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Romance of the three kingdoms manual

INTRODUCTION

China in 190 A.D. was nearing chaos. The Second Han Dynasty, which had
ruled for the previous 165 years, was dying. Law throughout the country was
not coming from the Emperor but from generals who grabbed power where and
when they could. At first no single general controlled more than a handful
of states at most and many states were controlled by no one at all. As time
went on a few generals managed to gradually expand their rule until by 215
A.D. China was divided into three kingdoms called Wei, Wu and Shu, the
ruler of each desperately trying to consolidate the entire country under
himself. This era is referred to as the Three Kingdoms Period. Romance of
The Three Kingdoms is a simulation game that traces China from the chaos
with which the Three Kingdoms began to its rule by one general.

The player takes control of a master, a general capable of commanding as
many states as he can acquire, and, if successful, unifies China. As many
as eight may play, but only one can succeed. There are five chronologically
arranged scenarios. The first has China in its most disorganized period
and the last has virtually all of China controlled by one of three
generals. The precise requirements for success in each of these scenarios
differs(see Setup and Scenarios (P.11-17), but in all cases the goal is to
rule as many states as possible. After the completion of any scenario but
number five the game will automatically advance to the next. You may start
the game at any scenario. Koei's Romance of The Three Kingdoms is based on
an historical novel of the same name written in the Fourteenth Century,
which was in turn based on a more serious official work of history by Ch'en
Shou (233-297 A.D.), who chronicled major historical events in China from
220 to 265 A.D. Your master strives to unite China. You must enlist the
help of others, fight well and negotiate shrewdly. Without able and loyal
subordinates you will not be able to win the game. Choosing good people and
winning their loyalty will not be easy and all the able and loyal
subordinates in the world will not help if diplomatic and military
resources are not used well.

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I. OVERVIEW

The first step to entering Romance of The Three Kingdoms is to select a
master. Masters are Warlord that have the ability to govern as many states
(P.23) as they can acquire. All other generals serve masters, or are
available to serve them. You, with your master and his subordinate
generals, will strive to unify the divided states of China. There are five
scenarios set in five successive time periods, with the nation growing
slightly closer to unification in each scenario. The available masters in
each scenario will differ, and so will the requirements for victory. As the
country grows closer to unification the number of masters declines and so
does the number of players. As many as eight may play the first two
scenarios, but by the fifth scenario only three will remain. Success in
scenarios one through four does not mean the end of the game but merely
continuation into the next scenario.

Normally, the screen will show the main display, which features a map
divided into 58 states, and an information box. States will be shaded to
show ownership,  except for empty states which will be left blank. Each
state will give one order a month so the more states you own the more
commands you give. After all states have given an order, one month will be
considered to have passed. The order in which states give commands will
change at random each month. When it is your turn to give an order you will
be prompted by the computer. Hitting return will replace the information
box with a menu. Entering zero will return the information box. To give an
order simply enter the appropriate number and hit return.

When you go to war against another state, or are invaded, the main display
will be replaced with the battle display. The battle display is in concept
similar to the main display, but instead of a map of china a highly
detailed hexagonal map of one particular state is displayed and the data to
the right of the map rather more specialized. As on the main display
hitting return will produce a menu. To give an order on the battle display
enter the appropriate number;there is no need to hit return.

If a war is not over within a month, it will be carried on into the next
month. If the war continues for more than two months you will be allowed to
call in reinforcements from any states you own that borders the state where
the war is taking place.

Should you become dissatisfied with the state or states you control and
decide to abandon them, or should you be taken hostage by another commander
but manage

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to escape, it is possible to play as a wander, a master without a country.
A wander can raise an army, take a state and continue to victory.

In this game there are a large number of Chinese names. They may appear
intimidating to native English speakers at first, but most people soon get
used to them. Test players have reported no difficulties as a character's
name is usually presented with his picture and when giving orders you will
be referring to characters by number rather than typing in whole names.
Those interested in pronunciation please read the appendix to this manual.

KEYBOARD OPERATION

Romance of The Three Kingdoms uses the keyboard and the carriage return
key. The keypad may also be used. On the main display hit carriage return
after entering orders, on the battle display return is not usually needed.
When asked a Yes/No question (...(Y/N?) you can respond with Y or N, or by
enter 0 for "Yes" or hitting the carriage return key for "No". For details
on use of the keyboard/keypad when moving units during battle, see the
first part of chapter 6, War. When using the keypad, it is necessary on
some machines to press the "Number Lock" key.

ANIMATION

Animation may be switched on and off using command 20, >Other< (P.39), on
the main display. >Other< may also be used to end and save the game, and to
control the length of time for which on screen messages are displayed.

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II. SETUP AND SCENARIOS

After the game has begun running but before play starts, it is necessary to
go through a brief setup.

NEW GAME/LOAD DATA

If you wish to continue a game saved earlier select "2" for Load data.
Otherwise, select "1" for New game.

SCENARIO SELECTION

Romance of The Three Kingdoms may be played with any one of five possible
scenarios. They each present slightly different challenges, but are equally
difficult. Since successful completion of scenarios one to four means
continuation of the game at the next scenario until unification in scenario
five, total play time will be shorter by beginning with a latter scenario.
Remember, a master is a Warlord with the power to control as many states as
he can acquire. In most scenarios most masters will start with more than
one state.

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SCENARIO 1: A CHAOTIC WORLD

A. STARTING DATE
189 A.D.

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In 189 A.D., Ho Chin, a relative of the Emperor, plotted to murder the
palace eunuchs with the help of masters Yuan Shao and Yuan Shu. However,
the plan leaked out and the eunuchs, deciding the best defense was a good
offense,  murdered Ho Chin. All of this put the palace in a great deal of
confusion. A general named Dong Zhuo took advantage of this to attack the
palace and appoint himself emperor.

Afraid of Dong Zhuo and his rule, Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu, Cao Cao and a number
of others masters fled the capital of Loyang. However, before long these
generals grew tired of Dong Zhuo's overbearing tyranny and gathered
together in Loyang again to overthrow him. Dong Zhuo, aware of great danger
around him, moved his capital to Ch'angan after burning most of the city of
Loyang to the ground. No masters were hurt in the fire.

C. CONDITIONS FOR VICTORY

Your goal is to conquer any 30 states or more, and to rule either of two
capital cities, Loyang (state 20) or Ch'angan (state 21).

D. HEROES     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

Masters you can select    Kong Rong #8, #9
        Gong Zan  #3
        Tao Qian  #10, #11
        Ma Teng   #25, #26
        Wang Lang #31
        Liu Yao   #28

Other Masters     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

(not selectable)    Cao Cao   #7
        Sun Jian  #41
        Liu Bei   #14
        Yuan Shao #4, #5
        Yuan Shu  #37, #38
        Liu Biao  #39, #40
        Dong Zhou #18, #19, #20, #21
        Liu Yan   #47, #48, #49

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SCENARIO 2: THE EMERGENCE OF CAO CAO

A. STARTING DATE
195 A.D.

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In 192 A.D., Governor Wang Yu convinced the deceitful Lu Bu, Emperor Dong
Zhuo's right hand man, to assassinate Zhuo. Zhuo's death led to a power
vacuum with every master in the country trying to become emperor. The
struggle became violent and many deaths resulted. Sun Jian was killed
during the fighting with Liu Biao and was succeeded by his son, Sun Ce.

In 198 A.D. Cao Cao killed Lu Bu and laid the foundation for the future Wei
Dynasty.

C. CONDITIONS FOR VICTORY

Your goal is to conquer more than 30 states and to rule either of two
capital cities, Loyang (state 20) or Ch'angan (state 21).

