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Railroad Tycoon manual

  Sid Meier's
  
                             RAILROAD TYCOON
                         
                              TYPED BY JEZ!
                              -------------

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1. INTRODUCTION

   Railroad Tycoon is a game about the fascinating world of railroads:
steel tracks stretching to the horizon, promising adventure and romance;
steam, diesel, and electric locomotives, some of the largest machines man
has ever built; nations transformed by the speed and strength that 
locomotives could achieve, eclipsing the puny power of man himself and
the animals he could domesticate; the sounds of steam whistles, diesel
horns, and clanging bells; a world of risk - natural disasters, poor
economic times, and rival railroads; and a world of opportunity -
money, prestige, and fame.

   Railroad Tycoon puts you into this world as the president of a tiny
railroad enterprise.  Your railroad empire is only a dream, but you
have a little money from investors and your own ability to start with.
Your task is to carve your railroad empire out of this great world
of opportunity.

   In Railroad Tycoon, you, the player, construct and operate a
complete railroad, from tracks and signals to locomotives and
livestock cars.  If you successfully manage your resources and make
them grow, you can expect a long professional life of railroading
achievement.  However, you are not alone in the world and other men
possess the same dream as you.

   Your skills as a tycoon are tested by competing railroads run by
men such as Commodore Vanderbilt, James Hill, and J.P. Morgan,
determined to crush you or brush you from their path.  Running your
own railroad well is not going to be enough if your competitors do
better, or raise the money to take you over.

   You begin Railroad Tycoon by choosing one of four different
world maps to play on: Northeastern America (1830), Western America

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(1866), England (1828), or Central Europe (1900).  The date in
parentheses indicates the historical year in which the game starts.
Each region has its own geography, economic opportunities, and
locomotive technology.

   These four worlds were chosen for their specific interest or
railroad history.  England was the scene of the beginnings of 
railroading.  The Northeast United States witnessed the beginning 
of railroading in America, and fostered many of the world's most
famous railroads.  The Western USA was the site of some of
railroading's greatest construction efforts, the building of
transcontinental railroads.  Europe remains very railroad oriented,
and France is running some of the fastest trains in the world.

   Each new world map is empty of railroads but full of the
opportunity to earn money hauling freight and passengers.  You
must parlay one million dollars of loans and stockholder
investments into a functioning, revenue earning business.  If you
dawdle or make too many mistakes, expect to be forcibly retired by 
irate stockholders or see your company gobbled up by a competitor.

   You simultaneously wear the hats of construction superintendent,
master of the road, dispatcher, chief financial officer, and chief
executive officer.  You decide where to lay tracks, what types of
trains to put in service, when to schedule trains, where to change 
the types of cars in a train, when to upgrade equipment, where to add
facilities, where to encourage industry, and how best to finance 
expansion and improvements.

   At any moment in the game your attention can be directed to 
several places: to find the best route for expansion toward a new city,
to examine the maintenance costs of your locomotives to see if any are
getting too high, to scan Shipping Reports to see if one cargo or
another is piling up enough to justify another train, to look for new
industries springing up in areas where you can provide service.

   To succeed you must balance the investment of your limited funds
between more construction projects, adding more trains, adding more
facilities, and stock purchases.  Profitable investment decisions
increase your revenue and make possible further expansion

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and service improvements.  But keep your eye on the stock market to
see what your competitors are up to and don't let them ambush you.

   Competing railroads are operated by their presidents in the style
of their historical personality.  Expect a road run by Jay Gould to
look for stock market profits and take every opportunity to raid your
stock.  Jim Hill can be expected to build an extensive and profitable 
system.  Beware of his propensity to quickly grab access to profitable
areas, blocking you out if possible.

   Competing railroads can be attacked operationally by building tracks
into their stations and starting rate wars.  The railroad that does 
the best job of providing service to the city is given a monopoly
on local service by the city council.  The loser must withdraw from
the city, forfeiting his investment in track and stations.  By this
tactic you can reduce the earnings of competitors and continue your
expansion.

   Alternatively, you may invest in the stock of competing railroads
and possibly take them over.  If you get control of another railroad,
you can direct its finances and expansion, using it to help your road
or block competitors.

   Your ultimate goal as a Railroad Tycoon is to run the most profitable
railroad that you can and retire to a prestigious position, perhaps
even becoming President of the United States.  If your railroad is
sufficiently profitable at your retirement you may be enshrined in
the railroader's Hall of Fame.

   If you aren't able to make the grade as a railroad president, you  
may be able to find work as a snake oil salesman or circus impresario.    
     
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1. INTRODUCTION
      Introduction.............................3
      Table of Contents........................6
      What is a Railroad?......................9
      Before You Start........................12
      Interface Introduction..................13
             Opening Menus....................13
             Menu Types.......................13
             Menu Choices.....................14
             Shortcut Keys....................14
             Map Scrolling....................15
      Pre-Game Options........................16
             Game/World Options...............16
             Difficulty Levels................16
             Reality Levels...................17
             The Difficulty Factor............18
             RR President's Aptitude Test.....19
      Reading and Using the Displays..........20
             The Regional Display.............20
             The Menu Bar.....................21
             The Game Menu....................21
             The Display Menu.................23
             The Reports Menu.................24
             The Build Menu...................25
             The Action Menu..................26
             The World View Window............27
             Current Cash.....................28
             Date.............................28
             The Train Roster.................28
             The Area Display.................29
             The Local Display................30
             The Detail Display...............31
      Ending the Game and Winning.............32
             Ending The Game..................32
             Tycoon Rankings..................32
             Railroader's Hall of Fame........32

2. SAMPLE RAILROAD TUTORIAL
      Tutorial................................35

3. RAILROAD ENGINEERING
      Laying Track............................49
             How To Lay Track.................50
             Surveys And Grades...............51
             River Bridges....................52
             Ferryboats.......................52
             Tunnels..........................53
             Double Track.....................53
             Track and Bridge Demolition......54
      Railroad Stations.......................56
             Description......................56
             How To Build A Station...........58
             Shipping Reports.................58
             Station Reports..................60
             Station Improvements.............61
      Trains..................................63
             Building Trains..................64
             Train Roster.....................65
             Train Reports....................66
             Naming Trains....................68
             Train Classes....................69
             Train Types......................70
             Changing Locomotives.............71
             Retiring Trains..................71
             Routing Trains...................72
             Train Consist....................75
   
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             Changing Destinations............76
             Priority Orders..................77
             Priority Consist.................78
             Wait Until Full Orders...........78
             Train Wrecks.....................80
      Revenue And Cargos......................81
             Earning Revenue..................81
             How Revenues Vary................82
             Cargo Types......................82
             Resource Map.....................83
             Cargo Conversions................84
             Priority Shipments...............85
             Building Industry................86
      Operating Trains........................88
             How Signals Work.................89
             Signal Towers....................90
             Overriding a Block Signal........91
             Pausing Trains...................92
             No Collisions Mode...............93

4. THE RAILROAD BUSINESS
      Railroad Capitalization.................95
             Initial Capital..................95
             Additional Stock.................95
             Stockholder Happiness............96
             Bonds............................96
             Calling Your Broker..............97
             Short Term Loans.................98
             Declaring Bankruptcy.............98
      Financial Reports.......................99
             Balance Sheet....................99
             Income Statements...............101
             Train Income Report.............101
             Stock Price Graph...............102
             Economic Climate................103
      Additional Reports.....................104
             Accomplishments.................104
             Efficiency Report...............104
             History.........................105

5. RAILROAD COMPETITION

      Competing Railroads....................107
      Rate Wars..............................109
      Stock Market Takeovers.................111
      Controlling Other Railroads............112

6. THE RAILROAD STORY

      The Origins of Railroading.............115
      The Role of Railroads..................118
             Introduction....................118
             Changes Over Time...............118
             Railroads Today.................119
      Railroad Finances......................121
             Railroad Stock..................121
             Railroad Bonds..................122
             Land Grants.....................122
             Stock Market Shenanigans........123
      Constructing Railroads.................126
             Where To Build..................126
             Truck Construction..............127
             Bridges.........................130
             Tunnels.........................131
      Operating A Railroad...................133
             Passenger Service...............135
             Freight Service.................135
             Making Up Trains................137
             Moving Trains...................138

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      Steam Locomotives......................143
             Introduction....................143
             Making Steam....................144
             Steam Power.....................146
             Development and Decline.........146
 
7. NOTES AND CREDITS

      Railroad Tycoon Worlds.................149
             Map Generation..................149
             Specific Map Features...........149
             Game Scale......................150
             Game Time.......................150
      Locomotive Roster......................151
             North American Locomotives......151
             European Locomotives............156
      Tycoon Biographies.....................165
             North American Tycoons..........165
             European Tycoons................168
      Designer's Notes.......................171
      Player's Notes.........................174
      Further Reading........................177

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WHAT IS A RAILROAD

   Consider a railroad operating between Baltimore and Philadelphia.  
The railroad has laid a single track between these cities, setting  
up stations at each city where cargo can be put on trains and taken 
off.  The railroad also purchases a locomotive and some freight cars. 
It advertises service between these cities leaving Baltimore at certain 
hours and arriving in Philadelphia roughly an hour after leaving 
Baltimore.  Return trips are also scheduled from Philadelphia and take 
about an hour to reach Baltimore. 

   Businesses in either city have the ability to use the railroad to 
ship goods back and forth.  Whether the railroad is used for shipment 
or not depends on the relative cost, safety, and timeliness of railroad 
shipment versus alternative shippers (trucks, ships, airplanes, etc). 
This Baltimore & Philadelphia Railroad (the B&P) can only draw 
business by providing the required service at attractive prices, and 
thereby staying competitive with other transport modes.  

   Once the B&P has started carrying cargos, it must balance its 
expenses and revenues to remain in business.  The start-up costs of 
the railroad are the land it had to purchase to place its tracks, 
the cost of track construction plus any bridges or tunnels required 
along the way, station facilities, maintenance facilities, its 
locomotive and freight cars.  All of these items plus operating 
personnel must be in place before the first train can run.  

   After operations begin, the railroad has to provide fuel for the 
locomotive, maintenance expenses for equipment, and salaries for the 
work force.  The revenue earned by the railroad must be sufficient to 
cover the expense of construction, operation, and provision for the 
future. 

   For the B&P, the future may mean upgrading stations, buying additional 
locomotives and cars to carry more freight, double tracking the line so 
trains can simultaneously run in both directions, building signal 
systems so that multiple trains can run on the same track without 
colliding, freight yards, new car types for special cargos, etc. 
Railroads must constantly evolve because technology and service demands 
are changing and they must adapt to remain competitive. 

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   All railroads, regardless of their size, are composed of three 
elements linked together for one function.  Track, locomotives, and 
cars are combined to move people and things from one place to 
another. 

   The strengths and efficiencies of a railroad come from the elements 
that make it up and how they work together.  Tracks make it possible 
for enormous loads to be supported, guided, and moved at one time.  The 
cars are designed to carry specific cargos, for ease of loading and 
unloading, and for safe movement in combination.  The locomotives make 
the railroads go.  Supported and guided by the tracks, they can pull 
long trains of loaded cars at relatively low cost.
 
   A railroad train is made up of a locomotive, or source of motive 
power, and the cargo car's lined up behind it to be pulled.  Types 
of engines and cars that make up the train are called the consist.  
For example, a train consist might be a single 1500 horsepower (hp) 
locomotive and 20 coal hopper cars. 

   In a typical railroad operation, a crew of three or more men 
(engineer, conductor, brakeman, etc.) are assigned a locomotive and 
a train to pull.  The crew takes the locomotive from the engine house 
out to the departure yard and connects up to the waiting train 
previously assembled by the yard crew.  The conductor checks the 
train against its manifest to be sure everything is in order and okays 
movement.  Following train orders from the dispatcher, the crew 
begins its trip, pulling the train from the yard out onto the track of
the mainline.
 
   On the mainline the engineer takes over, controlling the speed of 
the train according to speed limits posted along the right-of-way, 
watching the signals that additionally govern movement and speed in 
each block, watching the track ahead for obstacles, making proper 
horn signals at crossings, and monitoring the performance of the 
locomotive.  The brakeman's duties on the road are mainly to watch 
the train itself, looking out for smoking wheel bearings or other 
conditions that might result in an accident. 

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   At the end of its run, the train pulls into the receiving yard of 
another terminal and the crew uncouples the locomotive from the 
cars.  They head to the engine house for maintenance and refueling of 
the locomotive, while the train is turned over to yard crews who break 
up the train and place the cars into other trains that take them on to 
their destinations.
 
   Railroads earn their money by being paid to move things.  In the 
case of freight goods, the railroad and shipper make arrangements for 
the cargo to be loaded into a freight car.  The railroad then arranges 
for the car to be picked up and added to a passing train.  This train 
pulls the car towards its destination, perhaps directly there, 
perhaps only to a rendezvous with another train which carries it on 
farther.  Ultimately the railroad brings the car to its destination 
where the receiver of the cargo arranges to get the goods out of the 
carrying car.
 
   The railroad is paid a fee for the delivery.  This fee is normally 
prearranged and paid upon delivery within a reasonable period. 
Because a late or damaged delivery may reduce the fee or drive 
business to alternative transportation modes, railroads must be op- 
erated safely and according to schedules which assure timely service. 

   Railroads today generate most of their revenue and profits from 
hauling large, heavy trains over long distances.  In this role they 
continue to be the most efficient carrier.  The purpose of most 
railroad operations is to get freight into and out of these long 
trains quickly and safely.
 
   Railroads came into existence because their technology offered 
transportation at speeds and costs previously unimagined.  They 
continue to prosper today, despite competition from other transpor- 
tation modes, because in certain situations they are clearly more 
efficient than any alternative. 

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BEFORE YOU START

Sorting the Materials

   This Manual provides detailed instructions on how to play and 
information on the background of railroad construction, operation, 
and finances.  The manual text is printed in two main type faces, 
normal and italic.  Text in normal type usually discusses specific 
instructions.  Text in italic type is usually a commentary on the 
information discussed in normal type.  When you are looking for 
specific information in a manual section, look first in the normal 
type parts.  The manual applies to all computer systems. 

Installation

   The Technical Supplement gives specific instructions for loading 
and/or installing the game on your computer.  It also provides 
complete reference of all the graphics and keys used in the game. 

Learning the Game

   The Player Aid Cards offer a handy reference for the economic 
relationships of the various industries and geographic features on 
the individual region maps. 
 
   The Technical Supplement has complete information about how 
 to install Railroad Tycoon on either floppy or hard disks. 
 
   Study Method: You can study the actual controls and instruc- 
tions in this manual (pages 3-113).  Begin by reading through the 
Interface Introduction (pages 13-15), Pre-Game Options (pages 16-19), 
Reading And Using The Displays (pages 20-31), and the Tutorial 
Railroad (pages 35-47).  Now begin play and refer back to the instruc- 
tions as needed.
 
   Jump Right In Method: This is the most popular with experienced 
computer game players.  We recommend you at least read through the 
Interface Introduction, Pre-Game Options, and Reading And Using The 
Displays, but even this is not necessary.  Refer to the manual's 
instructions for help with problems that arise. 

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INTERFACE INTRODUCTION
   The interface of Railroad Tycoon was primarily designed to take 
advantage of the mouse.  It may be played with either a keyboard   
interface or a combination keyboard/mouse interface, but play is 
faster if you have a mouse available.
 
   Throughout this manual there are references to certain keys, the 
Selector, Selector 1, and Selector 2.  Because the manual is written 
for all machine formats you need to refer to the Technical Supplement 
to learn what these keys or buttons are. 

   The interface relies heavily on menus.  At every point where you 
can perform game functions there is a menu bar available from which 
menus can be accessed. 
 
Opening Menus

   Throughout the manual you are instructed to pull down menus   
to open them up and reveal the options they contain.  To open a menu 
using the mouse, place the mouse pointer on the name of the menu 
in the menu bar and press Selector 1.
 
   You can also pull down a menu by pressing the keyboard letter 
key for the first letter in the name of the menu.  For example, the 
Game menu is opened by pressing the G key.
 
   When a menu is opened, the choices it contains appear listed in 
a menu window. 
 
Menu Types

   In Railroad Tycoon there are generally two types of menus.  The 
most common is simply a list of choices from which you choose the
one desired.  Making your selection usually closes the menu and imple- 
ments your choice at the same time. 

   In the second type of menu, the options are either toggled on or 
off.  Options that are on are noted by a check mark.  Options that are 
off have no check mark.  To exit these menus press Selector 1 outside 
and below the menu or press Selector 2. 

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Menu Choices

   To make your choice of the options available using the mouse, 
place the mouse pointer on your selection and press Selector 1. 

   Alternatively, you can open a menu by placing the mouse pointer 
on the menu name, pressing and holding down Selector 1, and 
dragging the mouse pointer down from the menu name.  As you drag 
the pointer down the length of the opened menu, its options are 
highlighted one by one.  To select an option, drag the pointer down 
until the option of your choice is highlighted, and then release 
Selector 1.
 
   If you don't have a mouse, you can make selections from a menu 
by using the direction keys to move a highlight bar up and down the 
menu until the choice you want is highlighted.  Then press the Selector 
1 key to make your choice.  Note that in most menus the highlight 
bar does not appear until you press a direction key, usually the one 
that moves downward. 

   When you are using the mouse, if you have opened a menu and 
wish to make no choice, you can accomplish this by either moving the 
mouse pointer below the menu and pressing Selector 1, or just by 
pressing Selector 2. 
 
Shortcut Keys

   Even when using the mouse, there are places when one key can 
save several steps.  Included in the interface are several of these 
shortcuts, described in the Technical Supplement.  These keys are 
normally accessed with the left hand, leaving the right hand free to 
use the mouse. 

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Map Scrolling

    When playing Railroad Tycoon, you spend most of your time viewing 
one map display or another.  In order to be able to move down the various
maps you need to understand how to scroll whether you use a mouse or the 
keyboard.
 
   If you are playing with a mouse, move the mouse pointer to any 
part of the map visible, and press one of the following: Selector 2, the 
Center key, or the shortcut key for the display map that you are on. 
The map immediately centers on the position of the pointer.
 
   If you don't have a mouse, a cursor is usually present on the map 
display.  (If not, press the Tab key to get it back on the map.)  Use 
the Direction keys to scroll the cursor around the map.  If you go off
the map edge, the map is redrawn if possible, centered on the cursor's 
new position.  Rather than move the cursor off of the map edge, you can 
move it to any position on the map and press either the Center key or 
the shortcut key for the display map that you are on.  The map 
immediately centers on the position of the cursor. 
 
   Zooming and unzooming from the various map displays explained in 
Reading And Using The Displays, page 20.

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PAGE 16
 
PRE-GAME OPTIONS

   The beginning of a game of Railroad Tycoon requires you to make a
number of choices regarding  the parameters and location of the game 
 you wish to play. 

   To begin a game of Railroad Tycoon, follow the instructions in the 
Technical Supplement for booting the game.  After the title and credit 
screens, you may be required to answer a few technical questions 
regarding your hardware, depending on the machine format you are 
using.  You then proceed to the selection of pre-game options. 
 
Game/World Options

   The first menu that appears asks you to choose which game to load: 

      "Start New RR" 
      "Load Saved RR" 
      "Load Tutorial" 

   Choose "Start New RR" to begin a new game.  Choose "Load Saved RR" 
to load a previously saved game.  A menu of your saved games appears
and you choose the one you wish to load.  Choose "Load Tutorial" to 
load the tutorial railroad.
 
   The next menu asks you to choose the world you wish to play in: 

      "Eastern USA" (begins in 1830) 
      "Western USA" (begins in 1866) 
      "England" (begins in 1828) 
      "Europe" (begins in 1900) 
 
Difficulty Levels

   You are next asked to choose the level of difficulty at which you 
wish to play: 

      "Investor" 
      "Financier" 
      "Mogul" 
      "Tycoon" 

   The Investor level is the easiest level to play and the difficulty 
increases as you move down the list.  The level of difficulty affects 
how much revenue is earned by each delivery and the number of years 
you can play before you must retire.  At the Investor level you can 
play 40 years, at Financier - 60 years, at Mogul - 80 years, and at 
Tycoon - 100 years.  At the end of the period when you normally must 
retire, you may 

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PAGE 17 

have the option of increasing your level of difficulty in order to 
continue playing. 

   In addition to these effects, the level of difficulty chosen also
affects your tycoon rating when you retire, as explained below in the 
section on Difficulty Factors. 
 
Reality Levels

   After you have chosen the difficulty level, you are then asked to   
set the level of reality at which you wish to play.  A menu appears 
with three reality levels listed:
 
        "No Collision Operation/Dispatcher Operation" 
        "Friendly Competition/Cut-Throat Competition" 
        "Basic Economy/Complex Economy"
 
   This menu differs from most others in that each option is actually 
a toggle between two choices.  The option that is shown in the menu 
is the active option of each pair.  If you choose an option, that option 
is turned off and is replaced by the other one of the pair.
 
   If the menu currently lists "No Collision Operation", then the 
game is set to run in the No Collision Mode (see page 93).  If you 
choose the "No Collisions" option from the menu, that turns on the 
"Dispatcher Operation" option and the game is set to play with more 
complex train operations.  In this case, the movement of trains is 
controlled by block signals, and collisions are possible (see Operating 
Trains, page 88).  New players should choose No Collisions. 

   If the competition is friendly, they do not buy your stock, attempt 
to take you over (see Stock Market Takeovers , page 111) , or start rate 
wars at your stations (see Rate Wars, page 109).  If the competition is 
cut-throat, they aggressively buy your stock, try to take you over, and 
start rate wars to capture your stations.  New players should keep the 
competition friendly.
 
   In a basic economy every station serving a moderate size city demands 
all cargos.  This makes it easier to make money, because any cargos that 
you can pick up can be delivered to any city station.  In a complex 
economy the demand at a station is determined by demand of the industry 
and community it serves (see Railroad Stations, page 56).  New players 
should play with a simple economy until comfortable with the concepts 
of supply and demand. 

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   For each of the reality levels, choosing the easier option makes the 
game easier to play by dropping out some concepts a new player then 
doesn't have to think about.  As you get more familiar with the 
mechanics of the game and the decisions that must be made, you can 
selectively increase the reality level of your games.
 
   In addition to making the game more or less easier to play, setting 
the reality level has an effect on the difficulty factor explained 
below. 
 
The Difficulty Factor

   The difficulty factor is a measure of the degree of difficulty that
you have set for your game.  When you retire or are forcibly retired, 
the difficulty factor helps to determine your retirement bonus and 
tycoon ranking.  The difficulty factor is a percentage, from 25% to 100%, 
and the higher the percentage, the higher your ranking is, other things 
being equal. 

   The difficulty factor has two general components, the levels of 
difficulty and reality that you have set for your game.  Each level of 
difficulty has a difficulty factor value. 

   To these factors are added the factors from each of the reality 
levels.  The easier levels of reality have a 0% difficulty factor. The 
difficult levels of reality are each assigned a number of difficulty 
factors that are added to your total when selected.
 
   When you are setting the level of reality for your game, the 
Difficulty Factor window is also visible.  Within this window is dis- 
played the current difficulty factor of your game, ranging up to a 
maximum of 100%, and set at first by the level of difficulty that you 
have already chosen.  As you adjust the reality levels, you can see the 
difficulty factor changing with each adjustment.
 
   New players should start with a very modest reality level.  A 
difficulty factor of 100% is achieved by playing at the tycoon level 
with all three of the difficult reality levels turned on.  This is the 
ultimate Railroad Tycoon challenge.
 
   The effect of your difficulty factor on your retirement bogus 
reflects the number of jobs you took on as president of your railroad. 
If you additionally acted as your railroad's dispatcher, had to battle 
much fiercer competition,  and acted as your railroad's shipping agent, 
then your bonus is going to be larger. 

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   When you are satisfied with the reality levels that you have chosen 
and the difficulty factor that results from your choices, press the 
Selector 1 key, or Selector 2 if using the mouse, to proceed. 

   This ends the pre-game choices you need to make to begin play. 
At this point the map is drawn and mountains, resources, and cities 
are added to complete the world for your game.
 
   As prompted, press any key to begin play. 

RR President's Aptitude Test

   Before you are actually accepted for the job as president of the new 
railroad being formed, you must pass one simple test.  A window appears 
showing one large locomotive and a list of possible identities for it 
below.  You must correctly identify the locomotive pictured.  If you 
need some help, you can refer to the Locomotive Roster, beginning on 
page 151 of this manual.
 
   If you fail to correctly identify the pictured locomotive, your
future as a railroad president will be severely handicapped. 

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READING AND USING THE DISPLAYS

   After you finish choosing the pre-game options, the game opens at 
the Regional Display.  The main feature of this display is the world 
map chosen for this game shown in the display window.  The other 
important features of this display are the Menu Bar, the Train Roster, 
the date, your railroad's current cash, and the World View window. 
These features are found on the other displays as well.
 
   You spend the majority of the game playing from the displays, and 
you need to understand what you are seeing and how you can perform 
game functions from these displays to play well. 

The Regional Display 
 
   This display shows the entire world chosen for your game.  In the 
case of the Tutorial Railroad from which the above illustration comes, 
the game world is the Eastern USA.  You should be able to recognize the 
rivers and coastlines.  Refer to the Technical Supplement to learn what 
the different colors that are visible on land represent. 

   This display gives you the complete picture of the world.  It shows 
the basic geography, including the location of mountains and rivers, 
and also indicates centers of population.  If railroads have started 
operating, they are visible as well.
 
   From the Regional Display you can pick out likely areas to consider 
building your railroad.  Normally this is an area where at least two 
good sized cities are close enough together to make building a railroad 
between them a reasonable proposition. 

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The Menu Bar
  
   Across the top of the entire window is the menu bar.  From here you 
gain access to a number of menus from which you can change game 
parameters, save games, jump to other displays, read railroad reports, 
build railroad equipment and structures, and perform other game 
functions.  In the following sections, the individual menus that are 
found on the menu bar are described in detail. 
 
The Game Menu

   When opened, the Game menu consists of 5 options: 
 
     "Game Speed"  
     "Train Messages" 
     "News Reports" 
     "Repeat Message" 
     "Save Game" 

   You can open this menu and make choices from it at any time during 
the game.  The 5 possible options have these functions:
 
   Game Speed: Choose this option to vary the speed of the game. 
A new menu opens listing the 5 game speed options:
 
     "Frozen" 
     "Slow" 
     "Moderate" 
     "Fast" 
     "Turbo" 

   Choose "Frozen" to completely stop the passage of time.  This allows 
you to examine geography, build track, place stations, etc., while all 
trains and activities of competing railroads are halted.  In addition, 
although you may call your broker, he won't answer until time starts 
moving again. 

   "Slow", "Moderate", and "Fast" are simply relative scales of time, 
each faster than the other with no additional effect. 

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   "Turbo" speed is another special case, that not only triggers the 
fastest passage of time, but the game does not pause as is normal for 
any messages or end of year fiscal reports.  The game just continues 
playing at top speed with no stops.
 
   Train Messages:  This option refers to the train arrival announce- 
ments that appear in the World View window at the top right of the 
display.  Normally a report appears in this window each time a train 
arrives at a station.  This report lists the number of the train, where 
it has arrived, the time of arrival, what cargos are delivered, and the 
revenues earned by the delivery.  By choosing the "Train Messages" 
option, you open another menu that gives you the choice of turning off 
these messages, or having them go away fast or slowly. 

   News Reports:  Choosing this option opens another menu from which 
you can set the type of news reports you wish to receive.  From this 
menu you control the presence of the reduced sized newspaper reports 
that appear from time to time.  If you are getting the information, 
the option has a check mark next to it.  If you have the option turned 
off, the check mark is missing.  Your options are:
 
     "Financial News" 
     "Railroad News" 
     "Local News" 
     "Animations" 
   o Financial News:  These are mainly reports on the financial activi- 
ties of competing railroads, specifically the stock that they are 
buying and selling.  You do not receive news of their bond sales and 
purchases unless the competing railroad transacting bonds owns stock 
in your railroad.
 
   o Railroad News:  These are reports on the non-financial activities 
of the competing railroads, such as the start up of a new railroad, and 
the building of new stations and track.

   o Local News:  These reports refer to events on your railroad such 
as the presence of a Priority Shipment or a change in the local supply 
or demand due to the loss or addition of industry (only when playing 
with a Complex Economy).
 
   o Animations:  Certain events in the game such as bridge building 
and train wrecks are marked by an animated graphic sequence. You

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can turn off these animations to speed up the game.
 
   Repeat Message:  If you were not able to read the last message that 
appeared, you can choose this option to have the message repeated.
 
   Save Game:  The game you are currently playing is saved at the 
moment you make this choice.  You are asked which of the 4 saved game 
files you wish to place the saved game in.  Thereafter, this game can 
be called up again and play resumes from the exact moment when you 
saved it.  If you choose to write the saved game into a file that holds 
a previously saved game, the older game is eliminated. 
 
The Display Menu

   The Display menu consists of 5 choices: 
 
     "Area Display" 
     "Local Display" 
     "Detail Display" 
     "Options" 

   This menu is used to zoom in or out among the displays, or to change 
the information shown on the displays.  The Regional Display is the 
farthest zoom, and the Detail Display is the closest zoom.  How best to 
zoom from this menu depends on whether you have a mouse or not.
 
   If you do not have a mouse, use the Direction keys to center the 
cursor box in the area of the map now visible where you wish to zoom, 
regardless of direction.  Pull down the Display menu and choose the 
display to which you want to zoom.  The new display centers on the 
cursor.
 
   If you have a mouse, pull down the Display menu and choose the 
display option you wish to see.  You are prompted to "Click on map 
center".  Place the mouse pointer in the area of the current display 
to which you wish to zoom and press Selector 1.  The new display 
centers on the mouse pointer.
 
   Alternatively, the shortcut keys shown on the menu can be used with 
either the mouse or keyboard interface.  To use the shortcut keys, 
center either the cursor (when using the keyboard) or the mouse pointer 
(when using the mouse) in the area you wish to examine, and

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press the shortcut key specific for the display you wish to see.  The
new display centers on the area you marked. 

   Options:  By choosing this option, you open another menu from which 
you may toggle on or off information reported on the displays. The 
information that can be toggled on or off are the Shipping Reports and 
the Resource Map.  If the information is on, the option has a check mark 
next to it.  Information toggled off has no check mark.
 
   o Shipping Reports:  If checked, Shipping Reports are visible from the
Area and Local Displays (see Shipping Reports, page 58).  If not checked 
these reports are removed. 

   o Resource Map:  If checked, this option converts the Area and Local 
Display maps to Resource Maps to help you find nearby sources of cargo 
supply and demand (see Resource Map, page 83).  If not checked, the 
normal Area and Local displays appear. 
 
   The Reports menu consists of 7 choices: 

     "Balance Sheet" 
     "Income Statement" 
     "Train Income" 
     "Stocks" 
     "Accomplishments" 
     "Efficiency" 
     "History" 

   Choose the option you wish to examine, and the report opens.  Each of 
these reports is explained in more detail elsewhere in this manual, but 
a short description is included below.
 
   Balance Sheet:  A financial statement from your railroad that shows 
its current condition in terms of assets, liabilities, and the retained 
earnings, or profits over its lifetime.  (See Balance Sheet, page 99.) 

   Income Statement:  Another financial report showing your railroad's 
revenues and expenses, both for the fiscal period to date, and 
lifetime of the railroad.  (See Income Statements, page 101.) 

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   Remove Track/Build Track:  Available only from the Detail Display, 
this option toggles between building track and demolishing track.  When 
the "Build Track" option is active, the menu choice available is "Remove 
Track".  When the "Remove Track" option is active, the menu choice is 
"Build Track".  In addition, the color of the Construction Box box changes 
to reflect the active option, as explained in the Technical Supplement. 
(See How To Lay Track, page 50, and Track And Bridge Demolition, page 54.)
  
   Improve Station:  Available only from the Detail Display and only  
if the Construction Box is centered over an existing station, choose  
this option to build improvements at the selected station, such as an 
engine shop, maintenance shop, post office, restaurant, etc.  (See  
Station Improvements, page 61.) 
 
   Upgrade Bridge: Available only from the Detail Display and only if 
the Construction Box is centered over an existent bridge, choose this 
option to replace an existing bridge with a better one. 

The Action Menu
 
   The Action menu consists of 5 choices, or actions that you as 
president of your railroad can undertake:
 
     "Call Broker" 
     "Survey" 
     "Name RR" 
     "Reality Levels" 
     "Retire" 

   You can open this menu and make choices from it at any time during 
the game.  The 5 possible options have these functions:
 
   Call Broker:  Gets you in contact with your stock broker so that you 
can buy and sell stocks and bonds.  You can buy the stock of your own 
railroad or the stock of a competing railroad.  Also through your broker 
you can direct the operations of any railroads that you control.  (See 
Calling Your Broker, page 97 and Controlling Other Railroads, page 112.) 
Your broker may not always be able to return your call because he is 
currently taking calls from competing railroads or because you have 
frozen time.  If you have a call placed, a letter B appears to the left 
of your current cash indicating that your broker will get back to you as 
soon as he can, and that you don't have to keep calling. 

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   Survey:  Available only from the Detail Display, choosing this option 
calls in your engineers to survey the area visible on the display map. 
The engineers mark the elevation of the area in order to help you plan 
where best to lay your tracks to minimize grades.  (See Surveys And 
Grades, page 51.)
 
   Name RR:  Choosing this option allows you to give your railroad 
a new name.  A window opens and prompts you to type in the name you
desire.  In addition to the full name, you are asked for a 3 letter 
handle for your railroad that is used in places where the full name 
would take too much space.  For example, the handle of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad might be the B&O.

