The default is non-bold objects, except if the 'original-objects'
            option is specified, when it is *forced* on (to distinguish
            monsters and objects that are represented by the same

            With this option, the game is saved every 400 moves.  If your
            system crashes it is possible to recover from the last checkpoint
            file (LARN.CPK in the LARN directory) with the command "larn ++".

            If the 'bold-objects' option is specified, this option causes
            objects to be highlighted with bolding.

            If the 'bold-objects' option is specified, this option causes
            objects to be highlighted with inverse video.  The default is

       monster:       name
            Sets the name of a monster.  If the name has a space in it,
            enclose it in double quotes (eg "tooth fairy").  The leading
            character determines which monster the name goes with (e.g.
            "monster: bee" and "monster: Buzzbomb" change the names of
            bugbears and Bats, respectively).

       name:          yourname
            Sets the name of the player.  If you want a space in your name,
            enclose it in double quotes (eg "Mad Max").

            Skip displaying the opening messages.

            Disable sound from the speaker.

            Like 'prompting' mode, this mode is provided for compatibility
            with LARN V12.0.  By specifying this option, the characters
            used to show objects in the game are the same as in 12.0.  The
            default is to use characters that are closer to those used with
            HACK, ROGUE and MORIA.

            By specifying this option, you enable 'prompting' mode.  In this
            mode, the player is prompted for the action to perform when
            encountering an object (e.g. 'Eat, pick up, or ignore?').
            Prompting mode is provided for compatibility with LARN V12.0, and
            is off by default.

       savefile:      filename
            The filename to use for saving the game.  The default is LARN.SAV
            in the LARN directory.  For a 2-floppy system you might try
            B:LARN.SAV if the LARN directory is on the A disk drive.

     6. Command line options

     There are several command line options that can modify the behavior of
     LARN.  These are:

       -o optionfile  Use this as the option file rather than LARN.OPT.  As
                      with LARN.OPT, the current directory then directories
                      along your path are searched for this file which
                      supplies configuration information.

       -s             Show scores.

       -l             Show log file.  You have to know the Wizard's password
                      to do this.

       -i             Show all scores including the inventories of dead

       -c             Create a new score file.  You have to know the Wizard's
                      password to do this.  Erasing LARN.SCR has the same

       -n             No welcoming message.  Prevents printing of the short
                      introduction to LARN.  Putting the "no-introduction"
                      configuration option in LARN.OPT has the same effect.

       -#             Where # is a number from 0 to 9.  This sets the
                      difficulty of LARN to this level.  Normally, LARN
                      starts out with difficulty 0 and increases in
                      difficulty by 1 when you win at the current level.
                      Thus the game automatically gets more difficult.

       -h, -?         A help screen that shows the command line arguments.

       -p             Prompt for actions on objects.  Specifying the
                      'prompt-on-objects' option in LARN.OPT has the same

       ++             Restore a game from a checkpoint file.  If you have
                      checkpointing enabled (with the "enable-checkpointing"
                      configuration option in LARN.OPT) then LARN writes a
                      checkpoint file every 400 moves.  Should your system
                      crash you can recover the game from the checkpoint file
                      with this command line option

       For example:  "larn -n -o bobslarn.opt" starts up LARN with no
       introductory message and uses bobslarn.opt file for configuration 
       options.  "larn ++" tries to restore LARN from a checkpoint file.

     7. TERMCAP

     LARN uses the UNIX "termcap" to select escape sequences to be sent to
     the terminal driver (either ANSI.SYS or NANSI.SYS) to change video modes.
     When LARN starts up, it checks in the environment for the variable called
     "TERM".  The DOS command:
       set TERM ibmpc-ega
     will give the environment variable "TERM" the value "ibmpc-ega".  By
     default, LARN assumes the value of TERM is "ibmpc-mono".

     Then LARN looks in the file called "TERMCAP" for a termininiefinition
     with the same name as the value of TERM.  LARN first looks for TERMCAP in
     the current directory, then in directory "\ETC" (the normal UNIX place),
     then in directories along your PATH.

     The TERMCAP file uses 2 letter codes to describe each escape sequence
     and \E to mean ESC (the escape character is decimal 27).  Each entry is
     enclosed in colons.  For example, to start underscore mode on a monochrome
     display, we want to send the sequence "ESC[4m".  This looks like
     ":us=\E4m:" as a termcap entry.

     The following sequences are used by LARN:

       ti   terminal initialization.  You could have something like:
            which would mean to select blue background and white foreground.

       te   terminal end.  To reset your terminal to white on black:

       so   stand out.  Select red forground, keeping the blue background:

       se   standout end.  Back to white on blue:

       al   insert line.  This is *not* available in ANSI.SYS, so remove this
            entry if you're using ANSI.

       dl   delete line.  This is *not* available in ANSI.SYS, so remove this
            entry if you're using ANSI.

     If you want to make your own TERMCAP entry, copy the "ibmpc-mono"
     entry, replace the name (eg use "ibmpc-color" or "ibmpc-ega" or whatever),
     then replace the sequences with whatever you please.  The possible escape
     sequences are generally listed in the DOS manual in the description of
     ANSI.SYS, as well as in the NANSI.DOC file.

     Remember to change the environment variable "TERM" to reflect which
     TERMCAP entry you want!  You should probably put a "set TERM=..." line in
     your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

     8. WIZARD mode

     There is a WIZARD mode for testing features of the game.  To get into
     WIZARD mode, type in an underscore "_" and answer the prompt for the
     password with "pvnert(x)" (do not enter the quotes).  Wizards are 
     non-scoring characters that get enlightenment, everlasting expanded 
     awareness and one of every object in the game.

     9. History and Other Information

     Noah Morgan originally created LARN 12.0 and released the UNIX
     version to the USENET in 1986.  Don Kneller ported the UNIX
     version to MSDOS (both IBM PCs and DEC Rainbows).

     Kevin Routley has been working on LARN enhancements on and off for
     the past two years.  Version 12.1 had a limited distribution.
     Version 12.2 was distributed to the Usenet community.  Version 12.3
     may be last version from Kevin that will maintain savefile compatibility 
     with version 12.0 savefiles.  Some future version will be released 
     as Shareware.

     Other editions of Larn have been distributed by others, namely
     LARN13 and Ultra-Larn.

     I hope you enjoy this version of LARN.  Please send any questions,
     suggestions, requests, or comments regarding LARN and LARN V12.3
     in particular to:

                 Kevin Routley
                 9 Aster Court
                 Nashua, NH 03062
                 ARPA:    routley@tle.dec.com
                 BITNET:  routley@tle.dec.com

                 March 23, 1991
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