D. HEROES     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

Masters you can select    Cao Cao   #13, #19, #20
        Sun Ce    #28, #32
        Liu Bei   #10, #11
        Yuan Shao #4, #5
        Yuan Shu  #29, #30, #37, #38
        Liu Biao  #39, #40, #41, #42
        Liu Zhang #23, #47, #48, #49, #50
        Yu Bu   #6, #7

OTHER MASTERS     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

        Gong Zan  #2, #3
        Yang Feng #12
        Li Jue    #21, #22
        Wang Lang #31
        Ma Teng   #24, #25, #26, #27

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SCENARIO 3: THE OPENING OF A NEW AGE

A. STARTING DATE
201 A.D.

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

In 199 A.D., Yuan Shao won an important battle against Gong Zan and
steadily extended his power north. During this time, Liu Bei was wandering,
taking shelter with Yuan Shao sometimes and with Liu Biao at others. Su Ce,
who succeeded Sun Jian, was assassinated at the age of 26, and in turn was
succeeded by his younger brother Sun Quan.

The whole empire was in a state of confusion. Yuan Shao had so many
northern states that he was known by this time as the Wolf Of The North.
Cao Cao wanted these states and made up his mind to take them.

C. CONDITIONS FOR VICTORY

Your goal is to rule more than 40 states.

D. HEROES

Masters you can select    MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

        Cao Cao   #6, #7, #12, #13, #19, #20
        Sun Quan  #28, #31, #32, #33
        Liu Bei   #37
        Yuan Shao #38, #39, #40, #41, #42,
            #43, #44
        Liu Biao  #45, #46, #47, #48, #49,
            #50, #52
        Ma Teng   #24, #25, #26, #27

There are no other masters in this scenario.

        15

SCENARIO 4: THE BATTLE OF RED WALL

A. STARTING DATE
208 A.D.

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Yuan Shao was killed in battle and Cao Cao defeated Yuan's sons, Yuan Shang
and Yuan Tan so Cao Cao came to dominate the North. Liu Zhang and Sun Quan
dominated the South, but Liu Bei was unable to firmly establish himself
anywhere.

In 207 A.D. Liu Bei recruited Zhu Ge Liang as a military advisor. Together
they took the region of Jingzhou, states 37, 38, 39, and 40. The newly
powerful Liu Bei allied himself with Sun Quan and fought Cao Cao in 208
A.D. in what became known as The Battle of Red Wall. This battle signified
the start of the ultimate phase of the Three Kingdoms Period.

C. CONDITIONS FOR VICTORY

Your goal is to rule more than 40 states.

D. HEROES     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

Masters you can select    Cao Cao         #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7,
            #9, #12, #13, #16, #18,
            #20, #21
        Sun Quan  #28, #31, #32, #33, #34,
            #35, #36
        Liu Bei   #37, #38, #39, #40
        Liu Zhang #46, #47, #48, #49, #50,
            #51, #52, #53
        Ma Teng   #24, #25, #26, #27

Other Masters     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

        Zhang Lu  #22, #23, #45
        Liu Du    #44
        Zhao Fan  #43
        Jin Xuan  #42
        Han Xuan  #41

        16

SCENARIO 5:THE AGE OF THE THREE KINGDOMS

A. STARTING DATE
215 A.D.

B. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Sun Quan and Liu Bei won the Battle of Red Wall and started to build up
their respective power bases. The country was effectively split into three
parts:The Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao, the Wu Kingdom of Sun Quan, and the Shu
Kingdom of Liu Bei. The field has been narrowed down to three masters and
their generals. The only question is which one of these three will defeat
the other two and unify China.

C. OBJECTIVE

Conquer the whole empire

D. HEROES     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

Masters you can select 
   Cao Cao   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
            10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
            17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,
            24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
            37

  Sun Quan  28, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
            39, 41, 43, 55, 56, 57, 58

  Liu Bei   23, 38, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46,
            47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52

Other Masters     MASTER    MASTER'S STATES

        Yong Kai  53, 54

        17

SELECTING NUMBER OF PLAYERS

As many people may play as there are available masters in a scenario. When
prompted, please enter number of players. If 0 is entered the computer will
play a demonstration game against itself. To end the demonstration game
press the Esc key.

SELECTING A MASTER

After selecting a scenario each player must choose a master. The screen
will display the portraits of available masters and the basic values of the
parameters that define each master's personality. Masters not controlled by
a human player will be controlled by the computer. When a master has been
chosen the player's number will appear by the masters name.

The strength of a master's situation at the beginning of the game varies
according to the scenario being played and the master's parameters. It is
possible to win with any hero and, though no hero can guarantee victory,
the game is easier with a hero who starts out in an advantageous position.
Thus, in the latter two scenarios Cao Cao and Sun Quan are in very strong
positions while it would prove extremely difficult to unify China in
scenario one with Liu Bei,  who starts in a very disadvantageous position.
Simply checking this manual under Scenarios to see how many states a master
owns at the beginning of the game is as good a gauge of success as any.

PARAMETERS

A master's personality is governed by five parameters: Health,
Intelligence, Power, Charisma, and Luck, each with a maximum value of 100
points. The higher the value, the stronger the parameter. However, these
values are not set in stone and can be changed both during play and setup.
During setup the screen will display a list of parameters for each hero and
next to each parameter a rapidly and randomly changing number. Hitting the
space bar once will set the first parameter, hitting it again will set the
second and so on. By hitting the space bar five times you will have set all
a master's parameters. The numbers are random but weighted so that you'll
find the parameters you have set will tend

        18

to be close to the basic parameters displayed in the previous screen. If
dissatisfied you will be offered a chance to try again. The trick is to
remember that you can not change only one element and it is nearly
impossible to get really high values for all parameters. Thus, you will
have to decide which parameters you value most and which you would be
willing to sacrifice, say intelligence over charisma (P.43).

COMPUTER STRENGTH

When asked to select computer strength, enter a number from one to ten. The
greater the number the more resources computer controlled masters will
start with, the smarter they'll be in battle and the worse natural disasters
(P.47) will become. Entering one will produce a living nightmare for even
the most advanced players.

COMPUTER PERSONALITY

You may set the computer's personality as either warlike or rational.
Warlike means computer controlled masters will attack frequently, even
recklessly. When set to rational, computer controlled generals don't become
pacifists. They wait to attack until they see an almost certain victory.
The game is significantly more difficult to win with the computer set to a
rational personality.

VIEWING WARS BETWEEN COMPUTER CONTROLLED MASTERS

Heroes not controlled by a human player are controlled by the computer.
During the course of the game, computer controlled masters will frequently
invade each other. If you select to watch, the main display will change to
the battle display and you will see these battles in great details. If you
elect not to watch, the results will be displayed on the main display.
Observing others' battles can be entertaining but it will extend playing
time a great deal.

        19

CONFIRMING SELECTIONS

At the end of the setup phase you will be asked if you would like to change
any of the selections made. If so, you will be offered a menu that lets you
change from a new game to a continuation of an old one, change scenarios,
heroes or the computer's strength. You will also be offered the option of
making no change at all.

STARTING THE GAME

Pressing any key after confirming satisfaction with current selections will
start the game.

        20

III. MAIN DISPLAY

Except during battle, the game will be played out on the main display. The
left hand side of the main display is taken up with a map of China while
the right displays information about your state or the state you are
viewing.

        (PICTURE)

1. COMMANDER: Master giving orders.
2. STATE: The state to which the data pertains. Identical to state listed
   above display except when display has been called with View command. See
   Commands for details.