   Reality Levels:  Choosing this option opens a new menu of the game 
options that you selected when beginning play (see Pre-Game Options, 
page 16).  You may turn these options on or off from this menu.  The 
reality levels that can be changed are: 

   o No Collision Operations/Dispatcher Operation:  New players should 
choose No Collisions. 
   o Friendly Competition/Cut-Throat Competition:  New players should 
keep the competition friendly. 
   o Basic Economy/Complex Economy:  New players should play with the 
Basic Economy.
 
   Retire:  Choose this option to end the game or to see how you are 
doing at this time.  By choosing this option, you receive a report on 
what your retirement bonus would be if you retired now, and what 
occupation your performance indicates that you are best suited for. 
Press Selector 1 to open a menu that gives you a chance to return to 
the game or really retire. 
 
The World View Window

   This small window is most often used to show you at a glance the
part of the world map that is currently shown in the display window.  
It is also used to display Train Arrival Announcements when one of  
your trains arrives at a station.  (Note that how long Train Arrival 
Announcements linger in this window, or whether they appear at all 
can be determined by you from the Game menu, see page 21.) 

PAGE 28

   When the world map is shown within the World View window, a box is 
drawn around the part of the world that is currently shown in the 
display window.  Since it would not make any sense to show this map when 
you are at the Regional Display, the Railroad Tycoon logo is shown in 
the window instead. 
 
Current Cash

   The amount of money shown here is the cash your railroad currently 
has on hand to spend.  The color of this number (as described in the 
Technical Supplement) indicates whether the balance is positive or 
negative.  A negative cash balance is the current amount of short term 
loans that you have outstanding (see Short Term Loans, page 98). 
 
Date

   This is the current month and year of your Railroad Tycoon game. 
Each game begins in the month of January of the starting year.  For 
example, games in the Eastern USA begin in January of 1830.  The end of 
December in each odd-numbered year ends a fiscal period in the game and 
you review the financial reports of your railroad at that time.  At the 
end of December of each year, you are charged interest on your bonds 
and short term loans. 
 
The Train Roster

   This roster is a list of your trains, in order, from Train #1 at the 
top, down to the last train on your railroad (see Train Roster, page 65). 
From this roster you can tell at a glance the cars currently in a train, 
whether they are loaded or empty, the train's destination, whether it is 
currently paused or not, its relative speed, and whether or not it is 
carrying a Priority Shipment.  If a Priority Shipment is available on 
your railroad, the current reward for its delivery is shown at the bottom
of the Train Roster.
 
   From the roster you can obtain more detailed information about each 
train and make changes to its route and consist by opening its Train 
Report (see Train Reports. page 66). 

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The Area Display 
 
   This is the next zoom down from the Regional Display and is a 
schematic display of your railroad.  It shows no geography, but only 
the track, signals, trains, stations, and Shipping Reports (if not 
toggled off) of your Railroad.  For this display you may toggle off the 
Shipping Reports (see Display Menu, page 23) and toggle on or off the 
Resource Map (see Resource Map, page 83). 

   This display is useful when you want ho see more of your railroad at 
one time than you can at the Local Display.  From here it is also easier 
to pick out the railroad features since the local geography is hidden. 

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The Local Display 
 
   This is the second zoom down from the Regional Display and shows not 
only your railroad's features, but also the local geography and industry. 
From this display you can plan the expansion of your railroad into nearby 
areas with good population centers or industrial sites, while keeping the 
location of mountain and river obstacles in view.
 
   On this display you may also toggle on or off the Shipping Reports of 
your stations or the Resource Map. 

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The Detail Display 
 
   This is the closest zoom possible, and is the display at which all 
railroad construction is done.  This display shows in greatest detail 
the geography, population centers, and industrial sites on the map.  From 
this display only, you may survey the local geography and plan in detail 
the laying of track (see Surveys and Grades, page 51).
 
   This display is also the most useful when planning train movements 
that require the overriding of block signals (see Overriding A Block 
Signal, page 91), because you get the clearest view of the relative 
locations of your trains on your tracks. 

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ENDING THE GAME AND WINNING

Ending The Game

   A game of Railroad Tycoon can end in one of four ways.  First, if you 
are thrown out of office and replaced as president of your railroad by 
irate stockholders (see Stockholder Happiness, page 96), the game ends 
immediately.  Second, if another railroad manages to buy enough stock to 
gain control of your railroad, your services are no longer required and 
the game ends immediately (see Stock Market Takeovers, page 111).  Third, 
when the number of years have passed for the level of difficulty you chose 
(see Difficulty Levels, page 16), the game ends unless you accept an 
increase in the level of difficulty.  Fourth, you have the option of 
retiring at any time.

Tycoon Rankings 
 
   Regardless of how the game ends, your performance is rated according 
to several factors, including the value of the railroad when you retired,
the number of years that you were president, the difficulty factor of your 
game, the number of competing railroads, if any, that you control, and 
whether you were thrown out of office.
 
   The resulting retirement rating is your retirement bonus and final  
rank as a tycoon, and indicates the job that you are most qualified for 
after retirement.  Post retirement jobs range from Hobo, the worst, to 
President of the United States, the best.  In the final scene of each 
game you are shown a picture of yourself in your new position.
 
   Throughout play, as you reach new levels of achievement you may
receive offers of other jobs.  These offers give you a general idea 
of how you are doing in the tycoon rankings. 

Railroader's Hall Of Fame
 
   If you do an exceptional job as railroad president, upon your 
retirement you maybe elected into the Railroader's Hall Of Fame.  This 
is a select group of the 5 greatest Railroad Tycoons.  If your tycoon 
ranking is high enough, you are given the opportunity to add your name to
the list. 

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2. TUTORIAL RAILROAD

TUTORIAL RAILROAD

   To help new players understand the major concepts of Railroad Tycoon, 
a working railroad has been started and is described in this section. 
Follow the instructions for loading this railroad and read through this 
section with the railroad on your screen.  Before attempting to follow 
the tutorial you need to at least be familiar with the manual section 
Interface Introduction, page 13.
 
   To load the tutorial railroad, follow the instructions for setting 
the Pre-Game Options (see page 16) up to the point where you have the 
option of starting a new railroad, loading a saved railroad, or loading 
the tutorial.  Choose "Load Tutorial".  This action skips the remainder 
of the pre-game options and takes you into the tutorial railroad game. 
The first step is the drawing of the world map.  When the map is 
complete, press any key to begin the game. 
 
Looking Around

   After you press any key from the previous step, the Regional Display 
opens.  Before you do anything else, pull down the Game menu at the top 
left of the display on the menu bar and choose the option "Game Speed". 
From the new menu that opens, choose "Frozen".  This action freezes time 
until you change game speed again, and allows you to look around your 
new railroad before resuming operation. 

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You are looking at the Regional Display.  In the biggest window of the 
display is the map of the Eastern USA world, and you should be able to 
recognize the Great Lakes, rivers, and Atlantic coastline.  In the bottom
of one of the rivers, is an angled line that is a different color from 
the rivers.  This is the track of your railroad, the Charlottesville and 
Richmond.  Throughout this tutorial the Charlottesville and Richmond is 
referred to by its handle, the C&R.
 
   When you play Railroad Tycoon, you spend the majority of your time at 
this display or one of the three other similar displays.  The other three 
displays are similar in design, except that the maps they show are closer 
zooms of this world map.  For a more detailed description of what you are 
seeing on these displays and how to use them, refer to the manual section 
Reading And Using The Displays, page 20.
 
   For new, just pull down the menus listed across the menu bar, one at a 
time, to familiarize yourself with the options they contain.  Note that 
some of the options have shortcut keys listed after them.  You can use 
these keys to choose the corresponding option without having to use the 
menus. 
 
   After you have looked at the menus, open the next display down, the 
Area Display.  There are several ways to do this, but for now place 
either the mouse pointer (if you have a mouse) or the cursor (if you  
don't have a mouse, move the cursor with the Direction keys) just 

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below the visible track of the C&R.  Then open the Display menu with 
the keyboard and choose "Area Display". 
 
   This display is a schematic representation of your railroad, and 
shows no geography.  The parts of your railroad that are visible
are the tracks, stations, signals, trains, and Shipping Reports.  The 
Shipping Report graphically report which cargos are supplied and/or 
demanded at each of your stations, and are described in more detail in 
the manual section Shipping Reports, page 58. 

   Notice that the display features surrounding the map window have 
remained unchanged, with one important exception.  To the top right of 
the display where the game's logo previously appeared, there now 
appears a section of the world map.  Within this map section a box 
appears.  The area within the box is the area of the world map now 
visible within the display window.
 
   This Area Display can be modified to change the information it 
reports.  To see this, open the Display menu and choose "Options". 
Notice on the menu that appears that Shipping Reports are checked, 
indicating they are on, and that Resource Map is not checked, 
indicating that it is off.  Take the time now to switch these features
on and off, pressing Selector 2 after each change to see the effect.
 
   As you play, you may find it helpful to have the Shipping Reports 
turned off to see more of the surrounding area.  The Resource Map shows 
you at a glance the location of industry and population that

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supply and demand goods.  For more information, see Resource Map, page 
83.
 
   Before going on to the next display, reset the options to Shipping 
Reports on and Resource Map off.  To zoom in closer to the C&R, center 
the cursor or mouse pointer just below the Charlottesville Shipping Report 
(the box marked "Cha").  Then open the Display menu with the keyboard 
and choose "Local Display". 

   This display is a closer look at your railroad and the nearby 
geography.  Now you can see map icons that represent the different 
types of terrain, industry, and population centers.  These icons are 
described in detail in the World Economies Chart found on the Player 
Aid Cards.  The parts of your railroad are represented in the same 
manner as they were on the Area Display.
 
   Note that the display features surrounding the map window have 
remained unchanged from the Area Display.  Also, on this display you 
may turn off the Shipping Reports or turn on the Resource Map, as was 
possible on the Area Display. 

   From this display, for the first time, you can obtain information 
about some of the map features.  Using the mouse, place the pointer on 
the icon two squares below the Charlottesville station, and press 
Selector 1.  Without a mouse, use the Direction keys to center the 
cursor directly on this icon and press the Information key.  In either 
case, the icon is revealed as a steel mill.

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   To zoom in as close as possible to the C&R, center the cursor or mouse
pointer on the railroad's track, half way between the Charlottesville and
Richmond stations.  Then open the Display menu with the keyboard and
choose "Detail Display".
 
   This display is the closest zoom you can achieve, and the most detailed
view of the map and your railroad available.  From this view you can see
the trains moving in detail, including the smoke puffing from their 
stacks.  Also visible in the greatest detail are the map icons for the 
geography and industries.  The icons now visible are the ones shown in
the World Economies Chart on the Player Aid Cards.  Also visible for
the first time are the names of the cities on the map. 

   From the Detail Display you can obtain information about the map
features present, as you can from the Local Display.  However, the
Shipping Reports are no longer visible and the Resource Map cannot be
turned on.
 
   The Detail Display is the display where all railroad construction is 
conducted.  From this display you lay track and build stations.  How 
to perform these functions is described later in the tutorial.  Before 
beginning construction, you should examine a few reports to get a better
idea of how your railroad is operation. 
 
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Station Reports 
 
   Move the Construction Box onto the Charlottesville Station icon and 
press the Information key or press Selector 1 if you have a mouse.  In 
either case you open the Station Report for the station at 
Charlottesville. This report shows you how big the station is, what 
improvements have been made there (only an engine shop at this time), 
what cargos are waiting to be picked up (cargos that are supplied there), 
and what cargos the city will pay for (what cargos are in demand there).  

   This information helps you plan what trains to run where.  You learn, 
for example, that you can sell anything here that you can carry, and 
that the city is supplying mail and passengers.  If you look at the 
Station Report for Richmond you see that it also supplies mail and 
passengers. 

   This presents you with an opportunity to run mail and/or passenger 
trains back and forth between the two cities, hauling mail and 
passengers between them.  At each end you can pick up a cargo, take it 
to the other city for delivery, and then pick up a similar cargo for 
the return trip.
 
   The information regarding the local cargo supply and demand is also 
available in the Shipping Reports visible from the Area and Local 
Displays mentioned earlier.  You use the Shipping Reports and the more 
detailed Station Reports to help plan where you wish trains to run.  For 
a more detailed discussion of how stations work, see Railroad Stations, 
page 56. 

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   The tutorial railroad is set up to run at the lowest difficulty and 
reality levels.  One of the reality options is the basic economy, where 
a city icon generates demand for all cargos.  To quickly see how a 
complex economy works, return to the Detail Display from the Station 
Report, and pull down the Action menu.  Choose the option "Reality 
Levels", and from the menu that opens choose "Complex Economy".  This 
places a check mark next to the option indicating that the complex 
economy is turned on.
 
   Now return to the Station Report for the Charlottesville station to 
see the effect of changing to a complex economy.  The station will no 
longer pay for (demand) everything.  It will pay only for those cargos 
that the surrounding industry and population want.  The city wants 
mail, passengers, and goods, the steel mill wants coal, and the paper 
mill wants wood.  These are the only cargos now in demand.
 
   Before continuing with the tutorial, you can turn off the complex 
economy or leave it on as you wish.  Next, it is time to examine one 
of your trains. 
 
Train Reports

   From the Detail Display, turn your attention to the Train Roster  
at the bottom right of the display.  In this area are shown in order 
the three trains that already exist on your railroad.  For each train 
the roster shows the number and types of cars in the train, the train's 
destination, and other information as explained in the section Train 
Roster, page 65.  For now you want to use the roster to open the 
detailed Train Report of Train #2.
 
   To open the report if you don't have a mouse, use the Tab key to 
move the map cursor into the roster, and then use the Direction keys 
to move the cursor down the roster to Train #2.  Then press the Selector 
key to open the Train Report.  If you have a mouse, place the mouse 
pointer on the locomotive icon of Train #2 and press Selector 1.  In 
either case, this opens the Train Report. 

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   The Train Report that is now visible provides you with detailed 
information about this particular train, including what it is carrying 
and where it is headed.  For a more complete discussion of what you can 
see here and what you can do to make changes, see Trains, page 63.
 
   Of particular interest right now is the part of the report titled 
Scheduled Stops at the bottom left.  Listed here are the four stops 
planned for this train.  To the right of the planned stops, under New 
Consist, some freight cars are visible.  The stops and consist changes 
for this train have been planned to take advantage of opportunities for 
profit along the C&R.
 
   If you return to the Local Display of the C&R, you can see the reasons 
for the schedule and consist of Train #2.  At Charlottesville Junction 
there is supply of coal and at Charlottesville there is a steel mill that 
wants coal.  The steel mill takes the coal and converts it into steel, 
creating a supply of steel. In Richmond there is a factory that wants 
steel.  If it gets steel, it converts the steel into manufactured goods. 
The city of Charlottesville wants manufactured goods.
 
   So Train #2 has been scheduled to load coal at Charlottesville Junction 
into a coal car.  It then travels to Charlottesville, delivering 
the coal.  The coal becomes steel.  Train #2 takes off its coal car and
puts on a steel car to carry away the steel.  The steel is carried to 
Richmond and delivered to the factory.  The factory converts the steel to
manufactured goods, creating a supply of goods.  Train #2 takes off its 
steel

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car and puts on a goods car to carry the goods back to Charlottesville. 
After reaching Charlottesville a second time and delivering the goods, 
the train switches to a coal car again and starts the route over again. 

   Note that next to Charlottesville Junction on the list of Scheduled 
Stops there is a letter "W".  This indicates that this train is ordered 
to wait at this stop until it is fully loaded before leaving.  How this 
order is placed and the advantage it offers is explained in Wait Until 
Full Orders, page 78. 

   Note that at this time, Train #2 is listed as a Bulk Freight Local. 
Open the Train Type menu and select the choice "Limited".  This 
changes Train #2 to a Bulk Freight Limited, and the train now only 
stops at the stations listed in its schedule, and only in the order 
listed.  In the manual section on Routing Trains, the reasons for 
making this change are explained in detail.
 
   The manual sections on Routing Trains and Train Consist explain 
how schedules such as this one for Train #2 are arranged.  If you wish, 
read these sections now.  For practice, take Train #3, now hauling coal 
to Charlottesville, and give it the same schedule and consist of Train 
#2.  Before leaving this report, however, pull down the other menus 
across the top to see what options are available. 

Laying Track
 
   The first real step in getting a new railroad operating is laying  
track.  Although the C&R is already operating, it is going to have to
expand to grow and increase revenues.  You are going to lay some track 
to the north of Charlottesville to connect up to the lumber mill on the 
map in that direction.  Wood from the lumber mill can be carried to the 
paper mill and converted into paper, as noted on the World Economies 
Chart (see the Player Aid Cards).
 
   To build some new track, return to the Detail Display and place the 
Construction Box on the track section directly below the paper mill 
that is to the east of the Charlottesville station.  Now press the Track 
Construction key for laying track in a northeast direction.  You see a 
new track section appear, branching off from the mainline to Richmond. 
Lay one more section in a northeast direction. 

   Because the terrain directly ahead is hills, it might pay to survey 
the local area to see what the best route is.  Press the Center key to 
center the map on the Construction Box, and then open the Action

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menu and choose "Survey".  The elevations of all the visible map squares
are revealed and this makes it clear that laying straight ahead would 
mean a steep rise in the relative elevation.  However, if you build 
north for a while and then curve around the hills, the elevation changes 
remain reasonable. You can leave the survey on if you like, or remove it 
by pressing the Center key again.
 
   Lay four more track sections straight north, and then one more 
northeast.  That brings your track adjacent to the lumber mill.  Note 
that with the laying of each track section, your cash is reduced.  Cash 
is being spent for the track and the land, or right-of-way, that the 
track takes up.  You now have the track completed for the connection to 
the lumber mill, and it's time to put a station there to load the wood. 

Building A Station
 
   To build a station for the lumber mill, place the Construction Box 
on the track section that ends next to the mill.  Pull down the Build 
menu and choose "Build Station".  A new menu appears from which 
you choose the type of facility to build.  Also, the economic radius 
of the types of stations available appears centered around the Construc- 
tion Box.
 
   The economic radius is explained in further detail in the manual 
section How to Build a Station, page 58.  Basically it represents how 
far people and industry are willing to travel to each station type to 
pick up deliveries or drop off cargos to be shipped.  The better the 
station, the farther they will come.  Since your station is going right 
next to the lumber mill and there are no other likely customers nearby, 
you need only build the smallest station, a Depot with a radius of one 
square in every direction.
 
   Choose "Depot" from the list of options, and a station report for 
the new station at Charlottesville Crossing appears.  This report shows 
that the station can be expected to supply 2 cars per year with a 
normal economy, and that no cargos are in demand here.  Now that the 
track and a station have been built to a supply of wood, you need to 
put on a train to carry the wood to the paper mill. 

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Building A Train
 
   To build a new train to carry the wood, pull down the Build menu
and choose "New Train".  A new window appears offering you the choice 
of locomotives to put on the train.  However, at this time, only 
one locomotive is available, the 0-4-0 Grasshopper.
 
   If you don't have a mouse, a menu appears from which you can only 
choose the Grasshopper locomotive.  If you have a mouse, no menu 
appears, but you make your selection by placing the mouse pointer on 
the icon of the locomotive on the left side of the window and 
pressing Selector 1.
 
   In either case, you are taken to the Charlottesville Station where 
the new locomotive is built.  The engine appears here because the only 
engine shop on your railroad is at Charlottesville.  (For more informa- 
tion about the engine shop and other facilities that can be built at 
your station, see Station Improvements. page 61.)
 
   The new locomotive drives out of the engine shop and stops to the 
left of the station platform.  At this point you add the cars that you 
want on the train.  You can put as many as 8 cars on any train, but this 
tiny locomotive is not capable of pulling that many.  As time passes 
and better engines are developed, you can build much bigger trains, but 
for now just put on one wood hopper car.  When the hopper is on, choose 
"No Thanks" to complete the train.  You now go to the Train Report for 
your new train, Train #4.
 
   Your train is ready to go except that its schedule sends it back and 
forth from Charlottesville to Richmond.  You want this train to go to 
Charlottesville Crossing instead, to pick up wood.  You need to make 
this schedule change before allowing the train to start out.
 
   To change the schedule when you don't have a mouse, use the Direction 
keys to move the highlight box that is visible to the row marked #2 under 
Scheduled Stops.  Now open the Schedule menu on the menu bar at the top 
of the report and choose "Change Station".  This opens the Route Map. 
Use the Direction keys to cycle the cursor around the stations of your 
railroad until the cursor highlights Charlottesville Crossing.  Press 
Selector 1 to choose Charlottesville Crossing and return to the Train 
Report. 

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   To change the schedule when using a mouse, place the mouse pointer on 
the city name "Richmond" and press Selector 1.  This opens the Route Map. 
Move the mouse pointer to the small box beside Charlottesville Crossing 
and press Selector 1.  Press Selector 2 to return to the Train Report.
 
   In either case, Charlottesville Crossing is now stop #2 on the list 
of scheduled stops for Train #4.  This train is now scheduled to run 
back and forth carrying wood to the paper mill at Charlottesville. 
You can now leave the Train Report. 

Restarting The Railroad
 
   You have now examined the major game functions that you must 
understand to play Railroad Tycoon.  Pull down the Game menu again 
and choose "Game Speed".  Set the speed to "Slow" and let your 
railroad begin operating.  Take the time now to examine some of the 
reports found in the Reports menu.  They are explained in detail in the 
manual chapter, Railroad Business, page 94.  Zoom in and out among 
the displays, and turn on the Resource Map for a while to look for 
likely areas to expand the C&R. 
 
   It may be useful to save the C&R at this point, and then experiment 
with new routes, trains, and the reality options.  To save the game at 
this point, pull down the Game menu and choose "Save Game."  Your first
experiments with Dispatcher Operations may result in some collisions, 
unless you have studied the manual section on Operating Trains, page 88, 
and have broken up your railroad into signal blocks.  If things go wrong, 
simply reload the C&R from where you last saved it and try again. 

Reality Experiments

   If you decide to experiment with Dispatcher Operation, consider 
placing a signal tower halfway between Charlottesville and Richmond, 
and two more just after the switch on the way to Charlottesville 
Crossing.  Place one on the mainline east of the switch and one on the 
branch line on the north side of the switch.  Experimentation and 
reading the section on Operating Trains, page 88, should make it clear 
how these signals can speed the movement of your trains.

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   The track between the new signals at the Charlottesville Crossing 
switch and Charlottesville can be double tracked to allow two trains 
at a time to move through this block.
 
   You may also consider changing over to a complex economy.  The 
C&R as set up for you can operate perfectly well with a complex 
economy.  Further profitable expansion, however, will require that you 
understand how stations work, and the relationship between industry 
and cargos. 

   When you have finished experimenting, it is time to restart the 
game, select your new railroad world, and build your own railroad 
from the beginning. 

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3. RAILROAD ENGINEERING

LAYING TRACK

   Where a railroad places its track can make a significant difference
in its operations and profits.  If track is laid up a hill, every train 
using the route must slow down or increase power to make the climb.  If
the track is sharply curved, trains must again slow down to prevent 
derailment.  Poor track planning increases costs and reduces earnings.
 
   The most desirable track is straight and level, allowing trains to 
maximize speed in both directions.  The more curves and grades, the 
slower trains can move and thus, the slower deliveries are made.  Since 
most revenue is tied to speedy delivery, slow trains may be the 
difference between profits and losses. 

   Once a railroad decides to lay track between two points, the 
construction process takes several steps.  The first is to send 
engineers to the country to survey the geography.  The surveyors select 
a route that minimizes grades, curves, and right-of-way expense. 
Railroads must buy the land, or right-of-way, over which their tracks 
are to be laid.  The route selected should pass over undeveloped and 
less expensive real estate where possible, rather than expensive 
residential or industrial areas. 

   Once the route is selected and the right-of-way acquired, track 
laying begins with the leveling of the road bed to as nearly level 
a grade as possible.  This may require earth fills in depressions, 
cuts through ridges, and bridges and tunnels for more serious 
obstacles. Once the road bed is prepared, on goes the gravel ballast, 
the wooden crossties, and finally, the steel rails.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you may also survey the area through which 
you wish to lay track.  By conducting your survey you can plan how
best to run your tracks so as to minimize grades, curves, tunnels and 

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bridges.  Building tunnels and bridges greatly increases the cost of 
your track, but may be a better alternative to long detours or steep 
grades.   
 
   Your trains will move more slowly up steep grades and through tight 
curves, so good planning before the trains start running will increase 
your average train speed and profits over the life of your road.
As construction engineer of your railroad you must carefully balance 
the cost of alternative routes versus their effects on your train 
operations. 
 
How To Lay Track

   Track is constructed on the Detail Display only.  It is built in 
sections, one section at a time.  A track section connects the center 
of one map square to the center of an adjacent square.
 
   To lay a section of track, center the Construction Box on the map 
in the square from which you wish the track piece to be constructed.

   Press the correct Track Construction key to build a section of track
in the direction you desire.  Watch the new track piece appear and note
that the cost of the right-of-way and track construction are subtracted
from your cash.
 
   Once your first section of track is laid, you can continue putting
down more track in any of six directions: straight ahead or back, a 45 
degree angle to the left or right, or a 90 degree angle to the left or 
right.  However, once track building begins, you may only build new 
sections off of existing track.  You cannot there after start a new 
section independent of existing track.
 
   All track built into a new square is single track.  (See Double Track
below.) 

   You may build switches by having track split off an existing track
piece at a 45 degree angle (not a 90 degree angle), but either the 
switch or original track must be a straight section.  You cannot build 
a 'Y' track junction.
 
   You may not lay track across another section of your track or a 
section of another railroad's track. 

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Surveys And Grades 
 
   As you lay track you may receive a message reporting that the section 
you wish to lay has a grade of a certain size, 1.5% or higher.  The higher 
the percentage, the steeper the grade and the slower trains can move here.
You are given the choice of proceeding or not with construction.  Before 
laying the track consider conducting a survey of the area to look for 
an easier route. 

   You can survey an area by centering it in the Detail Display and 
choosing "Survey" from the Action menu.  In each square of the map a 
number appears.  These numbers represent the relative elevations of the 
squares.  Grade percentages result from a complicated calculation of the 
differences between the elevations of two adjacent squares.
 
   Trains are slowed down by even the tiniest grade, and are only 
unaffected when moving downhill or on a level.  Grades of some sort are 
all but impossible to avoid, and in many cases you have no good 
alternative but to accept grades of 3% or even higher. 

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River Bridges

   Bridging the gaps over rivers and other geographic features was a 
major engineering challenge for railroads.  In the early days the material 
of choice was stone, but its expense often forced the compromise of 
wood.  As technology and engineering science progressed, engineers 
turned to steel as the best structural material for their bridges. 
It was relatively cheap but still capable of supporting the growing 
weight of trains.
 
   You may lay track across rivers by building bridges.  To build a 
bridge, proceed as if you were laying a normal straight track section. 
Bridges cannot be built on curves.  A menu appears showing you the 
cost of each bridge type now available.  You have the option building 
any one of the bridge types, or of not building the bridge at all.
 
   River bridges may only be built in a straight line over one river 
square.  The bridge is built from the starting square to the first land 
square on the river's other side.  You may not build a bridge that 
crosses more than one river square. 

   Floods may wash out your bridges.  Trains on bridges that wash 
out or that cannot be stopped or rerouted before going off of a washed 
out bridge are destroyed (see Train Wrecks, page 80).  A washed out 
bridge is rebuilt after the passage of sufficient time.  You cannot 
speed the rebuilding process, or build a bridge of a new type at this 
location while the washout remains.
                                
   You have a choice of up to three types of bridge to build.  A wooden 
trestle costs $50,000 and is very susceptible to washouts.  A steel  
girder bridge costs $200,000 and is much harder to wash out, but is   
not available until the technology for it is achieved.  A stone mason 
bridge costs $400,000 and is almost impervious to floods.  Only 
steel and stone bridges may be double tracked, wooden trestles may not.

Ferryboats
 
   It is possible for your trains to cross tidal estuaries, the ocean, 
or large lakes with the help of ferryboats.  To build a ferryboat, 
proceed as if you were laying track over the ocean or lake.  In effect 
you build a ferry route.  This route may include curves, but it may not 
be double tracked.
 
   Ocean ferries are built one square at a time.  If the water to be 
crossed is several squares wide, you must continue building ferry 

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sections to the other side of the water.
 
   Trains move over ferries as if they were normal track sections, 
except that train speed is very slow.
 
   Ferries can not be sunk or otherwise damaged. 
 
Tunnels

   When a hill or mountain along a planned route was impossible to 
build around or slice through with a cut, the last resort was a 
tunnel.  Despite their cost, tunnels were normally bargains that 
eliminated the need for long, tortuous switchbacks with steep grades 
or long detours.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you may have situations where your tracks 
cannot cross a mountainous area without building very steep grades. 
In these situations the increase in train speeds may justify the cost
of a tunnel. 
   If you attempt to build a straight track section of sufficiently 
steep grade, your engineers inform you that building a tunnel may be 
an option here.  To build it, choose the "Build Tunnel" option from 
the choices presented.  The engineers then calculate how long the 
tunnel needs to be to come out at the same elevation it starts at. 
A second menu appears reporting the required length of the tunnel and 
its cost.  To build the tunnel, again choose "Build Tunnel".  To not 
build the tunnel, choose "Never Mind". 

   If you build the tunnel, it appears on the map and you can continue 
building track from its end.  The track inside the tunnel is straight 
and level. 

   Tunnels are constructed at the elevation of the square from which 
they are built and therefore have no grade.
 
   Tunnels may not be double tracked. 

Double Track

   The value of having two tracks between stops, one for traffic in 
each direction, was recognized by railroads early on. With a flexible 
system of switching between the tracks and monitoring the relative 
position of trains, double tracking made train movement more efficient. 
Doubling track, even at a later date, was much less expensive than the 
cost of a second single track because the right-of-way was already 
owned and much of the preparation was already accomplished.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon all of the track you lay is single track, but you 
may go back over existing sections and double track them.  This

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immediately doubles the number of trains that can safely move over 
any section (see Operating Trains, page 88.  However, doubling track is 
expensive and normally necessary on only your busiest sections.  Monitor
your train operations and double track those parts of your railroad 
where to often trains are kept idle waiting for tracks to clear.
 
   To double a track section center the Detail Display over the area 
to be improved.  Place the Construction Box on the section to be 
doubled and press the Double Track key.  Note the change of the 
section to the map symbol for double track.  Track is doubled one 
section at a time. 

   The following features may not be double tracked: 90 degree curves, 
tunnels, and wooden trestles. 

   All stations, including signal towers, are automatically double 
tracked. 
 
Track And Bridge Demolition

   Railroads occasionally found it necessary to rebuild or remove 
track and other structures.  The B&O for example, rebuilt its main line 
from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry several times to eliminate difficult 
curves and grades.  As railroads have concentrated their business into 
long, mainline hauling, many branch lines have been abandoned and 
torn up.  Many industries have gone over to truck transport, or 
entirely disappeared, eliminating the need for rail transport to 
communities.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you may find circumstances where a station no 
longer needs to be served because the local industry has gone out of 
business, or where a bridge that can be double tracked is a good 
investment, etc.  In these cases it may financially beneficial for your 
railroad to remove or realign your tracks.  Note that track not being used 
stills costs you money for maintenance.
 
   To demolish a track section or bridge from your railroad, go to the 
Detail Display and place the Construction Box at the end of the section 
or bridge to be removed.  Pull down the Build menu and choose the 
"Remove Track" option.  Note that the Construction Box changes color, 
signifying that your work crews are now prepared for demolition. 

   Press the Track Construction key for the direction in which you 
wish to tear up track and the section is removed.  When track is 
removed, you receive cash for the value of the right-of-way that is 
sold. 

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   When you have completed all desired demolitions, pull down the 
Build menu again and choose the "Build Track" option.  This returns 
the Construction Box to its normal color signifying that track  building 
is again possible. 

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RAILROAD STATIONS

   The first regularly operating railroad station in the United States 
is thought to have been built by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in the 
Mount Clare area of its home city.  This station was used for many years 
until the passenger and freight traffic passing through it grew too 
large.  Most of its functions were moved to a larger station in the 
Camden area that was better equipped to handle the traffic flow into and 
out of the expanding city.
 
   The purpose of a railroad station, like those on the B&O, is to
provide a place for people and goods to transfer to and from trains. 
A small platform by the trackside where farmers drop off their milk 
cans, the special sidings adjacent to a coal mine, or the New York 
Central's Grand Central Station in Manhattan are all examples of 
stations or facilities functioning as stations.
 
   In order to work efficiently, a railroad sets up a network of  
appropriately sized and equipped stations to provide reasonable service 
to its customers.  Grand Central Station would be wasted in a small 
rural town, while a small commuter station would not begin to handle 
the needs of New Yorkers.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon, you have a choice of three different sized 
stations to build.  The larger the station you choose for a location, 
the larger the surrounding area it serves.  However, larger stations 
cost more.  Your challenge is to accurately assess the needs of the 
local community and provide a station that provides the most service
for a reasonable investment.  A station that is too large is a waste 
of money and a station that is too small reduces the local supply and 
demand for cargos, lowering potential revenue.

Description

   In Railroad Tycoon stations are the only places that trains can stop 
to pick up and deliver cargos.  Building track into industrial sites or
cities has no effect on creating supply and demand for cargos.  The 
transfer facilities that automatically come with a station must be 
present for pickups and deliveries to take place.
 
   There are three types of station: Depots ($50,000), Stations 
($100,000), and Terminals ($200,000).  They are differentiated by their 
cost, economic radius, and map icon.
 