        21

3. REGION: Name of region in which state is located.
4. DATE: Current date.
5. MASTER: Owner of the state. Except when display has been called with
   command 6 >View< (P.30), identical to commander.
6. GOVERNOR: Administrator of the state.
7. FUNDS: Cash available.
8. RICE: Rice available.
9. DEBT: Money owed to the merchant. Other debts do not show up here.
10. INTEREST: Rate of interest currently being charged by the merchant.
11. COST OF RICE: Amount of rice that may be bought per unit of gold.
12. CASTLES: Number of castles in the state.
13. BEAUTIFUL WOMEN: Number of beautiful women in the court available to
    present as gifts.
14. HORSES: Number of horses available to give as gifts.
15. METAL IN STORE: Amount of metal available to make weapons (P.44) from.
16. LAND VALUE: Value of land in the state.

        22

17. FLOOD PROBABILITY: Chance (%) of flood (P.47) occurring.
18. POPULATION: Total population of the state.
19. PEASANT LOYALTY: Loyalty of peasants to the governor.
20. EMPLOYED GENERALS: Number of generals serving the governor.
21. TOTAL SOLDIERS: Sum of employed generals' (P.43) forces.
22. FREE GENERALS: Number of generals openly in the state who serve no
    master.

CALENDAR

You will notice that at the top of the display the month and year are
displayed. Ancient China used the lunar calendar. January to March is
spring (P.47): April to June is summer: July to September is autumn (P.47):
and October to December is winter. The master will get old in spring, and
military funds and food will be collected in autumn. At the beginning of
each season there may be a disaster such as plague, locusts, or flood. See
chapter7, Events, for details.

STATE AND REGION

All states have numbers, all regions have names. The map is divided into a
total of fifteen regions, each region containing several states. There are
some variations among individual states but regions tend to be fairly
uniform in terms of flood probability, peasant loyalty, available of metal
and so forth. It can be useful to know what kind of regions your states are
in. The View command can provide a map which shows each region and gives a
written description of it. See Commands for details.

MASTER

A master controls, or is capable of controlling, more than one state. When
a 

        23

master does not personally control a state, he gives orders to the general
(appointed governor) who controls it for him. All masters are generals
though not all generals are masters. The terms "hero"and "master"are
completely interchangeable.

GOVERNOR

When a master is not personally in a state a governor will be automatically
appointed for him from among subordinate generals. Subordinates with
charisma (P.42) and high loyalty will be selected. States you own but
aren't in, you administer by giving orders to the state's governor. Should
a governor defect to another master he will take the state with him, so be
careful to maintain your governor's loyalty. Should you have so many states
that giving orders to each governor individually is burdensome you may
authorize a governor to administer a state without orders from you. Use
command 17,  >Authorization< (P.38) to bestow and remove authorization.
Command 17 can only be given from the state the master is in.

FUNDS

Funds refers to cash on hand-money that may be used for flood prevention
work, development projects, war, and a variety of other things. At the
beginning of autumn each year (July to September) taxes are collected and
added to funds. The amount of taxes collected will reflect conditions in
the state, the population,  the value of land and the loyalty of the
people. Funds may also be increased by selling rice or obtaining loans from
the merchant or from other masters.

RICE

Rice is collected in autumn every year as part of taxes. The amount of rice
collected will vary with the same factors that affect the amount of money
collected. Rice may also be obtained from the merchant or other masters. It
is as essential as money during war. You should keep as large a stock of
rice on hand as you can afford.

        24

DEBT

Money can be borrowed from the merchant with command 16 >Trade< (P.37). Debt
is the sum owed the merchant and is equal to the loan plus interest. Every
autumn (P.47) the computer will automatically take from your funds to pay
your debts. If you do not have sufficient funds to cover the debt the loan
will be carried over to the following year. The figure displayed for debt
does not include the value of loans taken from other masters, which you
must remember yourself. Loans from other masters bear no interest so only
the principal need to be returned.

INTEREST RATES

Interest rates are posted by the computer every year in the spring (P.47)
but they are not the same in all states. The price of rice is set in line
with the interest rate thus helping to make it possible to repay debt by
selling rice.

NUMBER OF CASTLES

A castle functions as a town. More castles means economic power. More
economic power means more tax. You can build additional castles with
command 13, >Build Castles< (P.34).

NUMBER OF BEAUTIFUL WOMEN

During the period of Chinese history in which Romance of The Three Kingdoms
is set it was common for a master to give court ladies as gifts to generals
he wished to recruit. In the game too, beautiful women may be given to
generals you wish to recruit using command 5, >Recruit< (P.29). No state
will have any of these court ladies in the beginning but they may be
obtained with command 12, >Plunder< (P.34). Plunder does not, however,
assure you of finding beautiful women. Some states have many, some have
few, some none at all.

        25

NUMBER OF HORSES

Like ladies, horses may be given to generals as gifts. From the beginning
of the game each state has a set number of horses and this figure can not
be increased.

LAND VALUE

Land value refers to the agricultural productivity of the state and has a
great influence on the amount of tax collected each fall. Land value may be
increased with command 9, >Cultivate< (P.32) but may not exceed a maximum
value of 200 points.

FLOOD PROBABILITY

There are two major rivers in China, the Yellow River and the Yangtze
river. Floods occur frequently in the summer and states close to these
rivers may suffer serious damage. The probability of flood (P.47) increases
three points during the summer, and further rises with damage from previous
floods. The chance of flood may, however, be lowered with command 8, 
>Flood Prevention< (P.32).

POPULATION

Population is the total number of people in the country excluding soldiers.
The size of a state's population directly affects its productivity. A small
population means less money and rice at tax time. Population will increase
20% in the spring(P.47)but decline when you recruit soldiers with command
5, >Recruit< (P.29).

PEASANT LOYALTY

Low peasant loyalty means reduced productivity and increases the chances of
both plague (P.47) and revolt (P.48). Natural disasters (P.47), the levying
of special taxes,  plunder and trading land with only masters will lower
loyalty.

        26

Loyalty will also decrease automatically at the end of every season.
However, it may be increased by giving the people rice or gold with command
7, >Give< (P.31). Loyalty may not exceed 100 and anything below 70 is cause
for concern.

EMPLOYED GENERALS

Employed generals are the governor's (or master's) subordinates. It is
these generals and their troops who fight wars and carry out other tasks.
The maximum number of generals that may be in a state is 28. However, it is
not wise to put too many generals in one state at a time. As a rule, a
maximum of 15 is best.

NUMBER OF SOLDIERS

The total number of soldiers under all generals in a state equals the total
number of soldiers in that state. That number has a very direct bearing on
a state's military power. You can increase the number of soldiers with
command 5, >Recruit< (P.29). The number of soldiers will decrease if
casualties are suffered during a war or if natural disaster (P.47) strikes.

FREE GENERALS

There are two types of generals:employed, who serve a master, and free, who
do not serve anyone. Some free generals are known publicly, others are
hidden. The number beside Free Generals refers to free generals who are
known to others. Hidden generals can be found with command 11, >Search<
(P.33). In order to succeed in Romance of The Three Kingdoms you will need
as many generals as you can get. Free generals in your own state can be
worn more easily than those in other states (P.23). A large number of free
generals indicates that a country has great potential power. See Chapter 5,
Generals, for more details.

        27

IV. MAIN DISPLAY COMMANDS

Hitting return on the main display will produce a command menu and entering
zero on the command menu will return the main display to the screen.
Commands are entered by typing in the appropriate number and then hitting
return.

COMMAND 1, >MOVE<

Command 1 allows you to move generals, together with their soldiers, to any
empty state or owned by you and not at war. If you move to an empty state,
you gain that state automatically. If you move during winter some of your
soldiers will freeze to death. Since troops carry rice and gold with them
when they move you can also use this command as a nearly risk free way to
move supplies between neighboring states. It is not possible to move in
northern states during winter.

COMMAND 2, >WAR<

"War" is the command you use to invade a neighboring state. After entering
command 2 you will be asked to choose the generals you will send in to
fight,  appoint a commander-in-chief among the generals and determine the
amount of gold and rice you will give the invasion force to use. The screen
will then change to the battle display, on which the war will commence.
Note that you cannot attack a state at war with a third master. If a war is
not over inside a month (30 days) it will be continued the following month.
See Chapter 6, War, for more details.