   The economic radius is a range in squares out from the station in 
all directions.  The better the station, the farther people and industry

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can be expected to travel to do business with your railroad. All 
industrial and population sites within the radius of a station send 
(supply) and receive (demand) business through the station.  By 
adding together the supply and demand for cargos from the industry 
and population within range, the supply and demand for the station is 
determined.  For example, assume each coal mine creates an average 
supply of two carloads of coal per year.  A station with three coal 
mines within its economic radius then generates a supply of about six 
carloads of coal per year.
 
   A Depot has a radius of one square in all directions, a Station 
has a radius of two, and a Terminal has a radius of three.  The 
square the station occupies also contributes.  During the station 
construction process you are graphically shown the radius of each 
station type before you actually spend money to build.  Examine this 
graphic to determine which station incorporates the area that you 
desire.
 
   The section of track that any station occupies is automatically 
double tracked.
 
   Each station comes automatically with a Signal Tower attached 
(see How Signals Work, page 89).  Additional facilities can be built at 
any station location (see Station Improvements , page 61).  An engine 
shop is automatically built at the first station that you build. 

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How To Build A Station

   Railroad stations are built on the Detail Display.  Place the 
Construction Box on the track section square where you want the station. 
Pull down the Build menu and choose "Build Station".  A second menu 
appears offering four choices: "Signal Tower ($25,000)", "Depot ($50,000)",
"Station ($100,000)", or "Terminal ($200,000)".  For now, ignore the 
Signal Tower (see Signal Towers, page 90).  Choose the station type you 
wish to build and press Selector 1. The icon for the station type you 
chose appears under the Construction Box.
 
   Immediately thereafter a graphic appears describing the station 
you just built.  The station is named, and its type is shown with the  
date of construction.  In a window is displayed the average yearly 
supply of specific cargos this station can be expected to generate, if 
any, plus a list of cargos that are demanded here.
 
   Stations may only be built on straight track sections, not curves.
The straight section may end in the square chosen, thereby placing a  
station at the end of the line.
 
   Stations may not be built if their economic radius overlaps the
radius of a nearby station in any square.
                        
   To replace a station with a larger or smaller one, repeat the 
procedure for building a station and place the new station on top of
the old one.  For example, if you have a Depot that you wish to replace
with a Terminal, center the Construction Box on the Depot and then  
follow the procedure for building a Terminal.  The Depot is replaced by 
the Terminal. 
 
Shipping Reports

   An operating railroad must be flexible in its ability to reroute 
trains, add or delete trains, and otherwise adjust its service in 
response to changes in the supply and demand of cargos along its system,
The opening of new coal fields, the burning down of a ferry, or the 
growth of a city's population are the kinds of factors that are 
constantly affecting railroads.  A nimble management quickly adjusts 
to increased supply of steel here and decreased demand for livestock 
there by switching livestock trains to steel.  Otherwise, trains that 
could earn revenue in one area run mostly empty in another, while
the maintenance costs pile up. 


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   In Railroad Tycoon you monitor the supply and demand of cargos 
at your station by checking their supply and demand reports.  When 
you see supplies of cargos to be shipped piling up on one station's 
report, you need to look at your other Station Reports to find places 
to deliver those cargos.
 
   Supply and demand information for your stations is found in two 
places, Shipping Reports, and their cousins, Station Reports discussed 
on page 60.  These two reports are available at all times for each 
station on your railroad.
 
   To see a Station's Shipping Report, go to either an Area or Local 
Display of the part of your railroad containing the station.  The 
Shipping Report is the window attached to the station icon by a line, 
and is also identified by a three letter abbreviation of the station's 
name.
 
   In addition to the name of the station, you can read the following 
information on the Shipping Report: what cargos are demanded here; 
what cargos are now available here to be shipped, and roughly how 
many cars of each; whether freight rates for deliveries here are 
halved, normal, or doubled; whether a priority shipment is available 
or demanded here (see Priority Shipments, page 85); and a relative 
measure of revenue earned for deliveries to this station.
 
   A short line in a column of the report indicates that that cargo 
is demanded at this station.  For example, a line in the first column 
of the second row indicates you can earn revenue for bringing 
passengers here.
 
   One or more train car icons in a column indicates the number of 
carloads of the corresponding cargo now available here to be picked 
up by a train.  No more than four car icons appear in a column, 
although more carloads than that may be available.
 
   The border around the window indicates freight rates.  There is a 
border color for normal rate, for half rates (only during rate wars, 
see page 109), and double rates (see the Technical Supplement for the 
correct colors).  Double rates exist for a new station from its opening 
until the end of the current fiscal period, and for one fiscal period 
after a successful rate war. 

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   To indicate where you are making money, the bottom of the Shipping 
Report window fills in as revenue is earned for delivering cargos to 
this station.  The fill is emptied at the end of the fiscal period.
 
   The freight class cargos for England and Europe are slightly 
different from those in the USA, as shown in the Shipping Reports on 
the Player Aid Cards. 
 
Station Reports

   A Station Report provides supply and demand data in a different 
format from the Shipping Report, plus other information as well. Where
the Shipping Report can show a maximum of four carloads of a cargo 
waiting, the Station Report can show a more accurate account using both 
car icons and actual numbers.
 
   You can call up a Station Report from the Area or Local Displays in 
two ways.  If you are using the mouse, place the pointer on the Shipping 
Report and press Selector 1.  If you are playing without the mouse, use 
the Direction keys to center the Construction Box over the station and 
press the Information key. 
            ' 
   From the Detail Display, the Construction Box must be centered on the 
station for the Information key or Selector 1 to call up the Station 
Report.  However, when using the mouse, if you position the pointer on 
the station and press Selector 1, the Construction Box moves to the 
station square and then either Selector 1 or the Information key open 
the Station Report. 

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Station Improvements

   In addition to stations and track, railroads developed a need for
additional facilities and structures to improve the efficiency of the 
road or bring in additional revenue.  Railroads built shops at strategic 
spots along their lines for building and maintaining locomotives and 
rolling stock.  Switching yards were required at major junctions and 
stops where trains could be quickly broken up and reassembled.  Railroads 
that skimped on these facilities paid high maintenance costs or provided 
unsatisfactory service.
 
   Railroads also found that they could earn money on additional 
services beyond transportation.  They built railway hotels near their 
stations, and included restaurants in the stations themselves, such as 
those on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe run by the Harvey Girls 
(the best food in the west!).
 
   On your railroad you may build similar facilities to keep mainte- 
nance costs under control, store certain cargos to reduce wastage, and 
earn revenue.  However, facilities are not cheap and you must carefully 
measure their benefit versus cost.  Decide what facilities to add where 
based on the operating needs of your railroad and the traffic passing 
through individual stations. 
 
   At each station (but not signal towers) you may build any of the 
following improvements:
 
      Engine Shop .............$100,000 
      Switching Yard ..........$50,000 
      Maintenance Shop ........$25,000 
      Food Storage ............$25,000 
      Livestock Pens ..........$25,000 
      Goods Storage ...........$25,000 
      Post Office .............$100,000 
      Restaurant ..............$25,000 
      Hotel ...................$100,000
 
   New trains may only be started at stations containing an engine 
shop.  When you build a new train you are given the choice of which 
of your engine shops to place the locomotive.  If you have only one shop, 
the new train must start there.  Having more than one engine shop 
makes placing trains on the far reaches of your railroad easier.  Engine 
shops also act as maintenance shops.  A switching yard reduces the time 

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required to change the cars in a train by 75% (see Train Consist, page 
75).  Place switching yards at stations where trains regularly change 
their consists.  The more trains you have changing at switching yards, 
the greater the distance your trains can travel in a year.

   A maintenance shop reduces the maintenance cost of trains that pass 
through its station in a fiscal period by 75%.  Trains that do not 
receive regular maintenance may pay very large maintenance bills 
and erode your railroad's profits.  In your role as master of the road, 
your staff informs you which trains are not receiving regular mainte- 
nance each year.
 
   All supplies of cargos that are not picked up eventually waste 
away.  In effect they are picked up by some alternative transport. 
Storage facilities prevent this wastage of cargos at the station where 
they are built.  Post offices store mail.  Food storage warehouses 
store food.  Livestock pens store livestock.  Goods warehouses store 
manufactured goods.  England and Europe have storage for cargos unique 
to their worlds. 

   Restaurants and hotels earn additional revenue from passengers 
delivered to their stations, with hotels earning two times the revenue 
of a restaurant.  Rail travelers need to be fed and often require 
overnight lodging when arriving or departing.  Railroads that provide 
these services fill the needs of their customers and earn extra revenue. 

   You build station improvements from the Detail Display.  Center 
the Construction Box over the station to be improved, pull down the  
Build menu, and choose "Improve Station" from the options.  From the 
list of improvements that appears, choose the one you wish to place.
 
   At the station you see the improvement being built.  Press Selector 
1 to return to the game.
 
   You may build each facility only once at a station.  A facility that 
already exists at the station is shown in parentheses with no cost when 
you pull down the menu and cannot be purchased again.
 
   You receive an engine shop with the first station you build.  Its 
cost is automatically subtracted from your cash. 

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TRAINS

   The Function of a railroad is to transport people and freight from 
one place to another, and this is physically accomplished by trains. 
A train consists of two parts, an engine providing the power for motion 
and the carrying vehicles pulled by the engine.  In the United States 
the engines and carrying vehicles are generally known as locomotives 
and cars.
 
   Since the earliest days of railroading there has been a continual 
evolution in the technology of both locomotives and cars.  Safety, 
efficiency, and reliability have increased. 

   For locomotives the evolutionary trend has generally been toward 
higher speed and greater pulling power.  In addition, locomotive 
designs were adapted to the role they were to perform and to the 
geography the road ran through.  For example, trains operating in 
mountain or plains areas required different gear ratios.  Locomotives 
designed for express passenger trains had relatively less pulling power 
but generated higher speed.  Where speed was of less importance, such 
as for bulk cargos like coal, gearing and wheel size emphasized pulling 
power.
 
   In addition, locomotives have evolved from wood burning steam 
engines to coal and oil burning steam engines, diesel-electrics, 
diesel-hydraulics, and electrics.
 
   Cars have gotten larger, but mainly more specialized.  The earliest 
cars were horsepulled wagons fitted  for use on rails.  These evolved 
into specific cars for passengers, livestock, coal, liquids, etc.
 
   The job of the master of the road is to provide suitable locomotives 
and cars for the service the railroad is providing.  This mix of
equipment and rolling stock must be maintained, upgraded when outmoded, 
and adjusted for changing service needs.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you must continuously monitor the equipment 
and rolling stock needs of your railroad so that the correct cars and 
trains are in operation.  As time passes new locomotive designs become 
available for your railroad and correctly matching locomotives to tasks 
improves your road's efficiency.  For example, a fast Ten Wheeler 
locomotive pulls a two or three car passenger train much faster than a 
powerful Consolidation locomotive, but the Consolidation pulls a 6 car 
coal train much faster than the Ten Wheeler would.
 
   In addition, you must be sure that the proper cars are available 
when trains arrive in a station to load cargos.  A train of passenger 
cars

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is not going to take on a load of oil.  You arrange for the correct cars 
to be in the right place by setting the routes of your trains and/or
changing the cars in an arriving train to provide the desired service. 
Incorrect routing or cars means cargos are not picked up and revenue is
lost while the maintenance cost meter is running
 
Building Trains

   You place a new train on your railroad by first building a new 
locomotive and then buying cars to couple to it.  In order to build   
a new locomotive, however, you must have previously built at least one
railroad station.  This is necessary because all new trains appear with  
their locomotive at an engine shop, and your first engine shop appears 
automatically with the building of your first station.
 
   When at least one engine shop exists on your road, you may build   
new trains from any Display.  To build a new train, pull down the Build 
menu and choose "New Train".  This opens the New Train window that  
shows a picture of the locomotive types available, their characteristics, 
and their cost.  If you are using the mouse, place the pointer on the
icon of the locomotive you wish to build and press Selector 1.  If you 
don't have a mouse, an Engine menu appears.  From this menu choose 
the train you wish to build, or the "None" option if you decide to build 
no locomotive.
 
   If you build a locomotive, another menu appears listing your choices 
of engine shops where the locomotive may be constructed.  If you have 
only one engine shop this menu doesn't appear.  When necessary, choose 
the location for your new train by selecting the desired option. 

   Having chosen the location for the new train, you go to the station 
where it was built and watch the new locomotive driving out of the 
engine shop.  The engine stops on the left side of the platform ready for 
you to add cars.  Choose new cars one by one from the Car menu now 
present.  When the train is finished to your satisfaction, choose the "No 
Thanks" option.  This opens the Train Report discussed below. 

   A train may include up to 8 cars, of any combination of types.  You 
may build a train containing no cars.  (They can be added later on the 
Train Report.)

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   The Train Roster is a graphic display of the trains currently 
running on your railroad and is placed at the lower right of the display 
windows.  When a new train is purchased, it is added to the roster.  The 
oldest train on your railroad is at the top of the roster and the newer 
trains are added in order below it.  The bottom train on the roster is the 
most recent train added. 
 
   Each train occupies one line on the roster, with a locomotive symbol 
at the left of the line and up to eight car symbols to its right.  The 
car symbols are the same ones that appear in Shipping Reports.  From 
their shape and color you can tell at a glance what type of car each 
represents.  In addition, the color of the cars changes slightly 
depending on whether the car is at least 50% full or not.
 
   At the far right of the line is a three letter abbreviation for the 
name of the city that is the train's next destination.  In the above 
example, the first train is headed for RIC, the abbreviation for 
Richmond. 

   A colored line that appears below a train's destination indicates 
the train's relative speed. 

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Train Reports 
 
   As each new train is built on your railroad, a Train Report is 
created for it.  Thereafter, this report is always available for 
consulting.
 
   A Train Report provides in one place the important information 
concerning a train, and also is where changes tn the train's makeup, 
type, and schedule are made.  Understanding how this report can be used,
how you make changes in what your trains are made up of and how you 
change what they are doing is a key factor in playing Railroad Tycoon.
 
   A Train Report appears immediately after a train is purchased, and 
thereafter the report for any train on your railroad can be accessed from 
any display.

   The train report quickly provides the following detailed information
about your train.

   o Train #: Train 1 is at the top of the Train Roster, number two
     is the second from the top, etc.
   o Name/Class/Type: If this train has been awarded a name, it is
     shown (see Naming Trains, page 68).  For trains that are not named
     their freight class and type are shown instead.  To change the
     train's type, see Train Types, page 70).
   o Location: The approximate location of the train on your railroad.
   o Locomotive type: The locomotive type pulling the train.  If
     you wish to see detailed information about the performance of the
     locomotive on your train pull down the Engine menu and choose
     the option "Engine Info".  To change the locomotive on the train
     see Changing

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     Locomotives, page 71.  To retire a train entirely, see Retiring 
     Trains, page 71.
   o Maintenance: The expected maintenance cost of this train per 
     fiscal period. 
   o Speed: The current speed of your train. 
   o Destination/Loading/Unloading: The destination is the name of 
     the station to which this train is currently heading.  To change 
     the destination see Changing Destinations below, page 76.  If the 
     train is stopped and either loading or unloading, this is noted 
     and a destination is not listed. 
   o Consist: Graphic icons of the locomotive and car types that 
     currently consist this train.  To change the train's consist, see 
     Train Consist below, page 75. 
   o Cargo: Type or types of cargo on board. 
   o Priority Orders: If the train has priority movement orders, they 
     are shown here.  To give the train priority movement orders, see 
     Priority Orders below, page 77. 
   o Priority Consist: If the train has priority consist change orders,   
     they are shown here.  To give the train priority consist orders, 
     see Priority Consist below, page 78. 
   o Scheduled stops: Each train may have from 2 to 4 scheduled stops and 
     they are listed here.  To change the train's scheduled stops, see 
     Routing Trains below, page 72. 
   o Consist Changes: Any consist changes planned at scheduled stops are 
     planned here.  To change the train's consist at stops, see Train 
     Consist below, page 75. 
   o Wait Until Full Orders: If the train is to wait at a stop until 
     fully loaded, that order is noted in this column.  To place or 
     remove this order, see Wait Until Full Orders below, page 78. 
   o Revenue Earned: This fiscal period to the left, and last fiscal 
     period to the right. 

   To open a Train Report when you don't have a mouse, press the Tab key 
to move the cursor or Construction Box (Detail Display only) into the 
Train Roster window.  The flashing cursor appears to the left of the first 
train in the roster.  Press the Selector key to open the Train Report for 
this train.  To select another train, move the cursor up and down the 
roster with the Direction keys. 
 
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   To open a Train Report with the mouse, place the mouse pointer on 
the locomotive of the train that you wish to examine, and press 
Selector 1.  Alternatively. you can place the mouse pointer on a 
locomotive on any of the displays and press Selector 1. 
 
Naming Trains

   Railroads got into the habit of giving their fastest and best known 
scheduled trains distinctive names.  Crack named trains gave the public  
a symbol by which to judge the railroad and improved the morale of  
railroad employees.  Most names were practical or had some historical  
or geographic significance, but others promised or advertised something 
more than just transportation.  Examples of the latter types are the 
Orient Express (adventure), Flying Scotsman (speed), and the 20th
Century Limited (modernity).
 
   Trains that received names were generally passenger trains, but in  
many cases the faster scheduled freight trains were named as well.
Trains maintained their names over many years, regardless of changes 
in locomotives and car.  The name was applied to a scheduled service,
such as the New York to Chicago express, not to the specific locomotive
and cars that made up the train.
    
   In Railroad Tycoon you may have the opportunity to name certain
of your trains as well, and within the limits of length, you may choose
any title you think suitable. 
 
   The only way you can name a train is if that train succeeds in 
setting a new speed record for service between any two stops on your 
road.  If one of your trains sets such a record you may type in the name
you choose.  However, train names cannot exceed a length of 24 letters, 
including spaces.  Thereafter, the train's name appears on its Train 
Reports. 
 
   The passenger revenue earned by a train is increased by 25% if the  
train is named.

   Once a train has been named, the name cannot be changed unless the 
train sets a new speed record.  If the train is retired, the name is 
also retired    

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Train Classes

   Railroads have to move a number of trains each day over a limited 
area.  In order to help arrange these movements, they developed a
system whereby trains are ranked, or classified. depending on the 
value of their cargos.  When two or more trains want to move over the 
same track, the dispatchers controlling movements had a clear set of 
rules by which to determine the order of their movements.  Generally, 
the higher classed trains moved first.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon trains are classified as either mail, passenger, 
fast freight, slow freight, or bulk trains, with mail being the highest 
class, bulk being the lowest class, and the others ranked in between.
Class is determined by the car types in the train.  If only one type of
car is in the train. then the class of that car type sets the class of
the train.  For example, a train made up entirely of coal cars is 
classified as a bulk train. 

   If more than one type of car is in the train, it is called a mixed 
freight, but its class is determined by the most common car type in the 
train.  For example, a train containing a livestock car (fast freight), 
two grain cars (slow freight), and a petroleum car, is a mixed freight 
classified as a slow freight, because the most common car types were 
slow freights.
 
   The class of the train is important when two or more trains are 
attempting to move over the same section of track.  In this case the 
highest class train is given clearance by your dispatcher and moves 
first, and then the others move in descending class order.

   Understanding and acting upon these relationships can improve 
the operation of your railroad.  By keeping car types in trains 
of similar or adjacent classes, you can keep cargos moving at
efficient speeds.

   As explained later (see How Revenues Vary, page 82), for some
cargos the time elapsed from pickup to delivery is more important
than for others.  It therefore pays to have similar cargos combined
into trains and not mix all of the cargo types together.

   For speed sensitive cargos such as mail and passengers, it pays
to place them in smaller faster trains because the increased revenues
more than pay for the increased cost per ton for the train operations.

   For bulk and slow freight cargos that are much less speed 
sensitive, it pays to combine them into longer, slower trains.  The
bulk or slow

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freight revenues are nearly the same whether delivered in several small 
fast trains or one long slow train.  However, the long slow train has 
only one locomotive earning the revenue, while moving in several faster 
trains requires investing in several locomotives and crews. 
 
Train Types

   An additional method of defining trains was to assign them a type, 
such as local, through, express, or limited.  The purpose of these types 
was to separate trains, not by what they were made up of, but by where 
they were intended to stop.  By dividing its trains into types, a 
railroad made planning of movements easier, and also advertised to the 
public the various services these trains provided.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you also may define your trains by type.  This 
is useful because the train type determines what stops the train makes, 
if any, in addition to those specifically scheduled.
 
   You may make each of your trains a local, through, express, or 
limited train.  The effects of these types are that they stop at  
less stations where they could possibly pick up or deliver cargo. 

   o Local: Stops at every possible station between scheduled stops.
   o Through: Stops at every possible station between scheduled stops, 
     except that it does not stop at Depots.    
   o Express: Stops at every possible station between scheduled
     stops, except that it stops only at Terminals between scheduled
     stops, not at Depots or Stations.  
   o Limited: Stops only where scheduled.

   Regardless of type, a train always stops at those stations scheduled 
for it on its Train Report.
 
   To change the type of a train, open its Train Report, pull down 
Train Type menu, and choose the type you wish the train to be. 
The train's type is changed on the Train Report, and thereafter, 
the train makes stops according to its new type.  Note that when a train
is first built, it is automatically made a local type train and remains
a local unless you change it.
 
   The advantage to be gained from changing a train's type is that you
can customize where it does or does not stop.  In most cases you are
raising a train's type to keep it from making unnecessary or unprofitable 
stops.

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   For example, a passenger train running from New York to Philadelphia
could stop at several stations in between, all accepting delivery of 
passengers.  But knowing that passenger revenues are higher for fast 
delivery over long distances, you change the type of the train to a
limited type so that it skips all of the intervening stations.

   Your passenger train now receives the revenue for a longer delivery,
keeps its speed maximized by eliminating stops along the route, and
remains full.  If it made many stops at smaller stations along the way,
the train would probably not be able to keep fully loaded.

   Without this change, passengers may be picked up and delivered in
several places along the route, slowing down the train's passage 
between the two cities, and probably collecting less revenue because
the passengers only travel a short distance before being delivered.

Changing Locomotives

   As the game continues locomotives age and their maintenance costs begin
to climb.  In addition, new locomotive types are invented that offer
better service.  Every locomotive needs to be replaced at some point,
either because it is too old or because a newer type can do a much
better job.  When you decide it is time to replace a locomotive, you make
the change from the Train Report.

   To change the locomotive on a train, open the Train Report, pull down
the Engine menu, and select "Replace Engine".  From the list of 
locomotives available that appear, choose the engine you wish to put on
the train.

   The change takes place immediately.  The Train Report is updated
to show the change, and the cost of the new locomotive is subtracted
from your cash.  

Retiring Trains

   You may occasionally find that a train is no longer profitable,
causing congestion on the line and slowing more important trains, or
otherwise no longer worth maintaining.  If you choose to do so, the 
entire train can be removed from your roster.

   To remove a train from your railroad, open its Train Report, pull
down the Engine menu, and choose the "Retire Train" option.  The train
disappears from the roster, its report goes away, and the numbers of
all trains adjust to reflect the new order in the Train Roster.
 
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Routing Trains

The routing, or scheduling, of trains is one of the most important
parts of railroad management.  An efficient schedule insures that cargos
are picked up and delivered in a timely manner, and that the train
operation costs for providing service are kept down.  A great many extra
trains insures timely service, but run up costs so much that railroad
profits shrink.

   In practice, the master of the road provides the locomotive and cars
that the dispatcher requires to meet the demands for service.  The 
dispatcher receives requests for service from industry and uses this
information to plan what trains are required.

   Railroads found that by regularly scheduling certain trains, or by
arranging with important customers to provide service at specific times,
passengers and shippers could make their plans to ship or receive 
according to the schedule.  A regular schedule also made it easier to
plan the movement of trains, as dispatchers along the line could expect
certain trains to arrive in their divisions at scheduled times.

   In Railroad Tycoon, the scheduling of your trains is also very
important.  By examining the Shipping Records of your stations, you
learn what cargos are available for shipment, and where those cargos
can be delivered.  Your task is to build trains of the proper cars to
carry the available cargo, and then rout the train so it moves from
stations where cargos are supplied to stations where the cargo can
be delivered.

   For example, in our tutorial game both Richmond and Charlottesville
supply and demand passengers.  So, a train of passenger cars can run
back and forth between these cities picking up passengers at either
city and delivering them at the other.  To do this, you must build a 
train of a locomotive and at least one passenger car, and then route
the train to run from Charlottesville to Richmond.  Having been
scheduled, this train runs between the two cities forever, or until
you step in to make changes.

   When a new train is built, it is automatically given a route between
the station at which it was built and another station on your railroad.
This is shown on the Train Report.  You are rarely going to want your
train to run this exact route, so the route needs to be changed, and this
is done from the Train Report.

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   As an example, assume you are running the Charlottesville & Richmond
Railroad from the tutorial.  You notice that the supply of coal is
building up at Charlottesville Junction, and that a train could take
this coal to a Steel Mill in Charlottesville, pick up steel there and
take it to a factory in Richmond, and pick up manufactured goods there
for delivery to Charlottesville.  You decide to change the route of
Train #3, now scheduled to run back and forth from Charlottesville 
to Charlottesville Junction.

   To change the route of Train #3 using the mouse, open its Train
Report and place the pointer on the open line below Charlottesville
in the section marked Scheduled Stops.  Press Selector 1, and the
route diagram for this train opens.

   Notice that the current route of this train is marked.  The number
1 next to Charlottesville Junction notes this station as the first
station on the route, and the number 2 next to Charlottesville notes
it as the second stop.  Move the mouse pointer directly below the box 
marking the station at Richmond, and the information regarding 
supply and demand there appears to the right.

   With the pointer below the Richmond station box, press Selector 1
to make Richmond stop number 3.  Notice that the station box turns
to the color of scheduled stops, the track into the station turns
the color of an active route, and that the number 3 appears next 
to the station box.  Richmond has now been added to this train's
route as scheduled stop #3.  To check

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this, press Selector 2 which returns you to the Train Report.  Notice
that scheduled stop #3 is indeed listed as Richmond.

   Since you want this train to return to Charlottesville from Richmond,
you have to add Charlottesville to the route again as stop #4.  Place
the mouse pointer on the open line below Richmond in the Scheduled
Stops section and press Selector 1 to open the route diagram.  Move the
mouse pointer under the box for the Charlottesville station and press
Selector 1 again.  The number 4 appears with the number 2 next to the
Charlottesville station box, noting that this station is stop #4 as
well as stop #2.

   Return to the Train Report by pressing Selector 2 to be sure the 
four scheduled stops are arranged in order from 1 to 4 as Charlottesville
Junction, Charlottesville, Richmond, and Charlottesville again.

   To change the route of train #3 when playing without a mouse, first
open the Train Report.  Note the highlight box that appears over the
number of the scheduled stops at the left of the report.  This highlight
box can be moved up and down with the Direction keys.  Use a Direction
key to move the highlight box to the empty row below stop #2,
Charlottesville.

    Now open the Schedule menu at the top of the report, and choose
the "Change Station" option.  Press any one of the Direction keys
until the station box at Richmond is highlighted.  When the Richmond 
box is highlighted, press Selector 1.  This returns you to the Train
Report where Richmond is listed now as stop #3.

   Repeat this procedure to select Charlottesville as stop #4.

   As the final step in arranging this route, pull down the Train Type
menu and choose the "Limited" option.  This makes train #3 a Limited
train and it stops only at stations on its route.  This makes no 
difference now, but if more stations are added at a later time, it
prevents needless or wasteful stops.

   Train #2 is now scheduled to run its route between these four 
stations.  After it completes its route, reaching Charlottesville
for the second time coming back from Richmond.  It returns to the
first station on its route and begins the route all over again.

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Train Consist

   The number and types of cars that make up a train are called its 
consist.  The dispatcher plans the consist of a train to insure that the
correct types of cars are available to carry waiting cargos.  At stops
along its route a train may change its consist several times as it makes
pickups and deliveries.

   In Railroad Tycoon, you may arrange for regularly scheduled consist
changes to take place at stops along a train's route so that the train
contains correct cars for cargo pickups.  You can coordinate the 
changes in the train's consist with its scheduled stops, so that the
train may carry several different types of cargos in one circuit of
its route.  If all the cars needed were put on at the same time, only
some of the cars would be needed at one time, and the others would
be just extra weight for the locomotive to pull.

   For an example of planning a train's consist changes, return to the
Train Report for Train #3 of the Charlottesville & Richmond whose 
schedule was just rearranged in the section above.

   Train #3 is now scheduled to run to four stops to take advantage
of several related industries.  Coal from Charlottesville Junction can
be taken to the steel mill at Charlottesville and converted into steel.
The steel from Charlottesville can be taken to the factory in Richmond
and converted into manufactured goods which can be delivered to
Charlottesville.  But the train cannot take advantage of these
industries if the consist remains one coal car because the coal car
cannot carry steel or goods.

   To change the consist of Train #3 using the mouse, open its Train
Report.  Place the mouse pointer on the line showing "no changes"
to the right of the scheduled stop Charlottesville Junction under
the heading "New Consist".  Press Selector 1 and choose "Coal Car" from
the Add Car menu that appears.  Note that a coal car icon appears on
the line where "no changes" was previously showing.

   You may also use the mouse to repeat the train's current consist
from the top of the report in any row of the New Consist area.  Place
the mouse pointer on the row where you want the consist repeated and 
press Selector 2.  This is useful if you want to add cars to the 
current consist without rebuilding the entire train.

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   To change the consist of Train #3 when playing without the mouse, 
open its Train Report.  Note the highlight box at the left hand side of 
the report under Train Orders.  Move this highlight box to stop number 
one, Charlottesville Junction by pressing the Direction keys.  When the 
box is on the "1", pull down the Consist menu and select Coal Car from 
the options.  Since this is the only car making up the consist at this 
station, choose the "No Thanks" option to get back to the report.
 
   The presence of the coal car indicates that the consist orders for   
this train are to remove all other cars on the train when it reaches this 
stop and put on one coal car.  Repeat this process and place a steel car
at the second stop, Charlottesville, and a goods car at the third stop, 
Richmond.  Leave the consist at the fourth stop, Charlottesville again,  
unchanged. 

   You have now arranged the consist changes necessary for Train #3 to 
take advantage of the industry along its route.  It is scheduled to 
carry coal from Charlottesville Junction to the steel mill at Charlot- 
tesville.  The steel mill uses the coal to make steel and your train puts 
on steel cars there to carry the steel to the factory at Richmond. 
The factory takes the steel and converts it into manufactured goods. 
Your train again changes its consist to a goods car so it can carry the 
goods back to Charlottesville for delivery.
 
   When your train reaches Charlottesville for the second time, it has 
completed its route and returns empty to Charlottesville Junction to 
start the route over.  At the start of its route it replaces its goods 
car with a coal car and starts the cycle over again.  
 
Changing Destinations

   As you monitor the operations of your trains, you may wish from time 
to time to change slightly the route of a train.  This may be useful 
when a bridge is washed out on the route, or because a supply of a cargo 
further down the route has diminished, or for other reasons.  By 
changing the destination of the train, you can have it skip a wasteful 
stop or avoid a wreck. 

   In the Train Orders section of the Train Report, under Scheduled 
Stops, the next city to which the train is moving, its destination, is 
highlighted.  You may change this destination to another city on your 
railroad, regardless of whether the new destination is on the train's
list 

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of scheduled stops or not.  To temporarily change the destination to a 
city not on the current route list, see Priority Orders, page 77. 

   To change your destination to another scheduled stop when playing 
without the mouse, move the highlight box to the city to be the new 
destination.  Pull down the Schedule menu and choose the "Go To Station" 
option.  The highlight changes from the old destination to the new city, 
marking it as the train's next destination.
 
   To change your destination to another scheduled stop when using 
the mouse, place the mouse pointer on the name of the stop you wish 
to make the new destination for the train and press Selector 2.  The 
new station is highlighted, signifying that it is the next destination 
for this train.

Priority Orders

   You may find it occasionally useful to have one of your trains  
temporarily change its route to avoid a washed out bridge, to pick up a
Priority Shipment, or to take advantage of a temporary change in the 
supply or demand of a cargo nearby.
 
   For example, a train that was unable to fill up with coal to take on 
to a steel mill may be rerouted by a Priority Order to another nearby 
city where coal has been sitting unused.  By rerouting your train to pick 
up this coal, you fill it with coal more quickly than having it wait at 
its first coal stop until full.
 
   To temporarily change the destination for a train to a city not on its 
list of scheduled stops, you must give it Priority Orders.  This change is 
made from the Train Report.
 
   To give a train Priority Orders using the mouse, place the mouse 
pointer on the space below Priority Orders to the right of the "P" 
symbol, and press Selector 1.  On the route diagram that appears, move 
the mouse pointer to the station box for the city which you wish to be 
the new destination and press Selector 1.  A "P" symbol appears next to 
the city you have selected, noting this station as a priority destination. 
Press Selector 2 to return to the Train Report.
 
   To give a train Priority Orders when not using the mouse, use the 
Direction keys to move the highlight box under the "P" symbol below 
Priority Orders.  Pull down the Schedule menu and the route diagram 
appears.  Use the Direction keys again to highlight the station that you 

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wish to be the priority destination, and press Selector 1.  This returns 
you to the Train Report.
 
   Back on the Train Report, you see that under Priority Orders the  
new destination is listed, and the bottom part of the Train Orders 
section is screened out.  This signifies that the normal train orders 
have been overridden.  Once the train reaches its priority destination, 
it returns to its normal route, picking it up where it left off.
 
Priority Consist

   Occasionally during play you may wish to temporarily change the 
consist of a train.  This is especially useful when attempting to pick
up a Priority Shipment, see page 78.  This type of change is made from 
the train's Train Report.
 
   To give a train a Priority Consist order when using the mouse, 
move the mouse pointer onto the line below Priority Consist marked 
"no changes", and press Selector 1.  This opens the Add Car menu from
which you may choose a car to be added to the Priority Consist.  When 
a car is selected, the menu goes away, but you can call it back by  
placing the pointer on the same line again and pressing Selector 1. 
To delete a car in the Priority Consist, place the pointer on it and 
press Selector 1, and it is removed.
 
   To give a train a Priority Consist order when not using the mouse, 
use the Direction keys to move the highlight box onto the 'P' symbol 
to the left of the Train Orders section, and pull down the Consist menu. 
This act automatically clears all of the existing cars, if any were 
present, from the Priority Consist line.  Choose from the Add Car 
menu the cars you wish to add to the Priority Consist.
 
   The cars of the Priority Consist are placed on the train at its 
next stop, overriding any previously scheduled consists.  The train 
proceeds along its normal route (unless given Priority Orders) and at 
the second station it stops at, its normal consist orders again go into 
effect.       
             
Wait Until Full Orders
 
   For sufficiently large customers, railroads put on unit trains, or 
trains dedicated to the one shipper.  A common example are coal trains, 
sent to one mine to load coal and carry this cargo directly to a port
, steel mill, etc.  These trains were not scheduled to arrive and 
depart by timetable as other trains, but were sent to be loaded, and 
then moved 

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when loading was complete.  In this way the railroad could arrange for 
proper locomotives and crews knowing that they would be moving a full 
train.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you may also arrange that a train wait to move 
until fully loaded by giving it Wait Until Full Orders.  Trains given 
the order do not move until every car in the train is fully loaded or 
until the order is lifted.  Using these orders you can improve the 
efficiency of your railroad, especially when the train is to pick up a 
cargo to be converted and carried on to another stop on its route.
 
   For example, consider Train #2 on the Charlottesville & Richmond 
Railroad of the tutorial.  This train is scheduled to make four 
stops and change its consist three times.  The coal it loads at the 
start of its route is converted to steel which is carried to a factory. 
At the factory the steel is converted to manufactured goods which are 
delivered back to Charlottesville. 

   As noted later in the section about cargo conversions, the conversion
process is 100% efficient.  If the train starts with 40 tons of coal, 
this converts to 40 tons of steel, and this converts to 40 tons of goods. 
For this reason, it is beneficial to begin with 40 tons of coal, thereby 
guaranteeing full loads at every stop.
 
   For cargos where no conversion is to follow, or where the cargo is 
very speed sensitive, such as mail, waiting until full is less 
valuable or actually wasteful. 

   To order a train to wait at a stop until fully loaded, open its Train 
Report.  When using the mouse, place the pointer in the space between 
the stop number and the name of the stop under Scheduled Stops and 
press Selector 1.  Use the same procedure to remove wait orders from 
a train that is already waiting.
 
   When playing without the mouse, use the Direction keys to highlight 
the number to the left of the stop where you wish the train to wait. 
Pull down the Schedule menu and choose the option "Wait" to order a 
train to wait until full, or choose the option "Don't Wait" if the train 
is already waiting and you wish that it no longer do so. 

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   A "W" appears to the right of the stop number signifying that the 
train is ordered to wait until full at this stop.  

Train Wrecks

   The accidental wrecking of trains has been a part of railroading 
from its start.  The severity of accidents ranged from commonplace 
derailments to spectacular head-on collisions.  Wrecks resulted from 
mechanical failure and bad weather, but more often from human error. 

   The negative effects of a major wreck included not only the possible  
loss of passengers, crew, cargo, and equipment destroyed, but also a 
drop in demand for the railroad's services.  Passengers and shippers 
looked to alternative railroads or transport rather than risk the trains 
of a demonstrably incompetent railroad.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon you can suffer train wrecks due to washed out   
bridges or to collisions.  Trains that cannot be halted or rerouted in 
time plunge off of washed out bridges.  When you override block signals, 
you run the risk of letting too many trains into a block and causing a   
collision.
 
   If one of your trains goes over a washed out bridge or two or more 
of your trains collide, the result is a train wreck.  When a train wrecks, 
the locomotive, cars, and cargos that make it up are destroyed and 
removed from your railroad.  You receive no compensation. 
 
   In addition, all cargos of the same type as those lost on your train
immediately disappear from every other train on your railroad.  Shippers 
have their cargos taken off your trains immediately.
 
   Also, all supply of these same cargos disappears from the stations
on your railroad, as shippers find other ways of moving their goods. 

   Eventually calm is restored and the cargos once more become available, 
assuming you suffer no more wrecks.

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REVENUE AND CARGOS
 
   Railroad revenue comes from two main sources, passenger fares and
freight charges.  A passenger boarding a train in Chicago pays a  fare 
for being conveyed to Detroit.  A steel mill in Pittsburgh pays a   
freight charge for delivery of a load of coal from Scranton.
 
   In these examples the railroad is responding to the supply and 
demand for passengers and coal.  The passenger in Chicago represents 
a supply of passengers there.  The coal piled up in Scranton also 
represents a supply, this time of coal.  The desire of the passenger 
to go to Detroit represents the demand for passengers in Detroit, just
as the mill's desire for coal represents demand for coal in Pittsburgh.
 
   Since steel mills in Railroad Tycoon also demand coal, a steel mill 
within the radius of a Pittsburgh station on your railroad would be 
represented by the demand at that station for coal.  If your railroad 
has track connections to a station near Scranton that has a coal mine 
within its radius, you can make money by having a train take coal cars 
to the Scranton station, load coal, and then deliver it to the Pittsburgh 
station. 

   The key is a good start and profitable existence in Railroad Tycoon 
is understanding the relationships between the industries that create 
the supply and demand for cargo, the stations that act as shipping and 
receiving points for industry, and the revenue you earn by having trains 
carry cargos from stations that are shipping to those that are receiving. 

Earning Revenue
 
   Revenue is earned by loading your trains at a station that is a supply 
source for a cargo and then routing the loaded train to a station that 
has demand for that cargo.  When a train stops at a station to make a 
delivery, several things take place to mark the event.
 
   First, in the World View window at the top right of your screen, an 
announcement appears describing the train's arrival.  The announcement 
lists the time of the arrival, the train's type and number, the name of 
the station, the cargos delivered, and the revenue received.
 
   Second, when the cargo is delivered, the car icons on the Train 
Roster switch from loaded to unloaded.
 
   Third, your cash balance shown in the bottom of the Information 
window increases by the revenue received.
 
   And fourth, the bottom of the Shipping Report fills in green 
proportionally to the revenue earned. 

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How Revenues Vary

   Some cargos are more valuable to railroads than others because 
some customers are willing to pay higher fees for faster service.  For
this reason railroads develop a hierarchy of trains offering different 
services and customers can select the type of service that suits them 
best.
 
   In general, mail, passengers, and express packages attract the 
highest fares because they are given the best service.  The fastest
freight trains earn slightly lower fees for speedy delivery of 
important cargos such as perishable foods.  Bulk cargos such as coal 
have the lowest rates but are still profitable because railroads can 
efficiently carry them in huge quantities.
 
   On your railroad you can arrange some differentiation of service
to improve profitability by making up trains of the same or neighboring 
freight classes, by carefully setting train types and routes, and by 
understanding how freight rates are determined.
 
   The revenue earned for delivering cargos can vary between stations
(see Shipping Reports, page 58), cargo classes, worlds, and over 
time.  For the Western United States, revenues are higher than normal
for east-west deliveries and lower than normal for north-south 
deliveries.  The other worlds use the normal rate structure.  Over time, 
freight rates tend to fall.  To compensate, you must run bigger, faster, 
and for greater distance trains.
 
   The revenue for mail is most sensitive to time and distance.  The
faster it is delivered once picked up and the farther it is carried,
the higher the revenue per ton.  Passengers are less sensitive to time 
and distance, fast freight is even less sensitive, and so on down to bulk 
cargos that are insensitive to time and distance.  It doesn't matter how 
far you carry bulk cargos or how fast.  You are paid a strict fee by the
ton.   
 
Cargo Types

   The economies of the United States, England, and Europe are each 
represented by 11 cargos that can be carried by railroads.  Some cargos
are unique to one world, and some are available in all three.  The 11 
cargo types are separated into 5 freight classes, each with a distinctive
color as described in the Technical Supplement: mail, passengers, fast 
freight, slow freight, and bulk. 

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   The cargo class determines the revenue earned for delivery (as 
explained in the section above), how long it takes to load or unload a 
car, the weight of a full car, and the weight of an empty car.  Mail 
class cars take the least time to load or unload, then passenger cars, 
etc., down to bulk cars that take the longest time.  Mail cars are the 
heaviest when empty, then passenger cars, down to bulk cars that are the 
lightest car type when empty.  Conversely, bulk cars are the heaviest 
when full, then slow freight, up to mail cars that are the lightest when 
full.
 
   By being aware of these differences in cargo types when loading, 
riding empty, etc., you can improve the efficiency of your railroad by 
carefully arranging the makeup of your trains.  For example, a train 
made up entirely of mail cars or mail and passenger cars, loads and 
unloads much faster than the same train if a slow freight car is also
in the consist.  Thus a mail train moves faster.
 
   The supply and demand for cargos is derived from cities, villages, 
and industries as shown on the World Economies Chart found on the 
Player Aid Card.  Be aware, however, that it takes more than one village 
by itself to have any significant effect.  The aggregate of supply and 
demand from several villages is needed to make rail service worth- 
while. 
 
Resource Map

   To help you see where cargos are supplied and in demand, you can 
convert the Local Display into a Resource Map.  When you do this, the 
geography of the map is removed, and new one-letter symbols appear 
to mark sources of cargo supply and demand.  You can call up this 
Resource Map while planning and see at a glance the economic situation 
in your vicinity.
 
   To access the Resource Map, center the Area or Local Display 
over the part of the map that you wish to examine and pull down the 
Display menu.  Choose "Options" from this menu.  From the Options 
menu, choose "Resource Map", and a check mark appears next to that 
option.  The check mark indicates that the Resource Map is now taking 
the place of the normal Area and Local Displays.  Press any Selector to 
make the display change to the Resource Map. 

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   The letter symbols that appear on the map indicate a source of 
supply for a cargo at the symbol's location.  For example "C" indicates 
a source of coal which must be a coal mine.
 
   A letter symbol on a square background indicates a source of demand 
for a cargo.  For example, a "W" on a square background indicates a 
source of demand for wood, most likely a paper mill.
 
   If the Shipping Reports of your stations are blocking your review 
of the map, you can turn them off from Option menu as well.  When the 
Shipping Reports are visible their menu option is checked.  Choose 
"Shipping Reports" from the menu to turn off the check mark, and this 
makes them disappear from the display.
 
   To put the Resource Map away and return to the normal map displays, 
reverse the procedure for accessing the Resource Map and remove the check 
mark from the Option menu.    

Cargo Conversions
 
   Certain industries developed a special relationship with railroads 
because raw materials brought to them by rail were converted into 
products that were in turn shipped out by rail.  For example, cattle 
brought by train to packing plants was converted to frozen or canned 
meats and then shipped by rail to markets.  In this case an important 
rail cargo, processed meat, does not exist as a naturally found resource.
 
   In each world of Railroad Tycoon there are a number of cargos that 
come into being only after the conversion of another cargo at an 
industry.  These types of cargos can offer special opportunities for 
revenues because the same cargo can be carried several times. 

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   As shown on the World Economies Chart found on the Player Aid Cards, 
some industries demand one cargo and then convert it to another that 
they now supply.  For example, a carload of coal brought to a station 
that serves a steel mill is converted into a carload of steel.  A 
carload supply of steel is then available at the station.  This steel 
could then be taken to a factory's station, converted to manufactured 
goods, and then carried finally to a station demanding goods.  In this 
case, one carload of coal is converted into two successive carloads, 
each earning revenue. 
 
Priority Shipments

   The majority of railroad trains are run according to timetables.  In   
this way the railroad can schedule its stops and equipment needs for 
efficiency, and its customers can confidently make travel and shipping 
plans.  However, railroads are often requested to provide special trains
for excursions, emergency shipments, etc.  These special trains are 
usually quite profitable because the railroad would not disrupt its 
normal service to accommodate the specials if they weren't.
 
   Occasionally during play your railroad can receive requests_for 
delivery of Priority Shipments.  When delivered quickly they can be 
very lucrative, but at other times the pickup and delivery points are 
placed such that the disruption to your regular service may be too great. 
When a priority shipment appears, take a few moments to decide whether 
the delivery is worth your trouble.
 
   You are notified by a message window when a Priority Shipment becomes 
available.  The message tells you the cargo type to be delivered, where 
it must be picked up, and where it is to be delivered.
 
   In addition, a letter P appears in the Shipping Report of the station 
where the shipment is waiting, and a letter D appears in the report of 
the destination station.  The color of these letters corresponds to the 
color of the freight class of the shipment.  For example, if the shipment 
is food, classified fast freight, the letters are the color of fast 
freight, as described in the Technical Supplement. 

   When a Priority Shipment appears, the fee for delivering it also 
appears in the bottom  of the Train Roster window.  The amount shown 
is what your railroad would earn for delivery at that instant.  
Unfortunately, that fee continually shrinks in size as time passes, 
but many 

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are so large as to be quite substantial even after much time has passed.
If the delivery fee reaches $20,000 the shipment is cancelled and all 
further references to it are removed.
 
   In order to pick up a Priority Shipment, a train containing a car  
capable of carrying the priority cargo must be routed to the station 
where it is waiting.  When the train stops, the Priority Shipment is 
loaded on board.  The color of this train's locomotive icon on the Train
Roster changes, to indicate the shipment is on board.  Note that every 
train containing the correct type car that stops at this station picks up
the shipment, not just the first.
 
   Priority Shipments may be handed on to other trains.  Whenever a 
train carrying the shipment stops at another station, it "stocks" that 
station with the shipment.  Thereafter, any train containing the correct 
type car and stopping at this "stocked" station, also picks up the 
shipment. 
 
Building Industry

   Recognizing the long run benefit to themselves and the economic region 
they served, railroads often took steps to encourage industry along 
their system. 

   You may find at times that your railroad could substantially benefit 
from new industry in the right area, such as placement of a steel mill 
near a large coal area, or a food processing plant near a grain area.  A 
judicious investment such as these, or the provision of a missing link
for a chain of cargo converting industries could provide a handsome
return.
 
   As an alternative to waiting for industries to grow along your 
railroad, you may speed the natural process by attempting to invest 
in specific industries.  You may try this at any time.  The industries 
that may be built in each world are shown on the World Economies 
Chart, found on the Player Aid Cards. 

   To build a new industry, go the Detail Display.  Center the 
Construction Box in the area where you want the Industry to appear 
and pull down the Build menu.  This menu lists the industries available 
to be built.  Choose the Industry you desire.  If a suitable site 
was found in the area, the industry is built and the Construction Box 
moves to the site to point it out.  If no suitable site is available, 
you are informed that the industry can not be built. 

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   The search for a suitable site is carried out by your engineers. 
You cannot choose the square you desire.  If a suitable site cannot 
be found within 3 squares of where you placed the Construction Box, 
the investment does not take place.  In this case you may elect to 
move the Construction Box to another location and try again.
 
   As with other industries in the game, ones you build may also go 
out of business or change type. 

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OPERATING TRAINS

   The operation of a train is in the hands of two people, the locomotive
engineer who sets the train's speed, and a dispatcher who determines 
when and where the train moves.

   Railroad locomotives only move straight ahead or in reverse, they 
have no steering wheel.  The engineer, sitting in the locomotive's cab
and watching the track ahead, uses the throttle to adjust the train's 
speed to reach points along the line as scheduled.  He assumes that 
the track ahead are correctly arranged to guide the train to its proper
destination.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon, all of your engineers drive like Casey Jones on
a good day.  When the tracks are clear, they open the throttles wide on
your locomotives and make the best possible time. 

   The dispatcher's job is to be sure that the orders given the engineer 
before the train pulls out put his train at the right place at the time, 
that the tracks are properly arranged as needed, and that the movement 
of all trains is accomplished safely.
 
   You perform the first two functions of the dispatcher on your 
railroad (scheduling and switching) on the Train Report.  When you set 
a train's route on the Train Report, the division dispatchers on your
road schedule departures and arrivals, and arrange for the necessary 
track switching. 
 
   The third function of the dispatcher, providing safe operation, is
more complicated.  The safe movement of trains is controlled by the 
dispatcher on a large schematic diagram of the railroad.  The location 
of each running train is continually updated on the board.  The entire
road is divided into blocks, and the movement of trains into blocks 
is controlled by signals, like traffic lights.  A train is not allowed
into a block until trains ahead of it are out of the block, thus 
preventing the chance of collision.
 
   On your railroad, safety is assured by signals that are automatically 
set up when stations are built.  However, relying on these signals 
alone may result in very conservative, inefficient operation.  In your 
role as construction engineer and dispatcher, you may improve the 
efficiency of your road for minimum cost by selective placement of 
additional signals and double tracks.  You may also step into the 
management of individual trains by pausing them or opening blocks 
that would normally be closed. 

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How Signals Work

   The rules for signals apply only when the reality option "Dispatcher 
Operations" is in effect.
 
   Each station or signal tower on your railroad comes equipped with 
a set of track signals, one signal on each side of the track that passes 
through the station.  These signals control the movement of trains past 
them in either direction.  A Go signal allows an approaching train to 
pass, while a Stop signal stops it.  Refer to the Signals Chart on the 
Player Aid Card for a description of Go and Stop signals.
 
   All of the track stretching from one signal to the next along the 
line is considered a block of track.  Only one train at a time is 
allowed in a block of single track.  When a train enters a block of
single track, the signals at both ends of the block turn to Stop 
preventing any more trains from entering.  When the train reaches the 
end of the block, the signals at both ends turn to Go and once again 
allow entry. 

   Note that the boundaries of a block are set by the placement of 
signals.  In cases where tracks split at a switch, the tracks that 
continue on from the switch remain part of the original block unless 
a signal is placed after the switch. 

   For example, assume your railroad lays track between Richmond and 
Charlottesville.  You then place a switch between these two and run 
another track section north to Washington, D.C.  If you don't add any 
more signals, all of the track between the three cities exists as one 
block, and only one train can normally run on all of this track at a
time. 

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   By placing another signal just past the switch on the way to 
Washington, you separate the old block into two blocks, one that runs 
between Richmond and Charlottesville, and one that runs between the 
switch and Washington.
 
   If all of the track in a block is double track, the signal system 
allows two trains at a time to be in the block, regardless of their 
relative position.
 
   Every set of signals on your railroad comes with a signalman in
a tower.  If a train approaches a tower and the block ahead is empty, 
the signal is set to Go.  When the train enters the block, the signalman 
telegraphs the dispatcher and the dispatcher marks the train in the 
new block on his board.  The dispatcher telegraphs the signalman and   
his counterpart at the other end of the block to close the block.  Both 
signalmen set their block signals to Stop and no further trains are 
allowed in.  When the train inside reaches the other end of the block,
the signalman at that end telegraphs the dispatcher, and he gives the 
okay to reopen the block. 

   Recognizing what track constitutes a block can become complicated 
when tracks begin branching out.  Signals do not come with switches. 
All track that extends off of your mainline from a switch remains part 
of your mainline block unless you add a signal tower to the branch to 
separate it. 

Signal Towers
 
   A block that separates two stations a great distance apart may be 
so long that trains are running very inefficiently between them.  While 
one train is traveling across the block, the second is sitting at a Stop 
signal at one end. 

   One thing you can do to speed the relative movement of trains in this 
situation is divide the big block into smaller blocks by adding signal  
towers along the line.  The mathematics of calculus say that the more 
blocks you divide the big block into, the faster two or more trains can 
move between the ends of the original block.  But signal towers are 
expensive.  You must find an economical compromise between the number of 
towers to add and the increase in train speed that would follow, versus 
the cost of the those towers. 

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   To build a signal tower, go to the Detail Display and place the 
Construction Box on the track section where you want the tower to 
appear.  Pull down the Build menu, choose the option "Build Station", 
and then choose the option "Signal Tower" from the menu of station 
choices.  The new tower appears within the Construction Box on the 
display and the signals immediately begin affecting the movement of 
trains.
 
   A signal tower consists of a set of signals and a section of double 
track.  An unlimited number of trains may wait adjacent to a signal with 
no risk of collision.
 
   Signal towers cost $25,000 and may only be built on existing 
straight track sections.  They may not be built on curved, switch, 
bridge, or tunnel sections. 
 
Overriding A Block Signal

   The dispatchers on your railroad never make mistakes, but they are  
also very conservative.  There may be times on your railroad when more
liberal train operations can result in faster, yet safe, service.  In  
your role as chief dispatcher, you may open blocks that are normally 
closed to get stopped trains moving.  This action is useful when a fast 
train is already in a block and a slower train is waiting stopped behind 
it, or when one train is inside a complicated block of switching tracks 
and a train that is waiting has a route that doesn't interfere with the 
moving train.
 
   You may override a signal from any display except the Regional 
Display.  On the Detail Display, the Construction Box must be centered 
on the signal you plan to change.
 
   If you are using the mouse, place the pointer on the signal you 
wish to override and press Selector 1.  A Signal window opens showing 
the track, tower/station, and the two signals, one in each direction. 
The two signals are at either end of the building and control the blocks 
that they are adjacent to.  Inside the Signal window, place the mouse 
pointer on the signal you wish to override and again press Selector 1. 

   To override a signal when you don't have a mouse, place the cursor 
on it and press the Signal key.  This opens a widow that requests that 
you indicate the direction of the signal you wish to change.  Press the 
Direction key that corresponds to the direction of signal.  For example, 
if the signal you wish to change is on the west- 

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bound side of a station placed on a straight track running east to west,
you would press the due west Direction key to override that signal. 

   In both cases, another menu opens offering you the choices "Normal",
"Hold", or "Proceed".

   Choosing "Normal" restores normal signal operation: stop if the block 
is full, go if the block is empty. 

   You may override existing signals with either menu choices "Hold" 
or "Proceed".  How these overrides are graphically displayed is shown 
on the Signal Override Chart in the Technical Supplement.
 
   A signal overridden with "Hold" stops all trains until the signal 
is overridden again back to "Normal" operation.

   A signal overridden with "Proceed" allows the next train through,
but then automatically returns to normal operation.
 
   The menu choice "Normal" returns a currently overridden signal 
back to normal operation. 
 
Pausing Trains
 
   Railroads find it desirable on occasion to hold up the movement of 
a train.  A train could be held to prevent an accident or to allow a 
following train to pass. 

   On your railroad you may also find it desirable to temporarily halt 
a train.  In addition to the above reasons, you may wish for a train to 
wait outside a station until a supply of cargo has built up for the 
train to carry away. 
 
   You may pause a train by either changing the signal that it is 
approaching (as explained in the section immediately above.  Overriding 
Signals), or by ordering the train itself to pause.  Changing a signal 
to "Hold", however, stops all trains that reach this signal.  Pausing 
an individual train stops it alone.
 
   You pause an individual train from the Train Roster.
 
   If using the mouse, move the mouse pointer to the line below the 
train you wish to pause, and press Selector 2.  The line below the train 
changes color or pattern to indicate that the train is ordered to pause.
 
   If you don't have a mouse, use the Tab key and Direction keys to 
move the cursor next to the locomotive of the train you wish to pause
and press the Hold key.

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   The change in the line below the train indicates that this train is 
going to stop moving at the next signal it reaches and move no farther 
until you remove the pause order.
 
   To remove the pause order with either the mouse or keyboard, 
repeat the procedure for pausing.  The line reverts to its normal 
appearance and the train resumes normal operation. 
 
No Collisions Mode

   When you are first learning to play Railroad Tycoon, it may be 
useful to play without having to worry about signals and collisions. 
This may allow you to concentrate on learning other aspects of the 
game.
 
   To play without the possibility of collisions and be able to ignore 
the system of blocks and signals, choose the "No Collision" option 
when you are setting the parameters of your railroad. 

   The effects of the No Collision Mode are that trains can never 
wreck.  Even though the signal system does not work, trains do not 
collide.  When two trains meet or pass each other, the lower class train 
pulls over to a siding and halts.  This is handled automatically by your 
dispatchers and you don't have to make any preparations.  When the 
higher class train has passed, the halted train gradually begins 
moving again.  A disadvantage to this mode is that a low class train 
may be halted many times when trying to complete its route.
 
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4. THE RAILROAD BUSINESS

RAILROAD CAPITALIZATION

   Railroads were one of the great capital enterprises of the industrial 
age, requiring huge investments in the global construction projects that
they became.  Before the first train could run, costly and extensive 
preparation was required: miles of roadbed prepared, bridges built 
where necessary, rails purchased and laid down, minimum station 
facilities built, locomotives and rolling stock made ready. 

   The money that made railroads possible came from several sources, 
including investors subscribing to stock shares and thereby becoming 
partial owners of the enterprise, investors buying long term bonds, 
short term bank loans, and profits generated by the railroad once 
operations started.
 
   When a new game of Railroad Tycoon begins, you have already 
sold part of the public on your dream and attracted investors who have 
bought enough of your stock and bonds to give you a start.  As play 
continues you may have the opportunity to sell additional stock, borrow 
more money, buy back stock into the treasury, and buy back bonds. 
 
Initial Capital

   The initial capitalization of your railroad is $1,000,000, $5000,000
obtained from selling bonds and $500,000 obtained from investors who 
have bought 100,000 shares of your stock at $5 per share.  This is
the money you begin your railroad with. 
 
Additional Stock

   As time passes and your railroad grows, new stock, in addition to  
the 100,000 outstanding at the start, may come into existence in two 
ways: new stock issues or stock splits.
 
   New stock may be issued only when you build a station into a new 
city.  As a bonus for the new railroad connection, the local city 
leaders may offer to buy 10,000 new shares from you at the current 
market 

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price.  If this occurs, you have the option of making the or not. 
Choose the option you wish from the menu that appears.  The stock 
sold consists of newly authorized and registered shares that previously 
did not exist.  The sale increases the outstanding shares in the  
public's hands by 10,000.
    
   A 2 : 1 stock split occurs at the end of any fiscal period in which 
your stock price reaches $100 per share or higher.  At the beginning 
of the next year, the number of shares is doubled and the price of the
new shares is halved from the price of the old.  For example, if the 
price at the end of the year of 140,000 shares is calculated to be 
$110, the stock splits resulting in 280,000 shares priced at $55 per 
share.

Stockholder Happiness
 
   Regardless of the fact that the railroad you are running is your 
dream and that your decisions have made it the great enterprise that 
it is, you nevertheless work for the stockholders and they are a cynical
bunch.  Your stockholders are only happy if the stock price is higher
than last year and headed higher.  If the stock price doesn't increase 
they become unhappy, and they can become quite angry if by some 
shocking circumstance the stock price should actually fall.
 
   You retain office as president of your railroad so long as the 
stockholders are at least content with the job you are doing.  Their 
happiness is measured at the end of each fiscal period when the 
stockholders calculate their return on investment (ROI) averaged over 
the last 5 years.  The higher this number, the happier they are. 
If for several periods in a row this number doesn't increase, or 
actually decreases, the stockholders become progressively angrier.
 
   If stockholder patience runs out, they may throw you out of office
and replace you as railroad president.  You are forcibly retired and   
your management of the railroad ends.  However, if at least 50% of
your railroad's stock is in the treasury, you cannot be fired.

Bonds
 
   Your railroad starts with an outstanding 4% bond of $500,000. 
Further bonds are sold and bought back in $500,000 increments.
 
   Each bond sold has an annual interest rate which is subtracted 
from your railroad's cash at the end of every December.  The interest 
rate on any new bond you wish to sell depends on the economy and 
the number of bonds you have outstanding as in the table below. 

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   Once the current interest rate reaches 9%, you may not sell any 
further bonds, regardless of how many you already have outstanding 
or the current state of the economy.  If the economy improves and 
Economic interest rates fall, you may sell further bonds until
the rate reaches 9% again.
 
   Bond rates are lower in the Western USA due to government subsidies.

   To sell bonds or buy them back, call your broker.

Interest Rate Table

                                    INTEREST RATES
                             Number Of Bonds Outstanding
Economic
Climate     0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7
 
Boom        2%   3%   4%   5%   6%   7%   8%   X
Moderation  3%   4%   5%   6%   7%   8%   X    X
Normal      4%   5%   6%   7%   8%   X    X    X
Recession   5%   6%   7%   8%   X    X    X    X
Panic       6%   7%   8%   X    X    X    X    X


Notes: Interest rate percentages are the rate you will pay another
bond, depending on the current economic climate and the number of
bonds you have outstanding.  X = no bond sales possible.

Calling Your Broker

   To conduct most financial transactions involving stocks and bonds, 
you call your broker to get access to the financial activity menus. 
Pull down the Action menu and choose the option "Call Broker".  This 
opens the Financial Summaries window.  From here you can obtain certain 
financial information about your railroad and your competitors, sell or 
buy back bonds, buy and sell treasury stock, buy and sell competing 
railroad stock (Stock Market Takeovers, page 111), and operate competing 
railroads (see Controlling Other Railroads, page 112).
 
   To sell or buy back a bond, pull down the Cash menu.  If you choose 
the option "Sell $500,000 Bond", that amount of money is added to your 
cash and to the size of your bonds.  Choosing the option "Buy Back 
$500,000 Bond" subtracts that amount from your cash and bonds.
 
   To buy stock in your railroad and put it in your treasury, pull 
down the Buy Stock menu and choose the option "Buy Treasury Stock".
The cost of the stock is subtracted from your cash and 10,000 
shares are added to your treasury.  Treasury stock is sold in the same 
manner as it is bought, except from the Sell Stock menu.  Note that you 
cannot buy treasury stock if the public doesn't own any, and that you 
cannot sell treasury stock if there isn't any in the treasury.
 
   The price of stock is determined by normal buying and selling on the 
stock market.  When a very large order to buy or sell is placed, the 
price

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is forced up or down in order to find enough sellers or buyers on the
other side to complete the transaction. 

   All stock transactions in Railroad Tycoon are extraordinary orders 
involving relatively large amounts of the outstanding shares.  For this
reason, expect to actually pay 10% more than the quoted price when
buying, and receive 10% less than the quoted price when selling. 

Short Term Loans
 
   During play you may spend more money than you have.  When you engage 
in deficit spending, the color of your current cash ln the display 
window changes color.  If at the end of a year you have a negative
cash position, you are charged 12% on the negative balance.

Declaring Bankruptcy
 
    Like any business, railroads can get so deeply in debt that
protection from debtors and court supervised reorganization is the 
only alternative to utter ruin.  The normal result of a bankruptcy
is that the previous owners (stockholders) are wiped out, the bonds 
outstanding are reduced to a manageable level, and the remaining 
lenders receive new stock in exchange for their money that was lost. 
If the business returns to health, the rising stock price may someday 
equal or exceed the money lost when part of the bankrupt company's bonds 
were converted to stock.

   If economic conditions, accidents, and other circumstances work
against your railroad to the extent that it appears headed for ruin, you
have the option of declaring bankruptcy at any time.  This step can 
partially relieve your debt burden and perhaps get your railroad back 
on its feet.  There may be times when it's good defensive strategy as 
well.
 
   To declare bankruptcy, call your broker, pull down the Cash 
menu, and choose the option "Declare Bankruptcy".  All bonds that
can be repaid from your cash are paid off, half of your outstanding 
bonds are eliminated (rounded down), all of your treasury stock is
eliminated, all of your stock held by competing railroads is eliminated,
and the public is left with 100,000 shares.

   After declaring bankruptcy, you may not lay any more track until 
your cash balance is positive and all remaining bonds have been repaid.

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FINANCIAL REPORTS

   As your game of Railroad Tycoon continues you may call up a number of 
different financial reports to examine the process of your railroad. 
The reports that are available are a Balance Sheet, an Income Report, 
a Train Income Report, and a Stock Price Graph.  All of these reports 
are available during play.  From any display, pull down the Reports 
menu and choose from the list the report you wish to see. 

Balance Sheet

                          BALANCE SHEET: 1832
                     Charlottesville & Richmond RR

Assets:                Lifetime       Year to Date Changes
 Operating Funds:     $  418,000            $ 130,000
 Treasury Stock:      $  360,000            $  90,000
 Other RR Stock:      $  170,000            $  40,000
 Facilities:          $  100,000            $   0,000
 Industries:          $    0,000            $   0,000
 Real Estate:         $  127,000            $   0,000
 Track: 42 miles      $  126,000            $   0,000
 Rolling stock:       $   26,000            $   4,000
                      ----------
                      $1,330,000
Liabilities:
 Outstanding Loans:   $  500,000            $   0,000
 Stocking Equity:     $  500,000            $   0,000

PROFIT:               $  300,000       YTD: $ 260,000

Stock Price
 

   The Balance Sheet compares the value of the assets and liabilities
of your railroad and shows whether you have made a profit or loss during 
its existence.  The figures are presented in two columns, the right 
hand side for the year to date, and the left hand side for the lifetime 
total of the railroad up to this moment.

   Liabilities, expenditures, or losses are indicated by figures in a
specific color on screen (see the Technical Insert), or with a (-) sign
in documentation illustrations.  Figures in normal color indicate income 
gains, positive value of assets, increases in value of assets, and profits.

   Operating Funds is the cash you now have on hand. 

   Stock assets are the value of your treasury stock and the stock 
of other railroads that you own.  This value is a liquidation value,
or what you could expect to get for it if you tried to sell it all right 
now.  Because each buy or sell order tends to raise or reduce the price 
by 10%, the listed value is substantially lower than just the number of
shares you own times the current price. 

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   Facilities include all of your stations, signal towers, and station  
improvements, valued at their purchase cost.
 