COMMAND 3, >SEND<

Send in used to move rice and gold from one of your states to another.
Note, however, you may not send to or from a state at war. No generals
accompanies the transport party so the risk of theft by either an enemy or
bandits is great, especially if a great quantity of goods is being sent or
if the distance 

        28

involved are large. If you wish to send supplies to one of your states
(P.23) at war use command 2, >War< (P.28) to send in a general from a
bordering state heavily laden with supplies. To move a large quantity of
goods to a neighboring state safely use command 1, >Move< (P.28) to send a
single general, together with his troops, to the state carrying the goods.

During winter the northern half of the country experiences extreme cold so
you cannot use command 3 in northern states (P.23), nor can you move
supplies any other way.

COMMAND 4, >SPECIAL TAX<

Should you get into financial trouble command 4 allows you to impose a
special, temporary tax. Command 4 cannot be used in autumn (P.47) when
regular taxes are collected and may only be given once a year. Loyalty of
the people in the state effected will decrease every time special taxes are
imposed.

COMMAND 5, >RECRUIT<

Recruit has three separate uses; employing generals, enlisting men for the
army and redistributing soldiers among generals.

A. RECRUITING GENERALS

You can recruit both employed and free generals. If you manage to recruit a
general who has been appointed governor his state will become yours. Most
of the other generals in that state will come over to you, though a few
with a great deal of loyalty to the old master may leave the state. Command
five can also be useful in wars lasting more than a month, since you can
use it to pick up generals fighting against you.

Command 5 can only be given by the master himself, so you cannot give it
from a state the master is not in. A general you have recruited from
another master's land will come to your state unless he is a governor. If a
governor, he will stay in place and continue to serve as governor, but
under you rather than the old master.

To recruit a general send gifts suitable to your target's personality. Use
command 6, >View< (P.30) to assess loyalty. When you go after generals in
service,  look for those with low loyalty and, ideally, large numbers of
troops. Following

        29

is a description of the options available under command five.

  a. Write a letter. The chances are fairly low, but it costs
     nothing.
  b. Send money. This will be most effective with the less bright
           generals.
  c. Send a horse. This will especially please those with high power
           but lower intelligence(P.42).
  d. Send a woman. This will especially please those with high power
           but lower intelligence(P.42). Women can only be obtained by
           >Plunder<, command 12.
  e. Visit in person. This is the most effective way to win generals
           with less power but high intelligence. However, should you jaunt
           off to some remote land, there is a very real risk of your being
           caught by the the enemy.

B. RECRUITING SOLDIERS

You can hire soldiers from among the peasants in your state and allocate
them to yourself or your generals. Each general may have a maximum of 20,
000 soldiers. You need to pay 10 points of money and 100 points of rice for
every 100 soldiers you employ. However, if the population is less than the
total number of soldiers (P.44) you will not be allowed to recruit
soldiers.

C. REORGANIZATION

In order to redistribute soldiers among the generals, first reduce the
number of troops under some of generals. These soldiers may then be
redistributed to other generals.

COMMAND 6, >VIEW<

View is used to obtain information on states, generals and regions. All
information is free though obtaining information about states and generals
other than you own is counted as an order and means giving up the chance to
do anything else that turn.

A. STATES

Detailed information on the social and economic conditions in any
particular state and about the generals in that state. After selecting this
option you will be asked what state to check and presented with another
menu. You may chose to view;

  a. Employed Generals. Generals under the governor in that state.

        30

  b. Attacking generals. If that state is at war data on the generals
           involved.
  c. Free Generals. Generals who serve no master but who openly live
           in that state.
  d. Wandering generals. Masters who have become wanders and are in
           that state.
  e. Generals, summary. Summary in chart form of all generals in that
           state.
  f. Social, economic status. Produces a data chart for that state
     identical to the main display.
  g. View other state. Use View to look at another state. You may
     look at as many states (P.23) as wish during one turn.
  h. End View. Stops view. If you have been using View to examine
     other masters' states (P.23) your turn will end with End View.
     If you have viewing your own states you will be allowed to give
     another order.

B. SUMMARY OF TERRITORY

A table listing states under your command, their governors, and the states'
economic and social condition.

C. SUMMARY OF GENERALS

A table listing generals in the state, their position (P.43), parameters
and other information.

D. REGIONAL MAP

The nation is divided into geographical regions. Knowing the sorts of
regions your states are in can be a great advantage. The regional map will
give you this information. You can give another order after viewing the
regional map.

COMMAND 7, >GIVE<

A. GIVE TO THE PEASANTS

You can give the peasants money or food, which will increase their loyalty.
Both

        31

will be received equally gratefully. If you give more than 5, 000 units of
rice maximum value of rice is 100 your charisma (P.42) will rise.

B. Give to a general

You can give a general money, food, books, or women, which will increase
his loyalty to you. Generals will often distribute part of the gifts they
receive among their soldiers, thus raising the loyalty of the army. The
generals prefer money over food, all other things being equal. 

When you give books to a general, his intelligence (P.42) level will rise
by one point so long as there is another general in the same state who has
an IQ two points higher than the general to whom you gave the books. The
books themselves will cost five points of money. If you give a women,
especially to physically strong generals, their loyalty to you will sharply
rise.

COMMAND 8, >FLOOD PREVENTION<

Flood prevention work will lessen the probability of flood (P.47). The
amount of increase in flood protection you get with every application of
command 8 varies with the amount of money you allocate and the intelligence
(P.42), luck (P.43) and experience (P.43) of the general you put in charge.

COMMAND 9, >DEVELOP LAND<

Command 9 is used to cultivate new fields in order to increase the
productivity of your land, and thus its value. As with flood (P.47)
prevention work, the results you get will vary depending on funds allocated
and the general put in charge.

COMMAND 10, >TRAIN SOLDIERS<

Command 10 enhances the effectiveness of all soldiers in a state. It is the
only way to increase military power without spending money.

        32

COMMAND 11, >SEARCH<

Command 11 can be used to search for any of the things listed below. The
more luck (P.43) and intelligence (P.42) the general conducting the search
has the more likely he is to be successful. In order to conduct a search
you will need between three and four units of money.

A. METAL

Search for metal to make weapons (P.44). You should use command 6, >View<
(P.30) to check the regional map of the area before you execute this
command for if a state has no iron deposits you have no chance of finding
metal.

B. FUNDS

Search for a gold mine. If you are lucky enough to find one, funds will
increase. Success will depend largely on luck (P.43). The regional map may
provide some information, but only some.

C. PERSONNEL

Search for hidden free generals (P.43). After locating a hidden general you
should use command 5 to recruit him. If you succeed he will become your
subordinates.

D. JADE SEAL

If no master has a jade seal, it means it has been dropped in one of the
states (P.23). You can search for the jade seal using this command.

COMMAND 12, >PLUNDER<

>PLUNDER< allows you to have a general tear your state apart looking for
gold, rice and females. Since plunder entails breaking into homes, stealing
private property and dragging away women it displeases the people and their
loyalty to you will sharply, as will your charisma (P.42). Your subordinate
generals will react in different ways. Generals with high power (P.42)
factors will be pleased and their loyalty to you will increase, while those
with high intelligence (P.42) will lament your conduct and their loyalty to
you will drop sharply.

        33

COMMAND 13, >BUILD CASTLE<

Command 13 is used to build additional castles. If you enter this command
and have the funds available, a hexagonal map of the state will appear.
Locations where it is possible to erect a castle will be marked with an
oval.