   Industries include any steel mills, factories, or other industrial
sites that your railroad has purchased, also valued at purchase cost. 

   Real estate is the value of the right-of-way that you have purchased 
when laying track, and does not include buildings which are listed 
under facilities.

   Track is the value of track you have laid, listed at what it would  
cost if laid during a Normal economic climate.
 
   Rolling stock is the value of locomotives and cars you own at their 
purchase cost.
 
   Note that most assets are valued at what they cost.  For example, 
in the illustration above the C&R railroad has purchased 3 stations for 
$100,000 each, and they are listed as assets under Facilities as worth 
$300,000 in total.  Real estate is an exception, in that it generally
increases in value.  Stock, both treasury and in other railroads, can 
fluctuate in value. 

   In the year to date column is shown any changes in the value of 
assets during the ongoing fiscal period.  The statement above shows 
that so far this period $132,000 in cash has been generated, treasury 
stock has increased in value by $90,000 and other railroad stock owned 
has increased by $40,000.  A negative number appears in the rolling 
stock row for the current year if you eliminate cars from your trains, 
or replace or retire locomotives.
 
   The asset total for the railroad is the value at this moment of                    

everything the railroad owns.
 
   The liabilities of your railroad are the bonds which you have  
outstanding and the stockholder's equity, the money they paid into 
your company to buy stock when it was started.  In accounting terms
the long term profit of your railroad, the money that it has earned, is 
the value of your assets minus what you owe bondholders (debts) and 
stockholders (equity).  This profit figure is also known as retained 
earnings, or profits above investment and debts that have been plowed 
back into the company. 

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   In the case of the C&R railroad, it has assets of $1,330,000 versus 
equity and bonds of $1,000,000.  It has made a profit of $330,000 in 
its operating lifetime. 

Income Statement
 
                             Income Statement
                          Income Statement; 1832
                        Economic Climate: Recession

REVENUES:                          YTD:               Total:

Mail                            $   0,000           $   0,000
Passengers                      $  32,000           $ 292,000
Fast Freight                    $  31,000           $   0,000
Slow Freight                    $   0,000           $  77,000
Bulk Freight                    $   0,000           $  91,000
                                ---------           ---------
Other Income                    $  80,000           $   0,000
                                $ 143,000           $ 460,000
 
EXPENSES:

Interest / Fees                 $   0,000           $  40,000
Train Maintenance               $   0,000           $   6,000
Track Maintenance               $   4,000           $  22,000
                                ---------           ---------
Station Maintenance             $   9,000           $  40,000
                                ---------           ---------
                                $  13,000           $  77,000
Operating Profit                $ 130,000           $ 383,000
Stock Profits                   $ 130,000           
  
   The income statement reports earnings and expenses for the current 
fiscal period and for the lifetime of the railroad.  The left hand
column reports year to date (YTD) figures and the right hand column 
the lifetime total.  The figures in the total column do not include the 
YTD figures in the left hand column.  Revenue shows sources of income 
and expenses show where cash has been spent. The operating profit (or 
loss) is the money earned (or lost) in either time frame, calculated 
by subtracting expenses from revenue.  Stock Profits indicates the
gain or loss, so far this year, in the value of stock you own.

   The revenue for the freight classes, such as mail, passengers, 
etc., is the income earned for delivery of that type of cargo.  For 
example, in the statement above, the C&R has earned $32,000 so far
this year, and $292,000 in its history prior to this year, for delivery 
of passengers.  Other Income is earned for delivering Priority 
Shipments and by restaurants and hotels your railroad owns in stations 
where passengers are delivered.
 
   Under  expenses, Interest/Fees is the money you have paid out in 
Interest on bonds, interest on negative spending (spending money when 
your cash balance in $0 or less), and fees paid for selling or buying 
back a bond.  Train, Track, and Station Maintenance are expenses you 
must pay for salaries and up keep of these items. 

Train Income Report
 
   From this report you can read at a glance how each of your trains 
is performing.  The most important information is normally what the
train has earned so far this year (YTD), what it earned last year 
(Last Year), and what its expected maintenance cost is for this year. 
The Train Class shows whether the train is a local, through, express, 
or limited.  Under route is shown the stops the train is scheduled to 
make 

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and a > indicator shows its next destination.


   Also shown is the train's name if it has one, correct icons for the 
types of locomotive and cars that make it up, and its average speed. 

   If you have so many trains operating that they don't fit on one 
page, press the Selector 1 to flip to the next page of trains.

Stock Price Graph
             
   This graph displays the relative prices of your own stock and the 
stock of the competing railroads.  Across the top of the graph are the 
names of the railroads that have stock outstanding.  Starting in the 
bottom left corner are colored lines that trace the changes in stock 
prices as the game continues.

   The lines on the graph are color coded with the names of the 
railroads above.  Trace from the right-most end of any line to the left 
side of the graph to get an approximation of the current value of that 
stock.  For example, the line with the same color as the C&R's name 
ends just short of the $20 line, indicating a price of around $18 per 
share.
 
   When a stock's price reaches or goes over $100 per share, the 
stock splits.  Two new shares are issued for each one old share, 
and the price of the new shares is set at half the price of the old 
share.  The scale of prices on the graph changes to reflect the 
splitting of a stock. 

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   The scale of the graph on the left side extends from $0 to $100 
when a game begins.  After a stock split the scale doubles so that it 
always can show the correct price of stocks.  For example, the first time 
a stock splits, the scale changes from $0 - $100 to $0 - $200.  In this 
way the correct relationship between the prices of split and unsplit 
stocks is maintained. 
 
Economic Climate

   The economic climate in Railroad Tycoon moves between Panic,
Recession, Normal, Moderation, and Boom.  Panic is the worst, and
Boom is the best.  The overall trend is a gradual movement toward 
better times, but sudden bad news can drop the economy quickly and 
far.  The current climate affects the interest rate on bonds, the 
cost of track, the cost of double track, the cost of right-of-way, 
and the supply of cargos generated.  Generally, things cost more and 
more cargos are generated in better times. 

   Competing railroads are also affected by the economic climate. 
They normally have lower revenues in worse times, but may do more 
building to take advantage of lower costs.  They may also roll over 
their bonds in good times to lower their interest costs.
 
   Changing economic climates offer you opportunity and challenge. 
The opportunity in good times is to possibly lower your interest costs 
by buying back high interest bonds and selling new low cost bonds. 
In bad times construction costs are lower and this can save you money 
if you can arrange to do your expansion then.  Also, bad times may 
require you to reduce the number of trains or the cars on existing 
trains.  Smaller, faster, full trains in bad times can be expected to 
make much more money than larger, slower, half empty trains. 

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ADDITIONAL REPORTS

   In addition to Financial Reports, you may call up other reports for 
information about your railroad.  These include a list of your Accom-
plishments, an Efficiency Report, and a History of your railroad.
 
   These reports are available during play.  From any display, pull 
down the Reports menu and choose from the list the report you wish 
to see. 
 
Accomplishments

   This report is simply a log of the important events that have taken 
place on your railroad during your presidency.  Generally, any news 
that is sufficiently important to make it into the newspaper headlines 
is added to the list of your accomplishments.  Examples of accomplish- 
ments are the initiation of service to a new city and new records set 
for earnings. 
 
Efficiency Report

   This report supplies information on how well your railroad is doing 
in taking advantage of opportunities to pick up cargos supplied along 
your system. 

   The first part shows the total number of carloads of cargo that 
have been made available so far this fiscal period and during the 
previous period, and how many you managed to pick up.  The percentage 
number indicates approximately how much of the available cargos you 
carried.  The closer the percentage approaches 100, the more efficient
your railroad is at taking advantage of profit opportunities.
 
   Ton-miles traveled is a measure of the capacity that you have moved. 
For example, a 40 ton car that travels 10 miles equals 400 ton-miles 
traveled.  Ton-miles delivered is the number of tons delivered times 
the distance those tons were carried.  If the 40 ton car is fully loaded
when it traveled 10 miles and then delivered, it would equal 400 ton-miles 
delivered. 
       
   The utilization efficiency is ton-miles traveled by your railroad 
divided into ton-miles delivered.  It roughly tells you the percentage 
of time your cars are traveling empty.

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   Revenue efficiency measures the money you make versus the number of 
ton-miles you carry.  The dollar figure is an estimate of the money you 
earn per ton delivered.  The higher the number, the more money you are 
making per ton, and the more efficient are your operations. 
 
History

   The history report is a replay of your railroad's accomplishments
reviewed on the Regional Display that shows the growth of your 
railroad, the economy, and your competitors, up until now. 

   The replay is carried out on a year by year basis. 

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5. RAILROAD COMPETITION

COMPETING RAILROADS

   Once the technology of trains on rails was demonstrated to be 
practical, railroads began appearing throughout the industrial world.
The earliest roads had large areas all to their own, but that circum- 
stance didn't last.  As more entrepreneurs and investors were dazzled 
by the glamor and apparent riches of railroading, the countrysides 
became crisscrossed with new tracks. 

   Rival railroads fought for access to new or already lucrative areas. 
When in direct competition, healthier roads cut rates hoping weaker 
opponents could not afford the losses.  The ultimate competition came 
in the stock market where rivals fought for control of each other's 
companies or other railroad pawns on the map.
 
   The people who ran railroads during the era of expansion were of 
all types, brilliant engineers, accomplished executives, shrewd 
financiers, incompetents, and crooks.  Railroad presidents not only 
had to manage their own business, but understand the strengths and weak- 
nesses of their rivals and plan accordingly. 

   In Railroad Tycoon you too have rival railroads to contend with. 
Watch out for competing railroads expanding and cutting you off,
starting rate wars at key stations, or attempting to take control of
your railroad in the stock market.  In return, look for opportunities 
to cripple or take over your competitors.  Getting control of one or 
more of your rivals may significantly improve the success of your 
railroad. 

   Up to three of your rivals may start up their own railroads.  These 
railroads are run according to the personality of the historic figure 
that is their president.  For example, a railroad run by Jim Hill is 
always looking for new cities to build to.  Roads run by J. P. Morgan 
or Jay Gould are adept at stock market dealings. 

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PAGE 108

   You may not lay track across the track of a competing railroad, 
and you may not build a station within 5 squares of a competing 
railroad's station.  You may lay track directly into a rival's station, 
triggering a rate war (see Rate Wars, page 109).
 
   Once competing railroads are started, you may buy and sell their 
stock in a manner similar to that for buying your own stock (see
Calling Your Broker, page 97).  If you can purchase enough of a 
competitor's stock, you take the railroad over (see Stock Market Take- 
overs, page 111) and can partially control it (see Controlling Other 
Railroads, page 112). 

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PAGE 109

RATE WARS

   Prior to government regulation of freight rates, a standard tactic of 
rival railroads serving the same cities was to cut rates.  This drew 
business away from competitors, weakening them and hopefully driving 
them from the vicinity.  The survivor could then raise prices to very 
profitable levels without the competitive pressure keeping them down.
 
   Your railroad may be the target of a rate war attack from a 
competing railroad, or you may use the rate war as a means of weakening 
a rival.  To win a rate war you must understand what is going on and how 
best to proceed.
 
   A rate war is triggered when you either build track into a 
competitor's station or a competing railroad lays track into one of
your stations.  You receive a message announcing that a rate war has 
started, and the border around the Shipping Report of the affected 
station turns to the color signifying half rates.  Until the rate war 
is concluded, the border remains in the halfrate color, signifying that 
all revenues for delivering cargo here are halved.  A cargo that would 
normally earn $20,000 when delivered, earns $10,000 when taken to 
a station in a rate war.
 
   The winner of a rate war is decided by the local city council of the 
town where the war is underway.  At the end of each fiscal period the 
council examines the service provided by the opponents and votes for 
which should be given a monopoly on service to the city.  Beginning 
with the vote after the second fiscal period of the war, the first 
railroad to gain at least a 66% vote majority is declared the winner. 

   The votes in a rate war are directly tied to the amount of cargos 
delivered to, and taken from, the contested station.  For example, if
the station demands coal, the more coal you can deliver there, the more 
votes in your favor.  If the contested station has a large supply of 
wood, your vote total increases for every ton of wood carried away.  The 
city council is affected by your record on every cargo that they supply 
and demand, so it is in your interest to devote special trains to 
servicing this station, regardless of revenue, just to earn votes.
 
   If a competing railroad loses a rate war, all of its track leading out 
of the station is torn up.  If this leaves any stations isolated with no 
other track connections, then those stations are also eliminated.

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PAGE 110

    If your railroad loses, all of your facilities, track, trains, 
bridges, etc., within three squares of the station are eliminated.  You 
receive no compensation for these losses.

   If you win a rate war, the station becomes wholly yours.  The 
border around the Shipping Report for the station turns from the color 
signifying half rates, to the color signifying double rates.  For the 
next fiscal period all cargo delivery revenues are twice the normal rate. 
Having shamelessly acceded to the town's every wish to win the rate 
war, you are now in the happy position of giving them a lesson in 
monopoly economics.  
 
   You may not build facilities such as engine shops, post offices, 
etc., at a station in a rate war. 

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STOCK MARKET TAKEOVERS

   In the latter half of the 19th Century, many of the greatest railroad 
battles in America were fought on Wall Street, far from the tracks and
trains of the combatants.  One way to neutralize a competitor was to  
take him over and make his resources work for you, not against you. 
Some of the more infamous railroad men of this period knew next to 
nothing about running a railroad, but were experts in stock manipula- 
tion.

   While building and operating your railroad, you must remain 
aware of the stock market dealings of your competitors.  Given the 
opportunity, they may take over your company, loot it of cash, and 
put you out of work.  You must protect yourself from that risk, and 
also look for opportunities of your own.  It is possible for you to 
take over one or all of your competitors, and have them work for you 
thereafter.
 
   In addition to buying your own stock, you may purchase stock in 
any competing railroads.  If at any time you hold over 50% of the stock 
outstanding (owned by the public, in the company treasury, or in your 
hands), you take it over and control it (see Controlling Other Rail- 
roads, page 112).
 
   Stock purchases and sales are made in a manner similar to those 
for your own stock (see Calling Your Broker, page 97).  However, if 
the opposing management has bought the remaining stock you need and 
put it in the treasury, you can only buy the remaining shares by 
making a tender offer. 

   Once the public has no shares left to sell, you may tender an offer 
for all of the shares you don't own.  To do this call your broker from 
the Action menu and attempt to buy more stock in the target railroad. 
A new menu appears informing you that you must tender for all the 
remaining stock in the treasury at twice the current market price. 
You have the option of making this purchase or not.
 
   If you proceed to tender for the remaining stock, the cost is 
subtracted from your cash and you then own 100% of the stock in the 
railroad.
 
   Note that since you only need over 50% to retain control, you may 
sell off some of the stock now or later without losing control.  
However, if you sell stock to the point that you no longer own over 
50%, you lose control of the railroad and it becomes a competitor 
again. 

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CONTROLLING OTHER RAILROADS

   Controlling one or more of your competing railroads can help you 
financially and tactically.  The value of their stock can increase, 
helping to increase the value of your own.  You can transfer money from 
their treasuries to yours, or vice versa.  You can attempt to have a 
controlled railroad build track that blocks other railroads from 
expanding, while your own railroad grows unhindered.
 
   Having obtained control of a rival you must decide how best to profit 
from its resources.  Is the best course to invest in it, or have it 
invest in you?  Use it as a blocker, or build it away from you to keep 
your options open?  Have it start a rate war against another rival?
 
   Once you have taken control of a competing railroad, you may 
make some operating decisions for it.  To operate a controlled 
railroad, pull down the Action menu, choose "Call Your Broker", and 
then pull down the Operate RR menu.  You have four operating choices, 
as shown in the Operate RR menu below. 
 
   Choose the "Take $100,000" and "Give $100,000" options to move 
money from the controlled railroad's treasury to your railroad's 
treasury, or vice versa.  Money is normally moved in $100,000 amounts. 
Money may also be moved in $250,000 increments if a substantially large a
mount of cash is available in either treasury, and the Operate RR menu 
changes to reflect this ability.
 
   Choose the "Buy Back Bond" option to order the controlled railroad to 
buy back one $500,000 bond.  The railroad's cash and bonds are then 
reduced by $500,000.  Controlled railroads only buy back bonds when you 
tell them to do so.  They may never sell more bonds.
 
   Choose the "Build Track" option to order the controlled railroad to 
attempt to connect to a certain city.  A text window opens giving you 
the opportunity to name the cities you wish it to build from and to. 
Type in the name of the city and press the Selector 1 key.  Thereafter, 
the railroad attempts to build to the city you named.  If it is unable 
to build there for some reason, a message appears telling you this. 

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   Once you have taken control of a railroad, your exercising of this 
option is the only way the controlled railroad continues to build.
 
   You may build your tracks into the stations of a controlled 
railroad, creating Union stations.  When this occurs, you automatically 
build a terminal (normal cost $200,000) for the cost of a station 
($100,000).  You may build facilities at Union stations. 

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PAGE 115

6. THE RAILROAD STORY

THE ORIGINS OF RAILROADING

   The history of railroading can be traced back to rut roads in ancient 
Greek cities that are thought to have guided ceremonial carts.  But the 
elements of railroading as we think of it all came together for the 
first time in 1825 when George Stephenson piloted his engine locomotion 
No. 1 along the tracks of the Stockton & Darlington Railroad, pulling a 
train of 34 cars.
 
   Preserved from that day is an account of the somewhat mystical 
beginnings of railroading from one of Stephenson's workmen.  Having 
unloaded the locomotive from its wagon, mounted it on the tracks, and 
filled its boiler with water, the men discovered they had no match. 
While one man went off to get a lantern, Robert Metcalf used sunlight 
through his magnifying glass to light his pipe.  Being practical he 
turned his glass on some hemp packing and soon had transformed the 
power of the sun into the fire of the first locomotive to pull a common 
carrier train. 

   That day in September was a triumph not only for Stephenson and the 
founders of the railroad, but for all the other inventors and thinkers 
who had contributed to the new technologies and ideas brought together 
there for the first time.  The combination of track, locomotive, and 
common carrier train, was to revolutionize the transportation of people 
and goods, and help change the world forever.
 
   The first component of the railroad to be developed was the track 
that guided the trains and cars.  The benefits of moving wheeled 
vehicles along rails of some sort had been recognized for many years 
prior to 1825.
 
   By distributing the weight of the load along the rail and down 
through the track structure, very heavy loads could he supported. 

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   Without this weight distribution, the heavy steam locomotives that 
were soon to appear would be unable to move without sinking into the
ground. 

   A smooth wood or iron rail surface in contact with the smooth
wheels of moving vehicles offered much lower resistance, or friction
than the uneven roads or ground.  Flanged wheels on the vehicles
helped them adhere to the rail.  The combination of rail and flanged 
wheel meant that heavy loads could be pulled by horses, and then 
steam locomotives, at unprecedented speeds. 
 
   Rails served as guides, allowing a single power source to pull a 
long string of carrying vehicles and thereby spread the costs of power
over more loads.  Prior to rails, vehicles had to be moved singly, each
with a single power source, usually a horse.
 
   Track was used prior to the 1820's primarily inside and outside 
of mines where the expense of its construction was practical due to the
frequent movement of heavy loads.  Other than for mines, tracks were
rarely seen until tramroads appeared in the 1600's.  Tramroads were
tracks over which horses pulled specially wheeled wagons.  Before 
tramroads became widespread, however, a new power source had appeared, 
the steam locomotive. 

   The first practical demonstration of a steam locomotive occurred
in 1804 when Richard Trevithick's engine pulled some ore cars along 
a tramroad in Wales.  This early design did not generate the enthusiasm 
it deserved, but other inventors continued to search for efficient 
ways to transform high pressure steam into a locomotive power.

   The success of Stephenson's Stockton & Darlington designs, plus
his later triumph at the Rainhill Trials of the Liverpool & Manchester,
got the Western world's attention.  Men of industry and science came
from all over to see steam locomotive power first hand.  Most went 
home impressed with the new technology and many drew up plans for 
railroads in their communities.
 
   The difference between the Stockton & Darlington and previous  
railroad experiments was that the train that Stephenson pulled was 
a common carrier.  Anyone wishing to travel or ship goods could buy 
space on the train.  The freight and passenger cars were owned by the 
company, and they promised to have the train depart from a depot at 

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one end of the line and arrive on a schedule at another depot where 
passengers and goods unloaded.  The Stockton & Darlington was the 
model for all future railroads. 

   Railroads would have been only interesting toys if there were no 
opportunities for their profitable employment.  By the 1820's England 
had witnessed the economic value and profitability of canal transport. 
The new technology of railroads promised even greater practicality 
and profits than canals because it offered greater speed and capacity, 
was cheaper to build, could be built anywhere, and could operate in 
any weather. 

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PAGE 118

THE ROLE OF RAILROADS

Introduction

   The role of a railroad is to assemble and move trains of cars 
carrying goods and/or passengers from one place to another.  Because
they can move large loads over long distances for minimal costs, they
are often by far the most efficient method of transportation available. 
Today in North America, mainline railroads principally carry freight. 
Passenger traffic is mainly concentrated in commuter traffic into and
out of major cities, carried by local private or government owned lines. 
In most European countries, railroads still have important passenger 
business. 

   Historically, the role of railroads has gone through many changes.
Beginning as a special type of transportation with limited use, they 
expanded into the principal way of moving anything, anywhere.  Their
role in the economy has shrunk in scope today, but not in importance. 
 
Changes Over Time

   Prior to the Stockton & Darlington, railroads were adjuncts to the 
mining business.  Only the steady volume and weight of mine traffic 
justified the expense of tracks, power, and cars.  The typical train 
consisted of a horse or primitive locomotive pulling a few cars of coal 
or ore.
 
   The main cargo of the first Stockton & Darlington common carrier 
train was still coal, but the difference was that flour and passengers 
were also carried along.  The railroad advertised that it was offering 
transport service to and from its terminal cities.  Freight could be 
shipped by the package or the carload, and passengers were welcome. 
All the cars in the trains were owned by the company and arrangements 
were made with the railroad for loading and unloading.  From this 
beginning of common carriage, the role of the railroad began to 
broaden and diversify.
 
   The first common carriage railroads were built to connect coastal 
cities with sources of raw materials in the interior.  For example, the 
Stockton & Darlington, the Liverpool & Manchester, and the Baltimore & 
Ohio were all planned originally to increase the flow of trade to ports. 
This traffic did indeed flourish, and these early roads found to their 
delight that traffic going back to the interior grew as well.  Very 
quickly passenger traffic in both directions far exceeded expectations, 
and railroads developed the concept of trains wholly dedicated to 
carrying passengers. 

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   The success of the first railroads inspired imitators, and soon 
railroads were being built everywhere.  Every city and then every town 
wanted to be connected to its neighbors by rails.  People and goods 
began moving back and forth by train in astonishing amounts.  Access 
to railroads brought new industries and population into a region, 
increasing traffic even more.  Dedicated railroads were built to serve 
individual industries such as coal mines and lumber mills.
 
   The cheap, fast, and safe transportation provided by railroads 
was an added spur to the economic growth of nations undergoing the 
Industrial Revolution.  Railroads themselves benefitted from improved 
technology as steel rails and more powerful locomotives provided 
more efficient service.
 
   The peak of railroad mileage in the United States came in 1916. 
At this time most intercity transportation within the country was 
handled by railroads.  Raw materials, finished products, livestock, 
and people moved throughout the country almost entirely by rail. 
 
Railroads Today

   Since 1916 the mileage of track in the United States has decreased 
nearly 25%, but surprisingly, the ton/miles of traffic carried has 
more than doubled.  These changes were brought about mainly by the 
abandoning of parallel and branch tracks, and the consolidation of 
traffic.  During the heady days of railway expansion many routes 
were overbuilt and the traffic could not support all the railroads 
trying to compete.  Inefficient lines have now been mostly eliminated.
 
   When railroads hauled most of the passengers and freight for the 
nation, branches and spurs trailed off the mainlines in every direction, 
serving even the smallest industry or community.  Today the branch line 
is all but gone from Class 1 railroads ($50,000,000 gross revenue per
year), though many are being operated by local companies or governments.
The major railroads have trimmed down to just their mainline trunks.
 
   Traffic is now concentrated at major freight terminals and large 
consolidated freight trains constitute the majority of traffic.  As 
more of the transport roles that trains once provided have gone to 
other carriers, railroads have concentrated their business where they 
are most efficient.  When freight can be quickly loaded into and 
dispersed 

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from the large, fast, long distance trains that operate today, the costs
of railroad shipping cannot be beat. 

   The single most common railroad cargo today is coal carried to power 
generating plants, metallurgical industries, and ports for overseas 
shipment.  Additional common cargos are containers or truck trailers on 
flat cars, iron and steel scrap, metallic ores, coke (the kind made from 
coal and burned to make steel), petroleum products, fabricated metals and 
machinery.
 
   When railroads became viable they quickly superseded canals,
stagecoaches, and freight wagons as the principle method of ground 
transportation.  For over 100 years they remained dominant.  In the 
20th Century many of their roles have been passed over to other 
transportation modes, such as automobiles, trucks, airplanes, barges 
and pipelines, but they remain extremely efficient in their core 
business.
 
   Railroads can be expected to have an important role in transportation 
for a long time, and in the future may find several of their previous
roles restored.

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RAILROAD FINANCES

Railroad Stock

   Railroads were some of the first great capitalized corporations.
The expense of their construction could not be born by one man or a 
small group, especially when so much work had to be finished before 
the first train could run.  For this reason, most railroads were 
originally financed by stock subscriptions.

   The new corporation began with a charter from the government, 
usually the state in the United States.  According to this charter, so 
many shares of stock were authorized for sale, each share equalling 
a part ownership in the company.  These shares were then offered to 
the public for purchase, thereby raising funds. 

   In the Baltimore & Ohio's case, shares were offered at a price of 
$100 each, but you subscribed to the shares by putting up only a 
percentage of the cost, say $5.  At regular intervals stock subscribers 
were expected to make additional payments until the entire $100 had 
been paid in.  If you missed your payments, the ownership of the stock 
normally reverted to the company and your investment to date was lost.
 
   In return for your investment the company promised to begin 
paying dividends at a future date from the revenue it expected to be 
earning by that time. 

   The great advantage of funds raised from stock sales was that 
there was no requirement that they be paid back.  Investors were 
gambling that the railroad would be profitable, returning to them 
dividends and perhaps even an increase in the value of their shares. 
But if the railroad did poorly, their only recourse was to remove the 
president and bring in someone who could try to set things right.
 
   In addition to stock sales to the public, local or state governments 
would occasionally purchase stock to help finance a railroad enterprise 
thought to be especially beneficial to the community.  A town might 
offer to buy stock to encourage a railroad to build into the area. 
For example, the Baltimore & Ohio built a line from Baltimore to 
Washington, D.C. at the request of the state of Maryland in return for 
the state buying a large block of B & 0 stock and other considerations. 

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Railroad Bonds

   When stock sales dried up,the next alternative for raising money
was to borrow it.  This was most often done by authorizing and selling
bonds to the public.  The railroad agreed to buy back the bond at a fixed
date in the future, and pay a fixed amount of interest each year to the
purchaser.  For example, if a 30-year 5% bond was sold for $1000, the
railroad would receive $1000 today, pay $50 interest each year to the 
bond buyer, and after 30 years buy back the bond for $1000.
 
   The bond buyer was betting that the railroad would not fail, giving
him a fixed return of $50 each year, and then returning his $1000.  The
railroad was betting that it could put the $1000 to work immediately 
in such a manner so as to generate enough future income to cover the, 
interest payments and pay back the $1000 in 30 years.
 
   The bond holder owned only the bond, he had no part of the railroad's 
ownership.  However, if the railroad could not buy back the bond after 30 
years, the bond holder normally had first right to any money raised from 
the sale of bankrupt railroad assets. 
 
   Railroads tried very hard to keep bond holders happy and paid up, 
however, because the interest rates they had to pay and their ability 
to sell more bonds depended greatly on their previous record of 
payment. 

Land Grants
 
   The railroads in North America were often built into areas of low 
population where traffic was expected to be light for some time.
Especially in the West where transcontinental railroads were thought
to have important national benefits, the government subsidized
railroad construction by giving the railroads large blocks of land. 
The railroads sold this land to raise money for construction.
 
   This system served very well, and by the late 1800's the western 
expanse was bridged several times.  The land was sold to farmers and 
entrepreneurs who built new towns along the roads, accelerating    
settlement and soon generating rail traffic.  However, the system was
not regulated and many of the land grant railroads were rife with
corruption and swindle.
 
   The most famous western fraud was the Credit Mobilier scandal 
involving the Union Pacific Railroad.  The directors of the Union 
Pacific started a second company, the Credit Mobilier, and hired it 
(and

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themselves) to do the construction of the Union Pacific.  They then 
proceeded to bill themselves about three times the cost of construction, 
pocketing the difference.  By the time the Union Pacific completed 
its famous link with the Central Pacific, it was essentially bankrupt.
 
   Despite the scandals, stock and bond holder losses, and the large 
government give-away of land, the construction of the transcontinental 
railroads was considered a good investment for the nation.  When the 
looted railroads were reorganized they generally proved to be good 
investments beyond their strategic value.
 
   It should be mentioned that one transcontinental road , the Great 
Northern, was built from Duluth, Minnesota to Seattle, Washington, 
entirely without government land grants.  The Great Northern was the 
creation of James Hill, tough and often ruthless, but one of the great 
railroad builders of the age. 
 
Stock Market Shenanigans

   Unfortunately for many investors and bondholders, railroads and 
their stocks often became playthings in the hands of shrewd and 
skillful crooks.  The result too often was a sudden railroad bankruptcy 
and financial ruin for investors.
 
   When the stock market worked as planned , the price of a stock at 
any one time was thought to be an accurate representation of the value 
of the company.  But on Wall Street in the late 1800's, the stock market 
often behaved oddly, manipulated legally (for that age) and illegally.
 
   That time period was one of consolidation and competition in the 
railroad business, as overbuilding of railroads was reducing profits. 
Railroads looked to take over competitors or ruin them financially as 
a cheap alternative to lengthy rate wars.  In this environment men 
such as Jay Gould, Jim Fisk, and Daniel Drew found opportunity. 

   The most common ploy was to quietly accumulate a low-priced stock 
with little prospects, and then generate a lot of buying in it with 
rumors.  Since it was relatively easy to borrow funds against stock 
values, rising prices generated more buying power that forced prices 
higher, and so on.  At some point the original plotters jumped out, 
selling their accumulation at a profit, while the late comers watched 
their hot stock collapse. 

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   A more subtle strategy was the bear raid.  A little judicious stock 
buying and the spread of some rumors in the right places were designed 
to get a stock's price flying upward.  At the right moment the bears 
started selling short, or selling shares they didn't have at today's 
price, in the hope that they could buy them at a much lower price later, 
just before they were to be delivered.  Their short sales helped drive 
down the stock, plus new rumors were designed to start panic selling. 
The raiders pocketed the difference between the price they sold at, and 
the lower price they paid later for the stock they delivered.
 
   For example, assume the raiders decide to attack the Erie's stock, 
a favorite target, now selling for $50.  They begin buying the stock 
and spreading rumors that the New York Central is buying Erie.  The 
stock begins to climb toward $80.  The raiders jump in, selling Erie 
short at $80, or selling it but not having to deliver the stock for a 
week.  They continue selling and spreading more rumors that the New 
York Central is not only not buying but planning a new rate war. The 
Erie stock plunges to $20 in 4 days.  The bears buy back at $20, 
delivering the stock to the people who bought it from them at $80, and 
pocket $60 per share.
 
   If possible the two ploys were worked together, making money on 
both the way up and down.
 
   The danger in a bear raid was the risk that the stock you were 
shorting continued to rise in price, instead of fall, forcing you 
eventually to pay a higher price than you had already sold it for.  If
you sold short at $80 and the price rose to $100 before you could buy 
it back, you lost $20 per share.
 
   In one memorable case, Commodore Vanderbilt got wind of a bear 
raid on one of his stocks, and started furious buying.  The short 
selling bears, led by Daniel Drew, were caught in a bear trap, as the 
price kept rising further above the price where they had sold it.  Drew 
and his accomplices had to make a secret deal with Vanderbilt on his 
terms to avoid total ruin. 

   Jay Gould and others took these games one step further by actually 
taking control of the Erie and other railroads and manipulating their 
stock prices from inside.  The public may have been bewil- 

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dered by the violent swings in the stock price of the Erie, but Gould 
and his friends were making money with each move.
 
   Several years later, the moribund Union Pacific, still feeling the 
effects of the Credit Mobilier scandal, fell into Jay Gould's hands for 
a very low price.  The railroad immediately began paying large and 
steady dividends, and the stock price rose accordingly.  When Gould 
sold out for many times his cost, the new owners discovered massive 
hidden loans that couldn't be repaid and the road went back into 
bankruptcy. 

   By the turn of the 20th Century, new regulations on Wall Street 
had curtailed many of the manipulators' frauds.  The Security and 
Exchange Commission and other government bodies were set up to 
protect industry and stockholder rights.  Most of the villains of
this age were brought down by either the government or their own 
excesses.  Jay Gould eluded his enemies to the end, dying rich, but 
despised.

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CONSTRUCTING RAILROADS

Where To Build

   The first step in constructing a railroad was obtaining a charter
from the government (state or national).  This empowered the railroad 
to build its connections by obtaining passage through private land
with the government's right of eminent domain.  Having decided that
the proposed railroad would sufficiently benefit the community, the
government made it possible for the railroad to obtain reasonable
passage.

   Armed with its charter, the railroad sent its surveying parties into
the field to search for the best route.  The surveyors had to keep several
factors in mind including changes in elevation, curves, the value of the 
land the road was to pass over, and the proximity of possible revenue
sources.  The two main concerns were to minimize grades and curves.

   A locomotive pulling a heavy train uphill has to devote increasing
power to lifting as the grade, or percentage change in elevation,
increases.  A 3,000 horsepower locomotive pulling a 2,000 ton train (a 
1.5 hp per ton train) can travel at 60 miles per hour on level track, but
its speed drops to 22 mph on a 1% grade and 10 mph on a 2% grade.
Lighter trains are less affected by grades.
 
   Straight tracks are easier to build and maintain, and allow trains 
to move faster.  When a train is moving around a curve, part of the 
locomotive power is needed to pull the train around, and less is
available for pulling forward.  Also, the centrifugal force of the curve
tends to push the cars out of the curve, putting more drag on the
locomotive.  In the early days of railroading extremely tight curves 
restricted the size of engines and cars that could negotiate them.   

   In 1828 the surveyors of the first Baltimore & Ohio route faced the
dilemma of choosing between tighter curves or steeper grades. Drawing
on the limited information available from England and having little
idea of the abilities of steam locomotives, they minimized grades and 
accepted exceedingly tight curves.  This proved the wrong compromise 
as locomotives capable of handling grades soon became available.  The 
curved track sections were a constant problem for the railroad, 
moreover, being rebuilt many times through the years.
 
   When its survey was complete, a railroad had a plan of the track, 
including where bridges, fills, and tunnels would be needed.  Armed 
with the power of the state, the railroad bought the required land and 
the construction gangs began building the road. 
 
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Track Construction

   The earliest track designs in America were modeled on less expensive 
English examples, including cast iron straps fastened to stone sills laid 
lengthwise, wood stringers laid lengthwise with iron straps on top, and 
iron straps on wood stringers laid on stone blocks.  The stone 
construction was satisfactory for horse pulled cars, but absolutely 
unsuited for locomotives whose weight required give in the track for a 
smooth ride.  Some English roads were built of edged plates laid 
lengthwise, but these were too expensive for American use.
 
   Where wood crossties had been used instead of stone as a temporary 
expedient to save time and expense, they were found to actually work 
quite well.  Wood proved to have the necessary resilience and cushioning 
effect required when steam replaced horses. In addition, track could be 
spiked directly into the wooden tie. 

   The wooden ties used today weigh 200 pounds.  They are pressure 
treated with 25 pounds of preservative to slow decay.  Additional 
improvements include pre-drilled spike holes that reduce fiber damage 
and improve spike grip, and metal tie plates that spread the load 
of the rail over more of the tie to prevent tie cutting and crushing. 
The expected useful life of first quality ties has been extended to 25 
or more years.
 
   In many parts of the world where wood is difficult to obtain, concrete 
ties have been used instead.  The future of concrete ties depends on the 
length of their useful life, which is still being tested.  Concrete ties 
require a new track structure because the dynamic action occurs between 
the tie and the ballast, not the tie and the tie plate of wooden tie 
track. 

   The weight of increasingly heavy locomotives made strap rail 
dangerous as well as obsolete, because the straps tended to roll with 
the weight and separate from the roadbed.  The disconnected ends, 
known as "snake heads", had an alarming tendency to pull up and 
pierce the bottom of cars passing over.
 
   Alternatives to strap and plate rails were bar rails rolled in the 
shape of an "L", upside down "U", "I", or "T".  The flange of the L rail
kept the wheels of the cars on the track.  The U, I, or T rails laid on 
wood ties and run over by cars with flanged wheels were found to be the 
best system.  The T rail, laid upside down, proved to have the greatest 

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strength and is still used today.
 
   Robert Stevens, the son of early railroad proponent Colonel John 
Stevens, is credited with designing the T rail on a trip to England in 
1830 to study English railroads.  During his sea passage he whittled out 
of wood the first T rail, the familiar rail spike, and the tie plate, all 
used today in modified form. 

   The T design did not become universal, however, until after the 
development of the Bessemer process reduced the price of steel from $300 
per ton to $50.  Prior to that cast iron (hard but too brittle) and 
wrought iron (strong but too soft) had been cheaper alternatives.  As a 
nearly ideal construction material with a useful combination of hardness, 
strength, and stiffness, steel made the developing power of heavy steam 
locomotives usable.  The iron rail that Stevens ordered in England 
weighed 15 pounds per yard; current steel rails are rolled out at 112 to 
145 pounds per yard. 

   Rail sections in North America have been 39 feet in length since the 
1920's, so as to fit on 40 foot flat cars.  The sections are bolted 
together at the ends.  These bolted joints, however, are the weakest 
part of the track.  They 

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wear out first, and the reduced stiffness at the joint requires extra 
maintenance to minimize rough riding.

   An answer to this problem has been 1500 foot welded rails, made up of
shorter rails joined as they are made.  These long rails are transported 
and laid down by a special train, and laid only on high temperature days 
and with special techniques to minimize contraction and expansion 
problems.  A 1500 foot steel rail would contract 1 foot if the 
temperature dropped from 100 degrees to 0 degrees without the special 
steps taken when it is laid down.

   Below the wooden ties to which the track is fixed lies the track 
ballast, usually consisting of crushed rock.  Ballast holds the ties in 
place, spreads out the load from the rails, and keeps the track 
structure drained.  If the ballast does not drain free of water, ice 
may put additional stresses into the rail and tie system, and the track 
may heave when it thaws.  Soggy ballast also speeds the rotting of the 
ties.
 
   Below the ballast is the subgrade, earth accumulated and tamped 
down so as to support the track pressure from above in all weather 
conditions without settling.  Drainage ditches are normally dug to the 
sides of the subgrade to improve drainage.  In only a few instance can 
track be laid directly on the ground without some subgrade preparation. 

   In his book about modern railroading, John Armstrong describes 
4 diesel locomotives linked together rounding a curve at 70 mph being 
guided and supported by 260 feet of track.  Combined, these locomo- 

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tives weigh 750 tons.  The track below them consists of: 

      o 11.5 tons of steel rail, held in place by 
      o 600 lb. of spikes, and resting on 
      o 3.1 tons of steel tie plates, resting on 
      o 16.7 tons of crossties, resting in 
      o 130 tons of crushed rock ballast, 
    which in turn is resting on the subgrade and right of way below. 

Bridges 
 
   In 1940 there were nearly 4,000 miles of track in the United States
laid on bridges, enough to stretch from New York to London.  Bridges
were found immediately necessary to cross rivers and other obstacles 
in the geography because railroads had to minimize the elevation
changes on their lines.  Preferred construction materials were either 
stone, wood, or metal, depending on the location, engineering science 
and technology of the day, and cost. 

   For the earliest railroads, especially in England, stone was the 
preferred material for bridge construction.  The science of wood bridge
building was not advanced, and the early builders were making their best 
guess as to the future demands on the bridge.  These early English
structures had great beauty and durability, and the English continued to 
build in stone when it could be afforded. 

   The Baltimore & Ohio in America emulated the English, building 
its first four great bridges and viaducts out of stone as well.  But 
it was soon realized that the expense and time of construction made 
stone generally impractical in America where the distances covered 
were so great and the number of bridges needed so large.

   Necessity being the mother of invention, American engineers turned to
wood as a cheap and fast alternative to stone.  Wood was very plentiful 
in America and often right at hand for the bridge builders.  Engineers 
found that bridge parts could be prefabricated and then brought to the 
bridge site for installation.  In this manner the B&O was able to replace 
wooden bridges burned by Confederate troops at Harpers Ferry in a matter 
of days.
 
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   Where stone was not practical, English engineers turned to long 
iron plate girders laid end to end and supported by stone piers.  These 
were practical in England because of the relative availability of cheap 
iron versus wood.  English railroads as well, were more profitable than 
American roads of the period and more capital could be raised for 
permanent structures.
 
   American railroads continued experimenting with wood first, and 
then iron construction techniques.  The result was the truss bridge, 
first of wood, then wood and iron rods, and then the all iron truss 
bridge.  Trusses linked together in spans could inexpensively bridge a 
large distance.  A major step in the improving science of civil 
engineering came in 1847 with the publishing of a study analyzing the
stresses in truss bridges.
 
   When cheap steel became available, it surpassed all other materials 
in bridge construction.  Its characteristics made it an ideal and 
economic choice, and opened the way for new designs such as the steel 
arch, the suspension bridge, and the cantilever.  The first all-steel 
bridge was built of truss spans in 1879 across the Missouri River at 
Glasgow, Missouri. 

   Each member, or part, of a railroad bridge must be calculated to 
support several loads and forces, including the weight of the bridge 
itself, the weight of the locomotives and cars expected to pass over it, 
the sideways thrust of swaying vehicles, thrusts generated by trains 
attempting to stop on the bridge, and side pressures of the winds.  As 
train weight, size, and speed increased, there had to be a corresponding 
evolution in bridges. 

Tunnels 
 
   In those cases where a ridge or hill must be passed by a railroad, 
a tunnel may be the economical solution.  The engineers have to 
estimate the costs of tunnel construction versus alternative track 
arrangements to bypass the obstacle, and then the railroad manager 
have to evaluate the effects on their operations of the alternatives. 
In the United States, tunnels have been the chosen alternative in over 
1500 locations. 

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   Tunnels were not a new idea, having already been found useful for 
canals.  The earliest canal tunnel was built in France in 1678.  Even 
in the United States there were at least two canal tunnels before the 
first railroad tunnel was built. 

   A tunnel is simply a hole bored through a mountain or hill.  The 
construction crew works its way through the mass with drills and 
explosives, attacking the face of the tunnel and removing the debris. 
Where practical the tunnel is built from both ends towards each other
to speed construction.  In some cases shafts are sunk from the top of 
the hill down to the tunnel elevation and new bores are built out from 
the middle, increasing the working faces.
 
   The earliest railroad tunnels were dug with hand drills and black  
powder.  Later in the 19th Century pneumatic drills became available, 
as did a superior explosive, nitroglycerine.  Tunneling could be 
dangerous work, especially under rivers when added precautions were 
necessary to prevent collapse. 

   A common practice was to send the tunneling parties ahead of the
railroad so that the tunnel might be ready when the tracks reached it. 
In America, railroads often built some expedient track to get the line  
operating while work progressed on tunnels that would eventually
become the mainline.
 
   The longest through railroad tunnel in the United States is the 7+
miles Cascade Tunnel finished by the Great Northern (now Burlington
Northern) in 1929.  The shortest tunnel in the United States is the 10
yard Bee Rock Tunnel finished by the Louisville & Nashville between
Kentucky and Virginia in 1891.

   The longest railroad tunnel in the world is the 33+ miles Siekan  
Tunnel in Japan between the islands of Honshu and Hokkaido.  Slightly 
less impressive is the 30 mile Channel Tunnel or "Chunnel' between 
Britain and France, expected to be completed by 1993. 

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OPERATING A RAILROAD

Passenger Service

   In the United States today less than 3% of railroad revenue comes
from passenger service, mainly because travelers prefer the convenience 
or speed of automobiles and airlines.  In Europe and other areas this 
is not the case because greater congestion and population densities make 
railroads important people movers, and automobiles and highways are not 
as commonplace. 

   Historically, however, passenger traffic was significant.  The 
earliest railroads were planned to be freight haulers, but the large 
revenues that quickly materialized for carrying passengers were a 
pleasant surprise.  Not only did travelers abandon the road coaches of 
the day, but new traveler's flocked to the stations, attracted by the 
speed, low cost, and novelty of rail travel. 

   For most of the 19th Century and the early part of the 20th, 
railroads were the prime means of intercity transport.  By the early 
1900's industrialized nations were crisscrossed by tracks reaching 
every community.  You could reach any town in the country by train. 
The alternative remained travel by coach or horseback on often poorly 
maintained roads. 

   Catering to the demand of the growing middle class, railroads 
regularly scheduled passenger trains promising speedy and comfortable 
service.  Salon cars, bar cars, dining cars, sleeping cars, observation 
cars, and others were designed to enhance the experience of traveling by 
train, even overnight. 

   As part of their publicity campaigns and competition with each 
other, railroads in the Golden Age invested disproportionate funds in 
their passenger service.  High speed luxury trains, rigid timetables, 
elegant hotels, restaurants, and elaborate stations all served to 
impress the public with the grandeur and prominence of the providing 
railroad.  The public goodwill and prestige earned by highly visible 
passenger service was expected to make the railroad more attractive 
to freight shippers and investors. 

   Passenger service was generally divided into three modes: local 
trains that stopped at every station along their route, through trains 
that covered a larger route making only a few stops, and the crack 
prestige trains normally running between major terminals at each end 
of the railroad.  In addition, passengers often had a choice of travel 

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classes as well, and could pay higher fares to travel in privacy and 
luxury.  This was especially true in Europe.
 
   Local trains were relatively slow, stopping at every small station
between two major terminals.  For example, a local train might stop at
all stations between New York and Philadelphia, connecting passengers in 
the smaller communities with the major cities at the route's ends.
 
   At the same time, through or limited trains ran non-stop, or with 
only a few stops, back and forth from major cities that generated 
enough traffic to support the service.  A through train from Philadel- 
phia to New York might stop at only a few communities, such as 
Trenton.  A person wishing to go from Princeton to New York could 
catch the local to New York, or the local to Trenton and then catch the 
through train to New York. 

   On important routes such as New York to Chicago or London to 
Edinburgh, railroads put on crack trains and competed fiercely for the 
honor of providing fast and luxurious service.  It was believed that 
these crack trains were the main standard by which the railroad was 
judged, so every effort was made to keep the quality of service high. 
Normally these trains covered long distances making few, if any stops. 

   By the end of the Golden Age, many of the crack trains were as well 
known as the railroads that operated them.  Examples of crack trains 
were the New York Central's 20th Century Limited, the Pennsylvania's 
Broadway Limited, the Santa Fe's Super Chief, the London & North 
Western's Irish Mail, the London & North Eastern's Flying Scotsman, 
and the Orient Express.

   In North America, the decline in intercity passenger traffic is
directly linked to the automobile, the extensive highway system, and 
airline growth.  By the late 1960's passenger traffic had dropped so 
much that many railroads were facing bankruptcy trying to maintain 
service mandated by Federal law.  Ultimately, most of the Intercity 
traffic was taken over by a government corporation, Amtrak, that now 
provides this service on a much reduced scale.  However, Amtrak is 
still not profitable and requires a large government subsidy to  
maintain operations. 

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Freight Service

   The principle business of railroads has always been the hauling
of freight.  The first railroad of any kind was built to haul coal, 
and the first train pulled by a steam locomotive carried iron ore.  As 
railroads developed into common carriers, prepared to haul anything in 
their cars along their tracks, they came to carry every cargo imaginable.
 
   The earliest freight cars were wagons modified to run on rails.  Some 
of these were built to haul specific cargos such as coal and ore, but 
most were just open wagons into which sacks and barrels could be packed. 
The transfer of freight to and from train cars was handled by brute 
strength at a rudimentary station building or platform.  As railroads 
and the demand for their services expanded, new equipment and techniques 
were developed for handling and shipping cargos. 

   One advance was designing cars to carry specific cargo types. Among 
the earliest of these were hopper cars to carry bulk items such as coal, 
ore, sand, and gravel.  The familiar box car replaced the wagon as a 
general cargo type, providing protection from the weather.  Flat cars 
remained useful for odd shaped items.  Later developments were tank cars 
for transporting liquids, gondolas (a flat car with low sides), 
livestock cars, refrigerated cars (first with ice and then electric 
cooling), mail cars (for sorting mail enroute), and others.
 
   The history of the railroad freight business has been a continuing 
evolution of the process of getting the shipper's freight onto a train 
for shipment, and off again fr delivery.  Railroads are undeniably 
efficient once the cargos have been placed into trains, but the 
efficiency can be squandered if pickup and delivery are too costly. 

   The first freight cars were mainly loaded at a stop or station on 
the line where the cargo was moved from wagons onto the train cars. 
At the other end, the receiver's wagons picked up the load.  The work 
was done mainly by hand and was slow, but was the only alternative for 
small, less-than-carload shipments.  For shipments the size of an entire 
carload, other transfer methods were developed. 

   An early idea was to set up an area of team tracks and access roads 
where shippers loaded and unloaded entire cars that they arranged 
to meet.  The name is retained from the days when wagon teams met 
the trains.  If a customer consistently generated sufficient business, 
tracks were laid to his door, and cars were directly delivered and 

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picked up by passing trains.  For a consistently large customer, such 
as a coal mine, entire trains provided service, special chutes or docks 
were built to speed loading and unloading, and even special cars were 
built, as noted above.  In these ways the process of transfer was 
speeded up for both the railroad and customer. 
   In a manner similar to passenger trains, freight trains were 
scheduled as local trains, through trains, and even some express fast 
freights.  In addition, there was the unit train.
 
   Local freights originated at a major freight yard on the line, and 
would travel on to the next yard, collecting and setting out cars at the
sidings of shippers.  Starting out with cars to be delivered to shippers 
along the way, it would reach the other yard made up of cars filled by 
businesses for delivery elsewhere.  When the local freight reached the 
yard at the end of its route, it was broken up and the individual cars 
were placed into through trains headed to a distant yard destination. 
At its destination yard, the through train was broken up and its cars
placed in another local freight for delivery. 
 
   Through trains traveled non-stop between major freight yards and were 
made up in the yard of cars collected by the local freights for delivery 
elsewhere on the line.  A through freight might stop at several yards 
along the route, adding at each a few more cars also headed for the 
train's destination. 

   The crack, or fast, freights moved valuable or perishable cargo
that required fast shipment, such as milk, livestock, produce, etc.
They generally traveled non-stop from one yard or customer to their
destination.   
               
   The unit train is made up entirely of one cargo, usually carried 
from one shipper to one destination, and is an example of railroading
at its most efficient.  Most unit trains carry coal from a mine to a 
port or steel mill, where the coal is quickly unloaded by special 
equipment.  Unit trains may travel thousands of miles without a 
consist change and can weigh up to 13,500 tons with their locomotives.            

   Each business day in North America, approximately 100,000 freight 
cars are loaded at industrial sidings, at team tracks, or by special 
equipment such as coal chutes.  The average freight train consists of 
66 cars, weighs 2080 tons, and travels at 17 mph, 

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including all delays enroute.  Within that average, however, are many 
varieties of trains such as a local delivering newsprint to a downtown 
newspaper, a long drag of coal cars headed from Virginia coalfields to 
Norfolk, or a fast freight of California produce headed for New York. 

Making Up Trains

   Trains are assembled in freight yards or terminals under the
direction of a car distributor.  His job is to supervise the break up
of each train entering the terminal so that cars are placed into proper 
trains for the next stage of their journey.  He receives information from 
the yard crew and the railroad's computers on what is arriving, and 
balances this information with empty car requests from shippers in 
his division and orders from other car distributors elsewhere on the 
line. 

   The car distributor makes up a switch list that tells the yard crews 
on which tracks and in what order the new cars are to be placed. 
Within the yard certain classification tracks are assigned to each of 
the new trains being made up, the west bound local, the east bound 
local, the through freight to the next major terminal, etc.  Within these 
trains, cars headed to similar destinations, such as a paint or 
furniture factory, are kept together in blocks.  Blocks are placed in the 
trains in the order that they are to be dropped off. 

   The work of the yard crew is done by either flat or gravity 
switching.  In flat switching a relatively light locomotive is used to 
get the waiting cars and place them into the new train.  This is a slow 
and laborious process, requiring many engine movements, track switches, 
and a nimble crew.  This push-and-pull switching has been part of 
railroading from its earliest days, and is still carried on in all small 
yards and even some large ones. 

   Where possible, railroads alternatively employ gravity switching. 
In this process the arriving train is slowly pushed up a hill or hump, 
and each car is automatically uncoupled at the summit.  The free car 
then rolls down the hill and is switched and braked from a control 
tower so as to arrive in the correct classification track.  The work of
the yard crew is reduced to pushing the train over the hump.  The 
classification work is done by the tower staff. 

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   A hump yard was first successfully operated on the London & North
Western at Edge Hill, near Liverpool, in 1873.  The Pennsylvania 
Railroad opened the first American hump yard in America at Greensburg in 
1882.  In these early yards, men were stationed at each switched down 
the hill and signalled to properly direct the cars.  Other men actually
rode the cars down, turning the brakes by hand to control car speed. 
Cars were classified by clerks who checked the waybills from the 
arriving conductor and marked the cars with chalk.

   Today the hump switches are controlled electrically from the tower, 
and the cars are slowed by retarders along the tracks that squeeze against
the wheels as they pass.  The drop of the hill and the classification 
tracks are carefully designed to help control car speed.  Cars are 
classified by electronic codes read off their sides, and the information 
is almost immediately available on the tower's computer.  A single hump 
yard can classify up to 1500 cars in an 8 hour day, and as many as 3,500 
in a three shift day.
                      
   Once the classification is complete, the train is pulled forward into
a departure yard, and road locomotives join up.  In some cases the
classification yard produces only blocks of cars, and in the departure 
yard the blocks are assembled in station order to be dropped off, and 
then the road locomotives join.  At this point the train is ready for
its journey. 

Moving Trains

   The primary revenue producing railroad operation is moving trains 
from one place to another.  In the United States today the average
mile of track in freight service carries about 5.5 trains per day. 
However, 67 percent of the traffic travels over only 20% of the existing 
mileage, so the mainlines carry much more of the load.

   Once all the track and yards are in place, the efficient movement 
of trains depends on having the correct locomotive available for power,  
a safe way of controlling congestion, and a good mix or schedule of 
trains operating to meet the demand for service.
 
   When the early railroads converted from horses to steam, man 
loaded cars could be put into a train because of the enormous increase 
in motive power.  The first steam locomotives were not differentiated 
by task, but as the technology improved, some designs were found 

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capable of greater speed and others more pulling power.  At this time 
the distinction began to be made between smaller fast trains, primar- 
ily for passengers, and slower, more powerful trains, primarily for 
freight. 

   Fewer but larger drive wheels produced higher speeds when pulling 
relatively light loads.  This resulted in the popular American and 
Ten-Wheeler designs in the United States, and the graceful single 
driver locomotives in Britain.  These locomotive types remained useful 
and popular from the 1840's until the 20th Century, when increased 
train sizes and new technology passed them by.
 
   Where pulling power was more important than speed, especially 
over the grades typically found in North America, new designs such as 
the Mogul and Consolidation developed.  With their heavier weight and 
greater traction, they were capable of pulling greater train weights 
and climbing grades.  In England the 0-6-0 goods engine performed a 
similar service for many years with very little design change.
 
   On United States railroads today, diesel-electric locomotives 
provide most of the power, and they have proved to be much more 
versatile than their steam ancestors.  Only six different basic 
locomotive types are now being built, ranging from light industrial 
switchers to Amtrak's 3600 horsepower passenger engines.  These types 
are differentiated by horsepower and traction, and within types, gear 
ratios can be adjusted to change running speeds.
 
   A railroad meets its power demands by choosing a locomotive type 
of certain gear ratio, and linking several engines together if 
necessary.  In this way an efficient amount of power, traction, and 
speed is provided for moving the train in question.
 
   Once the train is powered and ready to move, it is placed in the 
hands of dispatchers who control movements over the road.  The track 
of the railroad is divided into manageable parts, usually called 
divisions, each with its own dispatcher.  His job is to move trains 
over the tracks efficiently and safely.  He must allocate a limited 
resource, space on the tracks, among the waiting trains so that the 
railroad fulfills its obligations with a minimum of trains sitting 
idle.
 
   To help dispatchers do their jobs, trains historically have been 
rated for importance, with higher class trains being given priority 
over 

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others.  The highest value trains are normally the fastest, as well. 
Dispatchers organize train movements by first planning the schedule 
of the highest value train, then the second highest value, etc. 

   Passenger and express freight trains were normally given priority 
over freight trains due to the relatively high revenue of a passenger 
train and the high public profile of the passenger business.  Among 
passenger trains, the crack express trains were normally given 
priority over their entire route.  Next in value were through trains. 
Local passenger trains still had priority over most freight trains, but 
occasionally an express fast freight was more important. 

   Among the freight trains, regularly scheduled fast freights were 
normally given priority, but a special freight that was put on might 
override the normal arrangement.  The lowest priority freights were the 
locals, stopping many times along the division to set out and pick up 
cars.  They had to get out of the way of just about everything. 

   Once the dispatcher has an understanding of the priority of trains 
expected to pass over his division, he plans how the movement is to 
take place and passes out the orders to the trains.  In these orders the 
conductors on the trains are told when the train should be at various 
points on the line.  If this timetable is followed then the railroad 
should be running efficiently.
 
   The dispatcher then oversees the movement of trains from his tower 
by keeping track of their location on a control board.  On this board 
are displayed the various tracks and switches of the line and the 
current positions of all trains, stopped or moving.
 
   The track of the division on the board, as well as on the line, is 
divided into blocks by signal towers.  Once a train has entered a block, 
that block is normally closed to all other trains until the first train 
has passed through.  By this system, if the signals are properly 
obeyed, collisions are avoided. 

   Inside each train's locomotive, the crew conducts the movement of
their train as ordered.  The dispatcher monitors their position on his 
board by messages from signal towers reporting passing trains, and 
from direct communication with the locomotive crew if necessary.  Due 
to any number of factors such as accidents, engine trouble, bad 
weather, etc., the dispatcher's original plan often must be modified. 

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   By changing signals and switches, the dispatcher can hold up or 
reroute certain trains to let others pass.
 
   The crew on the train can only control whether the trains moves 
forward or backward, and train speed.  Where the train moves is 
controlled by how the dispatcher sets the switches the train passes 
over.  By his control of switches, signals, and train orders, he 
orchestrates the movement of the trains.
 
   On some parts of the railroad, especially in mountain districts or 
on single tracks, the movement of trains presents especially 
interesting problems for the dispatcher and train crews.  Where the 
problem is an extended region of steep grades that sharply reduce train 
speed, the solution is often to change locomotives at the beginning of 
the mountain region.  More powerful mountain engines pull the train over 
the grades, and then hand the train over to lighter engines more suited 
for speed on the level land below.
 
   Where the problem is a single relatively short grade and the line 
is not crowded, an alternative solution is doubling the grade.  In this 
maneuver the locomotive takes half the train only to the top of the hill, 
leaves it in a summit siding, returns for the other half, and then 
rejoins the parts at the top and continues downhill. 

   Another solution to the grade problem is adding helper engines, 
either as pushers or double heads.  A pusher engine joins the train at 
the bottom of the grade by coupling on the end, and then applies its 
power to the back of the train.  When the summit is reached the pusher 
uncouples while moving and the train continues with minimum stopping. 
Double heading places an extra locomotive at the front of the train. 
This requires more switching and time, but is desirable for 
passenger trains because it reduces the discomfort that normally 
results from the combination of pushing and pulling engines.
 
   On single tracks the dispatcher must deal with trains coming 
together from opposite directions, called meets, and faster trains 
overtaking slower trains, called passes.  Operations on single track 
roads require the judicious placement of double-ended passing tracks 
where trains can pass each other.  Passing tracks are designed to hold 
entire trains where possible, but terrain, right-of-way cost, and local 

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ordinances often prevent this and the dispatcher must keep in mind
the variable size of sidings when planning meets.
 
   Where one or both meeting trains do not fit on sidings they must
stop and maneuver past each other by breaking up the trains and 
moving manageable parts back and forth until they are entirely clear.
These maneuvers are known as saws when one train only can fit on
the passing track and double saws when neither train fits on the
passing track.
 
   An efficient railroad keeps an adequate schedule of trains running 
along its routes to provide service that is competitive.  This
schedule depends on a proper mix of locomotive and car types being 
available and proper management of moving trains by crews and
dispatchers.  An inefficient railroad can have the wrong equipment 
attempt a task, raising costs, offer an inadequate schedule, or
regularly fail to meet its schedule and lose customers to the compe- 
tition. 

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STEAM LOCOMOTIVES

Introduction

   The enduring symbol of railroading is the steam locomotive, one
of the most marvelous and fascinating machines that man ever created. 
They were tangible proof in their time of mankind's ability to conquer 
the known world with technology.  In the span of one generation, the 
speed limit at which people could travel rose from the few miles per 
hour limit that had remained constant since the domestication of the 
horse, to nearly 100 mph.  For their day they were a combination of the 
automobile, the airplane, and the space shuttle.
 
   The marvel of the machines is that they were so large and so 
solidly heavy, yet could move so fast and so gracefully.  That they 
could move at all seemed a great achievement when their mass was viewed 
up close, and it was difficult to comprehend how the power was generated 
to pull the enormous loads they dragged.  They were incredible machines 
in their day, consisting mainly of a fireplace and a tank full of water, 
but capable of great power and speed. 
   The fascination with steam locomotives derives from their physical 
presence and from watching, smelling, and hearing them work.  Standing 
next to one of the last generation of steam locomotives, you cannot 
help but feel dwarfed by its height and breadth.  The polished 
connecting rods look like the largest wrenches ever made, and the top 
of the drive wheels are at eye level or more for most people.  Standing 
near a moving locomotive you feel the perceptible tug of the machine 
driving past, pulling the wind with it, and sucking you off of your 
feet. 

   At rest the engine gives little indication of its capability.  The 
only apparent movement in a fired up locomotive are tendrils of smoke 
and steam, and possibly the preparations of the train crew.  In motion, 
the locomotive is the picture of undeniable, massive power.  The wheels 
turn, the burnished connecting rods shimmer, the dust rises, and the 
smoke and steam puff from the stack, all in a delightfully precise 
choreography. 

   The smells of the locomotive are the smells of engines: oil, grease, 
coal, hot metal, a roaring fire, and boiling water.  This is the no 
nonsense smell of work being done.
 
   The sounds of a steam locomotive give it credence as a living, 
breathing being.  The hiss of an idle engine sounds like the boiling of 
the giant teapot that the locomotive nearly is.  The chuff-chuff of steam 

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escaping the cylinders and venting through the stack is the breath of
this colossal iron horse.  The blast of the steam whistle, whether in the
distance or up close, is the call to travel and adventure.  The clanging 
bell of a locomotive approaching a station means your wait is just about 
over, or your adventure is about to begin. 

   In most of the industrialized nations, the steam locomotive no longer 
works hard for a living, but is kept running as a tourist attraction or 
museum piece.  That so many are still operating is a testament to the 
fascination they inspire.

Making Steam

   When water is heated in a container, it begins to boil, or be
converted into a hot gas of water vapor called steam.  The important 
factor in this process is that steam takes up a much greater volume
of space than the equivalent amount of water, over 1500 times as 
much space.  If the steam in the container cannot escape, the energy 
of expansion becomes pressure building up inside the container.  If the
pressure gets high enough it splits the container open.
 
   The objective of all steam engines is to capture the pressure of the 
expanding steam and make it do work.  This is usually accomplished by 
building up the pressure to a certain level in a boiler, and then opening 
a path of low resistance that the pressurized steam can escape down.  
Along the escape path, however, the steam must push a partially resistant 
blockage out of the way.  This blockage is a piston, and the steam 
pressure forces it back down a cylinder until a valve opening is 
uncovered allowing the steam to escape.
 
   By opening and shutting separate escape paths from the 
 
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boiler, steam pressure is alternatively directed to opposite sides of 
the piston, pushing it back and forth.  This push-pull motion of the 
piston can then be converted to power.
 
   The first step in making steam in a steam locomotive is to boil 
water.  This is done in the boiler, the long tank that makes up most 
of the length of the locomotive.  At the back of the boiler, just in 
front of the cab where the crew is located, is the fire box.  In the fire 
box the fire is built that heats the water.  In the early locomotives 
wood was the usual fuel, but coal became more common later on.  Some 
locomotives burned oil where it was cheaply available. 

   The fire is fed by hand or automatic loaders.  The draft necessary 
to provide oxygen comes from a grate at the bottom of the fire box 
and is pulled through the box and out tubes that extend through the 
boiler to the smoke box below the smokestack.  Air passes through 
the grate and is heated in the firebox.  As it passes down the tubes 
to vent out of the stack, it heats the water that surrounds the tubes 
in the boiler.  In this way the heat of the fire is transferred to the 
water, making it boil and convert into steam.
 
   Inside the boiler the steam begins to accumulate, gradually filling 
and expanding.  When it tries to expand, it has no outlet and the 
pressure inside the boiler increases instead.  When the pressure gets 
sufficiently high, the locomotive is said to have "steam up" and be 
ready to move.

   While the locomotive is getting up steam, the crew is overseeing the 
process.  The fireman is responsible for building the fire and 
maintaining sufficient water in the boiler.  The engineer lubricates the 
connecting rods and other working parts of the locomotive, inspecting it 
for any prob- 

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lems.  As steam builds the engineer keeps track of the pressure to be 
ready when the locomotive can move.
Steam Power

   When one steam pressure is sufficient, the engineer opens the
throttle.  This opens the escape path for the steam down the "dry pipe"
to the cylinder valves and pistons.  The valves pass the steam through
into the cylinders where the steam builds up pressure against the
piston.  The piston is designed to give way under sufficient pressure
and it begins to move backwards. 

   The pistons are connected by massive rods and other connecting gear 
to the drive wheels.  The motion of the pistons is converted by the 
complicated connecting gear into movement by the wheels in one 
direction, either forward or backward.
 
   At the same time, the cylinder valve over the piston is connected 
to the wheels and the wheel motion moves the valves back and forth. 
The motion of the valves opens and closes vents into and out of the 
piston cylinder for the entry of new steam and exhaust of spent steam 
from the opposite sides of the piston.
 
   The engineer controls the speed of the locomotive with the throttle. 
By opening and closing the throttle he lets more or less steam into the 
cylinders.  The amount of steam let in controls how fast the pistons 
move back and forth, and thus the speed of the engine. 
 