It will take about a year to complete construction of a new castle. While a
castle is under construction, an X mark will appear on the hexagonal map. A
castle represents a town where taxes are collected and serves as a
defensive base when the state is under attack. For these reasons, it is
generally worth investing in castles even though the initial price may be
rather steep and the wait until completion long.

COMMAND 14,  >COVERT ACTION<

Military means are not always the best way to achieve your objectives.
Covert action allows you to send one of your generals against an enemy
without all the risks associated with full scale war. Generals may be sent
on any of the following missions:

A. SPREAD RUMORS ABOUT THE MASTER

If believed, a nasty rumor about the master will lower loyalty among enemy
generals.

B. CONFUSE THE PEOPLE.

Spread stories that will confuse the inhabitants and lower their loyalty to
the master.

C. SET FIRE TO THE ENEMY'S RICE

Set the enemy state's food storehouse on fire. If successful you may
destroy as much as one third of the enemy's food supply.

You must, however, be careful with all these operations. If your agent is
not skillful enough to deceive the enemy, or if there is a highly
intelligent generals in the enemy state, your operation may be discovered
before it is carried out. If so, your messenger will probably be executed
and it is quite likely the enemy will seek revenge.

        34

Covert action is a powerful tool. For example, by constantly repeating bad
rumors about his master you may be able to lower a governor's loyalty
enough that he will easily be swayed to defect to you, giving you a state
without having to fight a war.

COMMAND 15, >DIPLOMATIC NEGOTIATIONS<

Use Diplomatic negotiations to negotiate with other masters. Select the
master you wish to negotiate with and send a messenger to the state the
master is in. Success will depend partly on your charisma (P.42) and on the
charisma, luck (P.43) and intelligence (P.42) of the messenger but mostly
on your past dealings with the other master. If you have recently fought
against him, failed to pay debts to him, ignored his requests for
negotiations or have recruited his generals, you will almost certainly be
refused in any loans, for instance. If your charisma is low, or you send a
messenger with an extremely low loyalty to a master with high charisma, it
is quite possible your messenger will defect to the other master's side. It
is also possible your messenger will be killed.

You don't need enemies if you can avoid them, especially powerful ones
sitting on your borders. If using command 15, or command 6, >View< (P.30),
you discover another master feels extremely hostile towards you, it may be
worthwhile to do what you can to appease him.

Under command 15 you have the following options:

A. REQUEST LOAN

Ask to borrow money from another master. Unlike loans from the merchant,
these debts bear no interest. If another master does not have the funds
available to lend you the full amount you request, he may offer you a
smaller loan. If you fail to repay the money or rice, the master from whom
you borrowed will become very hostile, making it difficult to deal with him
in the future. Debts to other masters will not be posted nor repaid
automatically.

B. REPAY LOAN

Though debts to other masters will automatically be repaid in the autumn
this command allows you to pay them back earlier.

        35

C. BORROW RICE

Use this command to borrow rice from other masters. The conditions for
borrowing rice are the same as for other debts.

D. RETURN RICE

Rice borrowed from other masters will be returned automatically in autumn,
but you can return it earlier.

E. EXCHANGE LAND

If one of your states is located adjacent to that of another master, you
may be able to exchange land with him. Should you have several states
isolated from each other the ability to exchange land with other masters
should help you unify territory.

To exchange land with another master both of you must have two states or
more and the states to be exchanged must be adjacent. Note that when you
exchange land the loyalty of people in both states will drop.

F. PROPOSE MARRIAGE

You can offer one of your daughters to another master. If he agrees to
marry her his hostility towards you will drop sharply. However, if you have
attacked him left him with bad debts or done similar things to him in the
past, he may kill both your daughter and your messenger. If so, your
charisma (P.42) as well as your luck (P.43) will decline. If you attack a
state in which your daughter lives as the wife of a master he will kill her
and your charisma and popular loyalty will similarly decline. However, when
a master dies and is succeeded by one of his subordinates, previous
marriage based relationships become irrelevant. A master can have more than
one wife.

G. GIVE GIFT

Giving gifts is one way to lower another master's hostility towards you.
You should bear in mind that if another master's hostility towards you is
less than 10 you are completely safe from attack and if it is zero you can
demand land.

H. MILITARY ALLIANCE

If successful, you can use this command to persuade a master to attack
another third state with you. However, this does not mean he will help you
should you get into trouble.

        36

I. ARMISTICE

After a war has exceeded a month, either master may call for armistice
negotiations.

J. DEMAND LAND

If another master's hostility towards you becomes 0 you can demand land
from him. He will not be able to refuse your request. However, you must
give him 10,000 points of money, a jade seal (P.45) or one of your
daughters. Conversely, if another master's service (P.45) to you reaches
100 he will be able to demand land on the same terms.

COMMAND 16, >TRADE<

You can do business with either a merchant or a weapons maker (P.44).

A. MERCHANT

You may take a loan from a merchant for up to 1,000 units of money. Loans
from the merchant bear interest at the rate posted on the main display.
Your debt will automatically be paid back in autumn (P.47), though you have
the option of paying back sooner. Merchants will also buy and sell rice at
the posted price. Merchants will always be available in states 4, 7, 10,
13, 20, 21, 28, 29, 37, 48, and 56 but in other states they will come and
go. Merchants will tend to avoid states with low popular loyalty and low
land values. Merchants will also tend to avoid southern states in Summer
and northern states in Winter.

B. WEAPONS MAKER

Not surprisingly, weapons makers make weapons to enhance the army's
fighting ability. To have a weapon made you must pay one unit of money and
supply ten units of metal. The weapons makers will make weapons so long as
you have the money and the metal.

COMMAND 17, >AUTHORIZATION<

As the number of states under your control increases, administering each
one individually may become a nuisance. Command 17 allows you to grant
authorization to a general to run his state without direct orders from you.
The general will not only run the state on a day to day basis but will, if
attacked,  handle defense. You should make a policy of only entrusting
states of little

        37

immediate strategic importance. Command 17 can also be used to remove
authorization from a general and personally take control again. You may
want to take advantage of this feature should a shift in events cause a
previously insignificant state to become important, the arrival of a new
neighbor, for example.

Command 17 must be issued from the state the master is in, but it costs no
money and a second command may be given after it.

COMMAND 18, >WANDER<

Command 18 allows you, the master, to simply pack your things in a knapsack
and abandon your state. Wandering is a last resort use fuel if your state
is extremely weak and surrounded on all sides by strong enemies. When you
wander all the generals in states other than yours will leave, generals in
your state may accompany you but will be restricted to 500 soldiers apiece.

You can be forced to wander if you are captured during war by an enemy and
then released or flee from a battle. If you become a wanderer during war,
subordinate generals who fought with you will follow you. However, if you
become a wander after being released by the enemy, no generals will follow
you. 

Since as a wanderer you own no states, a modified version of the main
display will appear. The commands available to you as a wanderer are as
follows:

A. MOVE

Used to move to a neighboring state. Every time you move, a number of
volunteers will gather around you. You may place these men under any of
your generals or command them personally. If the total number of troops in
your army reaches 20,000 men, you will no longer be allowed to wander, you
will be considered to have established a state with yourself as master. If
you are in someone else's state at the time you will have to fight him
first. See chapter 6, War. You run a risk of being captured when you start
to move in an occupied state.

B. SETTLE

Take the state you are in as your own. You automatically settle when as a
wanderer your army reaches 20,000 men but you can also settle by giving
this order. When you are in an empty land, establishing a new state is as
simple as giving this order. If you are in a state already belonging to
another master, 

        38

you will need to fight him. See Chapter 6, War for details.

C. SECLUDE

Seclude yourself without worry that you will be detected. If you are
secluded no volunteers will gather around you.

D. VIEW

Almost identical to the View command on the regular main display. Use this
command to see conditions in other states and check on your subordinates.
You can give another order after using view.