Development and Decline

   By the 1850's, most of the basic principles of steam locomotive 
power had been discovered.  Thereafter, the development of the 
locomotive was a matter of making them larger and more powerful, 
and only a few significant advances in technology were made.  The 
larger weight and increased power was made possible by the availability 
of cheap steel that could be made into the heavy rails necessary for 
the support of heavy trains and engines.
 
   One of the most important later inventions was the idea of using 
the exhaust steam from the cylinders, now low pressure steam, to 
power a low pressure cylinder.  This was called compounding, and the 
massive compound engines of the 20th Century were the pinnacle of 
steam locomotive development.  The Union Pacific Big Boy, a 4-8-8-4 
weighing over 500 tons, was capable of generating over 5,000 horse- 
power. 

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   Steam locomotives were made obsolete by the development of the diesel-
electric locomotive in the 1930's, even though steam power continued in 
use on North American roads into the late 1950's.
 
   The advantages of the diesels were mainly that they were cheaper to 
operate and more reliable.  Diesels could be linked together in tandem 
under the control of one crew and do the work of several steam 
locomotives and crews.  Diesels also converted more of the energy from 
their fuel into power. 

   Despite their obvious inferiority, however, steam locomotives are 
still in use in a few nations, notably China and South Africa, where 
coal is plentiful and oil dear.  In addition, railroad buffs and museums 
in the industrialized nations have preserved a remarkable number of 
operating steam locomotives.  The thrill of seeing a steam locomotive 
in full flight is still to be felt, even if only on Saturday afternoons. 

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7. NOTES AND CREDITS

RAILROAD TYCOON WORLDS

Map Generation

   When starting a new game of Railroad Tycoon you choose one of 4 
different worlds for the location of your railroad.  Your choices are: 

        Eastern USA, 1830 
        Western USA, 1866 
        England, 1828 
        Europe, 1900 

   Each world approximates the geography of the region portrayed, 
but no world exactly duplicates the real geography.  Each new map is 
generated from a base map that represents the economic geography 
prior to the time period of your game.  From this point a new mix of 
resources and industrial growth is placed. 

   As a result of this process, each game you play must be different 
because the growth of cities and location of industry is never the same. 
In one game New York is a great city, but in the next it may be just a 
village.  The best location for railroads is therefore different from 
game to game. 

   Once you have made your opening choices of play options, the game 
begins by placing you at the Regional Display.  In order to read the 
map of this display you must refer to the Regional Map Chart in the 
Technical Supplement.  This chart explains what type of geography 
is represented on the map by each color. 
 
Specific Map Features

   The worlds in Railroad Tycoon differ slightly in the mix of 
resources and industries that are present.  These separate mixes 
result in some different cargos being available only in one world or 
another.  For a description of the map icons and what they represent 
in each world, refer to the World Economies Chart on the Player Aid 
Cards. 

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   The Western USA world has some unique features.  Revenue earned for 
carrying cargos on east-west routes are double what would be normally 
expected.  Revenues earned for carrying cargos on north-south routes 
are half what would normally be expected.  These effects are designed 
to encourage east-west railroads.  In addition, completing a railroad 
connection from the east side of the Mississippi River on the right side 
of the world to the Pacific Coast on the left side of the world earns a 
$1,000,000 bonus for achieving a transcontinental railroad.
 
Game Scale

   The four game maps have been built in a square grid.  Each position 
on the grid is referred to as a map square throughout this manual.  The 
speed of trains, the distance they travel, and the distance effect on 
revenue earned is kept consistent between the worlds, despite the fact 
that the worlds have been built to different scales.  In addition, 
adjustments are made when building or traveling in a diagonal direction 
to account for the difference in distance when traveling diagonally, as 
opposed to horizontally or vertically within a grid. 
 
Game Time

   A game of Railroad Tycoon is broken into fiscal periods for 
accounting purposes, and each period lasts two years.  At the end of 
a fiscal period, you are normally shown a number of fiscal reports to 
review that concern your railroad and any competing railroads that 
may exist. 

   While your reports detail the operations of your railroad for two 
years, the numbers are actually derived from the operations of your 
trains for only one 24 hour day, converted into what would be expected 
from these operations over an entire year.  The operation of one of your 
trains in the 24 hour period, represents many trains running that 
route over the two years.
 
   When a Train Arrival Announcement reports the arrival of one of 
your trains at a station, the time of the arrival is also noted.  The 
hour of the arrival corresponds to the 24 months in the fiscal period. 
12:00 AM corresponds to January of the first year, 1:00 AM to February 
of the first year, etc. 

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LOCOMOTIVE ROSTER
   The locomotives included in Railroad Tycoon were chosen to represent 
important historical designs and evolving technology.  When each game 
begins, only one or a few locomotive types are available for purchase by 
your railroad.  As time passes, technology improves and better locomotives 
can be purchased.  Eventually the older types cease production and are 
thereafter not available.
 
   Each locomotive included in the game is listed below with an 
illustration and descriptive notes.  Included with the notes are some 
suggestions on how best to employ the locomotive types in the game. 
The North American locomotives appear in the Eastern and Western USA 
games, and the European engines appear in the England and Europe games. 
 
North American Locomotives

   0-4-0 Grasshopper: The first of these locomotives was built by 
Phineas Davis of York, Pennsylvania, winning a $4,000 prize offered 
by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for a 3-1/2 ton coal burning 
locomotive.  They were called grasshoppers because their motion 
resembled that insect.  They were front heavy, moving with a pitching 
motion, and their vertical rods moved up and down to power the wheels 
like a grasshopper's hind legs.  These four wheeled vertical boiler 
engines were ideal for the sharp curves of the B&O and were the 
railroad's main power by the mid-1830's.
 
   These are the only locomotives available at the start of a game in 
the Eastern USA, so you have no choice.  Use them for everything but 
note they are not particularly fast, even when pulling only one car. 
 
   4-2-0 Norris: William Norris of Philadelphia built the first of his 
Norris type locomotives for the Philadelphia & Columbia in 1834 and 
its performance, especially on a steep incline, was sensational.  The 
design was simple, sturdy, and versatile enough to be useful through- 
out America, and influence European designs as well.  The Norris type 
was noteworthy for its bar frames, outside cylinders at the smokebox, 
the Bury firebox, and placement of the driving axle in front of the
firebox to improve adhesion.
 
   This is the first modern locomotive available in America and the 
performance of your trains can be substantially improved in both speed

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and pulling power by replacing your grasshoppers with it.  No other 
locomotive replacement has this impact. 
 
   4-4-0 American: The most popular locomotive type in North America from 
the middle to late 1800's, with over 25,000 being built.  Noted for its 
ability to handle heavy loads over varied routes, its ability to operate 
over uneven tracks, simple construction, low initial cost, and ready 
maintenance, it was the ideal general purpose locomotive for the period 
of westward expansion.  It became the national engine because it answered 
every need. 
   
   Use the American for most of your long haul trains, especially those 
hauling passengers or mail.  When cars are kept to three or less, the 
locomotive can maintain very good speeds. 

   2-6-0 Mogul: The mogul engine type was developed to power heavy, fast
freight trains that were too much for the American type which it bettered 
in tractive power by nearly 50%.  The wheel arrangement had been tried as 
early as 1852, but a really successful mogul engine was not built until 
1864.  The mogul type was on its way to replacing the American as a 
national type, at least for freight service, but was itself replaced by 
the 2-8-0 before it was firmly established. 

   By the time this locomotive comes available, you maybe running large
or long freight trains.  Add a car or two to these trains if the business 
is there, and put Moguls at their head.  These trains can then maintain 
their previous speed, while delivering more cargo.  Placing a Mogul on a 
passenger train, however, is wasting money. 

   4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler: This was the second most popular wheel arrangement 
of the 19th Century in North America, and it began to seriously rival 
the American after 1860.  First used as freight engine, it 

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was recognized by the 1850's as useful in general service.  By the 
1880's the dogma of specialized motive power for each class of service 
relegated the Ten-Wheeler to passenger service.  It served on mainline
passenger trains until about 1910 when heavier engines were required.
 
   Use the locomotive for high speed trains carrying mail, passengers, 
and fast freight.  They can maintain the speed of Americans while 
pulling one or more additional cars.  Alternatively, put them on long 
runs with a few cars and they set speed records. 
 
   2-8-0 Consolidation: This wheel arrangement was originally introduced 
in the late 1860's for slow pusher service, but by the middle 1870's its 
value as a road engine was recognized.  It was built in larger numbers 
than any other single wheel arrangement, approximately 33,000 between 
1866 and 1950.  The original Consolidation was designed by Alexander 
Mitchell in 1865 and incorporated all the elements that made the 2-8-0 
a success.  When the Erie replaced its 4-4-0s with Consolidations in 
1876, it found that the heavier engine could pull trains of twice the 
weight, while reducing expenses from 96 cents to 53 cents per ton-mile.
 
   Use this locomotive for long, heavy  freights, or for trains passing 
over steeper grades. 
 
   4-6-2 Pacific: Baldwin Locomotive Works claims the first Pacific type, 
delivered to New Zealand in 1901, although locomotives going back to 1889 
had the wheel arrangement.  Early into the 20th Century the Pacific 
became the preferred locomotive for almost all express passenger

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trains and many fast freights, and they remained useful after being 
replaced on the top trains in the 1930's by 4-6-4 Hudsons.  About 7000 
were built in the United States.
 
   By the time the locomotive is available, you probably have some 
very long runs on your line.  Use the Pacific to haul fast trains on the 
long distances.  It can maintain very high speeds if not burdened 
with too many cars. 
 
   2-8-2 Mikado: The first 2-8-2s were built in 1897 for a railway in 
Japan, hence the name.  The type was introduced in the United States in
1903, and it grew in popularity.  It became the most common freight
locomotive in the United States, partly because it was specified as an 
authorized design by the federal government when US railroads were 
briefly nationalized for World War I.  They were again built in large 
numbers during World War II and exported after the war as part of the 
Marshall Plan.  Although more often known as "Mikes" in the United States,
during World War II their class name was changed to "McArthur" by 
sensitive railroad managements. 
 
   This is a heavy freight engine for pulling long trains.  Use it to 
replace Consolidations when you want to add a car or two to the train 
consist. 
 
   4-6-6-4 Mallet (Challenger class): In the late 1800's Anatole 
Mallet, a Swiss engineer, developed the design of the compound, or 
articulated, locomotive with a rear group of drive wheels powered by 
high pressure steam and a forward group of wheels powered by the 
residual low pressure steam.  Work on this design continued with the 
first large mallet, an 0-6-6-0, appearing on the B&O in 1904.  This
type proved very popular as power for heavy freights and pusher 
engines.  The final era of the mallets, and the final development of
steam power, was marked by the Challenger class 4-6-6-4 locomotives 
that appeared in the 1930's.  Weighing nearly 300 tons and exerting
over 5000 horsepower, yet capable of running speeds over 70 mph, 
Challengers 

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were used for heavy freights and mountain passenger trains.
 
   The most powerful North American steam locomotive in the game, use 
it for your heaviest freight trains and for passenger trains that must 
negotiate steep grades. 
 
   EMD F Series Diesel-Electric: In 1939 the Electro-Motive Division of
General Motors sent a 4 unit diesel locomotive on a 83,764 mile tour 
over 20 major American railroads to demonstrate its capabilities. 
The demonstrator units consistently outperformed their steam competition
and suffered no mechanical failure, convincing railroads of their 
worthiness.  Within 20 years steam disappeared from American railroads. 
The demonstrators developed into the F series of cab (A) and booster (B)
units that could be geared for variable speeds and equipped for passenger 
traffic.  Over 7,000 F diesels were built until production stopped in 1953
due to the increasing popularity of hood diesel units and declining 
passenger traffic.
 
   Useful for any train that is relatively small and needs to move fast, 
the diesels additional advantage is that their maintenance costs are 
substantially lower than steam locomotives. 

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EMD GP Series Diesel-Electric: Responding to the desire of railroads for 
a road switcher locomotive, capable of switching as well as some road work, 
in 1949 EMD produced the first of its GP (general purpose) series.  It was 
an immediate success and an improved version remains in production today. 
The structural strength of the locomotive is in the frame, and the hood 
serves only to protect the mechanical parts.  In addition, the hood gives 
the engineer very good vision in both directions, and allows easy access to 
the motors.  It is available in different gear ratios and capable of being 
linked together under the control of one engineer, making it very flexible 
in use.
 
   Use the GP diesel to replace aging steam freight engines, because 
the GP, like the F series, has substantially lower maintenance costs. 
 
   2-2-0 Planet class: Delivered by the Stephensons to the Liverpool 
& Manchester Railway in October, 1830, the Planet proved to be very 
successful for its day.  Its major innovation was to put the cylinders at 
the front end, helping to distribute the weight of the engine.  The Planet 
proved to the world that reliable steam locomotives could be built, and 
laid the foundation of the fortune of Robert Stephenson & Co., locomotive 
builders.  However, the design was flawed by problems with forged crank 
axles and by its short wheelbase with the firebox outside it at the rear. 
Axles failed, and the engine had a tendency to pitch continually, 
threatening to derail. 

   You must use the Planet in England at the start as it is your only 
choice, but replace it as soon as you can when the Patentee becomes 
available.  If possible, keep its train lengths to only one or two cars. 
 
   2-2-2 Patentee: The Stephensons continued to develop the Planet design, 
adding a third axle and removing the flanges from the large center drive 
wheels.  The result was less force on the drive axle, lower axle loading 
on the L&M's track, no pitching, and allowance for an even larger 
firebox.  The improvements were patented, hence the 

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name "Patentee".  The Patentee type, with variations and improvements, 
was constructed by most locomotive builders in England and Europe from 
1835 to 1845.  Patentees, built either in England or at home, were the 
first locomotives to run in several countries, including Belgium, Holland, 
Italy, and Russia. 

   The Patentee is useful for all types of trains, but should not be 
asked to pull more than three cars.  It substantially improves the service 
of your road by easily surpassing the Planet in speed and power. 
 
   4-2-0 Iron Duke Class: The Iron Duke was an express engine designed by 
Daniel Gooch for the 7 foot gauge Great Western Railway and built in their 
own shops in 1847.  The long wheel base made for stable running but 
required ample curves.  The broad gauge allowed a larger firebox and thus 
greater steam production.  These locomotives and their immediate 
descendants, the slightly modified Lord of the Isles class, were extremely 
successful, consistently demonstrating high speed and stability.  Oft he 29
Lords class built beginning in 1851, 23 were still in service on express 
trains in 1892 when the broad gauge was abolished. 

   Place these locomotives into service on all of your fast trains as soon 
as you can afford them.  They can pull 2 cars at very good speed, and 3 or 
even 4 reasonably.
 
   0-6-0 Dx Goods: A universal freight, or goods, engine designed by John
Ramsbottom for the London & North Western Railway, the class was built
from 1855 to 1872.  They were simple but sturdy, and very popular with 
943 being built, a record number for any type of English locomotive.  They
served for nearly all types of freight business, and after reboilering, 
some continued to run until 1930.

   Replace any type locomotive on freight service pulling 3 or more cars
with this locomotive as soon as possible.  None of its predecessors can 
pull cars or climb grades as well.

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  4-2-2 Stirling 8 ft Single: One of the loveliest and most graceful steam 
locomotives, it is named for the Locomotive Superintendent of the Great 
Northern, Patrick Stirling, and its 8 foot single drive wheel.  They were 
built from 1870 to 1893, and finally withdrawn in 1916.  While the 
standard express train was 6 compartment cars, the Stirlings handled all 
of the crack passenger trains of the GNR, including the then unofficial 
10 AM King's Cross (London) to Edinburgh "Flying Scotsman".  The advent 
of heavier "corridor" passenger cars and dining cars, reduced them to 
lesser tasks. 

   This locomotive should be placed at the head of your fast trains, 
especially those carrying mail and passengers.  Don't burden it with more  
than 3 or 4 cars because under those conditions it slows considerably and 
loses much of its value. 
 
   0-8-0 Webb Compound: Built by Francis Webb for the London & North 
Western to pull heavy coal trains, it was powerful but difficult to drive 
and expensive to maintain.  The locomotive had outside high-pressure 
cylinders and a single low-pressure cylinder between the frames.  In 
various modifications, over 470 were built and the last was not withdrawn 
until 1964.  They were found   especially useful in the mountainous 
regions in and near Wales.
 
   Place the Webb compound on your long and heavy freight trains, 
especially those moving in mountainous regions.  Don't waste its power
on passenger trains. 

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   4-2-2 Johnson Midland Spinner: Though the single driver locomotive
was thought obsolete by the late 1880's, Samuel Johnson of the Midland 
Railway designed this class, nicknamed Spinners, in 1887.  The reason for  
his confidence was the recent invention of steam sanding gear which 
assured a steady supply of dry sand under the drive wheel, sufficiently 
improving its adhesion to make the design again practical.  The Midland 
competed with other companies at all of its passenger stops but one, and 
consequently operated many light trains at good speed to attract business. 
The Spinners served this need well, and remained in service well into the 
20th Century, beautifully painted with the Midland's distinctive crimson 
colors. 

   This locomotive is the ideal choice for a one or two car train that 
must travel at high speed. 
 
   4-4-0 Claud Hamilton Class: Between 1900 and 1923, 121 of these engines
were built by the Great Eastern Railway for light express passenger 
service, mainly from London to the Norfolk coast.  They incorporated a 
number of design features considered to be before their time, including
a large cab with windows, power-operated reversing gear, and a water scoop 
(for picking up water from a trough between the rails without stopping). 
In addition, they burned waste oil from the company's oil-gas plant.  Other
modern features included an exhaust steam injector and a variable mouth 
blast-pipe for adjusting the amount of exhaust steam sent up the stack to 
improve the draft in the fire box. 

   Another high speed locomotive for relatively light trains of 2 or 3 
cars, possibly more if the grades are moderate. 

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   4-6-2- A1 Class: The first class of Pacific locomotives to run in 
Britain, they were ordered in 1922 by Nigel Gresley,  Locomotive 
Superintendent of the Great Northern Railway.  Very attractive engines
with graceful lines and a pleasing livery, they could pull as well as 
they looked.  Beset at first with a number of irritating problems, after 
adjustment they established an excellent reputation.  Beginning in the 
summer 1928, they ran the longest non-stop service in the world, 392 3/4 
miles from London to Edinburgh.  This was the Flying Scotsman, inherited 
by the London & North Eastern from the Great Northern when English rail- 
roads were amalgamated into four systems in 1923.
 
   An excellent locomotive for longer passenger trains and fast freights, 
use it to upgrade any non-bulk or non-slow freight of 3 or more cars. 
Also very useful for trains trying to cross substantial grades. 
 
   4-6-2 A4 Class: Possibly the most popularly known steam locomotive in 
Great Britain, this streamlined Pacific engine holds the world speed 
record for steam, 126 mph.  Built from 1935 to 1938, they were not 
displaced from their role as express locomotives until the arrival of 
diesels in the 1960's.  In the interim they powered the crack trains of 
the London & North Eastern, including "The Silver Jubilee" from London 
to Newcastle, the "Coronation", and the "West Riding Express". 

   This is the best steam locomotive for crack passenger service, 
especially in areas where the grades are kept to a minimum.  It can 
pull several cars at very high speeds, or moderate speed trains at good 
speed.  Don't waste it pulling slow or bulk freight. 

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   6/6 GE Class Crocodile: These electric locomotives were first put in 
service on the Swiss Rhaetian Railway, serving ski resorts in the Alps. 
Electricity was chosen because of the easy access to hydroelectric power
and the lack of coal in Switzerland.  The first crocodile, so named for 
their engine hoods, entered service in 1921 and proved much more powerful 
and reliable than the steam locomotives that were previously employed. 
The design was so successful that it was embodied in larger locomotives 
for parts of the Swiss Federated Railways.  As a tribute to their 
soundness, the entire class of these locomotives was still working in 
1987 with the exception of the first built which was destroyed in an 
avalanche. 

   This locomotive is very useful for moderate freight trains, especially 
those needing to negotiate steep grades.  It is too slow for passenger 
service, but its low maintenance costs make it an attractive replacement
for aging steam freight locomotives.
 
   1-Do-1 Class E18: This electric express passenger locomotive entered 
service on the growing electrified network of the Deutsch Reichsbahn in 
1935, and was the result of 9 years of evolution from earlier designs. 
The design was characterized by the four independent drive wheels within 
a rigid frame, guided at both ends by single trucks.  They proved to be 
very fast and powerful, the most advanced electric locomotive in the 
world at the time, and 92 were ordered.  However, the war intervened and 
only 53 were built.  Two of the locomotives were in Austria at the end of 
the war and retained there.  The Austrians copied the design, and for 
many years they were the fastest passenger locomotives in that country. 

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   Use these locomotives tv replace any aging steam locomotive in 
passenger service except possibly the A4.  Like the diesels, all electric 
locomotives offer substantial savings in maintenance costs. 
 
   4-8-4 242 A1: Rebuilt in 1946 from a pre-war 4-8-2, this was the 
most powerful steam locomotive to run in Europe, and the most powerful 
locomotive of any type outside of North America.  It was designed by 
Andre Chapelon after the 4-8-2 from which it originated proved a failure 
and an embarrassment to the government committee that had designed it. 
The A1 developed 5,500 hp compared to 2,800 before rebuilding, and was 
similar in output to an American 4-8-4 which weighed 50% more.  At a 
time when French railway brass were trying to convince the government
to finance an expensive conversion to electric operation, the A1 proved 
an even greater embarrassment than it had as a failure in its previous 
life.  It was more powerful than any existing electric locomotive and 
was sufficiently economical in coal consumption to nullify the savings 
of electrication.  Unfortunately, the bureaucrats won out, and the only 
example of this superb locomotive was quietly broken up in 1960. 

   When this locomotive becomes available it is a good choice for 
powering your longest and heaviest freight trains, as well as your 
longer fast trains.  Its pulling power can make up for its maintenance 
cost. 
 
   V200 B-B: These 1,100 hp diesel-hydraulic passenger locomotives were
built as prototypes in 1953 for the German Federated Railway and went into
production 3 years later.  A diesel-hydraulic locomotive transmits its 
power directly to the drive wheels, not to 

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electric traction motors as in a diesel-electric.  They were designed 
for use on those parts of the railway that were not scheduled for 
electrication.  By 1962 these locomotives were averaging 145,000 
miles per year of service, pulling loads 30% higher than originally 
specified for the design.  In the 1980's the number in service has been 
reduced due to further electrification.
 
   This locomotive is useful for pulling shorter trains, especially those 
carrying mail or passengers.  However, don't ask this engine to perform 
in mountainous areas, it works best in the plains of central and northern 
Europe. 

   Bo-Bo-Bo RE Class 6/6: This heavy duty mixed traffic mountain
locomotive entered service in 1972 on the difficult Swiss Federated
Railway's St. Gothard mainline over the Alps.  It provides an astounding 
10,000 hp in a single unit, and was built to help cope with the steadily 
increasing tonnage moving over this route since the 1950's.  The RE 6/6 
developed from earlier designs stretching back to the 1930's, and are 
over 80% more powerful than their immediate precedents, the Ae 6/6, 
within the same weight limitations.  In addition to being capable of all 
freight traffic, they are also suited for trains moving at the highest 
speeds allowed on the Swiss system. 
 
   This is the locomotive for powering all heavy freight and passenger 
trains, especially in mountainous regions of the map.  Its huge horse- 
power output means it can handle any load over any grade.

   TGV: The French TGV (Train a Grande Vitesse, literally "train with 
great speed") is a high speed articulated multiple unit electric train 
placed in service in 1981 between Lyons and Marseilles.

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The route between these two cities and on to Paris is the busiest in 
France and the TGV trains were intended to reduce congestion. 
Although the minimum speed for these trains is now limited to 168 
mph, they have reached 236 mph, a world record.  Each train consists 
of eight cars and two power units, one at each end.  The train remains 
together as a unit.  Most of the existing trains have first and second 
class accommodations, though a few are for first class or mail only. 
The special track on which they run has now been extended to Paris.
 
   Employ this locomotive on your fast trains, primarily mail and 
passenger.  No locomotive in the game is capable of its speed.  Heavier 
freight loads slow down the train dramatically, so leave those chores 
to the RE 6/6. 

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TYCOON BIOGRAPHIES

North American Tycoons

   The following historical figures may appear in a game of Railroad 
Tycoon as the president of a competing railroads.  The management style 
of competing railroad presidents can be expected to reflect the per- 
sonality of these tycoons.  One set of tycoons appear in games in North 
America, and another set appear in games in England or Europe.
 
   After the name of each tycoon is a letter in parentheses, either a "B", 
"R", or "M".  A "B" indicates a builder, a man you can expect to 
concentrate on building the best railroad he can.  An "R" indicates 
a robber baron, a man you can expect to be very active in the stock 
market.  An "M" indicates a mixed personality, a man capable of both 
building and stock manipulation, but not particularly adept at either. 
 
   Jay Cooke (M): Made a fortune during the Civil War selling Union war 
bonds that the government had been unable to move.  In 1869 his firm, 
Jay Cooke & Company, undertook the financing of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad.  Despite Cooke's good intentions and an early strong start in 
raising funds, the railroad stalled.  Construction costs had soared and 
funds had dried up.  Unable to pay his debts or interest on Northern 
Pacific bonds, Cooke's banking house closed, precipitating the Panic of 
1873. 
 
   Erastus Corning (M): A nailmaker and ironmonger, as Mayor of 
Albany he rode behind the Dewitt Clinton, the first locomotive and 
train to run on of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad.  He served for 20 
years as president of the Utica & Schenectady, drawing no salary, but 
made a fortune supplying everything the railroad needed in the way 

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of iron.  He formed the New York Central in 1853 by combining several 
small railroads linking Albany to Buffalo. Outmaneuvered by Cornelius
Vanderbilt, he lost control of the NYC in 1867. 
 
   Daniel Drew (R): Called the King of the Bears for his Wall Street 
short selling attacks, or bear raids.  ("He that sells what isn't his'n, 
must buy it back or go to prison.")  Gained control of the Erie Railroad
in the Panic of 1857 and looted it ruthlessly with the help of Jay Gould
and Jim Fisk who joined him after the Civil War.  Was bankrupted by Gould 
after Drew left the Erie in 1868 and tried to raid it once more. 
 
   Jim Fisk (R): A Vermont tin peddler, carnival sharpie, and stockbroker
brought into the Erie Ring by Dan Drew to help with stock manipulations 
and speculations.  With Jay Gould he attempted to corner the gold market 
in 1869.  Gould forced him out of the Erie in 1872 because of criminal
charges and scandals.  He was shot by the boyfriend of his former 
mistress. 
   John Forbes (B): Made his fortune as a young man with clipper ships in 
the China trade, and was persuaded to lead a group taking over the failing 
Michigan Central Railroad.  He built it into Chicago, and turned his eyes 
farther westward.  He bought the tiny Aurora Branch Railroad and 
eventually built it into the Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy.  Praised by 
Ralph Waldo Emerson for his remarkable force, modesty, and goodness, 
uncommon traits in the railroad men of the era. 
 
   Jay Gould (R): The shrewdest Robber Baron.  Brought into the Erie Ring 
by Dan Drew, he directed the looting of the railroad as president from 
1868 to 1872.  He manipulated the stocks of several 

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other railroads thereafter, and cheaply bought control of the scandal-
plagued Union Pacific with funds looted from the Erie.  He paid out large 
dividends and drove the UP stock to astounding prices, at which point he 
sold out.  The new owners found a huge secret debt and unpaid interest 
due.  He went on to buy up and manipulate the stock of several other 
railroads including the Missouri Pacific, the Texas & Pacific, and the 
Wabash.  Died rich at his estate in Lyndhurst, New Jersey in 1892. 

   Jim Hill (B): The greatest American railroad entrepreneur, he built 
the Great Northern from Duluth to Seattle without the government 
assistance claimed necessary by the other trans-Mississippi trunk lines. 
The Great Northern was the only trans-continental railroad built without 
land grants, and the only one not to go into receivership.  Hill built 
and operated his road well and actively helped the settlers along it.  He 
later proved an adept financier, taking over the failing Northern Pacific 
and the CB&Q to gain a link to Chicago.  He was ruthless and tough when he 
had to be.

   J. Pierpont Morgan (R): The pre-eminent banker and financier of the 
late 1800's and early 1900's.  He was an active force in consolidating 
and reorganizing railroads such as the Philadelphia & Reading, 
Chesapeake & Ohio, Erie, Norfolk & Western, Southern, and others. 
He helped Vanderbilt take over the New York Central, financed other 
railroad ventures, and eventually began running them himself, often 
placing a deputy in charge to keep his ownership secret.  His ultimate 
dream of combining all US railroads into a cooperative cartel to reduce 
ruinous competition was squashed by the anti-trust campaigns of 
President Teddy Roosevelt. 

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   J. Edgar Thompson (B): The man who made the Pennsylvania Railroad the 
best in the country, consistently outmaneuvering his rivals while set- 
ting and meeting the highest standards for engineering and efficiency.  It 
was said that his power was so great that the state legislature would 
delay its adjournment until he had no more business for it to conduct. 

    Cornelius Vanderbuilt (M): The "Commodore" made his fortune in shipping
but sold out to get into railroads in 1857.  After gaining control of the
New York & Harlem Railroad and the Hudson River Line, he bitterly fought 
for and captured the New York Central.  Combining these lines he 
eventually extended the NYC to Chicago.  He furiously battled the Erie 
Ring and later fought the Pennsylvania Railroad until J. P. Morgan brought
peace.  At his peak he was the richest man in America. 

European Tycoons 
 
   Isambard Kingdom Brunel (B): One of the most noted Victorian 
engineers, he was famous for the bridges and ships he built, including
the colossal Great Eastern, an enormous iron ship and a wonder of the 
age.  He was appointed engineer of the Great Western Railway at the age 
of 27 in 1833 and built it to the unprecedented gauge of 7 feet.  His 
innovative and graceful engineering works, plus his exacting standards, 
made the Great Western and its subsidiaries the most efficient and 
smooth riding railroad in England.  Great Western trains averaged 50 mph 
in comfort long before most other railroads could dream of such speed. 
 
   George Hudson (R): Known as the "Railway King", he was a draper in 
York who invested an inheritance in railway shares and thereafter became 
active in railroad affairs.  In 1837 he was appointed 

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chairman of the York & North Midland Railway, and later was instrumental 
in the formation of the Midland Railway, becoming its chairman.  His 
ambition was to unite all the railways of England under his control.  He 
manipulated and schemed without principle, and at his peak controlled 
nearly one third of the track in use.  His efforts helped trigger the 
Railway Mania of 1845 that swamped Parliament with worthless and 
fraudulent railway schemes.  His financial collapse ended the mania.
                                       
   George Stephenson (B): A coal mine enginewright who went on to 
develop and demonstrate to the world a practical steam locomotive.  He 
built some of the most famous English railways, including the Stockton & 
Darlington and the Liverpool & Manchester, and founded with his son the    
famous Robert Stephenson & Company locomotive works in Newcastle upon 
Tyne.

   Robert Stephenson (B): The son and co-worker of George Stephenson,
and a brilliant engineer in his own right.  He worked with his father 
in the design and construction of the first practical steam locomotives, 
and operated their locomotive works that supplied the first engines to 
many parts of the world.  He was appointed engineer of the London & 
Birmingham Railway, completing it in 1838, and went on to build 
many lasting and famous engineering works. 
 
  Napoleon III (M): His self-style "Emperor" loved expansion for 
the sake of glory, even if it incurred large debts.  He promoted railway 
expansion by a law that guaranteed railroad bonds.  In addition to 
weak financial thinking, Napoleon III was unable to manage complex 
problems.  This eventually caused the ignominious collapse of his 
"empire". 

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   Benito Mussolini (M): This fascist leader of Italy (1922-45) was 
Hitler's "model".  Despite his many faults, Mussolini was said to have 
"made the trains run on time".  However, his nepotistic bureaucracy 
was actually quite inept.  Worse, a crushing debt load and a world- 
wide depression destroyed all attempts at Italian economic expansion. 

   Otto von Bismarck (R): "Iron" Chancellor to the King (Kaiser) of 
Prussia, Bismarck unified Germany by forcing smaller neighbors to 
submit, through politics or war, as appropriate.  Competent in finance 
and administration, he waited for sufficient strength or a golden 
opportunity before forcing a "unification." 
 
   Helmuth von Moltke (B): As Chief of the German General Staff, 
1900- 14, Moltke was a great planner and administrator.  His detailed 
orders for railroads to mobilize and maneuver troops were very 
successful.  He believed that a good attack may be the best defense. 
 
   Czar Nicholas II (B): Last of his line, Nicholas was a weak and 
hesitant leader.  Railroading progressed well when he had good  
advisors (such as the genius Serge Witte, who organized the vast 
Trans-Siberian line). 
 
   Vladimir I. Lenin (M): Architect of the soviet governmental system, 
Lenin was a bold, gambling leader who returned to Russia in a "sealed 
train".  He took over a weak, confused nation and started its rapid 
industrial expansion (during the 1920s and 30s).

   Charles de Gaulle (B): French head-of-state after WWII, he was 
concerned with growth and glory first, but unlike Napoleon III, de
Gaulle had greater skill in administration and problem-solving. 
He vigorously defended all "French" possessions, but avoided overreach-
ing expansion.

   Baron Rothschild (R): One of the greatest banking houses in Europe,
the Rothschilds were financiers of many railroads.  Ruthlessly efficient, 
they bankrupted failures as quickly as they supported successes.  Like 
most bankers, they disliked open warfare or conflict.  Money and size 
were their chief weapons.