E. STOP GAME

Allows game to be ended and/or saved to disk.

No commands other than the above are available to you as a wander, though
as soon as you establish a new state the full main display with the full
range or orders will return.

COMMAND 19, >PASS<

Give no order to a state that month.

COMMAND 20, >OTHER<

Use >other< to give commands related to game operation but not play itself.

A. INTERRUPT GAME

End and/or save the game. If you wish to stop playing mid game, even if you
have no desire to save the game. Please use Interrupt Game rather than
simply cutting power to the computer. Otherwise you risk damaging your
disks.

B. SOUND ON/OFF

Sound may be turned on or off with the command. You may also control sound
by

        39

using the F1 and F2 keys. When prompted, F1 will turn sound off and F2 will
turn it on.

C. ANIMATION ON/OFF

Animation may be turned on or off with this command. Turning animation off
will in no way affect game play. Animation may also be controlled using the
F3 and F4 key. Where prompted, F3 will turn animation off and F4 will turn
it on.

D. DISPLAY WAIT

You can vary the length of time messages are displayed. The default value
is 6, the maximum value is 10. The greater the number the longer messages
will be displayed.

        40

V. GENERALS

All characters in the game are generals. Generals are mainly defined by
their parameters, position and number of troops. The table below is an
exhaustive list of the characteristics that make up a general. During the
game this information can be obtained using Command 6, >View< (P.30).
Points 14 to 16 are only relevant when the general is a master.

1 STATUS      EMPLOYED, FREE, OR WANDERING
2 POSITION    GOVERNOR, MASTER, OR NONE
3 LOYALTY     BOND OF SOLDIER TO GENERAL OR GENERAL TO MASTER
4 AGE         AGE IN YEARS
5 BODY        HEALTH OF A GENERAL
6 INTELL.     INTELLIGENCE
7 POWER       MILITARY ABILITY
8 CHARISMA    LEADERSHIP AND PERSUASIVE ABILITY
9 LUCK        LUCK
10  EXPERIENCE    EXPERIENCE IN WAR. ALL GENERALS START WITH NONE BUT MAY 
        ACQUIRE IT.
11  SOLDIERS    NUMBER, LOYALTY AND ABILITY OF SOLDIERS IN
        A GENERALS' ARMY.
12  NAVAL     A GENERAL RATED NAVAL CAN CROSS WATER MORE
        EASILY THAN ONE NOT SO RATED.
13  JADE SEAL   INDICATES THAT A MASTER HAS A JADE SEAL.
14  ANIMOSITY TOWARDS YOU STRENGTH OF ANOTHER MASTER'S WISH TO HARM
        YOU.
15  SERVICE TO YOU    DEGREE TO WHICH YOU ARE IN ANOTHER MASTER'S
        DEBT FOR FAVORS DONE YOU.
16  YOUR DAUGHTER IS HIS  YOUR DAUGHTER IS WED TO THAT MASTER.
       WIFE

1. STATUS

A general is either employed, free or wandering. A master who has left his
state or states behind and is roaming the country looking for new territory
is considered to be wandering. Only a master may wander. A general who is
not a

        41

master but works for a master is employed. A general who is not a master
himself but serves no master is free. A free general becomes employed after
being recruited by a master.

2. POSITION

A master can only directly control the state he is actually in. Any state
belonging to a master that the master is not in is controlled by a governor
who accepts orders from the master. This governor is automatically
appointed by the computer from among generals in that state. One master may
not serve another as a governor. Generals who are neither masters nor
governors are considered to have no position.

3. LOYALTY

Loyalty is used to describe the bond between soldiers and their general or
between a general and a master. Soldiers with low loyalty are likely to
betray their commanders on the battlefield. Generals with low loyalty may
betray the master they serve under them. Generals who have been appointed
governor who defect to another master give control of the state they had
been entrusted to the new master.

4. AGE

Life expectancy is largely predetermined, though luck (P.44) and health
affect it. Life expectancy appears nowhere on the screen, though a low
number of body (P.42) points together with advanced age indicates a general
who may be nearing his end.

5. BODY

The number of body points indicates a general's health, with 100 indicating
perfect health and 0 death. The number of body points does not influence
the effectiveness of general's orders, either on the main or battle
display. Plague

        42

will lower a general's health, as will advancing age. New values for body
will be posted every Spring.

6. INTELLIGENCE

The greater a general's intelligence the more likely it is he will be able
to successfully carry out covert missions against the opposition, search
for needed materials, or administer a state well. You can increase a
general's intelligence by giving him books with command 7, >Give< (P.32) so
long as there is another general in the state with two points more of
intelligence. Intelligence may reach a maximum value of 100.

7. POWER

Power is a summary of a general's military abilities, and powerful generals
are far more effective in combat than those who excel in other areas. A
general's power will increase with every victory on the battle display but
will decrease if he is taken hostage. Power may reach a maximum value of
100.

8. CHARISMA

Charisma has great bearing on a general's ability to conduct diplomatic
negotiations and successfully sway other generals over to his side.
Charisma is especially important for masters, who must influence others.
Charisma will decrease when a general plunders or when his daughter is
executed by an enemy. The only way to increase charisma is to accumulate a
great deal of rice and then give virtually all of it to the peasants.
Specifically, more than 5,000 units of rice must be donated with less than
100 left in stock. Charisma may reach a maximum value of 100.

9. LUCK

Luck plays an important part in nearly all game events. The maximum value
for luck is 100.

        43

10. EXPERIENCE

Experience must be acquired, no one starts the game with any. Any time a
general completes a task, be it leading men in battle or merely acting as a
messenger,  his experience level will rise. Experience is easier to
increase than intelligence (P.42) but just as valuable. The maximum value
for experience is 100.

11. SOLDIERS

A general's military power is largely a function of his soldiers. When the
number of soldiers in a general's army is displayed so will be the
soldiers' loyalty to him and the weapons level of the army. This weapons
level is given as a ratio of arms to soldiers. 

Weapons level may be increased by using command 11, >Search< to find metal
and then hiring a weapons maker(command 16)to make weapons. Loyalty of an
army to its general may be raised by giving gold or rice to him (command
7), since he will pass along some of this gift to his troops.

12. NAVAL ABILITY

Some armies are amphibious, others can cross lakes and rivers only with
great difficulty or not at all. An amphibious army will be indicated as
naval. Since many states have waterways running through them naval ability
is greatly advantageous.

The following only apply if the general is a master:

13. JADE SEAL

There will be an indication if a master has a jade seal, considered proof
of princehood. A master with a jade seal is unlikely to be betrayed by
subordinates and should find it easier to recruit generals. However, since
all masters want a jade seal, its possession greatly enhances the risk of
being attacked.

        44

14. ANIMOSITY TOWARDS YOU

A Master's animosity toward you increases when you do unpleasant things
like murder his messengers or daughters, attack states belonging to him,
recruit his generals, get caught burning or attempting to burn his food
supplies and the like.

Animosity will decrease when you do nice things using command 15, 
>Diplomatic Negotiations< (P.35), like giving gifts, making non interest
bearing loans, or presenting daughters for marriage. Hostility ranges from
0 to 100 is an intensely burning hatred of the sort that leads to rash
attacks. 50 is neutral and lower than ten means you can be almost
absolutely sure that he will not attack you. When your opponent's animosity
reaches zero you are entitled to demand a state from him. This is also done
using command 15, >Diplomatic Negotiations<. In exchange for the state you
give him 10, 000 units of money, a jade seal or one of your daughters in
marriage must.

15. SERVICE TO YOU

This indicates how much another master has done for you. Sending gifts, 
daughters or making loans means points. When another master's Service to
You reaches 100, he may demand land. You cannot refuse, but you may decide
which one of your states to give and pull your generals and their troops
out of it before giving. You are also entitled to receive 10, 000 units of
in money, a jade seal or a wife.

16. YOUR DAUGHTER IS HIS WIFE

If one of your daughters is one of another master's wives this will be
indicated. If you attack a state whose master is married to your daughter
it is virtually certain that he will kill her. If he does, your charisma
(P.42) and the loyalty of your people will decline.

        45

VI. EVENTS

During the course of the game the following events will probably occur with
some regularity:

1. SEASONAL EVENTS

A. SPRING

Spring (January to March) is the time when body (P.42) points are posted
and generals in poor health may die. This includes generals involved in
fighting. If during war your commander in chief of sickness, all his
subordinate generals become wanderers.

B. AUTUMN

In Autumn (July to September), taxes are collected, and all generals and
soldiers are paid their salaries. If you don't have the funds to pay them
sufficiently, those generals who are not very loyal to you may leave.

2. NATURAL DISASTERS

As many as five separate disasters may occur at the beginning of each
season. Below are their descriptions:

A. FLOODS

Every summer, floods occur in the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys. Floods
not only decrease the population and number of soldiers (P.44), but also
lower land values and popular loyalty. The only thing you can do is to
invest in flood prevention work, which will lower the probability of flood
and lessen the severity of flood damage should flood occur.

B. PLAGUE

Plague can occur at anytime throughout the year but is especially likely
during

        46

cold winters. Plague decreases the population, the number of soldiers
(P.44) the loyalty of the people and the health (expressed in body (P.42)
points of generals). If peasant loyalty is high the likelihood of plague
(P.47) will decrease.

C. EARTHQUAKES

Earthquakes can occur at any time, in any place and there isn't a thing you
can do about them. Major earthquakes, though rare, are strong enough to
destroy castles, killing the generals within.

D. LOCUSTS

Plagues (P.47) of locust appear during spring (P.47) and autumn (P.47), and
cannot be prevented. Locusts will decrease the population, the number of
soldiers (P.44), land value, popular loyalty and other parameters as well.
They will spread to surrounding areas the next season. In winter locusts
die off, but in spring they cause enormous damage, making them perhaps the
worst disaster of all. If floods and locust occur at the same time, the
locusts will die off before they can do any harm.

E. REVOLT

If the loyalty of the people in your state is low, revolt may occur.
Temporary taxes, plunder or disasters will decrease loyalty so the
possibility of revolt will rise. When revolts occur, the strong generals
will manage to flee the state while the weak ones will be slaughtered by
the people. As the loyalty of the people. As the loyalty of the people
declines towards zero, revolt becomes more likely and the state becomes
more difficult to govern.

        47

VII. WAR

BATTLE DISPLAY

When you are attacked by another state, attack another state or, as a
wanderer, attempt to establish yourself in a state already owned by another
master, the screen will change from the main display to the battle display.

The first thing you need to do is select the generals to fight, appoint a
commander in chief and give the invasion force money and rice. Next place
your generals on the battlefield. When you position a general you are also
positioning his troops. Together a general and his troops are considered a
unit. If you are the attacker you will also need to place your supplies.

PLACING UNITS AND SUPPLIES

The computer will ask you to place each general and then the army's
supplies on the battlefield. You can only position generals and supplies
where there are oval marks on the map. Move units about using either the
keyboard or the key pad as in the diagram below. Pushing a key will move a
unit one hex in the indicated direction. Units will blink until they are
positioned. When you are satisfied with the location of a unit, hit the 0
key to leave it in that place. Units may not be stacked on top of each
other. Supplies, however, must be 

        48

guarded and can share a hex with a friendly unit.

You are only allowed to place a maximum of ten generals on the map at one
time, so if you brought more than that the excess generals will be placed
in reserve. If during the war the number of generals dips to less than ten,
as will happen should one of your units be destroyed, the computer will ask
you if you'd like to call in reinforcements. If you answer in the
affirmative, you will be able to use generals originally selected but not
yet deployed.

CONDITIONS FOR VICTORY

THE ATTACKER HAS WON WHEN:

The enemy side runs out of supplies.
He takes control of every castle on the map.
There are no enemy generals left alive.
He kills the enemy master, or takes him hostage and then release him.

THE DEFENDER HAS WON WHEN:

He steals the enemy's supplies, or when they run out naturally.
He kills the enemy's commander in chief.

1 MOVE    MOVE UNIT
2 ATTACK    ATTACK ENEMY UNITS
3 RETREAT   WHOLE ARMY OR UNITS TRY TO ESCAPE BATTLEFIELD
4 SURRENDER GENERAL SURRENDERS TO ENEMY
5 STANDBY   DO NOTHING BUT INCREASE MOBILITY FOR NEXT TURN
6 VIEW    VIEW REPORT ON GENERALS AND BATTLE CONDITIONS

        49

         PICTURE

BATTLE DISPLAY COMMANDS

There are seven different commands that may be given on the battle display,
most with their own sub commands. Following is a brief outline. All of
these commands can be executed by simply entering the appropriate number,
there is no need to hit return.

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1. MOVE

The amount and kind of movement a unit is capable of per turn is a function
of unit type, the sort of terrain the unit is on and the number of mobility
points the unit has at any given moment. Most units will have around 6
points of mobility, but mobility will vary with the power (P.43) of the
commanding general, the amount of training the soldiers have received and
the amount of weaponry they are carrying, with heavy weapons being likely
to lower mobility. Mobility will decline by 2 during winter. Application of
command 10, >Train Soldiers< (P.33), on the main display will raise
mobility.

Markers used on the Hex screen.

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  There are six kinds of terrain;

  Plains. Requires mobility 2.
  Mountains. Requires mobility 4.
  Swamp. Mobility necessary to move into, 5.
  River, Lake or Sea. Naval forces require mobility 6, non naval
  forces require mobility 10.
  Castle. Requires mobility 3.
  Highly Mountainous Terrain. Completely impassable.

There are four different types of movement.

A. NORMAL

To move normally, enter 1 for Move and then select option 1, Normal move,
from the Move menu. Use the main keyboard of key pad to enter direction in
the same way you did initially when positioning the units. You can continue
to move until a unit runs out of mobility points for that turn. Thus if you
are in plains and have mobility of 10, you can move five steps.

B. SWEAR AND MOVE

You can often provoke an enemy located next to you into following and
trying to overtake you by cursing him and then moving. If the other
commander is less intelligent than your general he will take comments on
his mother and other varied topics quite seriously, giving you a chance to
entrap him or lead him

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away from his current position.

C. DIVIDE

Divides a general's troops into two halves so the unit can attack an enemy
from two sides at once. An attack of this sort allows you to inflict severe
casualties on the enemy while keeping your own to a minimum. You must be
next to the enemy you would like to surround before using Divide.

2. ATTACK

A. REGULAR

Your unit attacks an enemy unit, resulting in casualties on both sides. If
the total number of soldiers (P.44) on one side becomes zero the remaining
general will be usually be captured by the enemy, though in some cases a
general may continue to fight alone or be killed.

If you catch an enemy general you must decide whether or not to kill him.
If you kill him he will be dead and out of your way forever. If you let him
live, you have the option of freeing him or enlisting his help as a
subordinate. If you let an enemy general go he will leave the state. If he
is a master he will start wandering, or try to attack you as if nothing
happened. If you make him your subordinate he will become part of your army
like any other general. If he was captured when you were on the offensive
he can be used in the war, but if he was caught when you were on the
defensive he cannot be used in reserve. In any case, captured generals will
not be very loyal. You cannot make another master your subordinate.

B. SIMULTANEOUS ATTACK

In a regular attack soldiers will fight the enemy in tight groups,
minimizing casualties on your side but also the amount of damage they
inflict on the enemy. In a simultaneous attack the entire unit, or as much
of it as possible,  will charge the enemy. Casualties on both sides tend to
be great. The most effective way to use Simultaneous attack is to surround
the enemy first.