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DESIGNER'S NOTES

   The final product of any computer game project is determined by 
the strength of the central game concept, the ability and tastes of the 
designers, and the trial and error process of the game's evolution. 
Provided here is a brief description of how these elements were 
brought together to design Railroad Tycoon.
 
   The Railroad Tycoon design team consisted of Sid Meier, Bruce 
Shelley, and Max Remington, all working at MPS Labs, the software 
design studio of MicroProse Software.
 
   For Sid, Railroad Tycoon was most memorable as a game unlike 
any other he has made in his career.  Knowing trains were "cool",
he was challenged by the task of building them into a fun and 
interesting game.  Bruce had worked on railroad games in a previous 
life, including the 1830 game mentioned below, and has had a 
longtime interest in railroad history.  For him, Railroad Tycoon was 
the most interesting game project of a ten year career in games.  Max
joined the team after the basic mechanics were proved sound and jumped 
in with his normal unending stream of ideas and artwork.  Inspired to 
build his own model railroad at home, he lived up to his nickname, 
"Maximum". 

   The inspiration for Railroad Tycoon came from several sources. 
One was playing 1830, a boardgame about US railroads, during after 
hours gaming sessions here at MicroProse.  Then Sid worked up a 
system for building and operating model railroads that looked like 
something right out of a model railroading magazine.  In the Spring 
1989 Bruce wrote a proposal for a railroad game based on his 
experience with railroad boardgames, his interest in railroad history, 
and the play of the innovative new "sandbox" or "god' computer 
games that had recently appeared. 

   The railroad game idea kicked around for some time, until in a 
burst of activity during a vacation in August of 1989, Sid built 
the first working prototype.  This game was crude, but the potential 
was clearly there.  A project underway at that time was put on hold and 
development of Railroad Tycoon went full-time.
 
   A central design problem was choosing the scope of the game. 
Sid's early game was a model railroading game.  Bruce's proposal
posed the player as the president and guiding force of a railroad, but 

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it left out the tycoon competition so popular in 1830.  The dilemma was 
how much to include in one game. 

   In the end we automated much of the low end detail, such as 
throwing individual track switches, and concentrated on the higher 
end, you as president of your own railroad.  We found that running a 
big railroad and having to fight off rivals made the most interesting 
game. 

   We didn't forget train operations, however, and stretched the 
game to allow for that to be included.  By having one day of train 
operations represent the operation of your entire railroad for two 
years, we retained the feel of day to day train operations within the 
framework of running a big railroad.
 
   By this decision we hope to have retained the appeal to real rail 
enthusiasts, while broadening the appeal to game players.  We gained 
the evolution of locomotives and other technology, the changing of the 
game worlds as time passes, the influence of your railroad on the 
growth of cities, and competition over time with competing railroads. 
The more tedious details of train operation, not remembered as fun 
now anyway, are left for lower level managers on your "staff". 

   The keys to making the details of train operation fun and 
challenging were the routing of trains by station, the different 
economies for each world, and the competition with rivals over 
territory and stations. 

   Trains were previously routed by you acting as a switchman, setting 
switches to allow certain types and classes of trains to pass in 
one direction or another.  The new system gives more of the feel of 
you being the dispatcher, planning the movement of trains and then 
letting them run.  This system was one of the big breakthroughs in 
making the game work. 
 
   The next big change was increasing the complexity of the original 
economy in which just five types of cargo existed: mail, passenger, fast 
freight, slow freight, and bulk.  Now the whole map became important 
as you scanned for industrial sites and resources.  The more complex 
arrangement of supply, demand, and conversion of cargos added a new 
dimension to play. 

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   The last major addition was the competing railroads.  Before their 
inclusion, the game was just a puzzle, or a race to accumulate cash. 
Now players had some real worries: rate wars, stock takeovers, and 
being beaten into rich areas.  In addition, they had some new oppor- 
tunities: takeovers resulting in more cash or an ally against another 
rival. 

   The game originally was built for the Northeast USA, but we talked 
ourselves into expanding into England first, where railroading started, 
and then the Western USA and Europe.  By making each world different in 
some manner, we hope that each has its own flavor and interest.
 
   Giving the game as much variety as we could was one of our goals 
from the start.  We think that the endless variation of the maps, the 
four different worlds, and the influence of your railroad on regional 
economic growth insure that no two games can be alike.  In our 
experience no two games, nor any two people, play similarly, and 
different styles of play can succeed.  We believe there is room for 
detailed operation, wide expansion, and financial wheeling and deal- 
ing as you wish.
 
   The player is the master of his own destiny.  Each time you start 
a new game, you don't know how the game is going to go.
 
   We are very happy with the result of our work.  Railroad Tycoon 
was a great project to work on, and we're not just talking about field 
trips to the Strasburg Railroad and the B&O Museum.  We think we got 
just about everything in that we wished for, and even as we wind down 
from many months of intense work it remains a joy to play.
 
   We hope that Railroad Tycoon is as interesting, challenging, and 
fun to play as it was to design. 
 
   Sid Meier 
   Bruce Shelley 
   MaX Remington 
   March 2, 1990 

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PLAYER'S NOTES

   For new player's it is recommended that the reality levels all be 
set at the easy options.  With more experience add the Complex Economy.
then Dispatcher Operation, and finally Cut-Throat Competition.
 
   The most important part of building a new railroad is selecting an 
area of the world to start in.  One option that often works well is to 
start your railroad between areas containing one or more cities each, 20 
squares or less apart.  Two areas such as this should be able to provide 
passenger traffic capable of generating substantial revenue right 
away.  Then look to expand your mainline to other cities and extend 
branch lines to industries or resource areas.
 
   Also important when first starting out are the locations of 
industries and sites that generate the supply of cargos besides 
passengers and mail.  Having a harbor on your line is very useful 
because in all worlds they demand at least some cargos, and in others 
they generate the supply of cargos as well.
 
   Concentrations of natural resource sites are useful because they 
tend to grow tn size with utilization.  If you can get trains into a 
large natural resource area, it can pay to put on several large unit 
trains just to haul this resource.
 
   Also look for industry connections, such as those found in the 
tutorial railroad where coal is converted to steel and then into goods. 
You can then set up train routes like the one in the tutorial where one 
train carries all of the conversions, earning revenue on each delivery. 
Use Wait Until Full Orders to make such conversion trains more 
efficient by running full. 

    When planning your track, minimize grades and curves, avoid 90 
degree curves, and minimize bridges.  These track features all have 
their uses, but they also slow your trains and sometimes limit what 
you can do. 
 
   Double track where several trains are normally scheduled to use 
the same sections, but use signal towers as much as possible to 
increase speed rather than double track.  Where to double track and 
where to place signals should be determined by how much traffic is 
moving past and how much cash you have to spend.
 
   The longer the distance between stations and the faster the trains 
that are running, the longer the distance you can afford between 

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signals.  If you break blocks at track switches with signal towers, you 
can prevent long blocks consisting of both mainline and branch line 
track.
 
   Signal towers at both ends of a bridge may be useful if the bridge 
washes out.  You can then override the signals to Hold, and prevent 
trains from wrecking. 

   Try not to get into a negative cash position, but also keep your 
outstanding bonds down.  However, there may be times when the 
opportunity to expand or the purchase of new facilities or equipment 
can justify taking on a heavy debt.  Refinance your bonds during boom 
times.
 
   Don't necessarily replace all of your locomotives just because a 
new model has become available.  You must balance the cost of 
replacing a locomotive versus savings in maintenance costs and 
improved performance.  Often an older design is more efficient at 
performing a task than a newer engine.  When playing in the North- 
eastern USA or England, it usually pays to replace your Grasshoppers 
or Planets on better class trains as soon as you can afford to.
 
   If you have stations generating several carloads of mail each year, 
the high cost of improving them with post offices may pay, if you can 
put on trains carrying mail to take advantage of this supply.  Use the 
other storage facilities as well to minimize the wastage of cargos and 
keep your trains as full as possible.  For example, goods storage at 
USA harbors is helpful if you are carrying off the goods.  Restaurants 
are usually a good investment for any station where passenger deliveries 
are made, but reserve hotels for the busier passenger stations. 

   Because the time taken to switch on new cars at a consist change 
applies against the next movement of a train, the cost of a switching 
yards may be a good investment at stations where higher class cargos 
are being put on.  The yard can help speed the cargo on its way and 
eventually repay your investment in higher revenues for deliveries.
 
   Keeping all of your trains adequately maintained reduces your 
maintenance costs but may require many strategically placed engine 
and maintenance shops.  The decision of when to replace locomotives 
depends on their maintenance cost and the availability of better 

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engines.  You'll have to decide at what point would the lower mainte- 
nance cost of a newer engine repay its cost. 

   When just getting started or building expansions, it may pay to 
freeze or slow time while you build.  Adding new stations in January 
of the year and having trains ready to run to them can maximize the 
first year revenue bonus for deliveries to new stations.
 
   Plan your rate wars carefully, if possible, and try to win them 
quickly.  They can be useful in blocking your competition and reducing 
his stock price, but are usually very costly to put in effect.  The
reduced revenue at a rate war station continues until the war is 
resolved. 

   Adjust the length and consist of your trains to best suit the job 
they are to do.  Shorter trains normally move faster, but for slow and 
bulk freight its more important to move quantity, regardless of speed 
or distance.  Also keep the car types the same or within one class in 
each direction.  Where trains are running empty in one direction, the 
return trip may be faster with just a caboose on the train instead of 
empty cars.
 
   Buy your own stock when it's cheap, or when you can afford it. 
Remember that you can't be thrown out of office if 50% of the stock is 
in the treasury.  Carefully consider local offers to buy more stock that 
may occur when you build into new cities.  The cash may help, but 
diluting the stock makes it more difficult to raise the price.  Buy the 
stock of your competitors, when you can afford it, as this at least 
forces them to buy as well.  Take over competitors if you have the 
opportunity. This greatly improves your situation. 

   As time passes, it is harder to keep up profits.  To do so you will 
probably need fast trains carrying mail, passengers, and fast freight 
over long distances, or a great deal of slow and bulk freight deliveries. 

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FURTHER READING

   A wide variety of sources were consulted for this game.  No single 
source discusses locomotive specifications, railroad history, or railroad 
operations, especially for Europe as well as North America.  Among the 
many books used, the following were found especially useful and are 
recommended for further reading: 
 
   The American Heritage History of Railroads in America, by Oliver 
Jensen, American Heritage Publishing, New York, 1975.  An excellent and 
well illustrated history of American railroading. 

   Aboard a Steam Locomotive, a sketchbook, by Huck Scarry, Prentice-
Hall, New York, 1987.  A children's book, but nevertheless a well 
illustrated and simple explanation of how railroads and steam 
locomotives work. 

   Early American Locomotives, by John H. White, Jr., Dover Publications, 
New York, 1972.  A collection of locomotive engravings from early railroad 
literature.
 
   Cade's Locomotive Guide, by Dennis Lovett and Leslie Wood, Marwain, 
Bletchley, 1988.  A guide for modeler's of British locomotives, but 
includes useful information and photos.
 
   This Fascinating Railroad Business, by Robert Selph Henry, Third 
Edition, Revised, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, New York, 1946. 
Includes a variety of interesting details about the history of 
constructing and operating railroads until the time of its being 
published.
 
   The Great Book Of Trains, by Brian Hollingsworth and Arthur 
Cook, Portland House, Crown Publishers, New York, 1987.  A major 
source of locomotive information.  Includes some beautiful 
illustrations.
 
   The Guinness Railway Book, by John Marshall, Guinness, Enfield, 
1989.  Interesting railroad facts, records, and trivia.
 
   A History Of The American Locomotive, Its Development 1830-1880, 
by John H. White, Jr., Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1968, and Dover 
Publications, New York, 1979.  Design influences, component development, 
and case histories of early locomotives in America; not for beginners. 

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   A History Of The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, by John F. Stover, 
Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, 1987.  An excellent history of 
the pioneering American road known as the "railroad university." 

   How To Operate Your Model Railroad, by Bruce A. Chubb, Kalmbach Books,
Milwaukee, 1978.  An entertaining and understandable discussion of 
railroad operations as explained for model railroaders. 

   Impossible Challenge, by Herbert H. Harwood, Jr., Barnard, Roberts, 
and Company, Baltimore, 1979.  A history of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
within the State of Maryland. 

   The Lore Of The Train, by C. Hamilton Ellis, Crescent Books, New York, 
1975.  An entertaining, though wordy, world history of railroading. 

   The Railroad - What It Is, What It Does, by John H. Armstrong, 
Revised Edition, Simmons-Boardman, Omaha, 1982.  The best source 
found for what American railroads are like today and how they are 
operated.
 
   The Railway Revolution, by L. T. C. Holt, St. Martin's Press, New 
York, 1962.  A very interesting biography of George and Robert 
Stephenson, two of the most famous design and construction engineers of 
English railroading. 

   Steam Locomotives, by Luciano Greggio, Crescent Books, New 
York, 1985.  An excellent source for locomotive illustrations and 
information on the historical development of locomotives throughout 
the world.
 
   Track Planning For Realistic Operation, by John Armstrong, 
Second Edition, Kalmbach Books, Milwaukee, 1979.  Although directed at 
model railroaders, this paperback succinctly discusses and 
illustrates railroad operations.
 
   The World's Rail Way, J. G. Pangbom, Bramhall House, New York, 1974, 
a facsimile of the 1894 edition.  A beautifully illustrated and 
descriptive narration of the history of railroading prior to the 1893 
Columbian Exposition.  The author helped organize the railroad 
exhibit there and this book resulted from the material he gathered. 

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SKID ROW  SKID ROW  SKID ROW  SKID ROW  SKID ROW  SKID ROW  SKID ROW

Checking file type of TechSupp.doc ...                                                
                              Extracting ascii file TechSupp.doc

                              SKID ROW
                              
                              presents
                         For Commodore Amiga.

                             Sid Meier's

                           RAILROAD TYCOON
  
                         TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT

PAGE 1

Contents

   Your Railroad Tycoon package should contain a manual, this technical
supplement folder, two Commodore Amiga disks, two player aid cards, and
a registration card.

Required Equipment

   Computer & Display:  This simulation requires a Commodore Amiga with
a minimum of 1 Meg. of RAM and a color monitor.  Please pre-format a
disk for your Saved Games.

   Controls:  The simulation can be run entirely from the keyboard, or 
with a mouse and keyboard.  A mouse is recommended as the interface
has been designed to take advantage of the mouse.  Unlike some
MicroProse simulations, a joystick cannot be used to run Railroad
Tycoon.

Installation on a Hard Disk

   COMMODORE AMIGA: Boot up your hard disk as normal and insert Railroad
Tycoon Disk A.  Open this disk and double-click on the "INSTALL" icon.  
Please follow any on-screen prompts.  A folder titled "Railroad" will be
created on your hard disk, containing all necessary files.

LOADING

Loading from Floppy Disks

   COMMODORE AMIGA:  If your computer has KickStart in ROM, insert the
Railroad Tycoon "A" disk into the internal drive.  The program will
then auto-load.

   If your computer does not have KickStart in ROM, load KickStart
as normal, then insert your Railroad Tycoon Disk A into the internal
drive.  The program will then auto-load.

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PAGE 2

   Thereafter during play you are prompted when you must remove the
"A" disk to insert the "B" disk.  Note that at certain times the
program accesses the "A" disk for information so do not remove the
"A" disk from your drive once the game has begun unless prompted to
make a switch.

Loading from a Hard Disk

   COMMODORE AMIGA:  Boot up your hard disk as normal.  Open the 
"Railroad" drawer and double-click on the "Game" icon.

SAVED GAMES

  You may save games currently under way and recontinue them at a 
later date.  Games may be saved onto your hard drive or onto a 
previously saved game disk.  You may not save games onto your 
original game disks or back-up game disks.  To save a current game,
open the Game menu and choose "Save Game".  If the game was booted
from floppy disk, you will be asked to insert your previously
formatted Save Game disk before selecting a slot to save to.

   You may only have four games saved on any disk.  If the game
files are full on any disk, move the highlight to the existing
saved game you wish to overwrite and press return.  This writes
the new saved game over the old one, erasing the old one.  If you
don't want to erase any game on a full disk, hit the ESC key to
return to the game, and start over.  However, you cannot format a
disk while the game is underway, so have additional formatted disks
handy.

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Loading a Saved Game

   Saved games can only be loaded during the pre-game options.
To load a saved game, follow these instructions:

    1) Choose the option "Load Saved RR" when you start the game. 
    2) If you are playing from floppy disk, follow the prompt to
       insert your Save Game disk.
    3) Move the highlight down the list of saved games until the
       game you wish to load is highlighted, and press RETURN.
       This loads the saved game.

AMIGA RAILROAD TYCOON FEATURES

   Dissolving Railroads:  If the shore price of a competing railroad
falls below $5 and stays there for too long, there is a chance that
the railroad can be dissolved and disappear entirely from the game.

   Bankruptcy Penalty:  For each bankruptcy that you declare, the 
interest you must pay for selling new bonds is increases by 1%.
After enough bankruptcies, you will be unable to sell any bonds.
   Car Costs:  Each car you place on your trains costs $5,000.
When you make consist changes, you are only charged if the total
number of cars on your railroad increases.

   Menu Options:  You may highlight any menu option by pressing the
letter key of the first letter in the option.  If more than once 
choice share the same first letter, additional letter key taps
cycle through the options that start with the same letter.

   Sound Effects:  If you selected one of the sound driver options
when you started your game, you may toggle the sound effects on or
off later in the game.  This is done from the Features option, 
found in the Game menu.  If you selected No Sounds when beginning
play, the sound effects option does not operate.

   Find City:  You may zoom into the Detail Display around any city
in the game world by pulling down the Display menu and choosing 
"Find City."  Type in at least enough letters of the city name to
distinguish it from all other cities in the world and press RETURN.

   Animations:  There are no animated sequences in the Amiga version,
speeding up game play.  Hence there is no Animation option in the
Game Menu.

   Difficulty Levels:  You are not required to retire after a certain
number of years as explained in the manual on page 16 under Difficulty
Levels.  Instead, you may play up to 100 years at any level.  However,
you may not increase the level of difficulty once you have started
playing.  The difficulty level you choose when beginning a new game
remains in effect for its duration.

PAGE 3


PAGE 4

WORLD ECONOMY NOTES

North America

   North America is blessed with huge natural resources that have only
been exploited since the beginning of European colonization.  To this
day, the region remains a major source of raw materials such as coal,
metallic ores, oil, and wood products.  It is also one of the richest
meat and grain producing regions in the world.

   Railroads were especially useful in America because they made
cheap transportation available throughout this large continent.  They
made exploitation of this bounty of resources possible.

   The early railroads were built to bring mainly raw products, such
as coal and grain, from the continental interior to the peripheral
harbors.  As the region industrialized, the role of railroads
expanded.  They moved people westward during the great expansion,
they interconnected the growing eastern cities, and they connected the 
growing industrial sector with both the sources of raw materials and
markets.

In Railroad Tycoon the economic impact and role of railroads in 
North America is similar to that of the real world.  The equivalent
of the Pittsburgh steel mills, the West Virginia coal fields, the
Detroit automobile factories, and the Chicago stockyards are in the
game, though rarely in their historical location.  The opportunity is
their for your railroad to find the raw materials and connect them to
the industries, and the industries to their markets.  You develop
your business by linking the coal fields to the steel mills, the
steel mills to the factories, and the factories to the cities.

   In a similar manner you can connect the cattle ranches to
stockyards, the grain elevators to food processing plants, lumber
yards to paper mills, etc.  When you connect larger cities together,
you create the opportunity for carrying mail and passengers between
them.  Harbors and river landings are places where you can pass on
cargos to ships and river boats, and may be a source of new cargos
from overseas.

   As you build and operate your railroad, you witness the impact 
you have on the population and industrial growth of the area that
you serve.  Cities along your railroad may become the Pittsburgh
or Detroit of your world.

England

   Great Britain was the first nation to industrialize and the place
where the concept and technology of railroading was invented.  The
earliest railroads in Britain were built to connect interior 
industries and resources with harbors.  The main export resource
was coal, mostly shipped around the coast to London and other
population centers.  But unlike North America where there was a rich
variety and quantity of resources, in Britain the resources were more
limited.

   As a result of the Industrial Revolution, this island nation was
converted into an industrial powerhouse, a world leader in 
manufacturing technology and production.  Raw materials not available
at home were imported and converted into good for export or home
consumption.  Railroads played a vital role in this industrialization
by easing and speeding the movement of materials, finished goods, 
and labor throughout the country.

   For example, coal from the mines near Newcastle was first carried
by rail to coastal ports like Sunderland, and later directly by rail
to the steel mills and factories of Sheffield.

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The famous Sheffield knives went by train throughout the country and
from ports throughout the world.

   Another major industry comprised the cotton mills that grew around
Manchester to use the water coming down the hills for power.  Cotton
for the mills arrived at Liverpool from India and the American South,
and was carried by rail to Manchester.  The mills converted the 
cotton to cloth goods that were carried back to Liverpool for
shipment overseas.

   In Railroad Tycoon you can profit by looking for these same
economic relationships.  Harbors are sources of supply for cotton
and hops, and these cargos can be carried to textile mills and
breweries for conversion into goods and beer.  Pottery and glass
goods from glass works, the products of chemical plants, and factory
goods can all be shipped to harbors for exportation.

   To be successful, your railroad must link the peripheral harbors
to the industrial midlands and resource centers.  Since each game
map is different, you must locate coal and chemical deposits now 
not necessarily outside Newcastle, and link these resources to the
industries that use them.  In this way you can help build cities
such as Salisbury or York into another London.

Europe

   The European economy is in the middle, between the resource rich
North American economy and the industry rich British economy.  Europe
is large enough to have substantial resources and thus not depend so
much on imported resources.  Still, the European nations 
industrialized, although after Britain and not to the same degree.

   Blessed with greater natural resources than the island nation of
Great Britain, the European nations were not as forced to rely on
their ability to manufacture goods for exportation.  Although trade
was certainly important, it was not necessary to finance the 
importation of food and materials as it was in Britain.  Most of the
larger European nations found within their borders sufficient natural
resources for industrial production.

   Nevertheless, some nations proved to have a comparative advantage in
the production of certain goods.  These advantages became the basis
for international trade across the continent.  French wines were traded 
for German guns or Italian cloth.

   Railroads served their familiar important transport role throughout
Europe.  Within nations they brought the coal and ore to the mills,
and moved the mill products to other industries and harbors.  They
were also found to be more important people movers than in either
Britain or North America because of congestion, lack of roads, and
high petroleum costs.  Between nations railroads hauled resources,
finished products, people, and mail.
 
   In Railroad Tycoon the rich industrial region of the Ruhr River
Valley or the grain fields of the Ukraine may turn up anywhere.
As a railroad president it is for you to search the map to find
the pieces of the economic puzzle and profitably link them together.

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PAGE 6

DISPLAY COLORS

Regional Display Map Colors

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Dark blue        Oceans and lakes
   Light blue       Rivers
   Blue             Woods 
   Dark green       Cleared land
   Light green      Farmland
   Light grey       Foothills
   Light blue       Hills
   White            Mountains/Alps
   Brown            Swamp/Desert
   Red              Villages
   Yellow           Cities
   Red/yellow       Industries
   Dark red         Harbors
   Black            Coal, wood, chemicals, nitrates

Train Roster        
   
   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Black line       Stopped train
   Red line         Paused train
   Green line       Train speed indicator
   Black engine     Normal loads
   Green engine     Priority Shipment on board
   White car        Mail car at least half full
   Light grey car   Mail car less than half full
   Light blue car   Passenger car at least half full
   Blue car         Passenger car less than half full
   Yellow car       Fast freight car at least half full
   Light green car  Fast freight car less than half full
   Red car          Slow freight car at least half full
   Dark red car     Slow freight car less than half full
   Black car        Bulk freight car at least half full
   Dark grey car    Bulk freight car less than half full

Freight Classes

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   White            Mail
   Light blue       Passengers
   Yellow           Fast freight
   Red              Slow freight
   Black            Bulk freight

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PAGE 7

Financial Reports

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Red              Losses or decreases
   Black            Profits or increases

Shipping Report Borders

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Grey             Normal revenues
   Red              Halved revenues
   White            Doubled revenues

Train Report Scheduled Stops

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Light grey       Scheduled stop
   Black            Current destination

Station Reports

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   Dark green       Cargo picked up this period or 
                    Revenue earned for delivery
   Red              Cargos removed by other transport
   Light green      Cargos available now

Construction Box Colors

   COLOR            INFORMATION DISPLAYED

   White            Build track
   Red              Remove track and bridges

CONTROLS

General

 FUNCTION               KEYBOARD            MOUSE
 Selector               RETURN key          Left button
 Selector 1             RETURN key          Left button
 Selector 2                                 Right button
 Open menu              First letter key    Right button
 Move cursor,                               Numeric keypad keys
 Construction Box (Box)
 or menu highlight

Track Construction/Demolition Keys

 FUNCTION       KEYBOARD COMMAND

 North          Shift and numeric keypad `8' key
 Northeast      Shift and numeric keypad `9' key
 East           Shift and numeric keypad `6' key
 Southeast      Shift and numeric keypad `3' key
 South          Shift and numeric keypad `2' key
 Southwest      Shift and numeric keypad `1' key
 West           Shift and numeric keypad `4' key
 Northwest      Shift and numeric keypad `7' key

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PAGE 8

Shortcut Keys

   FUNCTION                   KEYBOARD COMMAND

   Go to Regional Display     `F1' key
   Go to Area Display         `F2' key (centers on cursor or pointer)
   Go to Local Display        `F3' key (centers on cursor or pointer)
   Go to Detail Display       `F4' key (centers on cursor or pointer)
   Open Income Statement      `F5' key
   Open Train Income Report   `F6' key 
   Build a new train          `F7' key (must own engine shop)
   Build station              `F8' key (Box on spot)
   Call broker                `F9' key (game not frozen) 
   Survey elevations          `F10' key (from Detail Display only)

Additional Keys

   FUNCTION                             KEYBOARD COMMAND

   Double track a single track section  Shift and `D' key
   (Box must be on track section)
   Single track a double track section  Shift and `S' key
   (Box must be on track section)
   Get information                      `I' key or Shift and `?' key
   (for icon inside Box)
   Override signal                      `S' key
   (for signal within Box or cursor)    
   Center map on cursor or pointer      `C' key
   Quit game                            Alt and `Q' key
   Exit menu without making choice      ESC key

KEYBOARD INTERFACE ONLY

General

   FUNCTION                             KEYBOARD COMMAND
   
   Switch cursor                        TAB key
   (between map and Train Roster)
   Open Train Report                    RETURN key
   (train marked in roster by cursor)
   Pause train                          `H' key
   (train marked in roster by cursor)

Train Report Controls

   FUNCTION                              KEYBOARD COMMAND

   Go to priority row of Train Report    `P' key
   Highlight schedule stops 1,2,3, or 4  `1',`2',`3', or `4' key
   Go to Route Map                       Shift and `S' key
   Move highlight on Route Map           Numeric keypad `1-9' keys
                                         (not `5')
   Select highlighted stop on Route Map  RETURN key
   Exit Route Map without any changes    ESC key

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PAGE 9

SOUND CUES

   Sound             Caused By

   Whistle/Horn      Train passing through station without stopping
   Clink of coins    Revenue earned (one clink for each $25,000)

SIGNAL OVERRIDE CHART

Normal Operation

    Existing Signal   Color     Effect

    GO                Green     Indicates currently safe to enter block
    STOP              Red       Indicates currently not safe to enter
                                block
    PROCEED           Yellow    Passes next train and returns to NORMAL
                                operation
    HOLD              Black     Stops all trains until overridden with
                                NORMAL or PROCEED

Note: On the Area and Local Displays, normal signals appear in black
boxes and overridden signals appear in white boxes.

PAGE 9


PAGE 10

WORLD CITY LISTS

   The following lists include all the cities found on the four world
maps.  To find the location of any city pull down the Display menu
and choose "Find City."  Type in enough letters of the city name to
differentiate it from any other name on the list.  For example, in the
Northeast USA, "All" is enough identification for Allentown because
those letters differentiate it from all other cities on the list,
including Albany and Altoona.

   The same information is sufficient when ordering a controlled railroad
to build track from one city to another.

Northeast USA Cities

Akron             Cumberland       Knoxville         Roanoke
Albany            Dayton           Lansing           Rochester
Allentown         Detroit          Lexington         Saginaw
Altoona           Dover            London            Salisbury
Asheville         Elkhart          Louisville        Sault Ste Marie
Ashland           Elmira           Manchester        Scranton
Atlantic City     Erie             Memphis           Sherbrooke
Baltimore         Evansville       Milwaukee         Springfield
Bangor            Florence         Montreal          St Louis
Binghamton        Fort Wayne       Morgantown        Sudbury
Bluefield         Fredericksburg   Nashville         Syracuse
Boston            Gary             New Haven         Terre Haute
Bridgeport        Grafton          New York          Toledo
Bristol           Grand Rapids     Norfolk           Toronto
Buffalo           Green Bay        Oil City          Traverse City
Burlington        Greensboro       Ottawa            Trenton
Champaign         Greenville       Paterson          Utica
Charleston        Hagerstown       Pembroke          Washington
Charlotte         Harpers Ferry    Philadelphia      Watertown
Charlottesville   Harrisburg       Pittsburgh        Wheeling
Chattanooga       Hartford         Portland          Williamsport
Chicago           Huntington       Poughkeepsie      Wilmington
Cincinnati        Indianapolis     Providence        Winchester
Cleveland         Jamestown        Raleigh           Winston-Salem
Columbus          Johnstown        Richmond          Youngstown

Western USA Cities
                                                    
Abilene           Burns            Dodge City        Fort Worth
Albuquerque       Butte            Duluth            Fresno
Amarillo          Calgary          Durango           Gary
Austin            Casper           El Paso           Grand Junction
Barstow           Cedar City       Elko              Grand Rapids
Baton Rouge       Chicago          Eugene            Great Falls
Billings          Chihuahua        Evansville        Green Bay
Bismarck          Decatur          Fargo             Hays
Boise             Denver           Flagstaff         Hermosillo
Bozeman           Des Moines       Fort Smith        Houston

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PAGE 11

Indianapolis      Monclova         Regina            Spokane
Jackson           Monroe           Reno              Springfield
Kansas City       Nashville        Richland          St Louis
La Crosse         Needles          Rock Island       St Paul
Lake Charles      New Orleans      Roswell           Thunder Bay
Las Vegas         Ogallala         Sacramento        Tonopah
Lincoln           Oklahoma City    Salt Lake City    Tucson
Little Rock       Omaha            San Antonio       Tucumcari
Los Angeles       Phoenix          San Diego         Tulsa
Memphis           Pierre           San Francisco     Tuscaloosa
Midland           Pocatello        Saskatoon         Vancouver
Miles City        Portland         Sault Ste Marie   Waterloo
Milwaukee         Pueblo           Seattle           Wausau
Minot             Rapid City       Shreveport        Wichita
Mobile            Redding          Sioux Falls       Winnipeg

English Cities

Aberystwyth       Chatham          King's Lynn       Peterborough
Aldershot         Cheltenham       Kingston          Plymouth
Appleby           Chester          Lancaster         Portsmouth
Banbury           Colchester       Leeds             Preston
Bangor            Colwyn Bay       Leicester         Reading
Barmouth          Coventry         Lincoln           Rugby
Barnstaple        Crewe            Liverpool         Salisbury
Barrow            Croydon          London            Scarborough
Bath              Darlington       Ludlow            Sheffield
Bedford           Derby            Luton             Shrewsbury
Birkenhead        Doncaster        Macclesfield      Southampton
Birmingham        Dover            Manchester        Stockport
Bletchley         Durham           Merthyr Tydfil    Stoke
Bolton            Exeter           Middlesbrough     Sunderland
Boston            Gloucester       Minehead          Swansea
Bournemouth       Great Yarmouth   Morpeth           Swindon
Bradford          Harrogate        Newcastle         Taunton
Brighton          Hastings         Newport           Thetford
Bristol           Hereford         Newtown           Torbay
Builth Wells      Hexham           Newhampton        Whitehaven
Cambridge         Holyhead         Norwich           Winchester
Canterbury        Horsham          Nottingham        Wolverhampton
Cardiff           Ipswich          Okehampton        Worcester
Carlisle          Kendal           Oxford            Wrexham
Carmarthen        Keswick          Penrith           York

PAGE 11


PAGE 12

European Cities

Adrianople        Dijon            Lublin            Rostock
Amsterdam         Dresden          Lvov              Saint Etienne
Antwerp           Essen            Lyons             Salonika
Barcelona         Florence         Madrid            Salzburg
Bari              Frankfurt        Magdeburg         Saragossa
Bayonne           Genoa            Marseilles        Sarajevo
Belgrade          Graz             Metz              Sofia
Berlin            Grenoble         Milan             Southampton
Bern              Hamburg          Minsk             Split
Bialystok         Hannover         Munich            Stettin
Birmingham        Innsbruck        Nantes            Strasbourg
Bologna           Istanbul         Naples            Stuttgart
Bordeaux          Kaunas           Nice              Tirana
Bremen            Kiel             Nuremburg         Toulouse
Breslau           Kiev             Orleans           Tours
Brest             Kisinev          Osijek            Trieste
Brest-Litovsk     Konigsberg       Osnabruck         Turin
Bristol           Krakow           Ostrava           Utrecht
Brussels          Le Havre         Paris             Valencia
Bucharest         Le Mans          Plymouth          Varna
Budapest          Leipzig          Poznan            Vienna
Cologne           Lille            Prague            Vinnica
Copenhagen        Limoges          Regensburg        Warsaw
Danzig            Liverpool        Reims             Zagreb
Debrecken         London           Rome              Zurich
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