C. CHARGE

Just about everyone dies. Your unit will engage the enemy unit in hand to
hand combat until one side loses all its soldiers. In order to charge your
unit

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needs to have some mobility. There is also a good chance you will not
capture any of the enemy generals alive. If you are looking for hostages
you might to stay away from this command.

D. TRICK

You can use this command to trap your enemy, but if the general carrying
out the mission is not intelligent, the chances of failure are great. If
your trick succeeds, not only will the number of enemy soldiers in the unit
you attacked decrease, but the enemy's mobility will become 0. The relative
number of soldiers (P.44) in your unit and the enemy unit is nearly
irrelevant. It is nearly impossible to capture an enemy general using this
tactic.

E. INCENDIARY ATTACK

Use this command to set a neighboring area on fire. If you succeed, the
fire will spread and your enemy will be forced to move, retreat or
surrender. The enemy, including the enemy generals, may be completely
destroyed. Fire will spread downwind and burn just about anything in its
path, friend or foe, so you are well advised to check wind direction before
applying this order. You cannot enter a hex where fire is burning.

3. RETREAT

Have a unit retreat to one of your states (P.23) or to an empty state. You
cannot retreat when there is no place adjacent to go. If mobility is poor
or the unit is surrounded by a large number of enemy soldiers retreat may
prove impossible or result in the capture of large number of your generals.
When a general retreats he only takes his unit with him, but when a master
retreats he takes the entire army.

4. SURRENDER

You can order your generals to surrender to the enemy, where they will be
taken as hostage.

        54

5. STANDBY

When a unit stands by it does nothing, but its mobility will be one point
higher next turn.

6. VIEW

View gives you detailed information on your own and opposing generals and
on battle conditions. You can give another order after view.

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VIII. WHEN A GENERAL IS CAPTURED

Generals may be captured during war or when they show up in a state owned
by someone else, as they might if wandering, trying to recruit or on a
covert mission. A master can dispose of a captured general in any of the
following ways:

A. BEHEAD 

Waste the malefactor.

B. FREE

If he is an ordinary general he will go about the country as a free
general. If he is a master he will attempt to return to his own country,
becoming a wanderer if he is not able to return. Should a master not be
able to return to his own land the states he once owned will become empty.

C. RECRUIT

If he is not a master he can be made a subordinate. However, generals
caught and then made subordinates needed to be treated with great care
since their loyalty to you will be low while loyalty towards their former
master will remain high. If you, the master, are caught by the enemy you
may be released if your charisma (P.42) is strong and your captor doesn't
harbor any particularly deep hatred towards you. However, the chances of
you being killed are very great. Even if you are lucky enough to be freed,
you will loose all your lands and have to continue the game as a wanderer
if you are unable to return to your state.

        56

IX. WHEN A MASTER DIES

If a master dies, one of his subordinate generals will succeed him. When
the master you selected dies, pick a suitable successor from among his
subordinates. Should no subordinate be available the master's line is
considered extinct and the game over. When a master passes away and is
replaced loyalty towards the new master will be less than it was towards
the old master, though the degree of difference will depend on the new
master. The loyalty of some subordinate generals may become zero. These
generals will go out on their own and become free generals (P.43) rather
than serve the new master.

        57

CHART - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASTER AND SUBORDINATE

WHEN A MASTER IS RULING ONE OR MORE STATES

      Master

Governor        Generals in the same state as
          the master
    Master's own troops

Governor's troops     General's troops

Generals serving governor

Troops of generals serving governor


WHEN A MASTER IS WANDERING

        Master

          Generals accompanying the master

          Troops accompanying the generals

Troops directly serving the master

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X. HINTS

Romance of The Three Kingdoms is not difficult, but the sheer number of
commands can make it intimidating at first. Below are some general
suggestions. Start by picking a strong master in a strong situation. You
might want to start with Cao Cao in scenario three, for example. Look at
your state and see what problems it has. If the probability of flood (P.47)
is high do some flood prevention work in the three months before summer.
However, don't break yourself doing it. Spending more than three or four
units of money on flood control at a time is not cost effective. Next, give
some rice to the peasants in order to raise their loyalty if its low. After
that develop new fields to raise land value. In fall, when you have a
little more money, purchase supplies from the merchant. If the merchant is
not available, cultivate more to raise your country's land value. Even
though other masters may quickly go to war, raising land value is the first
task you should undertake.

You may have noticed that you have an advisor. He is appointed
automatically from among highly intelligent generals. If you have no
advisor you should try and recruit a general of high intelligence (P.43),
who will then serve as one. Though the advisor is not always right you
should generally listen to what he says. The higher his intelligence (P.42)
the better his advise.

After putting your own house in order, start thinking about expansion. Use
view to check on the states (P.23) surrounding you. If you can find one
with less than 100 units of rice and money it should be easy for you to
take it, assuming of course you are better off. Your ideal target will have
a large population (above 100,000) since a large population means you can
easily increase productivity and recruit soldiers.

If there is a state significantly more powerful than you on one of your
borders send gifts to that country through Diplomatic negotiations to
reduce the master's hostility. You can also use Diplomatic negotiations to
trick two strong states (P.23) into fighting and destroying each other.

When you attack another state it's difficult to know what the terrain is
going to be like, so try to come in with twice as many soldiers as the
enemy has, or slightly more soldiers and much better generals. When
fighting on the hexagonal map try to concentrate all your generals on one
target, preferably the master if he is there. Captured generals should be
taken on as subordinates but put them in less important positions.

        59

When attacking do not use Charge unless you are low on supplies and need to
finish the war quickly. Charge will produce many casualties among your
troops,  but you will capture few if any enemy generals. However, if you
are running low on supplies and need to wipe out the enemy quickly, this
may be an acceptable price to pay.

War however, is not the only means of expanding your territory. One of the
best ways to expand is to find an enemy governor with low loyalty and
Recruit him. Don't forget you can use Covert action to lower the loyalty of
a governor. Another diplomatic option is to reduce a master's hostility
towards you to zero by sending gifts and doing favors. When hostility
towards you reaches zero, you have the right to demand land, though you
will have to pay for it.

As you conquer states, you will find yourself with new subordinate
generals. Look at these generals closely. Generals with a loyalty of less
than 50 are nearly useless, but loyalty can be raised with Gifts. As you
expand be sure to use your generals effectively. Send the strong ones to
fight, the intelligent ones to less developed states to enhance
productivity and use those with high intelligence as messengers during
diplomatic negotiations. Well rounded and highly loyal generals with no
particularly distinctive characteristics can always be used as autonomous
governors in less strategically important states.

        60

XI. END GAME

In order to end a game in progress from the main menu, enter command 20, 
>Other< (P.39) and select interrupt. If wandering, select 5, >Stop Game<.
If you want to save the game so that you can resume play at some other time
select answer "Yes" when asked "Save game to disk". Please do not simply
remove your disks since the risk of damaging them is real.

If you ran the program under Koei's operating system, as would be the case
if you booted your machine from the A game disk, it will be necessary to
reset your machine after a game has been terminated and before running
other software. If you are playing from a hard disk you will be returned to
the operating system once the game is over.

IN CASE OF DIFFICULTY

In case of difficulty with this produce please contact Koei Corporation.
The address is:

  Koei Corporation
  20, 000 Mariner Avenue
  Suite 100
  Torrance, CA  90503
  ATTN: User Support

Our phone number is (213)542-6444. Business hours are 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM
Pacific time, monday through friday.

This product has been produced using Microsoft C Compiler from Microsoft
Corporation and PLINK86 plus from Phoenix Technologies Ltd.
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